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Ore deposits in an evolving Earth: An


Article in Geological Society London Special Publications September 2014

DOI: 10.1144/SP393.14


2 266

6 authors, including:

Gawen Jenkin Paul A. J. Lusty

University of Leicester British Geological Survey


Martin Peter Smith Adrian Joseph Boyce

University of Brighton University of Glasgow


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Ore deposits in an evolving Earth: an introduction

Department of Geology, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
British Geological Survey, Environmental Science Centre, Nicker Hill,
Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG, UK
School of Earth & Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Main Building,
Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT, UK
School of Environment and Technology, University of Brighton,
Moulsecoomb, Brighton BN2 4GJ, UK
Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Rankine Avenue, Scottish
Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride G75 0QF, UK
Earth Sciences Department, Natural History Museum,
Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK
*Corresponding author (email:

Abstract: Ore deposits form by a variety of natural processes that concentrate elements into a
small volume that can be economically mined. Their type, character and abundance reflect the
environment in which they formed and thus they preserve key evidence for the evolution of mag-
matic and tectonic processes, the state of the atmosphere and hydrosphere, and the evolution of life
over geological time. This volume presents 13 papers on topical subjects in ore deposit research
viewed in the context of Earth evolution. These diverse, yet interlinked, papers cover topics includ-
ing: controls on the temporal and spatial distribution of ore deposits; the sources of fluid, gold and
other components in orogenic gold deposits; the degree of oxygenation in the Neoproterozoic
ocean; bacterial immobilization of gold in the semi-arid near-surface environment; and mineral
resources for the future, including issues of resource estimation, sustainability of supply and the
criticality of certain elements to society.

Ore deposits are the source of the vast bulk of our very activities of exploration, evaluation and mining
metals, industrial minerals and materials. They generate more comprehensive three-dimensional
are volumes of rock where natural processes have geological information than is generally obtainable
acted to concentrate the element (or elements) of in non-mineralized rocks. Ore deposit studies over
interest significantly above their typical abundance the last 50 years have acted as a catalyst for blue-
so that they might be economically mined. In addi- skies research into wider aspects of Earth processes,
tion to being key primary sources of wealth gener- and vice versa.
ation and vital for a burgeoning global population, This volume results from the Fermor Flagship
these deposits are also valuable windows through meeting of the Geological Society of London Ore
which to view aspects of Earth evolution and their deposits in an evolving Earth held at Burlington
interrelationships within the Earth system. Evol- House, 7 9 September 2011, and convened by
ution is used here in its broadest sense meaning members of the Mineral Deposits Studies Group, a
any unidirectional change that is a function of prior specialist group affiliated to the Geological Society
conditions. Because ore deposits formed at various, of London. The overarching aim of the meeting was
often critical, stages in Earth history, and their to bring together researchers to address topical sub-
type, character and abundance are a function of the jects in ore deposit research, viewed in the context
environment in which they formed, they preserve of Earth evolution. The 13 papers assembled here
key evidence for the evolution of magmatic and tec- were chosen from about 50 scientific contributions
tonic processes, the state of the atmosphere and at the meeting, including about 30 oral presentations
hydrosphere, and the evolution of life over geologi- and 20 posters. These state of the art papers reflect
cal time (Kesler & Ohmoto 2006). Furthermore, the the breadth of the meeting, spanning both the globe

