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Theory and Design

of Air Cushion Craft

Liang Yun
Deputy Chief Naval Architect of the Marine
Design & Research Institute of China

Alan Bliault
5hell International Exploration and Production
Hollan

A member of the Hodder Headline Group
LONDON
Copuhlibhcd in North, Central and South America by
John Wilcy & Sons Inc.. New York . Toronto

Contents

duction to hovercraft
Hovercraft beginnings
ACV and SES development in the U K
ACV and SES development in the former USSR
IJS hovercraft development
ACV and SES development in China
SES and ACV developments in the 1990s
Applications for ACVISES
The future
SES and ACV design

2. Air cushion theory
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Early air cushion theory developments
2.3 Practical formulae for predicting air cushion performance
2.4 Static air cushion characteristics on a water surface
2.5 Flow rate coefficient method
2.6 The 'wave pumping' concept
2.7 Calculation of cushion stability derivatives and damping
coefficients

3. Steady drag forces
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Classification of drag components
3.3 Air cushion wave-making drag ( R , )
3.4 Aerodynamic profile drag
3.5 Aerodynamic momentum drag
3.6 Differential air momentum drag froln leakage under bowlstern
seals
3.7 Skirt drag

5 Geometry and forces for othcr ACV skirts 7.7 Overturning in waves 5.1 lntroduction 4.6 Dynamic stability.viii Contents 3. Stability 4.4 Course stability 6.1 lntroduction 7.5 Factors affecting ACV transvcrsc stability 4.1 Introduction .14 Problems concerning ACVlSES take-off 3.1 lntroduction 5.3 Differential equations of motion for ACV manceuvrability 6.7 Skirt bounce analysis 7.8 Sidewall water friction drag 3.6 Analysis of forces causing the tuck-under of skirts 7.1 Kcy ACV and SES manceuvrability factors 6.9 Sidewall wave-making drag 3. Trim and water surface deformation under the cushion 5.11 Underwater appcndagc drag 3. Motions in waves 8.2 Static transverse stability of SES on cushion 4.2 Development and state of the art skirt configuration 7.4 Dynamic trim of ACVlSES on cushion over calm water 6.2 Introduction to ACV control surfaces 6.4 Calculation of ACV transverse stability 4. Design and analysis of ACV and SES skirts 7.13 ACV skirtlterrain interaction drag 3. plough-in and overturning o r hovercraft 4.3 Water surface deformation inlbeyond SES air cushion on calm water 5.3 Static geometry and analysis of forces acting on skirts 7.3 SES transverse dynamic stability 4.10 Hydrodyna~nic~noinentumdrag due to engine cooling watcr 3.5 ACV turning performance 7.12 Total ACV and SES drag over watcr 3.8 Spray suppression skirts 7.15 Effect of various Factors on drag 4.9 Skirt dynamic response 8.4 Geometry and analysis of forces in double or triple bag stern skirts 7.2 Water surface deforination inlbeyond ACV air cushion over calm water 5. Manceuvrability 6.

8 Assembly and manufacturing technology for skirts 13.7 Factors affecting the seaworthiness of ACVISES 9. pressure and lift system power 12.4 Requirements for seaworthiness 10. l Introduction 13.1 Design methodology 10.7 Selection of skirt joints 13. Model experiments and scaling laws 9.4 Lift fan selection and design 13.6 Plough-in of SES in following waves 8.5 Requirements for habitability 10.4 Skirt loading 13.5 Parameter checks [or ACVISES during dcsign 11.4 First approximation of ACV displacement (all-up weight).3 Design of fan air inletloutlet systcms 12.4 Summary scaling criteria for hovercraft research. Skirt design 13.6 Determination of hovercraft principal dimensions 12.7 Obstaclc clearance capability 11.9 Skirt configuration design .1 Introduction 9. Contents ix 8. design and tests 10. Determination of principal dimensions of ACVISES 11.3 Initial weight estimate 11.3 Loilgitudinal SES motions in waves 8.5 Contact forccs 13.2 Scaling criteria for hovercraft models during static hovering tests 9. Lift system design 12.2 Skirt damage patterns 13.1 The dcsign process 11.3 Skirt failure modes 13.4 Longitudinal motions of an ACV in regular waves 8.5 Motion of ACV and SES in short-crested wmes 8.2 Stability requirements and standards 10.3 Requirements for damaged stabiliiy 10.2 Transverse motions of SES in beam seas (coupled roll and heave) 8.2 Deterinillation of air flow rate.2 Role parameters 11.6 Selection of skirt material 13.6 Kequirements for manauvrability 10. Design methodology and performance estimation 10.1 Introduction 12.3 Scaling criteria Tor tests of hovercraft over water 9. and estimation of weight in various groups 11.

