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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Type of business Private

Available in English, Spanish, Portuguese

Founded March 2007; 10 years ago

Headquarters San Francisco, California, USA

Key people Trip Adler

(co-founder and CEO)

Jared Friedman

(co-founder and CTO)

Tikhon Bernstam

(co-founder and COO)

Services Social reading and publishing platform


Alexa rank 300 (September 2017)[1]

Current status Active

Scribd /skrbd/ is a digital library, e-book and audiobook subscription service that includes one
million titles.[2][3][4][5] Scribd hosts 60 million documents on its open publishing platform.[6]
Founded in 2007 by Trip Adler, Jared Friedman, and Tikhon Bernstam, and headquartered in San
Francisco, California, the company is backed by Khosla Ventures, Y Combinator, Charles River
Ventures, and Redpoint Ventures.[7] Scribd's e-book subscription service is available

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on Android and iOS smartphones and tablets, as well as the Kindle Fire, Nook, and personal
computers. Subscribers can access three books a month[8] from 1,000 publishers,
including Bloomsbury, Harlequin, HarperCollins, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Lonely
Planet, Macmillan, Perseus Book Group, Simon & Schuster, Wiley, and Workman.[9][10]
Scribd has 80 million users, and has been referred to as "the Netflix for books."[11][12][13]


o 1.1Founding (20072013)
o 1.2Subscription service (2013present)
o 1.3Audiobooks
o 1.4Comics
o 5.1Accusations of copyright infringement
o 5.2Controversies
o 5.3BookID
6Supported file formats
7See also
9External links

Founding (20072013)[edit]
Scribd began as a site to host and share documents.[12] While at Harvard, Trip Adler was inspired
to start Scribd after learning about the lengthy process required to publish academic papers.[14] His
father, a doctor at Stanford, was told it would take 18 months to have his medical research
published.[14] Adler wanted to create a simple way to publish and share written content
online.[15] He co-founded Scribd with Jared Friedman and attended the inaugural class of Y
Combinator in the summer of 2006.[16] There, Scribd received its initial $12,000 in seed funding
and then launched in a San Francisco apartment in March 2007.[6]
Scribd was called "the YouTube for documents," allowing anyone to self-publish on the site using
its document reader.[14] The document reader turns PDFs, Word documents, and PowerPoints into
Web documents that can be shared on any website that allows embeds.[17] In its first year, Scribd
grew rapidly to 23.5 million visitors as of November 2008.[18] It also ranked as one of the top 20
social media sites according to Comscore.[18]
In June 2009, Scribd launched the Scribd Store, enabling writers to easily upload and sell digital
copies of their work online.[19] That same month, the site partnered with Simon & Schuster to sell
e-books on Scribd.[20]The deal made digital editions of 5,000 titles available for purchase on
Scribd, including books from bestselling authors like Stephen King, Dan Brown, and Mary Higgins
In October 2009, Scribd launched its branded reader for media companies including The New
York Times, Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune, The Huffington Post, TechCrunch,
and MediaBistro.[17] ProQuest began publishing dissertations and theses on Scribd in December

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2009.[22] In August 2010, many notable documents hosted on Scribd began to go viral, including
the California Proposition 8 ruling, which received over 100,000 views in about 24 minutes,
and HPs lawsuit against Mark Hurds move to Oracle.[23] [24]
Subscription service (2013present)[edit]

Screenshots of Scribd's subscription service

In October 2013, Scribd officially launched its unlimited subscription service for e-books.[11] This
gave users unlimited access to Scribds library of digital books for a flat monthly fee.[11] The
company also announced a partnership with HarperCollins which made the entire backlist of
HarperCollins catalog available on the subscription service.[25] According to Chantal Restivo-
Alessi, chief digital officer at HarperCollins, this marked the first time that the publisher has
released such a large portion of its catalog.[26] In March 2014, Scribd announced a deal
with Lonely Planet, offering the travel publishers entire library on its subscription service.[27]
In May 2014, Scribd further increased its subscription offering with 10,000 titles from Simon &
Schuster.[28] These titles included works from authors such as: Ray Bradbury, Doris Kearns
Goodwin, Ernest Hemingway, Walter Isaacson, Stephen King, Chuck Klosterman, and David
Scribd added audiobooks to its subscription service in November 2014 and comic books in
February 2015.[4][30]
In February 2016, it was announced that only titles from a rotating selection of the library would be
available for unlimited reading, and subscribers would have credits to read three books and one
audiobook per month from the entire library; unused credits roll over to the next month.[31]
In November 2014, Scribd added audiobooks to its subscription library.[32] Wired noted that this
was the first subscription service to offer unlimited access to audiobooks, and "it represents a
much larger shift in the way digital content is consumed over the net." [33] In April 2015, the
company expanded its audiobook catalog in a deal with Penguin Random House.[34] This added
9,000 audiobooks to its platform including titles from authors like Lena Dunham, John
Grisham, Gillian Flynn, and George R.R. Martin.[35]
In February 2015, Scribd introduced comics to its subscription service.[36] The company added
10,000 comics and graphic novels from publishers including Marvel, Archie, Boom!
Studios, Dynamite, IDW, and Valiant.[30]These included series such as Guardians of the
Galaxy, Daredevil, X-O Manowar, and The Avengers.[37][38] However, in December 2016, comics
were eliminated from the service due to low demand.