From: Jenkin, G. R. T., Lusty, P. A. J., McDonald, I., Smith, M. P., Boyce, A. J. & Wilkinson, J. J. (eds) Ore Deposits
in an Evolving Earth. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 393,
# The Geological Society of London 2015. Publishing disclaimer:
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and time from some of the oldest ore deposits to distribution are not well understood. Mole et al.
discussions regarding future mineral resources for (2013) demonstrate how the evolution in space
a resource-hungry population. The latter aspect is and time of the lithospheric architecture of the
a direct consequence of the biological evolution of Yilgarn Craton can be deciphered by mapping the
the species Homo sapiens on planet Earth, its devel- Nd isotope signature of crustal rocks. This three-
opment of agriculture, followed by its industrializ- dimensional intra-cratonic lithospheric architecture
ation, urbanization and population explosion. This is then demonstrated to play a key role in the local-
has led to unprecedented rates of transformation of ization of these gold, nickel and BIF mineral-
the Earths surface, such that it is speculated that it ized systems at a mining camp scale (c. ,200 km).
has caused Earth to enter a new geological Epoch, Localization of mineralization is thought to result
the Anthropocene (Zalasiewicz et al. 2010; Pimm from a range of processes, including: deflection
et al. 2014). Thus we live within a critical stage of mantle plumes by areas of older, thicker crust;
of Earths evolution (may you live in interesting development of trans-lithospheric structures at
times), and it is no understatement to suggest that boundaries between isotopically distinct blocks;
Earth scientists, and resource geologists in particu- and the development of fertile juvenile crust. This
lar, will play a key role in determining the future of approach provides an important tool for under-
the species. standing and predicting regional prospectivity in
There have been numerous studies of the distri- Archaean cratons.
bution ore deposits in space and through geological High-grade iron ore bodies formed in BIF are the
time, with variations reflecting tectonic setting, the largest single metal concentrations in the Earths
evolving atmosphere and oceans, and decreasing crust and Angerer et al. (2014) identify the critical
heat production in the Earth (e.g. Groves & Bierlein elements of a minerals system that are required to
2007; Goldfarb et al. 2010; Maier & Groves 2011). form these deposits in the Archaean and Palaeopro-
However, Cawood & Hawkesworth (2013) cau- terozoic of Western Australia. To form high-grade
tion that the spatial and temporal distribution of iron ore, a primary BIF (2045 wt% Fe) needs to
ore deposits is likely to be preservationally biased, be enriched in Fe (to 5869 wt% Fe) by dissolution
with different deposits affected to greater or lesser of quartz, carbonates and Fe-silicates and the addi-
extents depending on their tectonic setting. Only tion of further Fe-oxides. On a global scale, the well-
small volumes of magma are produced in the colli- recognized secular variation in the formation of BIF
sional phase of the super-continent cycle, but their with time (e.g. Cawood & Hawkesworth 2013) is
preservation potential is very high. It is argued attributed to both the increase in oxygenation of
that deposits formed in the collisional phase may the oceanatmosphere system and the prevalence
therefore be disproportionately well-preserved com- of large igneous provinces that reflect mantle plume
pared with those formed in the earlier convergent breakout events and an increased hydrothermal flux
or later extensional phases. Much remains to be to the oceans (Bekker et al. 2010). Angerer et al.
explained, such as the paucity of orogenic gold and (2014) show that, on a regional scale, the formation
volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits during the of a suitable primary host BIF is a function of the
Rodinian supercontinent cycle, c. 1.70.7 Ga. How- stratigraphic and geodynamic setting (cf. Mole et al.
ever, variable preservation potential among differ- 2013). However, the subsequent upgrading and pre-
ent deposit types has not hitherto been considered servation of the deposits are contingent on a num-
in studies examining the distribution of ore deposits, ber of other factors that must all occur and that
yet such studies are crucial both for our ability to span the geological history of the deposit right up
predict the regional distribution of undiscovered to the present. Thus these high-grade iron deposits
ore deposits, and for the interpretation of ore depos- tell us little about the original conditions when they
its to understand Earth processes. formed, but a great deal about the subsequent geo-
Archaean cratons are often richly endowed with logical evolution of the area. The minerals system
a range of mineralization types, including, inter model developed will be used to suggest mappable
alia, orogenic gold, komatiite-hosted nickel and features that can be used within a refined explora-
banded iron formation (BIF). Although Archaean tion scheme.
