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102086 Designing Teaching & Learning 2H 2017

Assignment 2: APST and QT Analysis Template

Section 1: Australian Professional Standards for Teachers

Evaluate the lesson plan according to the following Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. Only
standards directly addressed in Designing Teaching & Learning that are relevant to this assignment have been
included. However, this does not mean the other standards are irrelevant to lesson planning and evaluation
more generally.

Evaluation score 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent)

Comments incl. evidence for evaluation score (2 sentences)

1 Know students and how they learn

1.3 Students with diverse linguistic, cultural, religious and socioeconomic backgrounds
1234 Comments: No comment is made on the diversity of students in the class and if it has bearing
5 on the functioning of the lesson and the experiment. Could have planned similar to the peer
help option for students with reading difficulty.

1.4 Strategies for teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students
1234 Comments: Does not comment on ATSI students in lesson plan.
1.5 Differentiate teaching to meet the specific learning needs of students across the full range of abilities
1234 Comments: The teacher incorporates well oral discussion, practical experiments, written
5 work, and includes additional ICT research work for GAT students, to try and meet a variety
of specific learning needs. Plans for assessment of participation, attentiveness and
contribution of students with different learning levels and needs with prompting questions and
discussion, but does not strategize how to engage disengaged students or slower learners.

1.6 Strategies to support full participation of students with disability

1234 Comments: The teacher has indicated accommodations for students with visual impairment as
5 well as students with reading difficulties in order to support full participation. Also involves
peer encouragement to assist with participation of students with reading difficulty. Could
include experiment alternative for students with physical impairment.

2 Know the content and how to teach it

2.2 Content selection and organisation
1234 Comments: Content selection was planned well in accordance with outcomes listed except for
5 the segment relating to catalysts, which was missing. The organisation was also strong,
beginning with discussion and brainstorming, followed by a practical experiment to engage
the students, supplemented with an ICT component to further reinforce the content being
learnt, before coming full circle and returning to an evaluation and discussion of the
experiment and lesson.

2.3 Curriculum, assessment and reporting

1234 Comments: Syllabus outcomes have been listed and addressed, however not all of the
5 outcomes will be completely met with the discussion of this experiment. In particular the first
and second outcome: CW4, as this lesson plan does not include discussion of catalysts and
their role in reactions. Furthermore, there is very little assessment being undertaken in this
lesson, and the only reporting being a planned review of students responses during
brainstorming in future lessons.

2.6 Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

1234 Comments: The plan integrates an interactive ICT component where students watch a video,
5 which reiterates the knowledge learnt in the experiment and also discusses the results,
allowing students to compare their own with that of the video. However this section was only
added into the lesson provided time was available rather than being an integral part of it.
Further, for the GAT students, there is an added task involving the use of their own devices
and internet to undertake further research and contribute to the discussion.
3 Plan for and implement effective teaching and learning
3.1 Establish challenging learning goals
1234 Comments: Learning objectives and syllabus outcomes have been listed and the majority have
5 been addressed throughout the lessons description. Could have been made to be more of a
challenge for the students thinking by including questions at the end of the method sheet
rather than just discuss and copy from the board.

3.2 Plan, structure and sequence learning programs

1234 Comments: The planning and structure of the lesson is seemingly well managed and flowing.
5 However the time allowed for the experiment may be a little short of what is necessary given
the amount of information planned in that slot.

3.3 Use teaching strategies

1234 Comments: Variety of pedagogical practices are used to meet student needs. ICT resource,
5 discussion, brainstorming, individual workload was introduced, as well as practical and
theoretical group work. Over planning was also used for extra work for GAT students.

3.4 Select and use resources

1234 Comments: The teacher has selected and used appropriate resources for this lesson. This
5 includes the resources for the experiments, including method sheets, as well as the video ICT
resource included for opening up discussion and evaluation of results. Perhaps they could
have used a worksheet or a similar resource to aid students keep track of the brainstorming
and discussion sections of the lesson, attaching to the actual experiment method sheet, rather
than just copying from the board.

