You are on page 1of 71

':;? ..

5'" - 0 2- ++
7Dpp . ,.,.?,

Marine Propulsion

1n Small Craft

TECHNICAL PAPER FOR:

THE SOCIETY OF NAVAL ARCHITECTS AND MARINE ENGINEERS


SOUTHEAST SECTION

A POWERBOAT SYMPOSIUM AND SECTION MEETING


Miami Beach, February 19 and 20, 1985

By :

DAVID F. BUTLER

BUTLER MARINE TECHNOLOGY INC.


600 SOUTHEAST FIFTH COURT
POMPANO BEACH, FLORIDA 33060
305-781-7458
TABLE OF CONTENTS

I INTRODUCTION

II .... FOUR CYCLE GASOLINE ENGINES

Ill ... TWO CYCLE GASOLINE ENGINES

IV ... TWO CYCLE DIESEL ENGINES

V .... FOUR CYCLE DIESEL ENGINES

VI ... TRANSMISSIONS AND DRIVE SYSTEMS

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FIGURE NUMBER TITLE

SECTION 1 1900 GASOLINE ENGINE 14 HORSEPOWER

2 1957 GASOLINE ENGINE 60 HORSEPOWER

3 TABLE OF ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS

4 1985 V-8 GASOLINE ENGINE 320 HP

5 MERCURY 475 TURBO RACING ENGINE

6 HAWK 511 ENGINE WITH P-1000 EXHAUST

7 MERCURY 500 EFI RACING ENGINE


SECTION II
8 CARNOT ENGINE CYCLE

9 ACTUAL ENGINE CYCLE 305 CU INCH ENGINE

10 ENERGY DISTRIBUTION 305 RAW WATER


COOLED ENGINE WITH STERNDRIVE

11 ENERGY DISTRIBUTION 454 FRESH WATER


COOLED ENGINE SYSTEM

12 FUEL ECONOMY CURVES .. FOUR CYCLE


2

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (CONTINUED)

fiGURE NUMBER If ITLE

13 TABLE OF TWO CYCLE ENGINE SPECIFICATION

SECTION Ill 14 TWO CYCLE ENGINE DESIGN

15 ENGINE CYCLE FOR TWO CYCLE DESIGN

16 TABLE OF TWO CYCLE DIESEL ENGINES

SECTION IV 17 TWO CYCLE SYTEM OF OPERATION

18 TURBOCHARGED TWO CYCLE DIESEL ENGINE

19 MARINE FOUR CYCLE DIESEL ENGINES

20 VOLVO TMD 40 DIESEL ENGINE


SECTION V
21 DETROIT DIESEL 8.2 LITER ENGINE

22 PERFORMANCE CURVES 8.2 LITER (28 BERTRAM)

23 CATERPILLAR 3208 TA CONSTRUCTION

24 MTU 6V-396 FOUR CYCLE DIESEL

25 MARINE TRANSMISSION - GAS

26 VOLVO STERNDRIVE CONSTRUCTION


SECTION VI 27 ELEMENTS OF A MARINE DIESEL

28 ARNESON DRIVE
3

INTRODUCTION

At the turn of the 20th century, sail and steam were the only
motive power of significance on the yachting scene and of these, sail
was the overwhelming choice. While powerful, fast steam yachts were
in existance, their numbers were extremely small. There were some
steam launches with small single-cylinder engines and simple upright
boilers, and a very few fast curisers with tandem or triple expansion
steam power plants. New types of propulsion were appearing in small
runabouts - the Naptha powerplants (an offshoot of steam engine designs)
and the infant gasoline engines. There was no question that sail dom-
inated the yachting scene, far overshadowing all other means of propul-
sion.

At the turn of the century gasoline engines for small launches


were typified by the Easthope one and two cylinder gasoline engines.
A single-cylinder model is shown in FIGURE ONE. The inlet and
exhaust valves are driven by external push rods driving off the cam-
shaft. The distributor is driven by exposed bevel gears, and the
direct drive transmission is the ultimate in simplicity.

The engines of the period were typified by long strokes, and


this tended to limit maximum RPM. This engine had a 3. 875 bore and
a 5-inch stroke. Displacement was 59 cubic inches, and maximum
power was 14 horsepower at 900 RPM. The engine could also idle at
100 RPM, which is incredibly slow. Specific power output was 1/4
horsepower per cubic inch. Some of the new racing engines discussed
later turn out 1. 4 horsepower per cubic inch while screaming away at
5, 400 RPM.

World War I provided a tremendous push to engine technology


By the end of the war, water-cooled military aircraft engines had
become amazingly modern in concept and construction. Mercedes
with a straight six and Hispano-Suiza with a V-8 both had reliable
4

engines over 300 horsepower. The Liberty aircraft engines in the


United States found their way into racing boats, and the new speed
records and publicity did much to popularize speedboats in the 1920's.

During the 1930s, intense research in diesel technology took


place with the development of powerful locomotives to replace the
steam engines. Since steam locomotives are non-condensing, the
overall system efficiency was less than five percent, and the potential
cost savings with diesel locomotives was enormous. By the beginning
of World War II, two and four cycle diesel engines in the sizes needed
for landing craft and submarines had been developed and were in low
volume production. World War II gave a tremendous push in all areas
of diesel technology, and many improvisations were required. General
Motors had an outstanding diesel in the six cylinder 71 series engine,
but many applications required more power. Arrangements were created
with two and even four 6-71 engines driving a single transmission, and
by 1947, the twin installations were able to provide 400 HP at 2000 RPM
for yachting applications.

In the post World War II period the gasoline engines specifically


designed for marine applications were gradually dropped in favor of
the new overhead valve automotive engines available for marine con-
versions. These engines were built in new, highly automated plants
in large production volumes, and provided much higher power outputs
at reasonable cost than the older designs.

Diesel technology for yachts was pretty well dominated by


naturally aspirated designs in both two and four cycle until the early
1970s. The Detroit Diesel SV-71-TI and the Cummins VT-370 became
popular engines for yachts in the 40 to 55 foot size, and pointed the
direction of future development. During the past decade, intense
research has lead to a flood of turbocharged diesel engines in many
configurations, ranging from turbocharged six-cylinder designs attached
to sterndrives up to the complex turbocharged and aftercooled V-12
and V-16 diesels available in the 900 to 2630 Horsepower range.
MODEL

MARINE ENGINE
4-6
14 Hp at 900 Rpm

Easthope has been designing


and manufacturing marine engines
since 1897. As one of the oldest engine
manufacturers in the world, our sole aim
.237 Hp
In 3
has been to build engines as basic and reliable
as possible. All our engines undergo the most thorough
examination both during and after construction, so that we
can confidently say that all the boat owner has to do is install
the engine and enjoy it. Easthope engines are completely handbuilt
and designed to give a lifetime of service with the minimum of maintenance.

1900 Gasoline Engine


1!::::=====-1-
5

FOUR CYCLE GASOLINE ENGINES

The small gasoline engine shown in the introduction is still


manufactured today with one important area of change. The ignition
systems at the turn of the century were a major source of unreliability,
and the little Easthope has a modern ignition system and alternator.
The dampness of the marine environment caused many serious problems.
Rolls Royce in the famous "Silver Ghost" series went to two totally
independant ignition systems with two spark plugs per cylinder.
Marine engines were also available with this system, and the Easthope
Model 8-14 twin cylinder can still be ordered with both magneto and
distributor ignition with two spark plugs per cylinder. Careful
maintenance and good ventilation were the best recommendations for
reliable service on these early engines. The Easthope single-cylinder
developing 14 horsepower at 900 RPM is typical of the period. This
little engine could idle at 100 RPM, and the specific power output,
at .237 HP per cubic inch, was very modest. If more power was
required, a two cylinder model was available, providing 38 horsepower
at 1200 RPM. This was a later design which enclosed the valve push-
rods inside the basic engine castings. The engine was still designed
with a common cast iron sump which provided the line of strength
from the engine through the transmission, and the flywheel was huge
to allow idling at 150 RPM. The specific power output was considerably
higher at . 32 HP per cubic inch. These small economical engines
powered thousands of launches and small runabouts early in the century.
They were far lighter and more fuel efficient than the steam powered
plants of the period and eliminated the need for a licensed steam engineer
and the need for shoveling coal to stoke the boiler on a hot summer's day.

A typical marine engine used from the mid-1930s up into the


1960s is shown in FIGURE TWO. This is a Chris-Craft Model "B" of
1957, providing 60 horsepower at 3200 RPM. This type of engine was
Chris-Craft 60-hp marine

Here's another power-packed Chris-Craft 60-hp engine. and is still going strong!
You'll find the Model B will deliver the power and econ- "And," he says, "the economy of upkeep and oper-
omy that you expect in all Chris-Craft marine engines. ation of Chris-Craft marine engines has been truly
Satisfied users of Chris-Craft marine engines can tell remarkable. For many years now, at my own boat yard,
you about the remarkable performance they've been I have installed Chris-Craft marine engines in new boats
getting. One boat designer says, "Several years ago I and as replacements. None has ever given any trouble."
designed a fast fishing boat that was powered with a For smooth, dependable power, low upkeep, long
Chris-Craft marine engine. After serving 14 years, this life, boat owners all over the world have chosen this
engine was removed and installed in another boat- Model B marine engine.

