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2.2.4 & 2.2.

5 notes (Chapter 7)

Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)


(s) = this means the compound is a solid
(g) = gas
(l) = liquid
(aq) = compound is in aqueous solution, aqueous
means dissolved in water
2H2O = the 2 out the front means that 2 H2O
molecules are needed, this is called a coefficient
2H2O = the 2 after the H should be written as a
subscript, it is the number of H in the molecule, if
there is no subscript it means 1
Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) = this is the left side and these are
your reactants
Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) = this is the right side and these
are your products
= the arrow means yields, produces, or forms
4 types of reactions:
1. Synthesis: A synthesis reaction is when two or
more simple compounds combine to form a more
complicated one. It has one product. These reactions
come in the general form of: A + B ---> AB
8 Fe + S8 ---> 8 FeS
2. Decomposition: A decomposition reaction is the
opposite of a synthesis reaction - a complex molecule
breaks down to make simpler ones. It has one
reactant. These reactions come in the general form:
AB ---> A + B 2 H2O ---> 2 H2 + O2
3. Single replacement: This is when one element
trades places with another element in a compound.
These reactions come in the general form of:
A + BC ---> AC + B
Mg + 2 H2O ---> Mg(OH)2 + H2
4. Double replacement: This is when the anions and
cations of two different molecules switch places,
forming two entirely different compounds. These
reactions are in the general form:
AB + CD ---> AD + CB
Pb(NO3)2 + 2 KI ---> PbI2 + 2 KNO3

This is how I identify reactions:


First I look for a + sign on both sides. If I have no +
on the right = synthesis. If I have no + on the left =
decomposition.
Second if I find I have a + signs on both side, I know
it cant be synthesis or decomp. I now look for a
single element on both sides. If I find one, its single
replacement. If I dont find a single element, then its
double replacement.
Identify the following equations.
1. N2 + 3H2 2NH3 _________________
2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2___________________

2. NaCl + F2 2NaF + Cl2 _____________________


2H2 + O2 2H2O___________________________

3. Pb(OH)2 + HCl 2H2O + PbCl2_______________


2AlBr3 + 3K2SO4 6KBr + Al2(SO4)3
____________________________________________
4. FeCl3 + NaOH Fe(OH)3 + NaCl_____________
P + 5O2 2P2O5 _______________________

5. Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2 __________________


2Ag2O 4Ag + O2 __________________________________________

Balancing equations:
We balance equations to show the law of conservation
of mass. We cannot create nor destroy matter. Thats
why your individual elements that are reactants must
equal your individual elements that are products.
NEVER CHANGE THE SUBSCRIPTS!
Identify which are not correctly balanced.
1. N2 + 3H2 2NH3
2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2
NaCl + F2 2NaF + Cl2
2H2 + O2 2H2O
2. Pb(OH)2 + HCl 2H2O + PbCl2
2AlBr3 + 3K2SO4 6KBr + Al2(SO4)3
CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O

3. C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O


2C8H18 + 25O2 16CO2 + 18H2O
FeCl3 + NaOH Fe(OH)3 + NaCl

4. P + 5O2 2P2O5
Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2
2Ag2O 4Ag + O2

5. S8 + 12O2 8SO3
6CO2 + 3H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2
K + MgBr KBr + Mg

6. HCl + CaCO3 CaCl2 + H2O + CO2


HNO3 + NaHCO3 NaNO3 + H2O + CO2
H2O + O2 H2O2

7. NaBr + CaF2 NaF + CaBr2


H2SO4 + 2NaNO2 2HNO2 + Na2SO4
Samples:

1. Select the balanced chemical equation.


A. Zn + HCl ZnCl2 + H2
B. C2H4 + 2O2 2CO2 + 2H2O
C. 2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2
D. 2CaCO3 + H2SO4 2CaSO4 + H2O + CO3
2. What number should precede O2 in the chemical
equation below in order for the equation to be
balanced?
H2O2 (l) H2O (l) + ______ O2 (g)
a. b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 e. 1

3. Which of the following substances is the least


chemically reactive? A. H+ b. OH- c. O2- d. H2O

4. Which of the following sets of #s will balance this


equation? ___C3H8 + ____O2 ____CO2 +
____H2O
a. 1, 5, 3, 4 b. 1, 3, 4, 5 c. 5, 4, 3, 1d. 4, 5, 1, 3

5. How many oxygen atoms are there in 2(H2SO4)?


A. 1 b. 2 c. 7d. 8

6. Which reaction is an accurate example of


synthesis?
A. 2H2O 2H2 + O2
B. Na2CO3 Na2O + CO2
C. 2Fe2O3 + 3C 4Fe + 3CO2
D. 2Mg + O2 2MgO
7. What is true in every balance chemical equation?
A. all coefficients have to be a multiple of 2
b. subscripts are changed.
c. atoms are created when products are formed
d. mass has been conserved