2014
Introduction
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Introduction
4.1.1. Current-Voltage
Characteristic of the
Ideal Diode
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4.1.1. Current-Voltage
Characteristic
4.1.1: Current-Voltage
Characteristic of the Ideal
Diode mode #2: reverse mode #1:
bias = open ckt. forward bias =
short ckt
ideal diode: is most fundament
device symbol
nonlinear circuit element
with
twotwo nodes
terminal device with circuit
symbol to right
operates in two modes forward
and reverse bias
figure 4.1.
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4.1.1. Current-
Voltage
Characteristic
4.1.2: A Simple
Application The
Rectifier
One fundamental
application of this
piecewise linear behavior
is the rectifier.
Q: What is a rectifier?
A: Circuit which
converts AC waves in Figure 4.3(a): Rectifier Circuit
to DCideally with no
loss.
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4.1.2: A Simple
Application The
Rectifier
Example 4.1:
Diode Rectifier
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4.1.3. Another
Application,
Diode Logic Gates
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Example 4.2:
More Diodes
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Most common
implementation of a
diode utilizes pn junction.
I-V curve consists of three
characteristic regions
forward bias: v > 0
reverse bias: v < 0
breakdown: v << 0
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4.2.1. The
Forward-Bias Region
IS constant for diode at given
temperature (aka. saturation current)
The forward-bias (eq4.1) i IS (ev / VT 1)
region of operation is VT thermal voltage
k Boltzmann's constant (8.62E -5 eV/K)
entered when v > 0. q magnitude of electron charge (1.6E -19 C)
I-V relationship is kT
(eq4.2) VT 25.8 m
V
closely approximated q
at room
temperature
by equations to right.
IS constant for diode at given
temperature (aka. saturation current)
(4.3) is a simplification (eq4.3) i IS ev / VT
suitable for large v Oxford University Publishing
Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)
4.2.1. The
Forward-Bias Region
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4.2.1. The step #1: consider two cases (#1 and #2)
Forward-Bias I1 IS e V1 / VT
and I2 IS e V2 / VT
4.2.1: The
Forward-Bias
Region
cut-in voltage is
voltage, below which,
minimal current flows
approximately 0.5V
fully conducting region
is region in which Rdiode is
approximately equal 0
between 0.6 and 0.8V
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Example 4.3
Refer to textbook
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4.2.3. The
Breakdown Region
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i IS (ev / VT 1)
i IS i IS i IS e v / VT
V = 10VT
V = -VZK
V = -VT
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4.3.1. The
Exponential Model
(eq4.6) ID IS eVD / VT
VD voltage across diode
ID current through diode
4.3.1. The
Exponential Model
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4.3.2. Graphical
Analysis Using
Exponential Model
4.3.2. Graphical
Analysis Using
Exponential Model
Pros
Intuitive
b/c of visual nature
Cons
Poor Precision
Not Practical for Figure 4.11: Graphical analysis of
Complex Analyses the circuit in Fig. 4.10 using the
multiple lines required exponential diode model.
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4.3.3. Iterative
Analysis Using
Exponential Method
4.3.3. Iterative
Analysis Using
Exponential Method
Pros
High Precision
Cons
Not Intuitive
Not Practical for Complex Analyses
10+ iterations may be required
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4.3.5. The
Constant Voltage-
Drop Model
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4.3.6. Ideal
Diode Model
4.1.1: Current-Voltage
Characteristic of the Ideal
Diode mode #2: reverse mode #1:
bias = open ckt. forward bias =
short ckt
ideal diode: is most fundament
device symbol
nonlinear circuit element
with
twotwo nodes
terminal device with circuit
symbol to right
operates in two modes forward
and reverse bias
figure 4.1.
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When to
use these models?
4.3.7. Small-Signal
Model
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CVDM
DC DC
Total Steady-State
Instantaneous = Solution +
Solution
AC (vD.) (VD.)
Time-Varying
AC
Solution
(vd.)
Figure 4.14: (a) Circuit for Example 4.5. (b) Circuit for calculating the
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dc operating
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by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth (c) Small-signal equivalent circuit.