60 Hp at 3200
133 Cu In
.45

1957 Gasoline Engine


-----------------2-----------------------~
MARINE FOUR CYCLE GASOLINE ENGINES

ENGINE DISPLACEMENT HORSEPOWER MAX RPM HP/CU INCH

EAST HOPE
MODEL 11-6 59 111 900 .237

EASTHOPE
MODEL 8-111 118 38 1200 .322

CHRIS CRAFT B 133 60 3200 45

CHRIS CRAFT K 230 95 3200 41

CHRIS CRAFT KFL 236.6 131 3800 .55

CHRIS CRAFT MCL 339.2 175 3400 .52

CHRIS CRAFT WB 404.3 200 3200 49

CRUSADER 220 305 205 4400 672

MERCRU ISER 260 350 245 4400 .700

CRUSADER 350 454 320 4400 .705

MERC 475 TURBO 454 1175 5200 1. 05

HAWK 511 511 570 5400 1. 12

MERC 500 EFI 1196 700 6000 1.52

3
7

FOUR CYCLE GASOLINE ENGINES

very widely used In the small Mahogany Runabouts. For larger yachts,
60 horsepower was simply not sufficient even with the modest demands
of forty years ago. The line of engines included a six-cylinder
companion, the Model K at 95 horsepower, with a very similar output
at .111 HP per cubic inch.

Cabin cruisers and high speed runabouts required still more


power, and this need was met by ( 1) increasing maximum RPM above
the 3200 limit ( 2) increasing displacement up to the maximum practical
limits in six cylinders, The model WB had 11011 cubic inches, or 67 .II
cubic inches per cylinder. ( 3) Use of multiple carburetors on the
engines. These fifty year old designs used Updraft carburetors with
a vertical plate-type flame arrestor as shown in FIGURE TWO, and a
pair could be mounted side by side feeding into a split intake manifold.

There was a V-8 monster available at about 7 liters capacity,


but it was such a specialized engine it was too expensive for normal
applications. Most large yachts used two of the 175 or 200 horsepower
six cylinder engines and for the larger yachts over fifty feet, three
engines were often installed.
8

VEE EIGHT MARINE ENGINES

During the 1960s and 1970s, the marine gasoline engines


changed from the In-line blocks designed as marine engines to
the conversion of the new powerful overhead valve vee-eight
engines developed for automotive uses. Most of the current marine
engines are based on the General Motors series of blocks of 305
cubic inches up to 454 cubic inches. For race boat applications,
heavy-duty 454 blocks with the "four bolt main bearing design" allow
horsepower outputs up into the astronomical range. Often these
engines are re-worked with oversize bores and special crankshafts
to further increase the displacement to the 500 cubic inch range.
A comparison of the standard and high-performance vee-eight engines
is given below in the lower half of FIGURE THREE.

The power outputs on the chart show the current state of


the art with the large, strong automotive blocks. The Crusader 220,
the Mercruiser 260 and the Crusader 350 are the standard models
used in 90 percent of the inboard cruisers built today, and these same
basic engines are used in most of the stern drive models. Typically,
the 305 and 350 blocks are used in yachts under 30 feet, and the big
454 block is the workhorse for cruisers over 30 feet and in performance
racing boats in stern drive configuration. All of the "standard" engine
designs give a specific power output of about 70 horsepower per
cubic inch of displacement. This is three times as high as the typical
engine of 1900, and 55% higher than the 1957 engine shown in FIGURE TWO.
TOP OF THE LINE
POWER AND
PERFORMANCE

454 Cu Inch
320 Hp at 4400
.705 Hp/Cu In

-
tf= Thermo
Electron
Engine Division
1100 E. 1s MH Road
Sterling Heights, Michigan 48077
CORPORATION {313)2641200

1985 V8 Gasoline Engine


I~------------4----------~~
TURBO-CHARGED GASOLINE ENGINES

The design of a turbo-charged gasoline engine based on the


454 cubic Inch block Is shown In FIGURE FIVE. This model is built
by the HI Performance Division of Mercruiser and provides a power
output of just over one horsepower per cubic inch of displacement.
This is accomplished by mounting a turobcharger at the end of
each exhaust manifold and using the two turbines to power air
compressors, boosting the incoming air in the intake manifold.

Turbocharging is highly successful in aircraft gasoline engines


and in marine diesels, but has really not been competitive in marine
gasoline engines. Aircraft engines are designed from scratch to meet
the stresses of turbocharging, and the 325 horsepower Continental
opposed six, for example, can stand 39 inches of mercury boost on
take off which puts the pressure in the intake manifold at almost 34
pounds per square inch (psia). Such pressures would blow a con-
ventional marine gasoline engine to bits, fracturing pistons, bending
rods and causing cracked heads and bearing failures.

The turbocharged Mere 475 must compromise on Intake boost


for these reasons, and the turbos cause restrictions in the exhaust
gas path.

TUNED EXHAUST

Another approach is to concentrate on getting the maximum


amount of air through the engine. This is illustrated by the HAWK
511 engine in FIGURE SIX. To achieve the 540 brake horsepower,
all the passages in the cylinder heads are carefully polished with
rotary grinders to smooth the air flow, oversize intake and exhaust
475T
4 75 Hp at 5200
454 Cu Inches
1.05 Hp/Cu In
SPECIFICATIONS
Horsepower ........... 475
Cylinders .............. V-8
Displacement .... 454 Cu. ln.
Bore & Stroke .... 4.2Sx4.00
Compression Rallo ...... 7:1
Induction .... Single 4 Barrel
Fu II Throllle Range .... 5200
Drive Unit ............ TRS,
MC II SSM
or MC Ill SSM

HI ::PERFORMANCE PRODUCTS
2521 Bowen Street Oshkosh. WI 54901
Telephone (414) 231-9180. Extension 331. or 353 A BRUNSWICK COMPANY
783

Tu rboc ha'rged Gas Engine


~---------------5---------------~
10

TUNED EXHAUST (CONTINUED)

valves are fitted, and special matched sets of pistons and machined-
-over connecting rods are assembled to special crankshafts. This
power output can be further raised to 570 brake horsepower by the
use of Stelling exhaust headers. An engine and transmission set up
in full racing dress costs about $27,500 due to the tremendous input
of skilled hand labor and the very expensive materials used In con-
struction.

TUNED INTAKE SYSTEM

About the highest power output per cubic inch of displacement


in marine gasoline engines is achieved using the approach shown in
FIGURE SEVEN. Four tall stacks bring the air smoothly into each of
two huge Holley carburetors. The exhaust would be similarly treated
with huge cast aluminum exhaust manifolds capable of handling the
exhaust gas with the absolute minimum pressure drop. This is done
with large, polished passages, and a short, large-diameter path for
the exhaust gas directly aft and through the transom. In this
illustration the exhaust headers have been removed to show the double
carburetor and intake air configuration. The exhaust headers would
be similar to FIGURE SIX. In the racing classes of engines, each
engine has a huge input of skilled mechanical effort, and this includes
Individual dynamometer testing of each engine. The 700+ horsepower
rating means a guarantee of over 700 brake horsepower centrified with
each engine. This amounts to over 1. 5 horsepower per cubic inch
or in the current technology, nearly 90 horsepower per liter of dis-
placement.
TYPE HIGH VOLTAGE COIL

TYPE SPECIALLY BALANCED DISTRIBUTOR


DOUBLE ENDED HOLLEY CARBURETOR

~F~E
ARRESTOR

WATER CONNECTION TO PORT


EXHAUST SYSTEM-------------~
.... PUMP VENT LINE

PORT EXHAUST MANIFOLD - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . ;


DISTRIBUTION MANIFOLD

COOLING WATER HOSE TO EXHAUST MANIFOLD


ENGINE LUBRICATING OIL fitTER
LINES TO BOTH ENDS OF THE CARBURETOR

WATER CONNECTION TO ALUMINUM VALVE ROCKER COVER (STARBOARD)


STARBOARD EXHAUST SYSTEM

CAST ALUMINUM WATER COOLED


ENGINE STARTER SOLENOID - - - - - - - -
EXHAUST MANIFOLD

ENGINE STARTER ( 12 VOLT)

TRANSMISSION CONTROL

MARINE TRANSMISSION - - - - - -

OIL COOLING LINES


FUEL SUPPLY FROM PRESSURE CONTROL VALVE

SEA WATER PUMP DRIVING COOLING


HIGH VOLT AGE WIRES TO SPARKPLUCS WATER INTO ENGINE

WATER LINE TO OIL COOLER


TYPE FUEL PUMP
HIGH CAPACITY OIL PAN
WITH INTERNAL BAFFLES

HAWK ENGINES - STARBOARD SIDE


~ Jo.
EFI
700 Hp at 6000
496 Cu Inches
1.43 Hp/CU In
SPECIFICATIONS
Horsepower .......... 700+
Cylinders .............. V8
Displacement ...... 482/496
Cu. ln.
Bore & Stroke ... 4.375x4.0/
4.440x4.0
Compression Ratio ..... 12:1
lnducllon ........ Eleclronic
Fuel Injection
Full Throtlle Range .... 6000
Drive Unll ...... MC Ill SSM

HI :-:PERFORMANCE PRODUCTS
2521 Bowen Street Oshkosh. WI 54901
~ i,i ~MARINE
:tiH1:9
Telephone {414) 231-9180. Extension 331. or 353
A BRUNSWICK COMPANY
783

Mercury 500 EFI


~----------------7
II

TUNED INTAKE SYSTEM (CONTINUED)

The outstanding mechanical performance of the modern V-8


marine engines Is the result of the billions of dollars in research
and development spent primarily in automotive engine technology,
Both the Daimler and Benz vehicles were operational in Germany
In 1886, and the pace and Intensity of gasoline engine research
has been steadily increasing during the past 99 years. As each
major war came along, the direction of effort shifted but the
emphasis on technical engine development continued.

