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GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICALUNIVERSITY Chandkheda, Ahmedabad ITM UNIVERSE VADODARA A Project Report On ENERGY PRODUCE BY PERPETUAL MOTION
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICALUNIVERSITY
Chandkheda, Ahmedabad
ITM UNIVERSE VADODARA
A
Project Report
On
ENERGY PRODUCE BY
PERPETUAL MOTION
Under subject of
DESIGN ENGINEERING - I
B.E.Semester –III
Mechanical Branch
Submitted By
SR NO.
NAME OF STUDENT
ENOLL.NO.
1
Bhoi divyesh
160953119502
2
Gaurav jangid
160953119510
3
khasor jayesh
160953119512
4
patel vivek
160953119528
5
Suman robbin
160953119545
Faculty Guide
Mr. DIP SHAH
Head of the Department
Mr. MINESH PATEL
Academic Year: (2016-2017)
ITM UNIVERSE VADODARA CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled, “ENERGY PRODUCE BY PREPETUAL
ITM UNIVERSE VADODARA
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled, “ENERGY PRODUCE BY
PREPETUAL MOTION”, Submitted by, Patel vivek, bhoi divyesh,
khasor jayesh, gaurav jangid, suman robbin in ITM fulfilment for the
award of degree of DEGREE Engineering in MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING to the Gujarat Technological University , is the record of the
work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance. The matter
presented here, to the best of my knowledge, has not been submitted earlier
for the award of any other degree or diploma.
Guided by:-
Mr. DIP SHAH
(Faculty),
Mechanical Engg. Dept.
Head Of Department
Mr. MINESH PATEL
Mechanical Engg. Dept.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We owe a great thanks to many people who helped and supported us during the completion of our project and writing of this thesis. Our deepest thanks to, Mr. DIP SHAH, Guide of our project for guiding and correcting various documents of ours with attention and care. They have taken pain to go through the project and make necessary correction as and when needed.

We express our thanks to the Prof. MINESH PATEL,Head of Mechanical department, ITM UNIVERSE, VADODARA, for extending his support.

We also thank all the staff members of our college for their help in making this project a successful one.

Finally, we take this opportunity to extend our deep appreciation to our family and friends, for all they meant to us during the crucial times of the completion of our project.

ABSTRACT

Is it possible to produce devices which produce energy? Such a machine is called a perpetual motion machine or with its latin name perpetuum

mobile

..

A

machine which implements a force field which is not a gradient

field is called a perpetuum mobile or perpetual motion machine. Mathematically, it allows that some closed loops have a non-vanishing line integral. By possibly changing the direction of the motion, the energy difference can always be turned to be positive. The first law of thermodynamics forbids the existence of such a machine. It is informative to study some of the ideas people have come up in history (and today!) and to see why they don’t work. Also the drawings of Escher suggest - using graphical tricks - that perpetual motion should exist.

INDEX

SR.NO.

 

NAME OF chapter

PAGE

 

NO.

1.

 

INTRODUCTION

2.

2.

 

WORKING ON CANVAS

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  • 1. AEIOU

 
  • 2. MIND MAPPING

  • 3. EMPATHY

  • 4. IDEATION

  • 5. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

6.

LEARNING NEEDS MATRIX

3

REVERSE ENGINEERING

 

4

 

PRIOR ART SEARCH

 

5

 

CONCLUSION

 

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INTRODUCTION

DOMAIN:

We had chosen the “PERPETUL MOTION MACHINE” as Domain.

PROJECT:

We had chosen “ENERGY PRODUCE BY PERPETUAL MOTION” as our project because sometimes the problem may occur that normal cnc machines are much heavy and its verry hard to move. In that case we can use this machine we reduce the size of cnc machine so we easily operate the machine and easy to move. The small job loading time and operations are easily perform on machine ane it consume low time ans space.

What is Design Engineering?

ENGINEERING DESIGN IS A SUBJECT THAT TEACHES STUDENTS THE SALIENT PROCESSES TO GO THROUGH STUDENTS WHEN DESIGNING A PRODUCT. THIS IS POSSIBLE ONLY WHEN THERE IS A SPECIAL EMOTIONAL ATTACHMENT FROM

THE ENGINEER TO THE CUSTOMER’S WISHES, WHICH GIVES RISE TO A SET

THREE IMPORTANT PROCEDURES TO UNDERTAKE EVERY TIME THERE IS NEED

TO DESIGN A CUSTOMER’S PRODUCT.