6 Power transmission 15.4 Calculation methods for strength in the former Soviet Union 14.6 Considerations for thickness of plates in hull structural design 14.7 Systems and controls 16.1 Introdnction 15.6 Machinery space layout 16.8 Operation and maintellancc .5 Safety factors 14.7 Surface contact propulsion 16.4 Gas turbines 16. Structural design 14.5 Waterjcts 15.2 External forces on hull introduction to the strength calculatio~lof craft 14.X Contents 14.4 Marine propellers 15.1 lntroductio~l 16. Power unit selection 16.3 Brief introduction to the structural calculation used in MARIC 14.2 Powering estimation 16.3 Diesel engines 16.2 Air propcllcrs 15.3 Ductcd propellers and fans 15. Propulsion system design 15.1 ACV and SES structural design features 14.7 Hovercraft vibration 15.5 General design requirements 16.

14 stability 76-83 Accommodation space requirements 399 supported vehicles. 223 Air inlet Aerodynamic momentum drag 96 inclination angle 417 Aerodynamic profile drag 95-6.128 Aerodynamic force and momcnt 221. Air duct 70. 472 hovercrat-t 13. see ACV ACV system 2824. 71 craft. classilication 6 AALC 150 50 !node1 350 flow rdtc due to mass change rate of S01 Acceleration 124. 71. characteristics curves 70. 389-YO configuration 413 dynamic trim 190 loss coelficicnt 411 Factors affecting transverse stability non-dimensional charactcristic curves 168-72 345-6 longitudinal motion in regular waves for non-dimensional characteristics 350 308 22 system 412. 65 Air jet momcnt from cushion to atmosphere characteristic curves 424 286 7 Air cushion 2. 13. 468 pcrfortnance Acceleration/frequency tolrrat~onlimits 369 on rigid surface 51 Accidents 185 prediction 55-65 ACVs 13 pressure distribution 472. 96 of integrated liftipropulsior~systems 414 Aerodynamic yawing moment 226 pressure losses 414 Air clearance 50. 313-17 accidents 13 theory 48-83 applications 41-5 early developments 50 5 calculation ol' transverse stability 163 8 .413 manceuvrability 206 valves 2 16 moving over deep water 190 3 Air flow coellicient 64 operation modes over ground terrain 122 Air tlow rate 1 3 3 4 . 42 Air jet propulsio~~ 5067 adiabatic stiffness coefficient S48 Air jet strean~lines54 . 339. 299-301. 62.424 166-8 calculation 410-12 development in UK 9-21 charactcristics 78 dimensions of 386-7. Index Page numbers in bold rzfcr to figures and charactcristics 72 page numbers in italic indicate tablcs.340 over shallow water 1 9 6 6 coefficient 149 water surfacc deformation inlbeyond air determination 407 10 cushion over calm water 190-3 distribution effect 339 weight of 389-90 Air gap 83.