THERMODYNAMIC EFFICIENCY

Modern marine gasoline engines, operating with smoothly


finished parts, excellent lubrication systems, and relatively high
compression ratios give over double the thermal efficiencies of
the engines earlier In the century. One of the most widely used
marine engines today is built on the Chevrolet 305 cubic inch V-8
block. Models are converted by Crusader, MerCrulser, Chris-Craft
and others, The typical conversion burns 20.5 gallons of 89 octane
fuel per hour to deliver 220 shaft horsepower at qqoo RPM, This
amounts to 2.1 pounds of fuel per minute, and at normal fuel-air
ratios this requires 2ij.5 pounds of air per minute, These huge
quantities of air make the use of four-barrel carburetors and large
exhaust systems very worthwhile.

Gasoline has a heat content of 18,900 BTU per pound of


fuel, providing a total availability of 39,700 BTU per minute of heat
energy, If we had a magic engine which could convert all of this
chemical energy Into mechanical work, we would turn out an astonishing
936 horsepower instead of the 220 actually delivered, A thermodynamic
PERFECTLY SMOOTH
CHANCEABLE CYLINDER CYLINDER WALLS WHICH
HEAD WHICH IS { 1) HOT ARE ALSO PERFECT
(2) INSULATING (3) COLD INSULATORS { NO HEAT
(q) INSULATING

PISTON, WHICH IS A
EXPANSION STROKE
lNG MEDIUM HEATED
FIT IN THE CYLINDER
BY HOT CYLINDER HEAD
(CONSTANT TEMPERATURE )


Psi
EXPANSION STROKE
NO TRANSFER

COMPRESSION STROKE
ADIABATIC COMPRESSION
WITH NO HEAT TRANSFER

( WORKING MEDIUM COOLED


BY COLD CYLINDER HEAD )

Volume

Carnot Engine Cycle

s
IZ

THERMODYNAMIC EFFICIENCY (CONTINUED}

efficiency of 24% does not seem too good and leads to the need for
a fundamental look at the operating principles of the 4-cycle gasoline
engine.

The most efficient possible cycle for a piston engine was


postulated by a Frenchman, Nicholas Carnot, in 1820. The Carnot
Cycle is shown in FIGURE EIGHT and is described as follows:

A cylinder contains a "working mixture". Starting at point


"a" in the cycle, the gas is at pressure "P1" and temperature "T 111
The cylinder head is a hot surface at temperature T1, and the heat
transfer is so instantaneous and so perfect that T 1 is maintained as
the piston moves from point "a" to point "b" doing mechanical work
on the piston.

At point "b" the hot cylinder head is suddenly replaced by


a perfectly insulated head, and the cylinder walls and piston are
also perfectly insulated. While the process "a-b" is ISOTHERMAL
(constant temperature} the process "b-e" is ADIABATIC. The gas
has continued to do useful work on the piston and the mechanical
energy is represented by a drop in the internal energy of the gas
in the cylinder.

At point "c" a cold cylinder head at a temperature T 2 is


suddenly placed on the engine, and as the piston compresses the
gas, the cold head absorbs energy so that the work of compression
is far less than that of expansion. This is another ISOTHERMAL
process. At point "d" an insulating head is put on the cylinder
and the gas is compressed adiabatically back to point "a".
13

ACTUAL OPERATING CYCLES

The operating cycle of a typical 305 cubic inch V-8 marine


engine is shown in FIGURE NINE. The curve shown is built on
the best available check point from laboratory dynamometer data,
but the shape of the curves have been simplified to make math-
ematical analysis easier.

COMPRESSION STROKE

The compression stroke swoops smoothly upward to peak


pressure and temperature in the Carnot cycle. In real life the
performance is very different due to massive heat transfer from
the compressed charge to the cold cylinder walls. Theoretically,
a compression ratio of B. 5 to 1 would achieve a pressure of 250
PSI, and a thermature of 750 degrees. With a real engine, there
is massive heat transfer as 43 cubic inch charge is crammed into a
1 /2-inch high space at the top of the cylinder, and actual pressures
of about 175 PSI and temperatures of 500 degrees are achieved in
an engine in good mechanical condition.

POWER STROKE

About 20 degrees before the piston reaches top dead center


(TDC). the spark plug fires. The combustion process burns the
charge to a pressure of about 850 PSI, and the central flame tem-
perature is at about 2500 degrees. Both the temperature and
pressure are much less than theoretical calculations due to massive
heat transfer. Thermodynamically, the flame is burning in a large
diameter chamber only 1 /2-inch high with ice cold walls. The heat
transfer possibilities are enormous. The cylinder and heat must be
VOLVO TMD 40 TURBOCHARGED DIESEL ENGINE

PRE-COMBUSTION CHAMBER DETAIL

FIGURE 20
~
soo

600
Pressure
\
\1
I
1'\..
v~~~~.
.... AUOT

"'-,~."' ~XPA
4 00 ! -1----,

psI
--~-. I
.to"'r~t esh~_~=-r
0 ...., NSION . .
.., !.I e.-

~-~-=--'.J-~~'f....C'
'
1 ~ ,..F"l'fe~l
ATHO
- "'I FSI
=-::.-.,.
_ . -_
--....;;

);s 1-_Z '-~


-
1
-,L, - --'j-e
- .I= I!1 P'
J:N.TA
- - L"'- -
1
0
5 10 IS 20 25 'SO '35 ..co 4S
Volume Cubic Inches
OFIS
"'as

Pressure- Volume Curves 4 Cycle


'"---------9
POWER STROKE (CONTINUED)

kept so cold since a raw water cooled engine cannot allow the salt
water to get over 150 degrees or the salt starts to precipitate out
of solution.

The 20 degrees of travel between spark plug firing and top


dead center occurs in less than a millisecond at 400 RPM. With
typical flame speeds of 150 feet per second, the burning occurs
basically with the piston near top dead center, and FIGURE NINE
shows a straight pressure rise to simplify calculations. If the fuel
is not of high enough octane, there will be detonation which is
easy to hear in a car and far more difficult to detect in a marine
engine. Fortunately, knock will rarely cause mechanical damage
to an engine and is easily solved by ( 1) proper grade of leaded
fuel; ( 2) retarding the spark ignition closer to top dead center.

Pre-ignition is an entirely different story. If hot spots


develop in a chamber, the compressed charge may light off before
the plug fires. Flame speeds of 1000 feet per second give no audible
warning, but can cause severe engine destruction. The flame fronts
and pressures are building at sonic velocity as the piston is still
coming up and peak pressures go so high that damage is inevitable.
Good engine cooling and avoidance of long maximum RPM operation
are the best preventatives.

EXHAUST STROKE

On a normal marine engine the exhaust valve opens about


50 degrees before bottom dead center (BDC). On racing engines this
is moved back toward 80 degrees before BDC. The remaining pressure
16

EXHAUST STROKE (CONTINUED)

drives the gas through the exhaust valve opening at sonic velocity
and with the exhaust typically at 1500 degrees, the opportunity for
heating the exhaust valve is tremendous.

The pressure remains well above atmospheric during the


entire exhaust stroke, and pumping the hot exhaust gas through
the slot around the exhaust valve represents negative work and
another loss in the operating cycle. The exhaust valve closes about
15 degrees after top dead center.

INTAKE STROKE

About 15 degrees before top dead center the intake valves


open, resulting in about a 30 period when both intake and exhaust
valves are open. With "tuned" intake and exhaust systems, the
moving exhaust gas and intake air columns continue to move properly,
even with both valves open.

The entire induction system of the gasoline engine operates


below atmospheric pressure. A vacuum gauge in the intake manifold
would show up to 15 inches of mercury under low demand operation
(2000 RPM) but only 2 - 4 inches of mercury when the engine is
running wide open at 4400 RPM. The critical operation it at wide
open throttle where only a small pressure differential must provide
huge air flows through the carburetor. With a Rochester "Quadrijet"
4-barrel carburetor, 387 cubic feet per minute will flow even at low
differentials. The large Holley models can move 1050 CFM of air
through four barrels in a racing engine. At the end of the intake
stroke, there is a cylinder full of air at ambient temperature and at
a pressure of 12.7 pounds per square inch absolute.
'"

HEAT LOSSES IN AN ENGINE

There is a serious limitation to the thermal efficiency of


an engine even using a CARNOT cycle. When all the thermal and
friction losses are taken away, the operating cycle shown in FIGURE
NINE is much less efficient.

The overall distribution of the thermal energy burned in a


raw-water cooled 305 cubic engine is shown in FIGURE TEN.

The source of energy is the 201 gallons of gasoline burned


per hour at wide open throttle. With fuel at 18,900 BTU per gallon
there is enough total energy to deliver 926 horsepower if it all could
be utilized. Unfortunately, only 25% of it comes out as useful work
at the engine flywheel.

The largest loss is the huge thermal loss in the hot exhaust
gas. The hot expanded gas in the cylinder at 72 PSI and 1500F
represents 35% of the total thermal energy available in the fuel.