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AEIOUS CANVAS:

We think that the best way to convince a client about the value of design is to first understand what is need and application. This is where we use an empathy map.

This exercise allows us to better analyses the desires and needs of clients and in the process

uncovers previously unseen or unnoticed ways to improve a product or service. It’s a very

simplistic way to identify and reduce potential hurdles and in the process, we are better able to satisfy their needs. Our Domain is Engineer which is selected by my group, in this we observe all activity, user of this and find some problem which is related to saving energy in any area.

The AEIOU canvas in which we find and observe all things related to our domain. After long survey we collect basic information like activity, environment, interactions, objects, users which are related to our domain and by this collected information we make AEIOU canvas.

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Activities:  Eating food  Playing games  Listening songs  Assembly  Searching on internet

Activities:

  • Eating food

  • Playing games

  • Listening songs

  • Assembly

  • Searching on internet

  • cleaining

  • watching movies

Environment:

  • Noisy

  • Dusty

  • Hot Atmosphere

  • Musical Atmosphere

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Interaction:

Between 2 friends

Beggar and people

Between 2 unknown person

Talking on mobile phones

Objects:

Mobile

Watch

Wall clock

Magnet

Television

Users:

Parents

Father

Mother

Children

Students

General people

Trainer

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MIND MAPPING CANVAS

If you’re tired of constantly getting lost in the thicket of ideas, half-concepts and free-floating words that emerge from your observations or brainstorming sessions, then you should think about using a Mind Mapping tool.

  • Mind mapping is a great way to brainstorm, make a plan, or turn ideas into the steps needed to make it real.

  • Mind Mapping is a technique of visual representation to show relationship between various ideas, concepts or other information

  • It helps in project planning, collecting and organizing data, brainstorming and presentation.

  • To help solve problems, find resources and uncover new ideas.

“A mind map is a visual representation of hierarchical information that includes a central

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idea surrounded by connected branches of associated topics”

  • 1. All mind maps begin with a main concept or idea to which rest of the map revolves around, so choosing that idea or topic is the first step. Begin by creating an image or writing a word which represents that first main idea.

  • 2. From that main idea, create branches (as many as needed), that each represent a single word that relates to the main topic. It’s helpful to use different colors and images to differentiate the branches and sub-topics.

Then, create sub-branches that stem from the main branches to further expand on ideas and concepts. These sub-branches will also contain words that elaborate on the topic of the branch it stems from. This helps develop and elaborate on the overall theme of the mind map. Including images and sketches can also be helpful in brainstorming sub-branch topics

idea surrounded by connected branches of associated topics” 1. All mind maps begin with a main

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EMPATHY CANVAS 12

EMPATHY CANVAS

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Empathy Mapping Canvas: This canvas consist of the ideology behind the user, so in this canvas

Empathy Mapping Canvas:

This canvas consist of the ideology behind the user, so in this canvas some brief ideas are express which are express in canvas - 1 . People section consist of persons related to user technically and similar persons may related to user. Then we divided activities in social & technical and try to find out the importance of each activity and situations & location regarding.

The ideation canvas consists of people, activities, situation, context or location related to the direction of design thinking procedure.

Finally it consists of the proposals and solutions to the problems which are aroused because of the topic we have chosen. We use four building blocks when preparing an empathy map canvas, namely:

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  • Users

  • Stakeholders

  • Activities

  • Storyboarding

  • Happy Story

  • Sad Story

Users:

In this stage, we find the various users which are directly or indirectly related to our project. This canvas actually helps in interlinking with user not only technical but also emotionally. By looking on a wide concept “Every person on Earth have a “Problem” so obviously a “Problem Statement ” should be extracted from any person and this must not be hard enough.

But an Emotional attachment is required, because when a student is emotionally attach to a user a perfect problem which must be attend can be found out.

SELECTED

  • Students

  • General public

  • Children

STAKEHOLDERS:

  • Then we define Stakeholders in which all the people (related or not related technically or non-technically emotionally or unemotionally) to user.

  • Stakeholders mean a person or organization with an interest. In this stage, we find the user who will directly or indirectly related to users.

ACTIVITIES:

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Activities are directly or indirectly related to stakeholders.