4 Create and maintain supportive and safe learning environments

4.1 Support student participation
1234 Comments: Students work in groups and support each other with parts of the lesson. The
5 teacher has planned out their questions and discussions with the aim of effectively
encouraging all round class participation from the students. Supported by their specification
of addressing particular students with questions to prompt them to think, analyse and respond
regarding the lesson.

4.2 Manage classroom activities

1234 Comments: The teacher has outlined their method of monitoring and managing classroom
5 activities, even giving consideration to allowing students the room to think without the
teacher influencing their thought process. The plan even indicates how to aid students
struggling with the work, but lacked in mentioning how to manage any breakdown in
activities or behavioural challenges.

4.3 Manage challenging behaviour

1234 Comments: Little to none is planned by the teacher in the lesson plan regarding potential
5 misbehaviour or challenging behaviours, particularly considering it is a science lab and can be
dangerous. Only mentions that paper may be thrown and cause injury or the students may
play inappropriately with thermometers.

4.4 Maintain student safety

1234 Comments: The teacher has outlined possible safety issues and procedures that are to be taken
5 in case of a safety issue, and monitoring to reduce risks. However, it may have been more
effective to give a briefing of these to the students so that they are also aware of the

4.5 Use ICT safely, responsibly and ethically

1234 Comments: The ICT video for class discussion is teacher directed. However there is no
5 description of the appropriateness of the video, a title, or statement that the teacher has
approved it for safe and ethical use in the lesson. Furthermore, the GAT student ICT
additional task is self directed and there is no indication that the teacher will monitor this
activity or keep it on task.

5 Assess, provide feedback and report on student learning

5.1 Assess student learning
1234 Comments: The teacher has combined observation, recording and reviewing previous work in
5 order to ensure that they are continuously learning and participating in the lesson. The plan
also provides prompting questions outlined by the teacher to further the thought process of the
students, however, there could have been a few questions used to assess their retained

5.2 Provide feedback to students on their learning

1234 Comments: The plan outlines how the teacher will discuss each groups results and correct
5 any misconceptions they may have. However, there is a lack of feedback on the students note
taking and information gathered from the discussion and brainstorming, as it only mentions
checking their books as they are leaving.

Section 2: NSW Quality Teaching Model

Evaluate the lesson plan according to the following NSW Quality Teaching model elements.

Evaluation score refer to NSW QTM Classroom Practice Guide for each element
Comments incl. evidence for evaluation score (2 sentences)

1 Intellectual quality
1.1 Deep knowledge
1 2 3 4 Comments: The knowledge being conveyed throughout the lesson is rather deep and focused
5 on the lesson outcomes listed in the beginning of the lesson plan. Apart from a lack of
presentation of knowledge addressing the syllabus point CW4, the lesson does aim to fulfil
the outcomes well and holistically.

1.2 Deep understanding

1 2 3 4 Comments: Deep understanding may be shown in the discussions as a group as the teacher
5 assesses the students responses. Besides discussion, there is no other demonstration of deep
understanding by way of assessment questions or demonstrating proper interpretations of
what they have understood.

1.3 Problematic knowledge

1 2 3 4 Comments: Majority of knowledge portrayed in this lesson plan is systematic and scientific
5 fact. There is room for discussion of ideas and interpretation of results amongst the students,
but only with reference to scientific facts and guidelines.

1.4 Higher-order thinking

1 2 3 4 Comments: Students are able to demonstrate a certain grade of higher-order thinking by
5 recording results, then interpreting the data collected. This is then followed by the students
using the data to then model chemical models out of skewers and foam spheres that represent
the knowledge of chemistry they have learnt.

1.5 Metalanguage
1 2 3 4 Comments: Parts of the lesson involve metalanguage with the discussions regarding chemical
5 symbols and chemical reactions and what they represent.

1.6 Substantive communication

1 2 3 4 Comments: There is a lot of substantive communication in this lesson plan, including
5 brainstorming the lesson in the beginning. The groups perform experiments together and form
their results and conclusions. This is followed by class discussion with the teacher of ideas
and interpretations of results.