crust represents ,6% of the volume of current con- Many ore deposits are unequivocally of hydro-
tinental crust (Cawood & Hawkesworth 2013), thermal origin formed where changes in physico-
it contains c. 25% of the gold resource (Goldfarb chemical conditions precipitate dissolved ore
et al. 2001), c. 60% of the komatiite-hosted Ni components from dominantly aqueous fluids, often
resource (Naldrett 2010) and c. 25% of the mass in concert with the physical focussing of the fluid
of all BIF (Bekker et al. 2010). Although it has by geological structures. However, a variety of ori-
long been apparent that known occurrences of gins have been invoked for the fluid in many depos-
these mineralization types are not homogeneously its, including magmatic, metamorphic, meteoric,
distributed throughout a craton, controls on their mantle or sedimentary/diagenetic/basinal leading
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to consequent uncertainty in genetic models and gold seams here and, importantly, that such evi-
thus exploration models derived from them. No- dence elsewhere might be cryptically preserved
where is this better exemplified than in the long- and only observable on a sub-grain scale. Treloar
running debate regarding orogenic gold deposits, et al. (2014) also argue for magmatic derivation of
which account for more than 75% of cumulative the fluid forming another orogenic gold deposit:
gold production (Phillips 2013). These hydrother- the Massawa deposit, Senegal. Here the mineral-
mal quartz vein-related deposits form in metamor- ization is closely associated with quartzfeldspar
phic terranes during the late stages of orogeny and porphyries and two gold-bearing stages of mineral-
typically post-date regional metamorphism of the ization are separated by a molybdenite stage. Taken
host rocks (Goldfarb et al. 2005; Tomkins 2013b). together with the relatively shallow formation depth
A metamorphogenic origin is most commonly advo- (,6 km), magmatic sulphur and oxygen isotope
cated for the fluids and by implication the gold signatures and the presence of gold antimonide (aur-
source (e.g. Craw et al. 2010; Phillips & Powell ostibite), these features, in combination, are inter-
2010). However, late orogenic magmatism is also preted to indicate strong circumstantial evidence
a widespread feature in many orogenic belts, and for a magmatic origin.
many gold deposits show a spatial association with Even in cases where there is unequivocally a
intrusions, as well as a broad temporal relationship metamorphic source for the fluid in orogenic gold
(Goldfarb et al. 2005). Thus, in some cases, an ex- deposits, such as the giant Bendigo deposit, Vic-
solved magmatic origin for the fluid (and gold) can toria, Australia (Wilson et al. 2013), there is still
be invoked (e.g. Burrows & Spooner 1989). Alterna- debate concerning the source rock for the gold. It
tive explanations here could be that the intrusions has been proposed that gold comes from either
play only a structural role in focussing fluid flow, mafic sills and volcanics in the sedimentary pile
are just a heat source or that they are simply another (Phillips & Powell 2010; Wilson et al. 2013) or
expression of the same tectonothermal event that diagenetic pyrite-bearing sediments (Pitcairn et al.
also caused metamorphic fluid generation. The dif- 2006), in particular carbon-rich black shales that
ficulty of uniquely interpreting data from these are predicted to generate more gold-rich meta-
orogenic gold deposits can be exemplified by the morphic fluids than mafic igneous rocks (Tomkins
Macraes deposit, New Zealand. This occurs in 2010; 2013a). The latter hypothesis gains support
the Otago Schist; a sequence devoid of magmatic from measurements of the CH4/C2H6 ratio in fluid
rocks. De Ronde et al. (2000) provide fluid inclu- inclusions from a range of orogenic gold veins that
sion and oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope data indicate a source for the fluids from carbon-rich
for the Macraes deposit, which they interpret to indi- pyritic sediments even in the Detour Lake
cate a magmatic input to the ore fluid. In contrast, deposit, Canada, which is hosted in mafic ultrama-
Craw (2002) interprets the same dataset, in combi- fic volcanic rocks (Gaboury 2013). Bull & Large
nation with the observation that the fluid deposited (2014) reinterpret the depositional setting of the
graphite, to indicate a purely metamorphic origin Ordovician sediments that host the Bendigo de-
for the fluid. posit to suggest that they were deposited in deep
Yardley & Cleverley (2013) critically examine water, far offshore from the mouth of a major river
the role that metamorphic fluids may play in the for- system such as the Amazon. Within this sedimen-
mation of hydrothermal ore deposits. They argue tary package, the black shales in particular are
that favourable fluid chemistries to carry metals, shown to be notably enriched in gold, along with
and gold in particular, can develop in metamorphic other elements that are also associated with gold
fluids, but that only in specific circumstances will in the mineralization, such as Ag, As, Sb, Bi and
the generation and flow of fluid be rapid enough to Se. Many of these elements are demonstrated to