  • Eating food

  • Listening song

  • Watching movies

  • Searching for projects on internet

  • Playing games

  • Cleaning

STORY BOARDING:

HAPPY:-

There was a function in village near by Rajkot.all the people in fuction are enjoying it.but due to certain circumstance light get off and music get stop.but due to this project they were prepared as they are studying the energy storing device.as soon as lights gets off they started device and so all the people in the function become happy as the music and lights get on.

SAD: -

When the power supplied to the street lights by perpetual motion.one day due to some circumstance the problem has occurred in trans ferring the power,so due to this accident was occurred between the care & the bike & the heavy injured was caused.

IDEATION CANVAS:

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People:-

  • General

  • Vip public

  • Forgein

ACTIVITIES:-

  • Listening song

  • Playing games

  • Eating food

  • Searching for project on internet

  • Watching movies

  • cleaning

SITUATION/CONTEXT/LOCATION:

Now by comparing “props” & “situation” the idea of product design can be known from high too

low to relevant to irrelevant technology.

  • Domestic level

  • Industrial level

PROPS:-

Here we including many props and that is given below:

  • Portability

  • Specialization

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PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS

PURPOSE:

  • Energy produce

PEOPLE:

  • General public

  • Forgien

  • Vip public

PRODUCT EXPERIENCE:

  • Save energy

  • Eco friendly

  • Simple construct and design

PRODUCT FUNCTION:

  • Energy produce by perpetual motion

PRODUCT FEATURES:

  • Convert magnetic field into energy

CUSTOMER REVALIDATION:

  • Safety precuation

  • Others

COMPONENTS:

  • Metal

  • Magnet

  • Wires

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  • Manual handle

  • Base stand

REJECT REDESIGN RETAIN:

  • Govt approval

  • Expensive

 Manual handle  Base stand REJECT REDESIGN RETAIN:  Govt approval  Expensive 19

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LEARNING NEED MATRIX

Learning Needs Matrix will help students to identify the learning requirements at an early stage along with prioritization of specific learning along with defined time duration/ time allocation for each learning priority.

Identification will be focused on listing out both

(i) the learning, which is included in some subject of the formal syllabus of your branch and

(ii) the learning, which is required for solving the Design problem and which may not be included in the formal syllabi of the other subjects.

All such learning, required for developing the product, should be considered to be required to be studied for the group of students, who are working on the product. It may include learning of specific skills

LEARNING NEED MATRIX Learning Needs Matrix will help students to identify the learning requirements at an

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REVERSE ENGINEERING

● COMPONENTS

MAGNET →WIRES →BASE →POLE →EXTRA ATTACHEMENTS →METAL BLADE

●TOOLS

→CURVATURES →FABRICATION →DRILLING M/C →FOUNDATION →NUT AND BOLTS

REVERSE ENGINEERING ● COMPONENTS → MAGNET →WIRES →BASE →POLE →EXTRA ATTACHEMENTS →METAL BLADE ●TOOLS →CURVATURES →FABRICATION

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PRIOR ART SEARCH

There is a scientific consensus that perpetual motion in an isolated system violates either the first law of thermodynamics, the second law of thermodynamics, or both. The first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of conservation of energy. The second law can be phrased in several different ways, the most intuitive of which is that heat flows spontaneously from hotter to colder places; relevant here is that the law observes that in every macroscopic process, there is friction or something close to it; another statement is that no heat engine (an engine which produces work while moving heat from a high temperature to a low temperature) can be more efficient than a Carnot heat engine.

In other words:

  • 1. In any isolated system, one cannot create new energy (law of conservation of energy)

  • 2. The output work power of heat engines is always smaller than the input heating power. The rest of the heat energy supplied is wasted as heat to the ambient surroundings. The efficiency (this is the produced work power divided by the input heating power) has a maximum, given by the Carnot efficiency. It is always lower than one.

  • 3. The efficiency of real

heat engines is

even lower than

the Carnot

efficiency due

to irreversibility arising from the speed of processes, including friction.

Statements 2 and 3 apply to heat engines. Other types of engines which convert e.g. mechanical into electromagnetic energy, cannot operate with 100% efficiency, because it is impossible to design any system that is free of energy dissipation.

Machines which comply with both laws of thermodynamics by accessing energy from unconventional sources are sometimes referred to as perpetual motion machines, although they do not meet the standard criteria for the name. By way of example, clocks and other low-power machines, such as Cox's timepiece, have been designed to run on the differences in barometric pressure or temperature between night and day. These machines have a source of energy, albeit one which is not readily apparent so that they only seem to violate the laws of thermodynamics.