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In February 2010, Scribd unveiled its first mobile plans for e-readers and smartphones.[39] In April
2010 Scribd launched a new feature called "Readcast",[40] which allows automatic sharing of
documents on Facebookand Twitter.[41] Also in April 2010, Scribd announced its integration of
Facebook social plug-ins at the Facebook f8 Developer Conference.[42]
Scribd rolled out a redesign on September 13, 2010 to become, according to TechCrunch, "the
social network for reading".[43]
In October 2013, Scribd launched its e-book subscription service, allowing readers to pay a flat
monthly fee in exchange for unlimited access to all of Scribd's book titles.[44]

The company was initially funded with US$12,000 from Y Combinator in 2006, and received over
US$3.7 million in June 2007 from Redpoint Ventures and The Kinsey Hills Group.[45][7] In
December 2008, the company raised US$9 million in a second round of funding led by Charles
River Ventures with re-investment from Redpoint Ventures and Kinsey Hills Group.[46] David O.
Sacks, former PayPal COO and founder of Yammer and Geni, joined Scribds board of directors
in January 2010.[47]
In January 2011, Scribd raised an additional US$13 million in a round led by MLC Investments of
Australia and SVB Capital.[48] In January 2015, the company raised US$22 million in new funding
from Khosla Ventureswith partner Keith Rabois joining the Scribd board of directors.[49]

In July 2008, Scribd began using iPaper, a rich document format similar to PDF built for the web,
which allows users to embed documents into a web page.[50] iPaper was built with Adobe Flash,
allowing it to be viewed the same across different operating systems (Windows, Mac OS, and
Linux) without conversion, as long as the reader has Flash installed (although Scribd has
announced non-Flash support for the iPhone).[51] All major document types can be formatted into
iPaper including Word docs, PowerPoint presentations,
PDFs, OpenDocument documents, XML documents, and PostScript files.
All iPaper documents are hosted on Scribd. Scribd allows published documents to either be
private or open to the larger Scribd community. The iPaper document viewer is also embeddable
in any website or blog, making it simple to embed documents in their original layout regardless of
file format. Scribd iPaper required Flash cookies to be enabled, which is the default setting in
On May 5, 2010, Scribd announced that they would be converting the entire site to HTML5 at
the Web 2.0 Conference in San Francisco.[53] TechCrunch reported that Scribd is migrating away
from Flash to HTML5. "Scribd co-founder and chief technology officer Jared Friedman tells me:
'We are scrapping three years of Flash development and betting the company on HTML5 because
we believe HTML5 is a dramatically better reading experience than Flash. Now any document can
become a Web page.'"[54][55]
Scribd has its own API to integrate external/third-party applications,[56] but is no longer offering
new API accounts.[57]
Since 2010, Scribd has been available on mobile phones and e-readers, in addition to personal
computers. As of December 2013, Scribd is available through the various app stores on iOS and
Android smartphones and tablets, as well as the Kindle Fire and Nook tablets.