Quality learning environment

2.1 Explicit quality criteria
1 2 3 4 Comments: The criteria are explicitly listed in the beginning of the lesson and are addressed
5 throughout. However, the quality of the work related to criteria is not reiterate frequently

2.2 Engagement
1234 Comments: The potential for engagement is very high in this lesson. There is plenty of group
5 work, brainstorming and class discussion involving all the students.

2.3 High expectations

1 2 3 4 Comments: Most students participate in the discussions while the majority will definitely be
5 participating in challenging work as they have been given roles in their groups.

2.4 Social support

1 2 3 4 Comments: A fair amount of social support provided through group work, and followed up
5 with class discussion. Also with regard to students with disabilities, peer supported learning is
encouraged to support students.

2.5 Students self-regulation

1 2 3 4 Comments: High self-regulation is evident in that the teacher has opted not to include time to
5 regulate student behaviours. Rather their regulatory methods include checking students
worksheets to ensure they are remaining on task, while allowing them to self-regulate
throughout the experiment.

2.6 Student direction

1 2 3 4 Comments: There is limited student direction throughout the lesson other than during the
5 group work on the experiment. The time given for the experiment may also add pressure and
decrease student ability to self-direct their work.

3 Significance
3.1 Background knowledge
1 2 3 4 Comments: During the discussion and brainstorming at the beginning of the class, the teacher
5 aims to allow the students to link the current lessons new knowledge with what they have
previously learnt about the Chemical World.

3.2 Cultural knowledge

1 2 3 4 Comments: No cultural knowledge is employed in this lesson.
3.3 Knowledge integration
1 2 3 4 Comments: Could have integrated the knowledge more with every day life uses of sugar and
5 salt in freezing water and how it affects freezing food for example, or link to geography and
how different lakes freeze differently. Low integration with other subject areas.

3.4 Inclusivity
1234 Comments: All students are allowed the opportunity to participate in several discussions.
5 Also all students are given a role in their groups for the experiment to ensure they are all
included in the work being done and the lesson throughout the majority of the time.

3.5 Connectedness
1 2 3 4 Comments: Lesson is not connected to anything outside of scientific analysis except
5 knowledge of freezing effects on water when someone adds a chemical or physical change to

3.6 Narrative
1234 Comments: Narrative can be seen during the discussion and brainstorming sections of the
5 lesson where students can share stories, thoughts, or ideas relating to the topic of freezing.
Also the narrative in the video ICT resource, if used, can help assist the students
understanding of this subject and topic.
Section 3: Identifying Areas for Improvement

Identify the two APST standards and two NSW QT model elements you are targeting for improvement.

1) 4.3 Manage Challenging Behaviour 2) 2.3 Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting
QT model
1) 2.6 Student Direction 2) 3.3 Knowledge Integration
Lesson Plan (Simplified for DTL)

Topic area: Stage of Learner: Stage 4 Syllabus Pages:

Temperature, Freezing points Stage 4 Science Syllabus
and Chemical reactions. Chemical World

Date: Location Booked: Lesson Number: /

Time: Total Number of students Printing/preparation

40 mins Print Method Sheets

Outcomes Assessment Students learn about Students learn to

Lesson assessment Explain how dissolving salt
Impact on freezing points of
Recording Results of water due to chemical and and sugar into water will affect
Syllabus outcomes
experiment and physical changes the freezing point depression of
checking against
Chemical World 4 (CW4): Different types water.
interpretation of Lab Safety
of chemical reactions are used to produce a results during class
discussion Common Chemical Reactions Predict the freezing points of
range of products and can occur at different
the water solutions containing
rates and involve energy transfer (New Worksheet Questions
related to the either salt or sugar and which
South Wales. Board of Studies, 2012).
experiments results will freeze first.
after final discussion,
Students:C. Describe the effects of testing the learning
Demonstrate the ability to
outcome regarding
factors, eg temperature and catalysts, on the record and analysis the data
formulation of
rate of some common chemical reactions equations of dissolved collected from the experiment
salt and sugar in
(New South Wales. Board of Studies, 2012). as they engage in critically
water. Demonstrating
understanding of the thinking about the topic.
SCLS-4WS: asks questions that can be skewer and foam
sphere models.
tested and makes predictions (New South Display the ability to
Wales. Board of Studies, 2012). formulate equations of salt
dissolved in water and sugar
dissolved in water.