65. 41. righting moment of 155 Bag and nozzle skirt equipment 326-7 chain connection lor 237 heave stiffness for 328 flexible diaphragm connection 237 relative gap 150 Bag and periccll skirt 243. 59.7 14. Boundary layer thickness 54 594 Bow acceleration 307 API . 244. 71. 15. 62. 261 Bowlstcrn seal drag 102 3 Bag chord length 251 B A .48 Bernoulli cquation 53. 51 1 Bell Tcxlron Jeff (B) 599 weight 51 3 Bending 469 Air propulsors 21 1-14 Bending moment 470. 213.247. Kolczacv method 103 Bag cushior~pressure ratio 63. 274 Bernoulli theory 67 Anti-plough-in BH. 21. Demlis l l . 592. 470.4.238. 3 14 1 5 forces in douhlc or lriple 258-60 under SES sidewall 67 Bag to cushion pressure ratio 62. 29 requirements 453 Blade element theory 499-500.412. 55.451 relative to stern 327 equations for static geometry and force Bow skirt finger tip 258 analysis 251 5 Rowistern acceleration.249 Bow skirt area Bag and finger skirt 49. 20. Index 619 Air leakage 79 Bag stern skirt. 3. 495 Amphibious hovercraft 1.RR 15.334 Archirnedes' principle 66 Row seal during take off. watcr contact Arctic transport 45 phenomenon of 105 Axial flow pumps 559 Bow skirt etnergencc 302 Bag and linger bow seal 247 tuck-in 326 Bag and finger bow skirt 153.11029 30. 29 diamctcrltip speed relationship 51 1 Bcll-Halter Corporation 29 selection 510. 262. 48 coefficient 60 Air propellers 507 14 Beam seas.88400 44 Bow finger tip linc 327 Aprons 271 Bow hydrofoils 3334. 40. 233 Anti-submarine vessels 41. 262 MARIC method 102 Bag pressure 59 Rin-lchi Marao mcthod 103 Bag skirt 49 Bowlstern seals 246-9 Bag stern seal 248 interaction 188 . 42 Blohm and Voss 40 AP1. 524 Anti-roll systems 335-6 Blade velocity vector diagram 496 Anti-spray plate 335 Bliss. 520. 9. frequency response forces aclirig on 263 for 32 1 model tests 250-1 Bowistern seal static geometry 250-7 and basc-line gap 149 supporting forces acting on joints 2 5 L 7 during heeling. geometry and analysis of flow rate of 300. difkrential equations of coupled blade erosion and its mitigation 514-15 roll and heave motion o l SES in 291 blade types and efliciency 5 0 9 10 Rearings 571 construction 513 Bell Aerospace Corporation 25.239 hydrofoils 327 BH. air supply to 328 129.243. 52. 471 Air rudders 217 acting on midship section 469-70 Air streamlines 55 cushion-bornc operation 470 Air supply to bow skirt arca 328 hull-borne operation 471 Aluminium alloy 459 transverse 471 Amphibious capability 41. 501. 4. 507. 251 Air lubricatio~l2-3.