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Scribd has been praised by several newspapers and magazines, including The New York
Times, Fast Company, Forbes, and The Wall Street Journal.[58] The company has been dubbed
the "Netflix for e-books"[11] by Wired, and is a known pioneer of the "all-you-can-read" model for e-
books.[13] Its founders, Trip Adler and Jared Friedman, have been named to Forbes 30 Under 30
and Inc. 35 Under 35.[59][14]
In April 2015, Los Angeles favorably reviewed Scribds subscription service by saying,
Subscribing to Scribd is sort of like shopping at Trader Joes: you may not find every product you
want, but it sure as hell is convenient, inexpensive, and downright delectable. [60] Scribd has
grown to more than 100 million users in 75 countries who use the site on a monthly basis.[61] As of
June 2015, the Scribd app has been downloaded 5.7 million times on Android and 3.3 million
times on iOS.[62]
Accusations of copyright infringement[edit]
Scribd has been accused of copyright infringement. In September 2009, American author Elaine
Scott alleged that Scribd "shamelessly profits from the stolen copyrighted works of innumerable
authors".[63] Her attorneys sought class action status in their efforts to win damages from Scribd for
allegedly "egregious copyright infringement" and accused it of calculated copyright infringement
for profit.[64][65][66] The suit was dropped in July 2010.[67][68]
In 2007, one year after its inception, Scribd was served with 25 Digital Millennium Copyright Act
(DMCA) takedown notices.[69]
The Guardian writes, "Harry Potter author [J.K. Rowling] is among writers shocked to discover
their books available as free downloads. Neil Blair, Rowling's lawyer, said the Harry Potter
downloads were 'unauthorised and unlawful'...Rowling's novels aren't the only ones to be
available from Scribd. A quick search throws up novels from Salman Rushdie, Ian McEwan,
Jeffrey Archer, Ken Follett, Philippa Gregory, and JRR Tolkien.."[70]
In March 2009, the passwords of several Comcast customers were leaked on Scribd. The
passwords were later removed when the news was published by The New York Times.[71][72][73]
In July 2010, GigaOM reported that the script of The Social Network (2010) movie was uploaded
and leaked on Scribd; it was promptly taken down per Sonys DMCA request.[74]
Following a decision of the Istanbul 12th Criminal Court of Peace, dated 8 March 2013, access to
Scribd is blocked for Internet users in Turkey.[75]
In July 2014, Scribd was sued by Disability Rights Advocates, on behalf of the National Federation
of the Blind and a blind Vermont resident, for allegedly failing to provide access to blind readers,
in violation of the Americans with Disability Act.[76] Scribd moved to dismiss, arguing that the ADA
only applied to physical locations. In March 2015, the U.S. District Court of Vermont ruled that the
ADA covered online businesses as well. A settlement agreement was reached, with Scribd
agreeing to provide content accessible to blind readers by the end of 2017.[77]
To counteract the uploading of unauthorized content, Scribd created BookID, an automated
copyright protection system that helps authors and publishers identify unauthorized use of their
works on Scribd. [78] This proprietary technology works by analyzing documents for semantic data,
meta data, images, and other elements and creates an encoded fingerprint of the copyrighted
work. [79] BookID is available for free for authors and publishers whether or not they choose to
make their content available through the Scribd platform. [80]

Supported file formats[edit]

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Supported formats include:[81]

Microsoft Excel (.xls, .xlsx)

Microsoft PowerPoint (.ppt, .pps, .pptx, .ppsx)
Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx)
OpenDocument (.odt, .odp, .ods, .odf, .odg) XML (.sxw, .sxi, .sxc, .sxd)
Plain text (.txt)
Portable Document Format (.pdf)
PostScript (.ps)
Rich text format (.rtf)
Tagged image file format (.tif, .tiff)

See also[edit]
Amazon Lending Library and Kindle Unlimited
Document collaboration
Oyster (company)
Wayback Machine

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Competitors". Alexa Internet. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
2. Jump up^ Alter, Alexandra (April 16, 2015). "Scribd Expands
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New York Times.
3. Jump up^ Basich, Zoran (January 5, 2015). "The Daily Startup"
. The Wall Street Journal.
4. ^ Jump up to:a b Mac, Ryan (November 6, 2014). "Scribd Adds
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5. Jump up^ Kastrenakes, Jacob (April 16, 2015). "Scribd adds over
9,000 more audiobooks to better take on Audible". The Verge.
6. ^ Jump up to:a b "Scribd | Interview with its Co-Founder & CEO
Trip Adler". Cleverism. December 10, 2014.
7. ^ Jump up to:a b "Scribd". CrunchBase. TechCrunch. August 6,
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book subscription app to Kindle Fire". CNet.
10. Jump up^ Kellogg, Carolyn (January 5, 2015). "Scribd brings in
$22 million to expand e-book subscription service". LA Times.
11. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Metz, Cade (October 1, 2013). "Scribd
Challenges Amazon and Apple With Netflix for Books". Wired.
Retrieved September 3, 2017.
12. ^ Jump up to:a b Orin, Andy (June 11, 2014). "Behind the App: The
Story of Scribd". Lifehacker.