Explain the differences

between a physical and
chemical reaction.

Cross Curriculum themes & General capabilities Explicit subject specific concepts and skills
Differences between elements, compounds and
mixtures can be described at a particle
level(ACSSU152 )
Chemical change involves substances reacting to
form new substances (ACSSU225)
Time Teaching and learning actions Organisation Centre
Intro Teacher:
Start the classroom with a brain-storm to draw out students
Review the responses of the students
current understanding and knowledge of freezing points and
and address them within this lesson or
common chemical reactions.
in future lessons.
5 mins
Ask the question Ok class what come to mind when you
Record the misconceptions the
think about the word freeze?
students have and address them in the
Write the word freeze on the board with a circle around it. lesson.

Ask how it relates to the topic chemical world. The responses the student wrote down
will be reviewed in the next lesson to
Guide their thoughts to the lessons focus without influencing see if their ideas and misconceptions
there the responses. have changed.

By asking:How does something freeze?Why it Student:

freezes?What happens when something freezes? Participate in the brain

storm.Possible responses: Ice

Ice creamIce block Liquid to solid

Because its cold Temperature

Write down the responses from the

broad into their books.


Body Teacher:
Explain to the class the aim of the today lesson will be on
Ensure the students are able to follow
the freezing points of water, salt water and sugar water.
the instructions throughout the lesson.
Explain safety procedures of the experiment before
5 mins
commences. Question students about what they think should Student:
be done in certain given scenarios of safety issues in the lab. Listen to the teachers instructions.
Testing their knowledge from previous lessons on lab safety
procedures and first aid instruction. SAFETY CAPTAIN

Assign students into groups. 4-5 students per group. Allow
Students to choose their roles in the group/choose group Student:
leader to delegate tasks: timer (keeps track of the time), Listen to the teachers instructions.
5 mins recorder (writes down results), handler (mixing the solutions
together) and retriever (takes and places the test tube rack in Perform the assigned roles within the

the freezer). Group leader will be instructed to act as safety group.
captain to ensure the group follows instruction and prevent
misbehavior (potential risks) and keep the group on task.

Explain what to do in the practical and to follow the

methods sheet that was handed out. Resources:
Materials for students: 100mm clear
plastic test tubes, test tube lid or cork,
test tube rack, water at 10oC, salt,
Give students briefing on misbehaving in a science lab and sugar, periodic table, freezer,
the risks involve and clarify that no challenging behavior teaspoon., marker, timer, foam
can be tolerated during this lesson as it is directly impacting spheres of different sizes and colours
the safety of other students. to represent the elements: Na, Cl and
H2O. Small wooden sticks to
Ask the students to make their predictions on what will represent connections for the elements
happen to the three solutions before and during the practical. and compound.
Predict the aim of the experiment, if students are confused or
Additional Materials: Freezer,
havent identified the correct aim help them factor it out or
monitor in front of classroom, access
provide the aim if necessary.
to the internet, large bottles of water
at 100C, correct chemical and
Guide or provide assistance at the start of the experiment
physical equations for both salt water
without influencing the students thought processes. Walk
and sugar water.
around the classroom.

After the students record the first lot of results for the
Questions to ask: Can you explain to
practical introduce the boxes foam spheres representing the
elements: Na (Sodium), Cl (Chloride), C12H22O11 and me why you come up with that

H2O to each group. prediction?


Thats an interesting concept (name of

Start with saying: Ok class lets zoom in on whats
student) what made you think of that?
happening to the three solutions in the freezer. I have a box
of elements and compounds of the water, salt and sugar
Observe and record the foam sphere
models the students are making to
Ask if the students know the common names of elements
evaluate their level of understanding
and compounds of chemical symbols on the foam spheres.
of elements or formulas.
Allow them to refer to their periodic table for guidance.