satisfy geochronological constraints that indicate be hosted in diagenetic pyrite, although they are
geologically rapid deposit formation. They empha- likely to have been transported into the sediments
size that, whilst fluids will be released in an oro- absorbed on clay particles or associated with
genic belt during prograde metamorphism, these organic matter. Thus it is shown that the Ordovi-
same rocks usually become fluid sinks during retro- cian sedimentary succession at Bendigo is a viable
grade cooling. A possible exception to this may be source for the gold, and other elements present in
where rapid pressure drop owing to uplift and ero- the mineralization, during its subsequent metamor-
sion causes dehydration reactions to be encountered phism. This combined sedimentological and geo-
on the retrograde path. The formation of orogenic chemical approach may ultimately lead to better
gold deposits from metamorphic fluids is thus con- prospectivity assessments of Phanerozoic sediment
sidered feasible. However, a detailed Sr-isotope packages worldwide.
study presented for the Sunrise Dam deposit, West- Papers by Moles et al. (2014) and Hill et al.
ern Australia, suggests that mantle-derived fluids (2013) provide complimentary sulphur isotope
were critical in the development of high-grade studies on the Neoproterozoic early Palaeozoic
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Dalradian Supergroup of Scotland. Moles et al. including its dissolution and re-precipitation at the
(2014) demonstrate how the homogeneity in sulphur surface and deep underground (e.g. Lengke &
isotope composition of barite in the stratabound Southam 2006; Reith & McPhail 2006; Reith et al.
sedimentary exhalative Aberfeldy deposit can be 2006; Johnston et al. 2013). Thus the microbiology
used to infer that sulphate was abundant in Neo- of gold has implications for its dispersion from ore
proterozoic seawater when the deposit formed. deposits in the weathering environment and the
This is significant because the abundance of sul- design of geochemical exploration programmes to
phate reflects the degree of oxygenation of the locate them. Furthermore, it could be exploited to
global ocean, which is in turn coupled to oxygen- improve the liberation of gold from some ores or
ation of the atmosphere. Whilst it is acknowledged recover gold from mine wastewater. The recogni-
that the oceans had relatively low oxygen contents tion that certain microorganisms may be associated
in the Proterozoic before c. 850 Ma, and that they with gold in solution suggests the development of
attained modern values of oxygenation by the bioindicators for gold that rely on detection of these
Cambrian, evidence for the timing and form of the specific microorganisms, and of biosensors employ-
transition between these two times is currently con- ing gold-binding proteins from bacteria that allow
flicting, and thus the causes remain hotly debated rapid field-based analysis of gold at very low levels
(Lyons et al. 2014). The confirmation of high (Gwynne 2013). Shuster et al. (2013) contribute to
ocean sulphate during ore deposition at Aberfeldy this rapidly expanding field of research by demon-
is important because this was either around the strating that sulphate-reducing bacteria can immo-
time of the global Marinoan Snowball Earth gla- bilize gold from saline and hypersaline solutions
ciation, or not long afterwards, and it is conceivable where chloride occurs in excess. This has impli-
that this event could have been the trigger for cations for the development of geochemical haloes
increased organic productivity and/or burial that around weathering gold deposits in semi-arid
resulted in increased ocean oxidation in the early regions, where evaporation of groundwaters leads
Ediacaran Period (Sahoo et al. 2012). to high salinities and the development of gold-
Hill et al. (2013) demonstrate how the global enriched calcretes (e.g. Lintern et al. 2012). Shuster
sulphur isotope dataset for Neoproterozoic sedimen- et al. (2013) show that the gold is precipitated as
tary pyrite can be correlated with the Dalradian nano-particles, which have potential applications
sequence to help estimate the S-isotope composition in optoelectronics for imaging technologies, catal-
of the local sequence where data are absent. This is ysis and drug delivery (Gwynne 2013). Thus it may
work in progress because further age constraints on be that microbiological processing of gold ores
the sequence are needed. Nevertheless, the data can might have the additional advantage of producing
be used to show that the sulphides in gold-bearing gold nanoparticles in a form that is directly useful
quartz veins in the area must contain significant for high-tech industries.
sulphide from the metasedimentary pile. Further- Whilst the academic study of ore deposit genesis
more, the only viable source for the metasedimen- contributes to our understanding of Earth pro-
tary sulphide is not the immediate host rocks, but cesses through geological time, the continued evolu-
the stratigraphically higher Easdale Subgroup tion of genetic models for ore deposits also enhances