craft Captured air bubble 2 3. 323. 246 spccd 465 Cargo vessels 40 Cushion-hornc uperd I'lon Catamarans l . 149. ACV and SES dzvelopment 32-9 Cushion force 214-16. 101. 309 Cushion pressure ratio 344 Correction coefficient of wetted surface 109 Cushion stalic prosure 506.464.170 Cavitation tunnel 552 Cushion depth. 537. 80. 308. 284 Chong Cheng Shipping Company 35 Cushion geometry 49 Cirrus 39 Cushion height 359 Cohblcstnnc effect 322. 222-3. damping effect of 323 Centrifugal fans 4 2 5 9 . 169.400 Coefficient of addcd mass 278 Cushio~llift power coefficient 62 Cocfficicnt of clongation 347 Cushion mome11t222 3 . 7.2 during plough-in 326 C:ontinuity equation of Iiow 282 tluctuations 277. 9.tcringor beam winds 375 Course stability 224-7 Damping coelficienl 7 6 83. 507 under qua~. roll stiffness 360 275 Cushion lcngtbibeani ratio 87. 324 Cushion heightlwidth ratio versus transvel.sc Cockerell. 79. 373 How rate and pressure 71 volu~ne41 2 Cushion altenualion coefficient vs. Sir Christopher 3. 278 analysis 225-7 calculation 77-80 dynamic 225 cxperimer~talmethods 80 2 .359.357. 132. 523. Co~npulerprogram for dilrerential equations 89 of rnolion 290 analysis of forces acting on fingers under Constant cushion volume 74 264 Constr~~ction cost per unit seat 398 and heave amplitude R1 Contact forces 441 . 298. 284 Commercial design parameter5 378 Cushion pi-cssure 41.461. 132. 545. 113 bending nmlnent 470 Cavitation 522 4. C:oeHicient f SO 150-1. 561 in high wews 3 3 6 8 water jets 556 7 Cushion compartmentation l63 4. 564 Cushion fluw rate coefficient 62 China. 507 C:ushion dcpthfbcam ralio 359 aerodynamics characteristics 426 Cushion flow coefficient 401 Centrifugal pumps 558 Cushion llow 1-ate334 CG 359. 209 British Hovel-craft Corporation 10 see also Stability Britten-Norman 12 Cushion air compressibility 321. 48. ship speed 181 Controllable pitch air propellers (ducted Cushion przssurcllengtl~ratio 89. 322-3 Cabin 370. 330-1. 473 Control bystem colnponeiits 563 \S. 233. 5940. 216 Cushion pressure distribution 472.463. height determination 453 static 224-5 Brodrene Aa 3 9 4 0 vertical fins for 208. propellers) 21 1-13 400 Coordinate system 297-8. 324 Control equipment 208 spatial distribution 278 Control surfaces 207-17 trends 401 fcatures 21 6 Cushion prcssure coefficient 60. 50. 73. 42-3.620 Index Bowlstern skirts.469. 506 Correction coefficient of wetted surface arca Cushion system fans 507 of sidewalls 110 Cushion wave-making drag 98 Couplings 571 Cushioncraft CC1 12 Coursz-keeping ability Cushioncraft CC2 12 and handling 374 Cushiollcraft CC5 12. 531. 62 state of the art 2 1 6 17.332.

hydrodynamic momentum 281-90. 317-18 drag due to 115 con~putcrprogram Sor 290 lhilurc modes and clkcts 606 formation 219-20 heating for suh-zero temperatures 584-5 in regular waves 313 monitoring and control systern 6U8 Dimcnsions operating characteristics 581-2 determination 354. 377404 power ranges 579 limitations 399 starting 605 of ACV 386 7. 507. h04 exhausts 595 historical rcvicw 2 7 4 6 lubrication system 595 Dynamic transverse righting moment of SES maintenance 610-1 1 159 number of engines and layout 588-90. 588-96 Ducted propulsors 274. 377. wcight of 396 heave motion in beam seas 291 Elevons 208-10 i ! DilTerential equations of longitudinal Energy equation 141 nlotion in wavcs.403 systclns and controls 607 Disc loading 498 Equations of motion 217 Displacement. strcngth calculation 473 USlbrccs 2 6 5 6 Drag static forces 309-10 components. 515 Diesel engines 579. cooling water. Ciustav 2 Dcsign 4 6 7 concepts 190 inertial loads 461-3 over calm water 120.581.25 1 I lnethodology 353-5 parameters 354. Index 621 I Damping effect in waves 338 i of cushion depth 323 on seaworthiness 333-5 of non-flush sca-watcr strainers 116 17 of rudders 1 15-1 h l Dcck area 41-2 Deck plates. 520 cooling systems 590-4 Dynamic motions 273-341. Seal dn->*g. ACV 384-97 Equilihrium equation Docking. block diagram 297. dcsign load 473 of shafts (or quill shafts) and boss I l h of strut palms 116 l1 de Laval.201 reliel' valves 595 over calm water for ACV 308-12 vibration 5 9 4 5 prediction over calm water 200-3 Differential air momentum drag from leakage under howlstern seals 97 Elastic n~odulus347 Differential equations of couplcd roll and Electrical cquipmcnt. 260 in head seas 338 External air stream lines 180 .184. Total drag: Wave-making drag leading particulars selection prior to 402 1~)ragIweightratio 94 loads 469 Drivcr tcchniquc 185 i D-shape hags 184. 304-7. 130 srr nlsu llydrodynamic drag: Kesidual drag. 389-90. 305 Enginc Differential equations of motion 223 4. 378-9 diaphragms of 2 6 6 5 I checks during design 397 9 DTNSRDC 28 process 377 Duct system characteristic 3 2 3 4 sequence 377 Ilucted falls 515-20 ! Detachable bowistcrn scals 249 duct dcsign 518-19 Lliaphragms 251 fan selection 5 17 installation 451 stators 518 of D-shape bags 264 5 Ductcd propcllcrs 21 1 13. 244.Skirt drag.589 Dynamic trim 156 operation 607-10 on cushion over calm water 200 4. classification 84-5 Euler number 344 forccs 84-134 Extended szgment skirts 245.