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13. ^ Jump up to:a b Schnuer, Jenna (November 8, 2013). "We Test It:
Scribd's All-You-Can Read Digital Buffet". Entrepreneur.
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of the Future?". Inc.
15. Jump up^ "Best Young Tech Entrepreneurs 2010". Bloomberg.
16. Jump up^ "Scribd". Y Combinator.
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desk of [your news outlet] and Scribd". Reuters.
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A Blowout Year, And So Did the Web Document". TechCrunch.
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19. Jump up^ Stone, Brad (May 17, 2009). "Site Lets Writers Sell
Digital Copies". The New York Times. Retrieved October 11, 2010.
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Digital Books on". The New York Times.
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21. Jump up^ Stone, Brad (June 12, 2009). "Simon & Schuster to Sell
Digital Books on". The New York Times.
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November 17, 2009.
23. Jump up^ Gannes, Liz (August 4, 2010). "Prop 8 Ruling Is Scribd's
Most Viral Doc Ever". Gigaom.
24. Jump up^ Siegler, M.G. (September 7, 2010). "HP Confirms It Is
Suing Mark Hurd For Potential Leakage Of Trade Secrets To
Oracle". TechCrunch.
25. Jump up^ Bosman, Julie (October 1, 2013). "HarperCollins Joins
Scribd in E-Book Subscription Plan". The New York Times.
26. Jump up^ Ha, Anthony (October 1, 2013). "With HarperCollins
Deal, Scribd Unveils Its Bid To Become The Netflix For
Books". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
27. Jump up^ Ha, Anthony (March 26, 2014). "Scribd's Subscription E-
Book Service Moves Into Travel With The Full Lonely Planet
Library". Techcrunch.
28. Jump up^ Trachtenberg, Jeffrey A. (March 21, 2014). "Simon &
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29. Jump up^ Owen, Laura Hazard (May 21, 2014). "Simon &
Schuster adds its books to ebook subscription sites Scribd and
Oyster". Gigaom.
30. ^ Jump up to:a b Ha, Anthony (February 10, 2015). "Scribd Adds
Comics From Marvel, IDW, And Others To Its Subscription E-Book
Service". TechCrunch.
31. Jump up^ "Scribd will change its subscription service from
unlimited to semi-unlimited". TeleRead. Retrieved February
16, 2016.
32. Jump up^ Kastrenakes, Jacob (November 6, 2014). "Scribd
expands its subscription library to include audiobooks". The Verge.
33. Jump up^ Metz, Cade (November 6, 2014). "Scribd Rolls Out the
Internets First All-You-Can-Listen Audiobooks Service". Wired.
34. Jump up^ Wright, Mic (April 16, 2015). "Scribd adds 9,000 Penguin
Random House audiobooks including Game of Thrones". The Next
35. Jump up^ Alter, Alexandra (April 16, 2015). "Scribd Expands
Audiobook Catalog in Deal With Penguin Random House". The
New York Times.

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36. Jump up^ Alba, Davey (February 10, 2015). "Scribd Unveils
Netflix for Comics". Wired.
37. Jump up^ Fiegerman, Seth (February 10, 2015). "Scribd gains the
superpower of an unlimited comic book subscription". Mashable.
38. Jump up^ Mitroff, Sarah (February 10, 2015). "Scribd serves up all
the comics you can read, for $9 per month". CNet.
39. Jump up^ Fowler, Geoffrey A. (February 10, 2010). "Scribd Plans
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40. Jump up^ "Scribd gets 'Readcasting': Autosharing made
easy". CNet. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
41. Jump up^ "Scribd launches readcast". Marketwire. Retrieved April
15, 2010.
42. Jump up^ "Scribd's bet on the Facebook Effect". CNN. April 21,
2010. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
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13, 2010.
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45. Jump up^ "Scribd Banks $3.5 Million from Redpoint".
46. Jump up^ Takahashi, Dean (December 19, 2008). "Scribd raises
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47. Jump up^ Arrington, Michael (January 18, 2010). "Yammer
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Directors". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
48. Jump up^ Kaplan, David (January 18, 2011). "Scribd Raises $13
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49. Jump up^ Ha, Anthony (January 2, 2015). "Scribd Raises $22M
For Its Subscription E-Book Service". TechCrunch.
50. Jump up^ "iPaper: a Simple Way to View and Share Documents
on the Web". Wired. February 20, 2008. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
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52. Jump up^ "Global Storage Settings
panel". Adobe. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
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66. Jump up^ Rich, Motoko (September 19, 2009). "Jammie Thomas
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71. Jump up^ Stone, Brad (March 16, 2009). "Passwords of Comcast
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March 29, 2009. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
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78. Jump up^ "BookID". Scribd. June 29, 2015.
79. Jump up^ Kozlowski, Michael (October 13, 2014). "French
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Retrieved October 11, 2010.

External links[edit]
Media related to Scribd at Wikimedia Commons

Official website

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