coincidentally the same unit that hosts the Aberfeldy our ability to predict where new deposits may occur,
deposit studied by Moles et al. (2014). Given that and hence how to conduct exploration for new
this unit contains significant black slates and gra- resources most efficiently and effectively. Thus
phitic schists, as well as mafic lavas and sills, and although rooted in understanding the deep geologi-
stratabound exhalative horizons, it is hypothesized cal past, the study of ore deposits is also strongly
that this unit could also be the source for the gold forward-looking. Population growth and economic
in the veins. However, despite the strong meta- development will continue to drive mineral resource
sedimentary signature in the gold-bearing veins, use on an upward trajectory. The global challenge
geochronological and other data are more consis- of maintaining adequate and reliable mineral sup-
tent with a magmatic-related vein system, empha- ply is considerable. It is likely that many of the
sizing once again the complex multicomponent near-surface easy to find deposits have already
nature of many vein gold systems hosted in meta- been located, and discovery rates of major mineral
morphic rocks. deposits have declined over the last half-century
School-level chemistry might suggest that gold, thus exploration companies need, by necessity, to
a noble metal, would be inert at the Earths surface, locate and exploit lower-grade deposits in more
yet not only is gold soluble under certain condi- extreme environments and perhaps process ores pre-
tions (including in seawater, which globally con- viously considered too difficult to deal with (Beaty
tains c. 14 000 tonnes; Falkner & Edmond 1990), 2010; McKeith et al. 2010). Furthermore, the pro-
but recent research shows that microorganisms are liferation of electronic devices and the demand for
involved in the biogeochemical cycling of gold, green energy technologies, such as photovoltaic
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cells and wind turbines, is rapidly increasing the located. It is possible that models such as this for
demand for a range of elements previously only major commodities might also be used to obtain
mined in very small quantities. The possibility of first-order estimates of the endowments of asso-
supply shortages, coupled with their economic ciated minor elements that occur as by-products
importance, has led to some metals being described (e.g. Te as a by-product of porphyry copper miner-
as critical and this often includes the e-tech ele- alization) through simply measuring the average
ments needed for environmental technologies. ratio of by-product to major commodity in known
Lusty & Gunn (2014) outline the challenges for deposits and scaling results accordingly. However,
future global resource security and the potential at present, even these fundamental ratio data are
options for future supply. It is emphasized that poorly known for many e-tech and critical metals.
some concerns about future mineral shortages are The methodology for the determination of the
based on over-simplistic analysis there are, unde- relative criticality of metals is discussed by
niably, enough mineral resources in the potentially Graedel & Nassar (2013). There is no rigorous
mineable section of the Earths crust and the oceans definition and results are dependent on the rela-
to meet demand for centuries. The issue is, rather, tive importance that the investigator attaches to
how can resources be located and extracted effi- the different possible variables. However, geologi-
ciently enough to be economically and environmen- cal factors are particularly important, playing a
tally sustainable? A historical perspective shows major role in controlling supply risk, as well as sub-
that increasing demand for minerals and higher sidiary roles in environmental risk and the vulner-
prices has led to scientific and technological devel- ability to supply restriction. A significant problem
opments that increase supply to meet demand. This, is that the geological data are currently poor for
however, requires both investment in science most potentially critical elements and the authors
to better understand the processes that form and stress the role that economic geologists have to
locate deposits, in particular for the hitherto little- play in providing these essential data.
studied e-tech or critical elements and invest- Geoscientists will play a fundamental role in
ment in technology for improved exploration and providing resources and a habitable environment
to develop more efficient extraction processes that for the population of the planet over the next cen-
reduce the CO2 footprint. Mining is a very energy- tury. With concerns about resource shortages, crea-
intensive process and, as noted by Mike Harris tive solutions are being examined. So called urban
in his presentation at the Fermor meeting and mining to recover raw materials previously dis-
published elsewhere (Harris 2013), a major min- carded as waste in landfills has been proposed and
ing company can produce more CO2 than the a large-scale pilot project implemented (Jones et al.
