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documento completo sobre el curso dsepariocn

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Vitor V. Lopes

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

Selection/estimation of the

thermodynamic equilibrium conditions

Determination of the minimum liquid

absorbent

Graphical determination of the number

of theoretical equilibrium stages

necessary to achieve specification

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

Selection/estimation of the thermodynamic

equilibrium conditions

and pressure. For diluted systems it can be given by:

sat

Pi

K i= Raoult's law

P

Hi

K i= Henry law

P

sat

Pi

K i = * Solubility

xi P

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

Selection/estimation of the thermodynamic equilibrium

conditions

pressures. It aims to remove a species from a gas stream,

i.e. its vapor molar fraction must be small, at the exit.

i

yi= K xi

small value

increases with T

yi

P sat

i

K i= = small value of K i

xi

P

high P

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

Selection/estimation of the thermodynamic equilibrium

conditions

pressures. It aims to remove a species from a liquid stream,

i.e. its liquid molar fraction must be small, at the exit.

yi

x i=

Ki

big value

increases with T

yi

P sat

i

K i= = big value of K i

xi

P

low P

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

Determination of the minimum liquid (gas) absorbent

Two methods:

graphical approach

analytical approach

=

V' X NXO

Y N +1 /(1+Y N +1 )

K=

X N /(1+ X N )

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

Determination of the number of theoretical stages

A method:

graphical approach: after fixing the liquid (gas)

absorbent molar flow...

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

An approximate analytical method:

L' L'

Y n+1 = X n +Y 1 X0

V' V'

if : Y m X +b (diluted systems)

L' L'

Y n+1 = (Y nb)+(Y 1 X 0)

mV ' V'

L'

define : A= (absorption factor)

mV '

Y n+1 = A (Y nb)+(Y 1 A m X 0 )

Y n+1 = A Y n +Y 1 A (m X 0 +b)

Y 1*

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

An approximate analytical method:

*

Y n+1 = A Y n +Y 1 A Y 1

Y N +1 =(1+ A ++ A N )Y 1Y *1 ( A+ A 2 ++ A N )

N +1

A 1

1+ A ++ A N =

A1

N +1 N

A 1 A 1

Y N +1 = Y 1Y *1 A

A1 A1

ln [(Y N +1Y *N +1 )/(Y 1Y *1 )]

N=

ln ( A)

Y *1=m X 0 +b Y *N +1 =m X N +b

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

An approximate analytical method (Kremser equations):

Absorption:

ln [(Y N +1Y *N +1 )/(Y 1Y *1 )] L'

N= , A= ( absorption factor )

ln ( A) mV '

Y *1=m X 0 +b , Y *N +1=m X N +b (equilibrium concentrations)

Stripping:

ln [( X 0 X *0 )/( X N X *N )] 1 mV '

N= , S= = ( stripping factor )

ln(S) A L'

Y 1=m X *0 +b , Y N +1=m X *N +b (equilibrium concentrations)

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

Exercise:

The stripping by air of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

from a wastewater is performed at 21C and 1 atm. The

tower processes 244 kmol/hr of wastewater using 6230

kmol/hr of air.

How many theoretical equilibrium stages must the tower

have to achieve a removal of at least 99.9% of each VOCs

(hint: use Kremser equations for each species)?

Data:

Conc. In Solubility in Vapor

Compound wastewater water at 21C pressure at

(mg/L) (%mol) 21C (atm)

Benzene 150 0.00040 0.104

Toluene 50 0.00012 0.03

Ethylbenzene 20 0.000035 0.01

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

Packing material selection, Height, Pressure loss,

Diameter

Required for the estimation of the capital and

operating costs of the equipment

Required to actual build the equipment for the

separation operation

Depends and requires to preselect the proper

packing material for the column, and revise

the decisions made

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

Packing material selection

All column dimensions are a consequence of the type of

packing inside the column and it is common the revise this

decision or to try different alternatives

The simplified method makes use of the packing factor Fp

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

Height

H =NHETP

theoretical stages N and the Height Equivalent to a Theoretical

Plate HETP

The HETP is given by empirical relations or the packing manufacturer

Careful must be taken in the use of the right units and on the

limitations of each empirical relations

p

in low viscosity liquids

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

Diameter

The diameter (internal) will affect the liquid and gas

surface velocities inside the column.

It comes from a balance between the conditions that

lead to: flooding or column drying

It is determined based on the generalized pressure-

drop correlation (GPDC)

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

Diameter

1. Determine the pressure drop at flooding conditions for

the selected packing

p

inches of H2O per feet of packing.

2. Locate the curve with the

the conditions similar to the

pressure drop at flooding.

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

Diameter

3. Determine the flow parameter (abciss) for the GPDC plot:

0.5

L G

F lv = ( )

V L

The flow parameter represents the ratio of liquid kinetic

energy to vapor kinetic energy.

V : vapor molar flowrate

G : vapor density

L : liquid density

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

Diameter

4. With the flow parameter (abciss) and the curve corresponding

to the flood pressure drop read the value of the capacity

parameter (ordinate) and find the superficial gas velocity:

P

G 0.5

L (cP)

(

C S =uV

L G ) = 3

L (g/cm )

: liquid kinematic viscosity (cSt)

C S :C-factor (ft/s)

u V :superficial gas velocity (ft/s)

G : vapor density

L : liquid density

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

Diameter

5. Compute the actual superficial gas velocity as a fraction of the

superficial gas velocity at flooding. Typically, f~0.75

uV , f =uVf

6. Use the superficial gas velocity and the gas molar flow-rate to

determine the diameter. Careful for the units to be fully compatible!!!

( )

0.5

4 V MV

DT =

uV , f V

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

Pressure Drop

1. Use the GPDC plot to find the actual pressure drop inside the

column. Recompute the capacity parameter with the actual

superficial gas velocity and from the intersection point (ordinate

and abciss) interpolate the curves to find the pressure drop.

the packing height to determine the column pressure drop. Careful

with the units...

Design of absorption/stripping

processes

Exercise:

40 lbmol/hr of air containing 5 mol% NH 3 enters a packed

column at 20C and 1 atm, where 90% of the ammonia is

scrubbed by a countercurrent flow of 3000 lb/h of water.

velocity, the column inside diameter for operation at 70% of

flooding; and the pressure drop per foot of packing for:

b) 1 in. metal IMTP packing (Fp = 41 ft-1)

Summary

can be applied to determine the number of

equilibrium stages for absorption/stripping

processes.

columns based on the GPDC.

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