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4.3.7. Small-Signal
Model
4.3.7. Small-Signal
Model
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4.3.7. Small-Signal
Model
4.3.7. Small-Signal
Model
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4.3.7. Small-Signal
Model
negligible terms
v
(eq4.14) iD (t ) ID 1 d
VT
4.3.7. Small-Signal
Model
I
iD (t ) ID D vd
small signal approximation VT
Shown to right for exponential id
diode model. iD (t ) ID id
total instant current (iD) 1
small-signal current (id.) id vd
rd
small-signal resistance (rd.)
V
Valid for for vd < 5mV rd T
ID
amplitude (not peak to peak).
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4.3.7. Small-Signal
Model
1 Dx
y
y(t ) y0 x(t ) x0
x y Y
4.3.7: Small-Signal
Model
VT
rd
ID
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Example 4.5:
Small-Signal Model
Figure 4.14: (a) circuit for Example 4.5. (b) circuit for calculating the
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dc operating point. (c) small-signal equivalent circuit.
Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)
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Example 4.6:
Diode-Based Voltage
Regulator
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One important
application of diode is the
rectifier
Electrical device which
converts alternating
current (AC) to direct
current (DC)
One important Figure 4.20: Block diagram of a
application of rectifier is dc power supply
dc power supply.
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half-wave rectifier
utilizes only alternate
half-cycles of the input
sinusoid
Constant voltage drop
diode model is
employed.
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4.5.2. The
Full-Wave Rectifier
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An alternative
implementation of the
full-wave rectifier is
bridge rectifier.
Shown to right.
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Pulsating nature of
rectifier output makes
unreliable dc supply.
As such, a filter
capacitor is employed
to remove ripple.
Figure 4.24: (a) A simple circuit used to illustrate the effect of a
filter capacitor. (b) input and output waveforms assuming an ideal
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Q: What happens
when load resistor is
placed in series with
capacitor?
A: One must now
consider the
discharging of
capacitor across
load. Oxford University Publishing
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Oxford University
1
RCPublishing
s VO ( s )
vO t VO 0 e RC
RC
Microelectronic Circuits by Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith (0195323033)
Q: What is VO(0)?
A: Peak of vI, because the transition between
state #1 and state #2 (aka. diode begins
blocking) approximately as vI drops below vC.
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A Couple of
Observations
The diode conducts for a brief interval (Dt) near the peak
of the input sinusoid and supplies the capacitor with
charge equal to that lost during the much longer
discharge interval. The latter is approximately equal to
T.
Assuming an ideal diode, the diode conduction begins at
time t1 (at which the input vI equals the exponentially
decaying output vO). Diode conduction stops at time t2
shortly after the peak of vI (the exact value of t2 is
determined by settling of ID).
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A Couple of
Observations
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T is discharge interval
Q: How is ripple voltage (Vr) defined? V V v (T )
peak r O
step #1: Begin with transient
RCT
response of output during off Vpeak Vr Vpeak e
interval.
step #2: Note T is discharge because RC T ,
we can assume...
T
interval.
e RC 1
T
RC
step #3: Simplify using action: solve for
assumption that RC >> T. ripple
voltage Vr
step #4: Solve for ripple voltage T
(eq4.28) Vr Vpeak
Vr. RC
T
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1 1
RC
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cos(0O)
Q: How is conduction
interval (Dt) defined?
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Q: What is a limiter
circuit?
A: One which limits
voltage output.
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single limiters
employ one
diode
double limiters
employ two
diodes of
opposite polarity
linear range may
be controlled via
string of diodes
and dc sources
zener diodes may
be used to
implement soft
limiting
Q: What is a dc restorer?
A: Circuit which removes the
dc component of an AC wave.
Q: Why is this ability important?
A: Average value of this
output (w/ dc = 0) is effective
way to measure duty cycle Figure 4.32: The clamped
capacitor or dc restorer
with a square-wave input
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Q: What is a voltage
doubler?
A: One which
multiplies the
amplitude of a wave
or signal by two.
Figure 4.34: Voltage doubler: (a)
circuit; (b) waveform of the
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voltage across D1.
Summary (1)
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Summary (2)
Summary (3)
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Summary (4)
Summary (5)
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Summary (6)
Summary (6)
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