entire country of Norway. Harris emphasizes that 2013). The possibility of mining asteroids, long
mining companies must interact with the global taken for granted in science fiction, is now the goal
society in which they operate in order to establish of a major company (Planetary Resources) and
the acceptable environmental and social costs of is being discussed in the pages of Nature (Elvis
their activities (Nature Geoscience 2011). Lusty & 2012). Cathles (2013), however, proposes that the
Gunn (2014) provide an introduction to the sub- seafloor, and potentially seawater itself, provide
sequent papers in this volume, which address issues the best alternatives, as these are repositories of
of resource estimation, sustainability of mineral sufficient metals and minerals to sustain a world
supply and the criticality of certain elements to population of 10.5 billion at a European standard
society. of living for hundreds of centuries. For example,
Estimating the reserves of minerals that are the total amount of lithium required for the batte-
potentially available for future mining remains pro- ries to electrify every car on the planet exceeds
blematic. Kesler & Wilkinson (2013) outline the the present known terrestrial reserves of lithium,
application of a tectonic-diffusion model to estimate yet represents ,0.001% of the lithium dissolved
the abundance of Phanerozoic tin deposits through in the oceans. Energy, as Cathles (2013) notes, is
the entire crust. This number can be multiplied the most essential resource, but to concentrate met-
by the average size of tin deposits to determine the als from very low concentrations (reducing disor-
global endowment. Furthermore, the model can der and entropy) requires large amounts of energy.
predict the endowments at different depths in the However, considering that the estimated present
crust, allowing estimates of resources to be adjusted day consumption of energy by human activity
in light of advances in mining technology and thus (industrial and agricultural) is greater than all that
the depth to which mining might be economi- produced from the Earths interior, and about one-
cally viable. Resources that could be reached with quarter of that produced by photosynthesis, our
current mining technology are estimated by this pro- energy usage is already a considerable term in the
cedure to be sufficient to meet current tin demand free energy budget of the planet (Kleidon 2012).
for decades provided that the deposits can be The future suggested by Cathles (2013) would be
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powered by low-carbon energy supplied predomi- Cathles, L. M. 2013. Future Rx: optimism, preparation,
nantly by thousands of nuclear plants and country- acceptance of risk. In: Jenkin, G. R. T., Lusty,
sized solar facilities. Whilst perhaps technically P. A. J., McDonald, I., Smith, M. P., Boyce, A. J.
feasible (but see alternative viewpoint in Bardi & Wilkinson, J. J. (eds) Ore Deposits in an Evolving
Earth. Geological Society, London, Special Publi-
2014), the ecological, environmental and geopoliti- cations, 393, first published online October 24, 2013,
cal ramifications of such a future need to be care-
fully examined it is essential that geoscientists Cawood, P. A. & Hawkesworth, C. J. 2013. Temporal
play a prominent part in this debate. relations between mineral deposits and global tec-
tonic cycles. In: Jenkin, G. R. T., Lusty, P. A. J.,
The editors are grateful to the Geological Society of McDonald, I., Smith, M. P., Boyce, A. J. & Wilkin-
London for the opportunity to produce this publication son, J. J. (eds) Ore Deposits in an Evolving Earth.
and, in particular, to A. Hills for her continued support. Geological Society, London, Special Publications,
We wish to express our gratitude to the reviewers who con- 393, first published online October 24, 2013, http://
tributed their time and expertise: J. P. L. Kenney (Sweden),
E. J. Carranza (Australia), P. Weihed (Sweden), S. E. Craw, D. 2002. Geochemistry of late metamorphic hydro-
Kesler (USA), D. L. Huston (Australia), D. Craw (New thermal alteration and graphitisation of host rock,
Zealand), S. C. Bergman (USA), S. D. Scott (Canada), Macraes gold mine, Otago Schist, New Zealand.
J. Zalasiewicz (UK), D. J. Smith (UK), C. J. Stanley Chemical Geology, 191, 257 275.
(UK), L. J. Robb (UK), J. R. Ridley (USA), I. L. Cope Craw, D., Upton, P., Yu, B.-S., Horton, T. & Chen,
(UK), J. Gutzmer (Germany), G. Shields (UK), D. Lowry Y.-G. 2010. Young orogenic gold mineralisation in
(UK), W. Maier (UK), A. J. Naldrett (UK), S. Roberts active collisional mountains, Taiwan. Mineralium
(UK), N. R. Moles (UK), S. F. Simmons (New Zealand), Deposita, 45, 631 646.
J. A. Saunders (USA) and a number of anonymous De Ronde, C. E. J., Haure, K., Bray, C. J. & Whitford,
reviewers. Finally we would like to thank the authors for D. J. 2000. Round Hill shear zone-hosted gold deposit,
producing a stimulating set of papers that reflect the Macraes Flat, Otago, New Zealand: evidence of a mag-
conference itself. matic ore fluid. Economic Geology, 95, 1025 1048.
Elvis, M. 2012. Lets mine asteroids for science and
profit. Nature, 485, 549.
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