Use sugar as an example: Student:

Record and analysis the results from
Sugar is make up of these elements Carbon, Hydrogen and
the experiment.
Oxygen which of the spheres has these elements?
Predict the results of the experiment
Followed by: Now what can Hydrogen and Oxygen make
before and during the task in the
and which of the spheres represents water?
prediction section of the methods

Instruct the student to predict what is happening to all three sheet.
solutions using the foam spheres.
Predict the possible basic chemical or
physical formulas for water, salt water
and sugar water using the foam
spheres and wooden sticks from the
box provided.

Predict the possible errors of the

experiment during the task in the
possible errors section of the methods

Discussion and evaluation of the practical.
Observe the students level of
Prepare a table for the combined results of the whole class. attention to demonstration and
Have the recorder of each group write down their result on discussions.
the table.
Participate and monitor in class
Discuss the predictions and errors from each group and discussion.
compare them with all class. Correct any misconceptions the
students may have.Ask questions to why the thought that Student:
way and how it relates to the topic. Contribute to the class discussions.

Use video representation of why salt reduces the freezing Listen to the teacher.
point of water with similarities to the foam models Observe the demonstration.

Similarities in 0:50 seconds to 1:12 minutes of the video.

Watch the video.
Reinforce student knowledge from this lesson and drive
Ask questions throughout the lesson.

Discuss if by dissolving salt and sugar is a chemical change

Write down notes from the broad.
or physical one referring to the experiment the student
preformed and foam modals.
Demonstrate what the correct formula for salt water and Have video ICT resource setup and
sugar water and the how the freezing point of water is ready to project before class.
YouTube Video loaded.
reduced using the foam spheres. Discuss and compare the
video with the experiment the student preformed and
demonstration with the class.

Conclusion Give Worksheet to students with a few questions assessing Teacher:

knowledge from this lesson and how freezing occurs in Hand out additional worksheet
5mins relation to the chemical world. Link to freezing of water and

saltwater lakes and geographical influences on freezing. Ask Question: Do you think there would
students to look up some points on this for homework for be a difference between freezing
discussion at the beginning of next class. points in freshwater v saltwater

Answer worksheet questions

Conduct research regarding influence

of chemical freezing in geography


Adaptations / Accommodations for Students Needs

Gifted and talented students: Ask them to identify other common chemical reactions and
physical changes using the internet and their devices if they have them or use the computer
in the classes. Have them share the discoveries with the class during the discussion period.

Students with disabilities: Student has visual impairments display larger font methods
sheets, have a student read out the introductions and provide a large timer on the display in
front of the classroom.Student has reading difficulties provide visual representation of
methods sheet for them and have a student explain to them the procedure and encourage
them to participate during the discussion period. Can pair students with physical or reading
capabilities with known GAT students to aid peer assisted and self-directed learning.

How am I measuring the outcomes of this lesson?

Learning Outcome Method of measurement and recording

Explain the differences Use work sheet to assess knowledge learnt through
between a physical and experiment and reinforced through video.
chemical reaction.

Explain how dissolving salt Assessed through observing and correcting post experiment
and sugar into water will and post video discussion of results and understanding of
affect the freezing point the method of the experiment.
depression of water.
Demonstrate the ability to Teacher checks and records groups results and their
record and analysis the data discussion of the results.
collected from the
experiment as they engage
in critically thinking about
the topic.
Display the ability to Demonstrated through students ability to model the
formulate equations of salt formulas using skewers and foam spheres and the teacher
dissolved in water and checks and corrects the students models
sugar dissolved in water.

Academic Justification:

Section 2.3 Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting of the APST guide requires knowledge of
curriculum, assessment and reporting to be utilised in designing lessons (AITSL, 2011). The
curriculum outcomes this lesson plan lists were lacking and were updated to ensure the
lesson reflected section 2.3 (ACARA, 2017). As for assessment, the group work was well
structured however the addition of the worksheet at the end was used in order to help aid the
teacher assess the knowledge retention of the students together with their planned
observations and planned reviews of student contribution to discussion in future lessons.
This worksheet also allows for individual assessment and reporting on individual student
work contrasted with only the group work and results that were used in the original plan.