319 345-6 heave amplitude 318-19.1 Finger inclination angle 454 Gas turbines 579. small loss coefficient 412 perturbation equation Cor 314 15 pressure recovery coefficient at 412 coefficient 49. 78 Fan curve gradient 327 Flow rate Fan flow rate 172 air lcakage 300 Fan inlet air leakage and cross-llow. 91. 596-603.597. weight of 396 Fast vessels 42 Fuel consumption 397-8 Fatigue endurance of transmission shafts Fuel filtering 606 569-7 1 Fucl system 505 Finger bow skirt 247 Finger height ratio 454 Gap height 12. 102.318 non-dimensional characteristics 350 heave motion 77 off-design operation 422 pitch amplitude 319-20. 408 Fan blade regulation 21 6 Flow continuity equation 78. 109.296 selection of type 420 5. 103. 348-9 vertical arrangement 418 and wiwe profile 189 see also Ducted fans. 28.91. 603 Flagellation 437 air intake How requirements 600 Flat lilt fan 323 4 alarms 605 .235 characteristic 323 advantages 232 charactcristic equation 310 development 233 Fan air inletloutlet system 413-19 Flow coefficient 407. 52. 177. 100. 507 Flullering 437 cushion system 507 Foil-shaped appendages l l S efficiency-flow rate characteristics 431 Footprint pressure 41 horizontal arrangement 418-19 France 40 HVAC systems 423 Frequency response impellcr diameter 428-9 bowistern acceleration 321 noise reduction 430 cushion prcssure 293 non-dimensional characteristic curves heave acceleration 292. by means of specific speed 426-8 110. 319. 71-3. 173. 56. 421 Frotide number 85.622 Index External fol-ccs on hull 461-5 Flexible bow seal 135 External response 327 Flexible bowlstern seal 153 4 Flexible skirt 11. Fan air duct 127. SES 419 due to mass change ratc of air cushion Fan overall pressure 412-13 301 Fan speed 148 equation 141 Fans minimum calm water drag 409-10 aerodynamic characteristics 423 Flow rate-pressurc head linear equation with air How rate 430 small perturbation 313-14 centrifugal 425-9. 345 system 413-17 continuity equation 310-12 Fan outlet system.181.583. 115. Lifl fans Froude scaling relationship 342 Fast Attack SES 44 Fuel and oil.92. 196. X7.338. 141 Fan characteristic cquatiotl 142 for small perturbations 315-17 Fan charactcristic~284 Flow modes in heaving motion 77. 333 overall pressure-tlow rate characteristics roll amplitude 293 431 wave exciting force 320 overall pressure head 410 13 wave exciting moment 320 pressure-How characteristic curve 430 Froude Krilov hypothesis 276-7.602 Fins 217 air intake filtration 601-3.232. 47-9.