The other gigantic loss is the 32% (or 300 horsepower) lost to
the cooling water. Ideally, the cylinder walls would be kept at about
1500F and the gasoline injected at the end of the compression stroke
as in a diesel. In thermodynamic terms, the cooling water at 140F
is ice cold and the gasoline is wasting most of its energy maintaining
a ball of hot gas surrounded by a deep freeze of cylinder walls,
piston and cylinder head.

After these huge exhaust and cooling losses, 309 horsepower


remains for useful work. Seventy-five horsepower is lost in friction
in the engine, and a further 14 horsepower in the bearings and gears
of the transmission.
- ENE:R!GV LOSSES
'
900 . RAW WATER
HEAT
. COOLED GAS
LOST
800 TO ENGINE WITH
EXH AtiST
OUTD!<:\Ve
GRS 35%
'3'21 HP

~,~ooi
WII iI
6-soo;
1
HEAT LOST
TO C.OO LING
o..l WATei'C. '3'2%
~~400 "300 HP
ol'
o: HE~T T~ANSMISSION
I~30Q CONTENT
LOSS 14 HP
I o936~p
I
+200
I
\00 THRUST To MoVE
6oAT 154 HP -= I<Ocro

Burt-er?..
.... 82

Losses- Raw Water Cooled Gas

11--------10 ----------l
1'1

HEAT LOSSES IN AN ENGINE (CONTINUED)

The effective shaft horsepower of the overall system is 220.


With a propulsive efficiency of 70%, this gives 1511 horsepower to
actually push the boat through the water.

EFFICIENCY OF FRESH WATER COOLED ENGINES

The highest efficiency achieved in the marine gasoline power


plants was found in fresh water cooled, pressurized coolant systems
running at temperatures of 190 to 200. This approach minimizes the
heat transfer from the operating gases to the coolant. When this
approach is combined with carefully calibrated carburetors, improved
efficiencies are achieved.

The overall results are still poor, as shown in FIGURE ELEVEN.


The fuel rate of 25.11 gallons per hour provides sufficient thermal
energy for 12311 horsepower at 100% efficiency.

Thirty-five percent of this heat is lost in the exhaust gas; the


same percentage is in the raw water cooled engine. With the big block
engine, this amounts to a staggering 1132 horsepower. The heat lost
to the cooling water is reduced from 32% to 30% but still accounts for
a whopping 367 horsepower.

Heat lost to friction is 100 horsepower or 8%, and the marine


transmission loss is 35 horsepower. This figure is much larger than
on the raw water cooled engine due to the transmission characteristics.
The small engine has been shown with a "stern drive" which uses cone
clutches, while the fresh water cooled engines are almost always used
in inboard engine installations. These transmissions have multi-disc
clutches with much higher transmission losses.
HE'AT
CoNTI!! NT
OF FUEL
1'2 HP
1200
HEAT

LOST TO
1000 EXHAUST

GAS 35%-=432HP
Ol 800
I-IE~T . LOST
UJ
3 To CoOLING-
0 GOO WATeR.
Q..
UJ
Ill
~~ %= :,aoHP
Ql
0
-400
:t
P ~oPoL. SIVE LoSS aSHP
(33% OF SHP) I
200
TH~~ST TO HoVe
YACHT 190 HP = t5%

ENE~G'( LOSSES F~e:SH WATE~


Cocn.. ED GASOLINE IN8oA~D

b.F.B
8'i!-8S'
18

EFFICIENCY OF FRESH WATER COOLED ENGINES (CONTINUED)

The shaft horsepower available is 300, or 24% oy the thermal


energy of the fuel. with a 70% propulsive efficiency, we have 17% of
the energy content of the fuel available to thrust the boat through
the water.

FUEL CONSUMPTION CURVES

Fuel consumption curves for a typical 305 cubic inch marine


engine is shown in FIGURE TWELVE. The gallons per hour are shown
in the lower, solid line. At idle, the engine burns about H gallons
per hour, and consumption rises to 201 gallons per hour delivering
220 brake horsepower at 4400 RPM.

A curve of fuel economy is shown in the upper curve on


the left-hand side. Fuel economy Is measured in pounds of fuel
required per brake horsepower-hour. Thus, at 1000 RPM it requires
2.27 pounds of fuel for each brake horsepower for an hour. In the
most efficient range from 2500 to 3500 RPM, the engine requires only
6/10 pound of fuel per brake horsepower-hour. At wide-open throttle,
the fuel consumption rises to about . 65 lb. per horsepower hour to
deliver about 200 shaft horsepower at 4400 RPM.
FUEL ECONOMY- MAIZ.INE V-S
305 1N3, 8.45: I c.R. ENGINe:

Z:l'T
'-
20 2oo
Fuel Shaft
15 ISO
Gal H.P.
100
Hour o
5
-- - 50
,69

0 .. ----- -- -----
0
0 500 1000 1500 zooo 2500 ~000 3500 ~000 4500

Engine R.P.M.

o.e.
Fuel Economy Curves ~

~-------------12--------------~
19

FUTURE TRENDS

Future trends in four-cycle gasoline engine technology are


visible today in the automotive developments in the United States,
Japan and Europe.

FOUR VALVE DESIGNS

Extremely high power outputs are being achieved by designing


with four valves per cylinder. As heads manufactured this way become
available in automotive engines, they will move over into marine
very quickly. If effect, the four valve design opens up the intake
and exhaust flow allowing specific outputs to exceed horsepower per
cubic inch in standard engines.

TURBOCHARGING

Turbos are being added to small displacement automotive engines


today. When larger displacement engines are designed to handle the
higher maximum pressures developed by turbochargers, they will be
adapted for marine use.

LIGHT WEIGHT ENGINES

Considerably higher power outputs will be available in the


future with the same external engine size. The new "lost foam"
casting process gives very accurate block castings with typical
cylinder wall thicknesses of 230 inches. Larger bores, more
efficient water passages and higher weight are coming from this
casting technique, particularly when used with OSTEO-STENETIC
heat treatment procedures for machined castings, such as connecting
rods and crankshafts.
FUTURE TRENDS (CONTINUED)

FUEL INJECTION

Another area is to increase the burning efficiency by reducing


the fuel-air ratio. Intense research in this area is yielding excellent
results. Electronic sensors are being mounted in the engines to monitor
operating conditions. The use of fuel injection systems monitoring
individual cylinders performance are in the works in automotive
applications and when this is combined with knock sensors which
adjust the timing of the spark plugs for individual cylinders, we
are pretty close to optimum efficiency.
2.1

TWO CYCLE MARINE GASOLINE POWER .ENGINES

The two cycle marine gasoline engine was first applied as a


small, low-powered outboard motor to propel rowboats at low speed.
The intent was to replace hours of hard work rowing with a small
portable engine which would accomplish the same purpose. Many
inventors participated around the turn of the century, but the
Evinrude system turned out the best, and these heavy, low-powered,
single-cylinder motors became widely used. In the 1920s, the emphasis
shifted to more powerful opposed piston twin-cylinder models. By
mounting the cylinders opposite each other, the vibration was consid-
erably reduced and higher power with lighter weight was achieved.

Eighty years of development has resulted in huge improvements


in compression ratios, fuel economy, reliability, smoothness and power
to weight ratios. A table of current engines is shown in FIGURE
THIRTEEN. The OMC "SAIL DRIVE" is a specialized small engine
designed to drive heavy loads at low speed. It is included in the
chart since it shows that when current two-cycle technology is
applied to a "workboat"-type design problem, the maximum RPM and
power output per cubic inch are cut way back in the interest of dur-
ability and reliability in handling heavy loads. The maximum engine
RPM and the specific power output are typical of engines of forty
years ago.

Normally, outboard engines as a- class are utilized on the


lightest and smallest classes of recreational boats. The basic designs
have been adjusted for this with extremely high power to weight ratios
and high specific power outputs. The Johnson 275 horsepower engine,
for example, weighs 540 pounds, where a similar _power level in a four
cycle stern drive or inboard engine configuration weighs almost exactly
double this weight. The price is paid in durability. In commercial
service fishing outboard motors are often replaced yearly. In fresh
water, outboard engines last for many years and in the modest hourly
usage of many salt water boats careful flushing of the engines after
use results in adequate service life.
DISPLACEMENT
ENGINE CUBIC INCHES HORSEPOWER MAX RPM HP/CU IN

OMC SAIL DRIVE 31.8 15 3300 47

MERCURY 60 49.8 60 5800 1.20

JOHNSON 120 110 120 6000 1. 09

JOHNSON 275 220 275 6000 1. 25

EVINRUDE V-8
FORMULA ONE 214 400+ 10, 000 1. 92

MARINE TWO CYCLE GASOLINE ENGINES

~----------13------------~
TWO CYCLE MARINE GASOLINE POWER ENGINES (CONTINUED)

The highest power output in outboard engines is achieved


in the newest "Formula One" engines typified by the Evinrude model
shown last on FIGURE THIRTEEN. The heart of the engine is a
214 cubic inch V-8 block specially manufactured and hand assembled.
Racing pistons in matched and balanced sets are assembled to racing
rods and the assembly topped off with a two-barrel carburetor for
each cylinder. When mounted on a Formula One hydroplane, typically
one built of wood and weighing under 400 pounds, these engines can
drive the boat to 150 miles per hour. The engines alone run about
$22,000 a copy and must be torn down and rebuilt after about seven
hours of running at full racing speed.