The APST guide (2011), by the AITSL, states that for standard 4.3 Manage Challenging
Behaviour a proficient level teacher should be able to manage behaviour issues by
establishing and negotiating clear expectations with students and address discipline issues
promptly, fairly and respectfully (AITSL, 2011). The original lesson plan briefly mentions that
students may throw paper at one another in the class and this may cause harm, however, as it
is a science lab, more pre-emptive planning regarding misbehaving has been introduced.
Science labs coupled with challenging behaviours are very high-risk environments and it is
imperative that the plan outlines a strategy to deal with these possibilities. Firstly, the teacher
will address the safety aspects of the experiment then they will question the students
knowledge of what protocol to follow in certain situations to ensure students are aware of
safety procedures, safe behaviours and safe practices in the lab to ensure learning is not
disrupted. Secondly, the teacher will also address the serious nature of the students
behaviour during the lab, and that equipment and chemicals are not objects which agree with
misbehaviour, ending with the teacher entrusting the students with the responsibility to act
accordingly, and ensure instructions are followed. Finally, the group leader will also be
entrusted with ensuring their group maintains good behavioural practices to avoid any issues
and ensure expectations are established as the APST Guide (2011) encourages (AITSL, 2011).

2.6 Student Direction is an important part of both teaching and learning (DET, 2008).
According to Situational Leadership model of Hersey and Blanchard (1988), learners advance
through stages of increasing self-direction and that teachers can help or hinder that
development (Grow, 1991). Keeping this in mind, the lesson was changed to allow either the
students or the teacher to select a group leader for each group who would then take on a
managerial responsibility, delegating tasks and directing the experiment for the group. This
activity allows the teacher to assess the students ability to follow self directed learning
initiatives and leadership skills according to the Hersey-Blanchard model (1988). According
to the QT Guide (Quality Teaching in NSW Public Schools, 2009), this task provides students
with a choice of how they conduct activities and learning in this lesson. Their influence on the
criteria of the lesson becomes somewhat more flowing during the discussion section where
students are allowed to bring forward their ideas of freezing from 3.1 Background
Knowledge (DET, 2008). Self-direction of criteria and time is also evident during the
designing of their skewer and foam sphere models of what they had learnt, as there is less
room for this during the initial experiment. Also, the teacher can pair students with physical
or reading capabilities with known GAT students to aid peer assisted and self-directed

One of the areas where this lesson plan fell short was section 3.3 Knowledge Integration of
the QT model (DET, 2008). Under the Knowledge Integration section of the Quality Teaching

in NSW Schools classroom practice guide (Quality Teaching in NSW Public Schools, 2009),
there is note of the importance of linking knowledge between subject areas, topics and
curricula in order to enhance student learning and knowledge application. It is for this reason
that the lesson plan has been updated to include a task where students are introduced to the
idea of the application of their newfound knowledge of freezing points in Science, and the
freezing of saltwater v. freshwater lakes and rivers in Geography. This task is also to be given
at the end of the lesson so that the students can continue their thought integration of this
knowledge at home through the homework task of researching more into this topic. This task
is designed to allow students the freedom of exploring further details of the topic of freezing
they have just taken in science and also apply it toward their understanding of water bodies
freezing in geography. Students then bring their findings for discussion in the next lesson,
reinforcing the knowledge learnt, and also enhancing section 3.1 Background Knowledge as
well as 3.3 Knowledge Integration in the process (DET, 2008).

Reference List:

Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership. (2011). Australian Professional
Standards for Teachers (pp. 8-20). Victoria: AITSL.

Australian Professional Standards for teachers. (2014) (1st ed.). Sydney. Retrieved from

Curriculum. (2017). ACARA. Retrieved 18 August 2017, from

DET, Department of Education and Training (2008) Quality Teaching to support the NSW
Professional Teaching Standards
Grow, G. (1991). Teaching Learners To Be Self-Directed. Adult Education Quarterly, 41(3),

Hersey, P. , & Blanchard, K (1988). Management of organizational behavior: Utilizing human

resources (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Quality teaching in NSW public schools. (2009). Sydney, N.S.W. Department of Education and

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