Even machines which extract energy from long-lived sources - such as ocean currents - will run down when their energy sources inevitably do. They are not perpetual motion machines because they are consuming energy from an external source and are not isolated systems.

Pre-19th century

There are some unsourced claims that a perpetual motion machine called the "magic wheel" (a wheel spinning on its axle powered by lodestones) appeared in 8th-century Bavaria. This historical claim appears to be unsubstantiated though often repeated.

Early designs

of perpetual motion machines were done by Indian mathematician

astronomer Bhaskara II, who described a wheel (Bhāskara's wheel) that he claimed would run

forever. [2]

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A drawing of a perpetual motion machine appeared in the sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt, a 13th-century French master mason and architect. The sketchbook was concerned with mechanics and architecture. Following the example of Villard, Peter of Maricourt designed a magnetic globe which, if it were mounted without friction parallel to the celestial axis, would rotate once a day. It was intended to serve as an automatic armillary sphere.

Leonardo da Vinci made a number of drawings of devices he hoped would make free energy. Leonardo da Vinci was generally against such devices, but drew and examined numerous overbalanced wheels.

Mark Anthony Zimara, a 16th-century Italian scholar, proposed a self-blowing windmill.

Various scholars in this period investigated the topic. In 1607 Cornelius Drebbel in "Wonder- vondt van de eeuwighe bewegingh" dedicated a Perpetuum motion machine to James I of England. [6] It was described by Heinrich Hiesserle von Chodaw in 1621. [7] Robert Boyle devised the "perpetual vase" ("perpetual goblet" or "hydrostatic paradox") which was discussed by Denis Papin in the Philosophical Transactions for 1685. [8] Johann Bernoulli proposed a fluid energy machine. In 1686, Georg Andreas Böckler, designed a "self operating" self-powered water mill and several perpetual motion machines using balls using variants of Archimedes' screws. In 1712, Johann Bessler (Orffyreus), investigated 300 different perpetual motion models and claimed he had the secret of perpetual motion. [citation needed]

In the 1760s, James Cox and John Joseph Merlin developed Cox's timepiece. [9] Cox claimed that the timepiece was a true perpetual motion machine, but as the device is powered by changes in atmospheric pressure via a mercury barometer, this is not the case.

In 1775, the Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris made the statement that the Academy "will no longer accept or deal with proposals concerning perpetual motion."

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Magnetic field of permanent magnets The magnetic field of permanent magnets can be quite complicated, especiallyl s traight magnet is proportional to the magnet's strength (called its magnetic dipole moment m ). The equations are non-trivial and also depend on the distance from the magnet and the orientation of the magnet. For simple magnets, m points in the direction of a line drawn from the south to the north pole of the magnet. Flipping a bar magnet is equivalent to rotating its m by 180 degrees. The magnetic field of larger magnets can be obtained by modelling them as a collection of a large number of small magnets called dipoles each having their own m . The magnetic field produced by the magnet then is the net magnetic field of these dipoles. And, any net force on the magnet is a result of adding up the forces on the individual dipoles. There are two competing models for the nature of these dipoles. These two models produce two different magnetic fields, H and B . Outside a material, though, the two are identical (to a 24 " id="pdf-obj-23-3" src="pdf-obj-23-3.jpg">

Magnetic field of permanent magnets

The magnetic field of permanent magnets can be quite complicated, especially near the magnet. The magnetic field of a small [nb 8] straight magnet is proportional to the magnet's strength (called its magnetic dipole moment m). The equations are non-trivial and also depend on the distance from the magnet and the orientation of the magnet. For simple magnets, m points in the direction of a line drawn from the south to the north pole of the magnet. Flipping a bar magnet is equivalent to rotating its m by 180 degrees.

The magnetic field of larger magnets can be obtained by modelling them as a collection of a large number of small magnets called dipoles each having their own m. The magnetic field produced by the magnet then is the net magnetic field of these dipoles. And, any net force on the magnet is a result of adding up the forces on the individual dipoles.

There are two competing models for the nature of these dipoles. These two models produce two different magnetic fields, H and B. Outside a material, though, the two are identical (to a

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multiplicative constant) so that in many cases the distinction can be ignored. This is particularly true for magnetic fields, such as those due to electric currents, that are not generated by magnetic materials.