TWO CYCLE ENGINE DESIGN

The basic assembly of a two cycle outboard is shown in


FIGURE FOURTEEN. The fresh charge is drawn into the crankcase
through a one-way reed valve during the movement of the piston
upward. There are free-flowing carburetors, often one per cylinder,
on the high output engines and the crankcase serves as a receiver
for the fresh charge. As the piston drives down on the power
stroke, the reed valves close and pressure builds up under the
piston. This positive pressure is used to scavenge the old combustion
gases from the cylinder as the piston approaches bottom dead center.
This configuration, with a vertical crankshaft, has been developed
over the years into a very specialized form of engine design. The
gas dynamics become very critical to success. The time for the
exhaust gases to be swept out and replaced by a fresh charge are
VERY short, and the pressure differentials available to accomplish
the flows are quite low. At full speed, the racing engine is turning
at 10,000 RPM, or 167 times a SECOND. This means that from the time
the exhaust port is uncovered until bottom dead center is one millisecond
( 1/1000 second). Even a regular outboard, such as the 275 horsepower
model, at 6000 RPM has only 1/350 second for the entire exhaust and
CRANKCASE FILLED WITH
FRESH MIXTURE FLOWING COMPRESSED GASOLINE-AIR
CYLINDER MIXTURE
RIDGE ON TOP OF PISTON
TO HELP CYLINDER
AIR INTAKE
FOR ENGINE
VENTURI
SPARK PLUG

REED TYPE
EXHAUST CAS
CHECK VALVES
EXHAUST MAN I FOLD

CONNECTING ROD

r!Two Cycle Engine Design II


14
2.4

TWO CYCLE MARINE GASOLINE POWER ENGINES (CONTINUED)

recharging of the cylinder. In a camera this is considered a fast


shutter speed, but in these engines it is the total time allowed for
complete purging of the cylinder. It is small wonder that about
1/4 of the incoming charge mixes with the exhaust and is lost during
this very rapid transfer.

PRESSURE-DISTANCE CURVES

The pressure-distance relationships in a modern two-cycle


outboard are shown in FIGURE FIFTEEN. The cylinder volume is
27 cubic inches with the piston at bottom dead center. During the
compression stroke, fresh fuel-air mixture flows into the cylinder
from the compressed charge in the crankcase. At a volume of about
22 cubic inches the intake port is cut off. The piston continues
upward and some of the fresh charge inevitably moves out the exhaust
port until it is closed off when 17 cubic inches of cylinder volume
remains. The "trapped" or "effective" volume is the swept volume
between 17 cubic inches and the 2.4 cubic inches remaining at top
dead center. During this compression period, the charge compresses
toward a theoretical 270 PSI; however, the spark plug fires before
top dead center is reaches and the pressure rises quite rapidly as the
piston gets near TDC.

POWER STROKE

Theoretically the charge would burn to a pressure close to


900 PSI, but this theoretical peak is chopped way down by the
burning rate of the fuel and heat transfer in th~ tiny space above
the piston. It is amazing that the engines work at all, since the
game is to build a 2500 degree fire in a chamber 1 /4-inch high with
a cold cylinder head above and a cold piston below. Whether the
piston is at 150 or 300 degrees makes little difference when the fire
is 2200 degrees hotter. The losses to heat transfer have to be
enormous.
THEORETICAL PEAK
PRESSURE

/~\ ACTUAL PEAK


TOP DEAD
CENTER
I PRESSURE
I

PRESSURE IN
BLOV1DO>WN
CYLINDER
2
POUNDS/INCH
EXHAUST PORT

P.S.I. ~
.t11. BOTTOM
CENTER
DEAD

IGNITION
POINT
---+---;..-- SCAVENGE

INTAKE PORT
' OPENS

-L--
I TRAPPED OR

PRESSURE
1---- EFFECTIVE ..
, -----...,""
EXHAUST PORT
PORT
VOLUME CLOSES
lij. 7 PSIA CLOSES

0 <?.40 CUBIC INCHES 17.0 CUBIC INCHES 27.0


I I
CHAMBER J SWEPT VOLUME
'
v6LUME I
CYLINDER
CUBIC
VOLl,JME
INCHES
Volume
6on.tg:. "Btr
4
T.O.f<I~I(OHC

Two Cycle Pressure-Distance


15
TWO CYCLE MARINE GASOLINE POWER ENGINES (CONTINUED)

During the power stroke, the useful work is done by


the gas shoving the piston downward. At the beginning of the
stroke, the force exceeds two tons, and by the end of the stroke
just before the exhaust port opens, the force is typically about
1 /2 ton.

EXHAUST STOKE

When the piston reaches a swept volume of 17 cubic inches


the exhaust port opens, and the remaining gas pressure "blows down"
into the exhaust manifold. With careful gas dynamics tuning the
remaining pressure is slightly over atmospheric when the intake port
is uncovered. Obviously, if the remaining pressure is too high, the
exhaust gas will blow into the intake system and the column of gas
will develop a dynamic motion in the wrong direction. The trick is
to have the exhaust system pressure down just about even with the
compressed intake charge when the port opens. As the exhaust
pressure continues to decline, the compressed incoming charge starts
to flow into the cylinder, sweeping up one cylinder wall and driving
the remaining exhaust gas ahead into the exhaust manifold. The fresh
charge continues to flow in past bottom dead center and until the
intake port is cut off by the rising piston, The cycle then continues,
cutting off the exhaust port and compressing the charge until the
spark plug fires.

Modern two cycle engines represent some of the most


sophisticated gas dynamics in any engine technology today.
The entire intake and exhaust systems are tuned to take advantage
of the kinetic energy of the moving gas column and achieve gas flow
rates which are incredible in the time spans available. These modern
two cycle designs provide extremely high power outputs for the engine
weight, and also very high power outputs for the engine displacement.
TWO CYCLE DIESEL ENGINES

The main booster of the two cycle diesel principle for small
craft has been the General Motors Corporation with the Detroit
Diesel line of marine engines and the Electromotive Division which
manufactures mid-sized diesels for locomotives and commercial vessels
over 80 feet in length.

During World War II, thousands of the Detroit Diesel six-cylinder


71-series engines were installed in small landing craft. For larger
ships, dual engine installations driving a single shaft were developed,
and when even more power was needed, an arrangement consisting
of four six-cylinder engines driving a common transmission was
developed. By 1959 this concept had been refined so that the dual
engines could provide 470 horsepower, and special Quad units using
HV 80 injectors could supply 1008 Brake Horsepower for yachting
use. Transmission losses were fairly high with this complex arrange-
ment, and the weight was also high at six tons.

In the 1960s, the basic line-up of two-cycle Detroit Diesels


was built on the 71 series engines, ranging from two-cylinder to
sixteen-cylinder models. The basic workhorse 6-71 engine was
available in a turbocharged version with a power output of 310
horsepower at 2300 RPM. This represented a 25 percent increase
in power, and this engine in both naturally aspirated and turbocharged
versions became popular in cruisers of forty feet and up.

In the early 1970s, the power outputs had risen slightly,


and a new series of smaller 53 cubic inch per cylinder engines had
been added to the line. The 8V-53-N became a very popular engine
for yachts in the thirty-five to forty-five foot range. A powerful
turbocharged engine had been added in the 8V-71-T providing 425
HP, and this became a widely used engine in yachts of the forty to
fifty-five foot range.
21

TWO CYCLE DIESEL ENGINES

DISPLACEMENT MAXIMUM
ENGINE CUBIC INCHES HORSEPOWER RPM HP/CU IN

ENGINES OF THE
1960 PERIOD:

6-71-N 426 235 2300 .55

6-71- T 426 310 2300 .73

12V-71-N 852 504 2300 .59

16V-71-N 1136 660 2300 .58

ENGINES OF THE
EARLY 1970s:

DETROIT DIESEL
BV-53-N 424 256 2800 604

DETROIT DIESEL
BV-71-N 568 350 2300 616

DETROIT DIESEL
BV-71-TI 568 425 2300 748

DETROIT DIESEL
12V-71-N 852 525 2300 616

ENGINES OF THE
MID 1980s:

6V-53-T I 318 305 2800 .96

6V-92-TA 552 475 2300 .86

12V-71-TI 852 900 2300 1. 06

12V-92-TI 1104 1050 2300 .95

16
2.8

TWO CYCLE DIESEL ENGINES (CONTINUED)

TWO CYCLE DIESEL ENGINE OPERATION

A two cycle diesel works on a slightly different method


than the outboard engines. The basic principles are shown in
FIGURE SEVENTEEN. Four exhaust valves are installed in the
cylinder head, with a fuel injector mounted in the center. The
left-hand illustration shows the intake and exhaust phase. A
powerful "roots blower" is gear-driven from the camshaft and
provides a positive pressure in the intake manifold. When the
piston gets close to bottom dead center (BDC), the exhaust valves
open and the remaining pressure in the cylinder "blows down" into
the exhaust manifold. The incoming air enters through a ring of
ports around the bottom of the cylinder, and the positive pressure
in the intake manifold is used to give a torrent of air rising vertically
to clear the cylinder. The time for clearing the cylinder is about 5
milliseconds at 2300 RPM, far longer than the time for change in an
outboard engine ( 1-1/2 milliseconds). The cylinder in a Detroit
Diesel is also far larger than the outboard designs. Since this is
a diesel, the incoming air has no fuel and excess air simply blows
and causes no losses.