308. frequency response 292. 141 HVAC 515 angle 361-2 Hydrodynamic coel'ficients 222 moment 361 Hydrodynamic drag 274 regulation using weight of persons and due to engine cooling water 115 water (oil) ballast 215 see ulso Drag . 298. inflow distortions 600 restoration moment 145 layout and engine sclcction issues 598-9 restoring moment during 223 maintenance 610 l l righting arm 147 noise 603 righting moment of howlstern seal during operation 610 155 protection from foreign object damage with air cushion compartmentation on 600-1 rigid surface 164 Gearbox 572-3.20. 397 Heave stiffness for howlstern seals 328 Hull-borne operation. 309 water 164 Germany 40 High-performance marinc vehicles.575 with air cushion compartmcntation on power flow diagram 574 waler 164 Generators 595 without air cushion compartmentation on Geometrical dimensions 297-8. 83 Hump drag 132 HEBA high efficiency fan 431-2 Hump transition speed 364 Heeling 138. 330.38. 39. bending moment 471 Heave velocity 8 1. 11.408 GRP 38. 81.48 HM-221 18 HD-I 12 Holland 40 HD-2 194 Horizontal air rudders 2 0 8 1 0 Head winds. 356. 14 Heave 273 classification 6 Heave acceleration.318 see alro ACV: SES Heave attenuation system 335-6 Hovercraft Development Ltd 10. future 45-6 319 historical background 1 4 Heave amplitude 75. performance 341 Hovercraft Hezt generation 28 accidents 13. 341 Hovermarine Limited 14. 476 experimental methods 80-2 weight of 393.78 Hull frequency response for 77 design 185 Heave position 83 efficiency 544 Hcavc stability 80. 275 Heave displacement 81 Hovering damping 76-83 Heave frequency 80 Hoverlloyd 16 Heave motion 76. 29 HM-5 20 Harbin Shipbuilding Engineering Institute HM-218 16 (HSEI) 32. 76.211 glass reinforced structures under construction 16 Habitability requirements 365-74 stern seal 17 Halter Marine Inc. Goldstein factor 525. 18 flow modes in 77. 83 external forces on 461-5 derivatives strength of 464 calculation 77-80 structural design 474. 80 principal particulars for carly Chinese and and cushion pressure 81 British 7 frequency response 318-19.459 bow scal 17 Guide wheels on laud 210-11. 306. 526 classification 2 Corko~~rhunin 127 High-speed marine vehicle typcs I GriKon Hovercraft 25 HM-2 14-15. 13.

Jetted extensiotis 128 it1 waves 296307 Jetted nozzle skirts 236 principal parameters 298 Jcttcd skirt 127 Longitudinal stability kccl (LSK) 139 . 178 installation 430. tenlion calculation distribution of pressure 406 252 ducting problems 326 lti~ierdraft 132. strength calculation 473 Internal wave profiles 177 Limiting roll angles versus relative cushion Italy 40 height 362 Limiting atress design 564 Japan 40 Liquid load 396 7 JEFF(A) 25. 143. Lift fans 2 8 2 4 111.463 Load transporters 45 JEFF(B) 25.Iin Snh River 5. 88. 43 selection and design 420 32 anti-plough-in 327 statistics 427 Hydrostatic pressure acting on bottom and tcchnical issues 429-32 sidewalls 473 Lift power 51. 301-3 characteristics at small flow rate 429 acting on stern seal 303 impellor speed and diatllctcr 429 Hydrodynamic resistance 1. 130.465-7 . see LCG k t velocity 498 Longitudinal metacentric height 356 60 Jetted air rudder 208 Longitudinal motion Jcttcd bag typc skirt 235 in rcg~tlarwavcs for ACV 308-22 . 241. 133 insufficieticy 326 Inneriouter water lints 126 layout 406 lnncrloutcr watcr surfaccs 188 powcr 412 13 Insulation 370 simulated pressure distribution 411 Internal air stream lines 180 Lining situation.436. 507 basic assumptions and nomenclature 218. 430 Hydrofoil patrol boat (PHM) 32 prcssure-llow or 296 Hydrofoils 42. 33-8. 303 basic data 427 acting on skirts 294.5 space layout 606 LACV-30 26 Maticeuvrability 205-31 Laplace transformation 317 ACV -206 ~ LCAC 25-6. 119.624 Index Hydrodynamic forces and moments 221-2 balancing 429 acting on sidewalls 285-6. 35 LSD-I 26 3K-SES 28 M10 44 Kaario.164. 56. LCAC-001 207 218. 219 LCG 94. 62. 117.463 Local loading 471-2 Jct cxtcnsions 49 Longitudinal ccntrc of gravity. 295. 604G. Toivio 3 Machinery Korea 40 control 604-5. 102.241. 185 diflerential equations of motion 217-24 LEBED 23 fcaturcs of ACVISES 205-6 LHD-4 26 key factors 205-7 Life-saving equipment.96. 125.43. 54 5_ 148 Hyperbolic distribution 89 output coefficient 65 versus air inlet location 415 Ice breaker 45 Lift system Inducer pumps 559 design 406-32 lnllatable diaphragms. 131. 104-6. weight of 395 on ice 376 Lift drag 185 rcquirzments 374-6 ratio 134 MARIC 3. 130-2. 84.