Magnetic pole model and the H-field

The magnetic pole model: two opposing poles, North (+) and South (−), separated by a distance

The magnetic pole model: two opposing poles, North (+) and South (−), separated by a distance d produce an H-field (lines).

It is sometimes useful to model the force and torques between two magnets as due to magnetic poles repelling or attracting each other in the same manner as the Coulomb force between electric charges. This is called the Gilbert model of magnetism, after William Gilbert. In this model, a magnetic H-field is produced by magnetic charges that are 'smeared' around each pole. These magnetic charges are in fact related to the magnetization field M.

The H-field, therefore, is analogous to the electric field E, which starts at a positive electric charge and ends at a negative electric charge. Near the north pole, therefore, all H-field lines point away from the north pole (whether inside the magnet or out) while near the south pole (whether inside the magnet or out) all H-field lines point toward the south pole. A north pole, then, feels a force in the direction of the H-field while the force on the south pole is opposite to the H-field.

In the magnetic pole model, the elementary magnetic dipole m is formed by two opposite magnetic poles of pole strength q m separated by a small distance vector d, such that m = q m d. The magnetic pole model predicts correctly the field H both inside and outside magnetic materials, in particular the fact that H is opposite to the magnetization field M inside a permanent magnet.

Since it is based on the fictitious idea of a magnetic charge density, the Gilbert model has limitations. Magnetic poles cannot exist apart from each other as electric charges can, but always come in north/south pairs. If a magnetized object is divided in half, a new pole appears on the surface of each piece, so each has a pair of complementary poles. The magnetic pole model does not account for magnetism that is produced by electric currents.

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Force between magnets

The force between two small magnets is quite complicated and depends on the strength and orientation of both magnets and the distance and direction of the magnets relative to each other. The force is particularly sensitive to rotations of the magnets due to magnetic torque. The force on each magnet depends on its magnetic moment and the magnetic field [nb 12] of the other.

To understand the force between magnets, it is useful to examine the magnetic pole model given above. In this model, the H-field of one magnet pushes and pulls on both poles of a second magnet. If this H-field is the same at both poles of the second magnet then there is no net force on that magnet since the force is opposite for opposite poles. If, however, the magnetic field of the first magnet is nonuniform (such as the H near one of its poles), each pole of the second magnet sees a different field and is subject to a different force. This difference in the two forces moves the magnet in the direction of increasing magnetic field and may also cause a net torque.

This is a specific example of a general rule that magnets are attracted (or repulsed depending on the orientation of the magnet) into regions of higher magnetic field. Any non-uniform magnetic field, whether caused by permanent magnets or electric currents, exerts a force on a small magnet in this way.

The details of the Amperian loop model are different and more complicated but yield the same result: that magnetic dipoles are attracted/repelled into regions of higher magnetic field. Mathematically, the force on a small magnet having a magnetic moment m due to a magnetic field B is: [20]

where the gradient is the change of the quantity m · B per unit distance and the direction is that of maximum increase of m · B. To understand this equation, note that the dot product m · B = mBcos(θ), where m and B represent the magnitude of the m and B vectors and θ is the angle between them. If m is in the same direction as B then the dot product is positive and the gradient points 'uphill' pulling the magnet into regions of higher B-field (more strictly larger m · B). This equation is strictly only valid for magnets of zero size, but is often a good approximation for not too large magnets. The magnetic force on larger magnets is determined by dividing them into smaller regions each having their own m then summing up the forces on each of these very small regions.

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CONCLUSION:

  • There is huge change in our thinking of a problem after our work in this semester. Designing really helped us to find a way to concentrate on the actual requirement of the project.

  • Engineering is after all about helping people through technological solutions, making processes simpler and less cumbersome. But what are the real needs of people that has to be known first , which we achieved by creating all the sheets and having one-on-one communications with the users related our project.

  • The most interesting part of this venture was the ‘Story Boards’ in one of the sheets, which can be called the board of emotions. It helped us understand that when we build anything for anyone, the purpose and emotion behind that are equally important. So many stories were striking to our minds and we drafted the symbolic represent for which we thought.

  • It was a great experience to know other people and the team mates during the work of sheets.

  • Here , we conclude the report on our project “Safety of people &Vehicles using HD Resolution Camera & Digital sensors ”

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