The middle illustration shows the piston rising on the com-


pression stroke, and at 17 to 1 compression, this results in a pressure
of about 600 PSI at top dead center. About 20 degrees before top
dead center, the fuel injector starts blasting in a fine mist of fuel
oil at about 1150 PSI. The injection stroke typically continues for
30 degrees at full load and would be cut off early under part load
operation. With the two cycle diesel, each downward stroke of the
piston is a power stroke, and this has allowed the very high power
outputs developed in recent years. Power outputs of 86 to 1. 06
Exhaust Stroke 1 Stroke 2
and Intake Compression Power

TWO CYCLE DIESEL OPERATION

1'7
'29

TWO CYCLE DIESEL ENGINES (CONTINUED)

TWO CYCLE DIESEL ENGINE OPERATION (CONTINUED)

horsepower per cubic inch were considered impossible for the heavy,
unturbocharged diesels of a few years ago. Intense research, and the
addition of turbochargers and coolers on the compressed incoming air
have made a tremendous difference. The 12V-71-TI is currently rated
at 900 HP in specific models compared to 504 HP in the 12V-71-N of
the 1960 period.

FUEL AND AIR QUANTITIES

The modern turbocharged two cycle engines run with tremendous


excess air at full power. The Roots-type blower must be sized to
properly scavenge the cylinder at idle speed, and the turbocharger
is contributing no flow at idle. At about 1800 RPM, the roots blower,
running at twice crankshaft speed, Is still providing plenty of air,
but as the turbocharger comes on, the incoming air receives a second
boost. The amounts of air to be handled in the exhaust are large.
An example is given below for a Detroit Diesel BV-92-TI engine installed
in a 46-foot Bertram:

Inlet air 0 0 0 130 pounds per minute


Fuel burned at full speed 3. 67 pounds per minute
Exhaust gas 0 0 133.67 pounds per minute at 770F
Exhaust gas volume 4000 cubic feet per minute

This huge quantity of exhaust gas results in a velocity of


340 feet per second in a pair of 6-inch exhaust tubes. By injecting
cooling water into the exhaust, the equilibrium temperature after water
injection is reduced to 130 degrees. Volume of gas per cubic foot at
AIR COMPRESSOR
DRIVEN BY
TURBOCHARGER

ENGINE DRIVEN COMPRESSOR


CAMSHAFT WITH ACCESSORY
DRIVES ON BOTH ENOS

HEAD WITH
EXHAUST VALVES

PUMP CIRCULATING FRESH WATER


THROUGH BLOCK AND HEADS

"UN IT INJECTORS" 60 PSI INPUT


1150 PSI INJECTION TO CYLINDER

ACCESSORY DRIVE
BELTS OFF
PISTON IN REPLACEABLE CAST
IRON CYLINDER ASSEMBLY

WITH
COUNTERWEIGHTS

Turbocharged Two Cycle Diesel Construction


18---------------------
TWO CYCLE DIESEL ENGINES (CONTINUED)

FUEL AND AIR QUANTITIES (CONTINUED)

130 degrees is cut in half to 15 cubic feet per pound and the velocity
of gas in single 8-inch tubes is down to 98 feet per second.

EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURES

Diesel engines are very efficient compared to gasoline,


particularly at part loads. While the gas engine must have a fuel
air mixture within specific limits at all speeds, the diesel can run
extremely lean at low speeds, providing just enough energy to over-
come internal friction. This can be seen in some tests run with a
Detroit Diesel 8V-92-TI engine.

TEMPERATURE OF
EXHAUST GAS COOLING WATER JUST
ENGINE RPM TEMPERATURE BEFORE DUMPING IN EXHAUST
OF OF

520 250 130


800 420 128
1000 520 124
1400 625 122
1800 670 120
2300 710 109
31

FOUR-CYCLE DIESEL ENGINES

In contrast to the two-cycle diesels, there are many


manufacturers offering four-cycle engines. A few of the most
popular engines are shown in FIGURE NINETEEN.

VOLVO TMD 40 AND TAMD 40

In the 1970s, Volvo introduced a series of six-cylinder


diesels suitable for small boats, all based on an in-line block of
219 cubic inches. The Volvo engines were available either with
conventional transmissions or sterndrives, and are used in many
small yachts in the 20 to 35-foot range. The design of the engine
is shown in FIGURE TWENTY, together with the "pre-combustion
chamber". The engine is shown with a turbocharger and intake
air compressor mounted at the aft end of the block, and the illus-
tration also shows a clever transmission approach. The inboard
transmission is built from the basic gear and clutch assemblies from
the Volvo sterndrive, thus giving a high commonality of parts between
inboard and sterndrive installations. The engines were offered in
naturally aspirated versions at 85 SHP, turbocharged at 130 HP,
and turbocharged/aftercooled at 165 HP. The turbocharged versions
have become very popular in small boats in the 20 to 30-foot lengths.

PRE-COMBUSTION CHAMBER

The pre-combustion chamber, shown in the small insert, is


a system used on many small diesels, such as the Mercedes automotive
engines. It provides quieter operation and ease of starting at a small
trade-off in efficiency. Basically, the piston rams the compressed air
into the small anti-chamber, which is fitted with both a fuel injector and
a "glow plug". To start the engine, a heavy, 12-volt electrical current
is applied to the glow plug which becomes red hot. As the engine is
MARINE FOUR-CYCLE DIESEL ENGINES

DISPLACEMENT MAX HORSEPOWER


ENGINE CUBIC INCHES HORSEPOWER RPM PER CU IN

VOLVO TAMD 40 219 165 3600 .75

CUMMINS VT-370 785 370 3000 .47

CUMMINS VT-555M 555 320 3000 .576

DETROIT DIESEL
8.2 LITER 508 240 3200 47

PERKINS
354 240 2800 .68
T 6. 3544 (M)

CATERPILLAR
3208 TA 636 375 2800 .59

MTU VEE TWELVE 2892 1960 2100 .68


12V 396 TB 93

=========19===========
33

PRE-COMBUSTION CHAMBER (CONTINUED)

cranked, the compressed air flows over the plug and is heated,
and the injector blasts the fine mist of fuel directly on the plug.
The compact chamber gives a small volume for the combustion to
take place efficiently, and as the pressure rises, the gas flows
out of the cavity and drives the piston downward. There is a
small loss of efficiency due to gas friction and heat transfer as
the charge flows in and out of the chamber at very high speed.

DIESEL INJECTOR TECHNOLOGY

The technology of fuel injection, particularly on small diesel


engines is just short of incredible. An 8 Kilowatt Onan generator,
for example is powered by a small 14 horsepower four cycle diesel.
Turning at a steady 1800 RPM hour after hour it burns .90 gallons
of fuel per hour. This must be divided up into 162,000 separate
injections of 1/1800 Ounce apiece.To measure such microscopic quan-
tities, pressurize the fuel to 2000 PSI, and inject in a period of less
than 3 milliseconds (. 0028 seconds) takes incredible precision.

The typical four cycle fuel injector works with far larger
quantities. A Caterpillar 3208 TA at wide open throttle burns just
under 20 gallons per hour to develop 375 horsepower. This works
out to 2 pounds per minute, which must be split up into 11,200
separate injections at 2800 RPM. Each full throttle injection meters
1/338 ounce (. 003 ounce), pressurizes it, and injects into the cylinder
in about a 15 degree rotation of the crankshaft. The time for this cycle
is shown in typical figures in the Illustration below. The overall injection
starts about 18 degrees before top dead center (TDC), but since the
DIESEL INJECTOR TECHNOLOGY (CONTINUED)

TYPICAL FUEL INJECTOR PRESSURE TIME CURVE

PEAK PRESSURE 1150 PSI TO


4500 PSI DEPENDING ON DESIGN

PRESSURE RISE
FULL THROTTLE 3000 TO 3500 TRANSIENT
~ TEMPERATURES
PRESSURE RISE
PART LOAD

COMBUSTION

TYPICAL
IGNITION .__.w- 10
DELAY 18 DEGREES BTDC
45 DEGREES AFTER TDC

Injector plunger Is cam driven there Is a pressure buildup In the


system during the cam rise. The bulk of the fuel Is Injected between
10 degrees before TDC, and shortly after TDC. On part throttle
operation the metering system Is designed to cut off early, truncating
the Injection cycle. Peak pressure vary widely. Detroit Diesel, with
the "unit Injector" system has a cam driven rocker arm driving on top
of the plunger, and with such a short system pressures as low as 1150
PSI are used. Four cyCle designs usually have long fuel injection lines
from the pump to the injector, and pressures of 2500 PSI to 4500 PSI
are typically used to give fast injection, and compensate for the slight
expansion of the steel lines under impact pressure.
35

CUMMINS VT-370 FOUR CYCLE DIESEL ENGINE

In the early 1970s there were very few turbocharged diesel


engines available. One outstanding engine was the Cummins VT-370
which provided 370 horsepower at 3000 RPM. Installed in large yachts
such as the Chris-Craft 47-foot Commanders, these engines provided
high power output with relatively quiet operation. Sound level tests
in the Salon above the engine room showed decibel readings 8 dBA
quieter than competitive engines and on a long cruise, this made a
tremendous difference. Fuel economy in turbocharged four-cycle
diesels is good, and many of these 47-foot yachts are still in steady
operation, prized by their owners for an excellent balance of power,
quiet operation, relative economy and durability. One advantage of
the turbocharged diesels was the ability to run comfortably all day on
a cruise RPM about 200 below maximum, giving a cruise speed in the
25 MPH range.

CUMMINS VT-555M SERIES ENGINE

In the 1970s Cummins brought out a series of 555 cubic inch


engines for yachts in the 30 to 40 foot range. Over the past decade,
these engines have grown from the original 205 horsepower naturally
aspirated version to the "Big Cam" turbocharged current models
providing 320 HP at 3000 RPM, for a specific power output of .576
HP/cubic inch. This represents a growth of over 55% in power output
over the .37 HP/cubic inch available on the original engines.

DETROIT DIESEL 8.2 LITER ENGINES

The 8. 2 liter engine represents the first small four-cycle


Detroit Diesel engine in many years. Originally offered in the early
1980s as a naturally aspirated engine at just over 200 HP, it is in the
FRESH AIR
COMPRESSED SUPPLY TURBOCHARGER AND
AIR COMPRESSOR

HEAT EXCHANGER
TANK

EXHAUST MANIFOLD

REAR ENGINE MOUNTS

ALTERNATOR

ADJUSTABLE FRONT
MOUNTS

DETROIT DIESEL 8.2 LITER ENGINE

21
DETROIT DIESEL 8.2 LITER ENGINES (CONTINUED)

growth stage with several turbocharged marine conversions by


distributors offered in 1982. The current engine, factory built
with a single centrally mounted turbocharger, is shown in FIGURE
TWENTY ONE.

The performance of a pair of prototype B. 2 liter engines in


a Bertram 28 is shown in FIGURE TWENTY TWO. A set of curves in
this format should be developed for every new engine installation in
a yacht. The plot of MPH vs RPM covers the cruising range when the
yacht is fully up on plane and gives the owner valuable range vs
speed information. Since hull friction varies as the square of the
speed, it is not too surprising to see that the best fuel economy
will be achieved at the lowest planing speed. In this case, it is
1. 9 MPG in the 1600 to 1900 range. In an interesting parallel test
with this same model yacht, the diesel fuel economy was 50% better
than the performance with a pair of the 235 HP two cycle gasoline
engines. In both cases I ran each boat over a 60-mile course similarly
loaded over a weekend. The outboard engines gave a higher top speed,
but the diesels really shine in the field of fuel economy.

PERKINS T 6,3544 (M) SIX CYLINDER DIESEL

An example of the results of a long development and refinement


process is the Perkins line of six cylinder diesels. A rugged 354 cubic
inch block is the heart of the engine, and the basic version with a
Brog-Warner transmission provides 135 horsepower at 2800 RPM. After
a decade of development and refinement, the latest versions can pour
out 77% more horsepower through turbocharging, the integration of large
capacity coolers, and careful design of the induction and exhaust air
flow. From a specific output of 38 HP /cubic inch, the power has grown
to .68 HP/cubic inch In the T 6.3544 (M} model
E
co
........
...CD
m
~I C\1
C\1
CD
(,)
c:::
co
E
...
.......
0

Q)
a.
TURBOCHARGER
COMPRESSOR INLET

HIGH PRESSURE FUEL


INJECTtON PUMP

FILTERS

VALVE TRAIN ~ -;;:o

INJECTOR

EXHAUST VALVE -

EXHAUST MANIFOLD

i----HEAT EXCHANGER

PISTON WITH
CHAMBER IN TOP

CONNECTING ROD
LUBRICATING OIL PUMP

Caterpillar Four Cycle Diesel Design

23-------------------
CATERPILLAR 3208 TA FOUR-CYCLE DIESELS

Caterpillar has followed a similar development program with


the 636 cubic Inch V-8 line of engines. Originally introduced in
the mid-1970s at 210 HP, the power output had grown through
turbocharging and design refinement to 250 HP by 1980. This
grew to 300 HP, and the addition of "aftercooling" the induction
air and the use of larger oil coolers allowed the power output to
rise to 375 at 2800 RPM. This represents a growth from 210 HP
( 33 HP /cubic inch) to 375 HP in the same 636 cubic inches. The
path is not always smooth. The maximum pressures developed by
turbocharging could not be handled by the original 636 cubic inch
block, and a very time consuming and expensive redesign was
required to strengthen all of the key elements sufficiently to allow
a 70 percent growth in power output to .575 HP/cubic inch.

MTU 396 SERIES ENGINES


The highest powered diesels engines currently in general use on
American yachts are the MTU line of six to sixteen cylinder four cycle
diesels. MTU represents a combine of old line German diesel manufacturers
including M.A.N., Maybach, and Mercedes Benz. M.A.N. has traditionally
been strong In the huge three story direct connected marine diesels.
The largest, a 12 cylinder, develops 56,160 horsepower, or 4680 HP
per cylinder turning at less than 100 RPM.
The MTU six-cylinder engine is shown in FIGURE TWENTY
FOUR. The V-12 is basically two six cylinder blocks bolted end
to end, so the construction details are similar. Two intake and
two exhaust valves per cylinder are fitted with a fuel injector
mounted in the center,oHhe cylinder head between the four valves.
The design is so compact that recesses must be machined into the top
of each piston to allow the valves to open with the piston at top dead
center. A Bosch in-line fuel injection pump is mounted in the center
between the banks of cylinders, and is gear driven from the camshaft.
High strength steel distribution lines carry the 2500 PSI injection fuel
from the pump to the individual injectors.
EXHAUST OUTLET

AIR INTAKE
HIGH PRESSURE FUEL MANIFOLD

CAMSHAFT DRIVING VALVE


TRAIN THROUGH ROLLER
FOLLOWERS ON PUSHRODS EXHAUST OUTLET

COOLANT TANK WITH


HEAT EXCHANGER

INTAKE AND
EXHAUST VALVES
CYLINDER

INJECTION VALVE IN
CENTER OF CYLINDER

GEAR TRAIN TO DRIVE


EXHAUST VALVE
FUEL INJECTION PUMP

WATER COOLED
EXHAUST MAN I FOLD

FRONT ENG
MOUNT

REAR ENGINE
MOUNT
CRANKSHAFT WITH
COUNTERWEIGHTS
GEAR DRIVEN
OIL PUMP OIL PAN WITH
BAFFLES

11T'UIDF8
--as-

Four Cycle MTU Model 6 v- 396 Engine


24
MTU 396 SERIES ENGINES (CONTINUED)

At the end of each cylinder bank a turbocharger is installed


in a water cooled housing. The gas exhausts from the turbocharger
upward and the compressed incoming air flows in toward the engine
centerline through a cooler and then forward into a pair of intake
distribution manifolds. The MTU twelve cylinder engine can provide
1930 horsepower at 2100 RPM, for a specific power output of 67
horsepower per cubic inch. These engines, or the Detroit Diesel
12V-92-TA models are becoming poular in yachts in the 55 to 90 foot
size. Higher power levels are available, but the cost escalates rapidly.
The MTY 16V-396-TB63 can provide 2610 horsepower at 2100 RPM, and
this is accomplished in an engine just over five tons in weight. High
powered American diesels, such as the Detroit Diesel 16V-149-TI have
primarily been designed for commercial service and turn out 1600 BHP
at 1900 RPM in commercial trim, and up to 2000 BHP modified for
yachting use. Weight without marine gear for these engines is just
under six tons. The difference is the MTU focus on military appli-
cations with a high value on minimum size and weight, compared to
the American commercial objectives of moderate cost with extended
service life and minimum maintenance expense.
MARINE DRIVE SYSTEMS

Most early marine gasoline engines were built using a common


base for the engine and transmission. This type of design is shown
in the Easthope engine in FIGURE ONE. A short drive shaft bridges
the space between the two units. A manual lever was used to engage
the forward or reverse gear set, and generally these small, slow-turning
engines required no reduction. The huge flywheel, required to allow
idling at 100 RPM, dominates the front of the engine and weighs more
than the entire transmission assembly.

As engines became more powerful and manufacturing more


specialized, the use of a separate transmission assembly bolted to
the engine flywheel housing became the accepted method of construction.
A modern in-line transmission manufactured by Borg-Warner is shown
in FIGURE TWENTY FIVE. Since engine flywheels differ in diameter,
an "adapter plate" is bolted to the flywheel housing and the transmission
input shaft is splined to the crankshaft. At the front of the assembly
a gear-type oil pump is mounted. Since this is always rotating with
the .engine, it provides a constant supply of high pressure lubricating
oil to operate, lubricate and cool the transmission.

CLUTCHES

There is a large diameter clutch assembly located behind the


oil pump. There are only a few elements in the clutch pack since
the large diameter give excellent torque transmission characteristics.
The clutch pack is engaged by bringing high-pressure oil into a
large diameter piston area. The piston is just forward of the clutch
pack in the illustration, and when 150 to 200 PSI oil operates on the
ring-shaped piston surface, the forward gear clutch locks up very
tightly.
OUTER CLUTCH PLATE REDUCTION GEARS
OIL PRESSURE PUMP
MULTIPLE DISK CLUTCHES
TAPERED ROLLER
BEARINGS

INPUT SHAFT
FROM ENGINE
TRANSMISSION COUPLING
{CONNECTS TO PROPELLER SHAFT)
PLANETARY GEAR SET

Marine Transmission - Gas Engines


25 _ _ _ _ _ _____.
40

MARINE DRIVE SYSTEMS (CONTINUED)

CLUTCHES (CONTINUED)

A multiple disk clutch pack is shown behind the large


clutch assembly. While smaller in diameter, it has more elements
to provide the torque transmission required. This pack is built
into a planetary gear set.

FORWARD AND REVERSE

Examination of FIGURE TWENTY FIVE will show that there


are actually three distinct shafts between input and output. The
input shaft is locked to the engine and the forward planetary gear
set spins at engine speed. It is a characteristic of planetary sets
to spin freely, with the small gears "walking around" the internal
gear and the external gear with no power output. To go into
FORWARD, the large diameter clutch is used to lock all the elements
of the planetary together. The middle shaft then turns at engine
speed, and the yacht is in forward gear. When reverse is desired,
the outer clutch is released, and the small clutch pack engaged.
Under these circumstances, the small planetary gears reverse the
motion of their carrier so that the center of the shaft rotates in the
reverse direction.

REDUCTION GEARS

Bolted on to the aft end of the transmission is a set of


reduction gears. In small, light yachts this can be eliminated, but
normally 1. 5 to 1 or 2 to 1 reduction gears are fitted to yachts above
24 feet in length. As yachts get to 40 feet, a reduction of 2. 5 to 1
needs to be considered in the propeller calculations to give the best
MARINE DRIVE SYSTEMS (CONTINUED)

REDUCTION GEARS (CONTINUED)

balance between thrust for acceleration and maneuvering and highest


speed.

The reduction gear set is designed with the outer gear


bolted to the transmission housing, as shown in FIGURE TWENTY
FIVE. Since the external gear is splined to the middle shaft, the
little planetary gears must follow the differential motion by tracking
between the two large gears. The planetary gear carrier is part of
the output shaft assembly and rotates at a reduced speed due to the
motion of the small gears. The mating flange for the propeller shaft
is splined and bolted to the output shaft.

STERN DRIVE SYSTEM

During the 1950s, Jim Wynne invented a marine propulsion


concept which has had tremendous impact on the Industry. The patent
was issued in 1959, and the "Sterndrive" was introduced by Volvo
both in Europe and the United States. In the past twenty-five years,
the sterndrive has come to fill a key slot between the outboard motors
used generally on the small, light boats, and the straight inboard
drive used on larger yachts. The basic design of the Volvo unit
is shown in FIGURE TWENTY SIX.

The horizontal input shaft from the engine has a large-diameter


vibration dampener with coil springs to absorb torsional oscillations at
the front of the horizontal shaft. The shaft passes through the tran-
som of the yacht and into a pair of universal joints, which allow
TILLER ARM WHICH
TURNS ENTIRE LOWER
STERN DRIVE ASSEMBLY
TRANSOM OF
YACHT
UPPER BALL BEARINGS UNIVERSAL JOINTS TO
ALLOW STERN DRIVE
TO TURN AND LIFT

CONE CLUTCHES FOR


FORWARD AND REVERSE
HORIZONTAL SHAFT
FROM ENGINE

EXHAUST PATH
CAVITATION

EXHAUST PATH THROUGH


TRIM TAB
FLEXIBLE BELLOWS

VERTICAL SHAFT
PROPELLER ON
SPLINED SHAFT

COOLING WATER
INTAKE

BEVEL GEARS AND BEARINGS


SUBMERGED IN LIGHT OIL

VOLVO
STERNDRIVE CONSTRUCTION
~--------------26--------------~
42.

MARINE DRIVE SYSTEMS (CONTINUED)

STERN DRIVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED)

transmission of power as the unit is turned from side to side for


steering and also allows a limited vertical angular motion. By this
means, the unit is "trimmed out" to give the maximum thrust
efficiency. In the hands of a skilled operator on high-speed boats
running in the 60 mile per hour range, careful trimming out can
add three or four miles per hour to the top speed.

BEVEL GEARS AND CLUTCHES

After the universal joints the shaft passes through a pair of


high-capacity ball bearings and terminates in a bevel gear. The
gear drives both an upper and lower bevel gear mounted on the
vertical shaft. There are cone clutches mounted between the hor-
izontal gears, and if one clutch is engaged, the transmission is in
forward and the other clutch is used to provide reverse.

Power passes down the vertical shaft which terminates in


another bevel gear driving the propeller shaft. Large bearings to
absorb propeller side loads are installed, as in an oil pump. The
entire gear train is submerged in low viscosity oil, so the transmission
losses are low, and heat is easily i:lissipated through direct heat trans-
fer from the oil to the surrounding water.

ADVANTAGES OF STERNDRIVES

The sterndrive has proven to be the most efficient method


of marine propulsion in wide use today. In racing applications, the
combination of a high power output four-cycle gasoline engine with
43

MARINE DRIVE SYSTEMS (CONTINUED)

ADVANTAGES OF STERNDRIVES (CONTINUED)

a specially constructed sterndrive, such as that shown in FIGURE


SEVEN, leads to tremendous speeds. In deep-vee hulls, such as
the Cigarette 38, speeds over 80 miles per hour are possible, and
some of the new 30-foot catermeran designs have operated at over
100 miles per hour in relatively calm waters. The cats partially
ride on an air cushion between the two hulls, leading to higher
speeds, but when waters get rough, nothing will perform or stand
up as well as a racing deep-vee hull.

For highest efficiency the sterndrive should:

1. Have a fuel efficient four-cycle engine.


2. Run with a stainless steel propeller of optimum design.
At high speed, a "Cleaver" design as shown in FIG. 7
has proven to most efficient.
3. Have a clean, smooth lower unit on the sterndrive.
4. Operate on a clean, smooth hull.

The high efficiency of the sterndrives is due to a reduction


of "appendage resistance". In a standard inboard engine configuration,
the propeller shaft and main strut cause considerable turbulance in
the water before it gets to the propeller. In addition, the rudder has
surface area resistance and adds considerably more drag when it is
at an angle to the water flow. In the sterndrive, steering is by turning
the thrust line and the lower unit is carefully streamlined to reduce
drag to minimize levels.
MARINE DRIVE SYSTEMS (CONTINUED)

DIESEL TRANSMISSIONS

Diesel engines for marine use are all designed for commercial
applications, and the transmissions match the heavy-duty design
philosophy. A typical marine transmission is shown in FIGURE TWENTY
sEVEN. The torque is generally much higher on diesels, and almost all
have a reduction built In so the general approach is to have offset
shafts with the forward and reverse gears both splined to the input
shaft. Normally there is a small clearance between the input and
output gear in reverse, and the change in direction is accomplished
through an idler gear mounted to one side of the shaft line.

In the Caterpillar Model 7241, transmission shown there are


concentric shafts on the input, and the sintered bronze clutch packs
are locked up by hydraulic pressure to drive through either the
forward or the reverse gear. The oil pump is mounted at the extreme
aft end of the upper shaft, so It is always rotating, and draws oil
from the huge sump in the transmission housing. Some reduction is
accomplished in the gearing between the input and output shafts, but
the overall reduction ratio is determined by the planetary gear set
located on the output shaft. A pair of heavy tapered roller bearings
are Installed just forward of the output flange to absorb the forward
and aft thrust of the propeller, and also any side loads due to propeller
shaft misalignment.

Marine diesel transmissions are made in many variations and


by differing techniques. ZF has a process where the gears are driven
onto tapered seats and have no splines. Many accomplish the reduction
through spur gears instead of planetary, but all of the basic elements
will be present.
SINTERED BRONZE
STATIONARY RING CLUTCH PACKS
FORWARD
EVERSE
7241

OUTPUT

FORWARD GEAR

PLANET GEAR
(3 USED)
SUNG REVERSE GEAR
MAIN THRUST BEARING

ELEMENTS OF A MARINE DIESEL TRANSMISSION

FIGURE 27
MARINE DRIVE SYSTEMS (CONTINUED)

ARNESON DRIVE

A relative newcomer to the marine propulsion scene is the


"Arneson Drive" which combines a steerable surface propeller with a
small rudder for low speed operation. The configuration of a drive
with offset shafts is shown in FIGURE TWENTY EIGHT. The penetration
through the transom is very similar to the sterndrive, and the housing
includes a pair of gears with a strong drive belt, which provides a
lower shaft speed on the output, and also lowers the output shaft
line. A pair of universal joints held within the transom housing allow
the shaft assembly to move up and down for trim and from side to
side for steering. The steering is controlled by a powerful hydraulic
cylinder mounted to the port side, and the elevation is controlled by
a cylinder mounted above and bolted through the reinforced transom.

Steering is accomplished by both the skeg and the thrust line


of the propeller. The skeg provides a measure of protection for the
prop and the upper blade includes a spray shield to cut down on the
vertical spray thrown off the prop. A highly polished stainless steel
or N1-bral prop is used, and the best operation is normally found with
only the lower half of the prop in the water. This is a surface prop,
and until the Arneson system was invented, the exact trim to achieve
optimum propulsion was very difficult to achieve. The propeller
diameter on sterndrives is limited to about 16 inches, but the design
of the larger Arneson or KAAMA units permit much larger shaft
diameters, and the application of the system to large diesels in the
1000 HP range.
HYDRAULIC CYLINDER TO
RAISE AND

SPRAY DEFLECTOR

PROPELLER

SKEG FOR PROPELLER PROTECTION


AND LOW SPEED STEERING

ARNESON DRIVE

28
HYDRAULIC CYLINDER TO
RAISE AND

STEERING CYLINDER

SPRAY DEFLECTOR

SKEG FOR PROPELLER PROTECTION


AND LOW SPEED STEERING

ARNESON DRIVE

28