40 Multiple engines 579-81 MCR (Maximum Continuous power Rating) MVPP5 15.151. 327 Nozzles 546-7 Model 713 189. 130. 189 Oil exploration 22. 540 Model 71 1-1 33. time interval 561-2 from invention to first application Y Newton's formula 53 Mine countermeasures 11. 131. Military transport vehicles. 3. 145. Model 719-11 36 562 . 158.33. 376 Model 717 35. 173 lzvcls 369-72. xec MARlC Model 719-11 43. 372 Modcl711 3 138 water jets 539. 528 characteristic features of ACV and SES types 522 2768 Market development 17-22 historical review 2 7 6 6 Matzrials 28 key craft paranlctcrs 278 Mayer velocity distribution 54 short crested waves 3 2 2 4 MCM 31-9. Index 625 Marine Design & Research Institute of Model 719 433 China. Outline design procedure 535 160.460 Marine propellers Model 7202 35 bladc pitch 529 Model 7203 36 blade sections 521 Model 7205 199 design 520-37 Model experiments 342-52 efficiency 520 Moment of inertia 463 example propeller and shaft layouts for Momentum exchange principle diagram 496 SES 533 Momentum theory 97. 548-55 fbr SES 535-6 Motion pumping 274 installation 521 Motion standards 360 K. 370. C. 156.326.214. 188.257. 547. and Ku diagrams 53U Motions in waves 273-341 sclcction proccdurc 526 31.44 MTBO (Mean Time Between Ovzrhaul) 577 dctail dcsign and construction 3 1 2 Multi-bag stern skirt 247 primary design 31 Multi-cell skirt system 165 MCMH 31. Latimer 11. 158 Operating modes 136 Model 717C 121. 554.441 Norway 3 9 4 0 Modcl 71 1-111 34. 327 elevation 547 Model 716 36 Model 71641 37. 372 4. 524.19. 34. 159.232 Military SESiACV 32 Nct positivc suction hcad (NPSH) 544. 235.37 Obstacle clearance capability 375. 151.493-8. 261 Model 717A 156.58 National Rcscarch Dcvclopmcnt Military applications 43 4 Corporation 10 Military design parameters 378 Needham. 356 Oil field applications 4 6 5 Model 717-111 356 Open loop and segment skirt 243. 34. 357 Ovcrdll propulsive efficiency (OPC) 538. drag of 11G17 Model 711-11 34. 39 Model 717-71 36. 236 Non-flush sea-water strainers.H. 30-9 Noise Mine swccpcrs 41 fans 430 Mixed flow pumps 558 gas turbines 603 Model 711 127.226 577 MVPP15 15 Medium sized patrol SES 32 MEKAT 40 NACA 16 scrics 524 Metacentric height NACA h3 series 51 9 longitudinal 356-60 NACA 66 series 524 transverse 356-60.

N6 186 Reduction drives 572-3 cushion pressure during 326 Relative air gap 65 in following waves for SES 324-8 Relative initial static transverse metacentric internal reasons 326 7 height 148-9. types and selection 555-6 Pleasure craft 44 eficiency 559 Plenum chamber cushion 8. 325 Ram air pressure recovery 417 at high speed 177-85 Range determination 399 boundary 181 Recreation design parameters 379 SR. 586. I82 test dala 180 and yawing angles 183 Anti-plough-in see al. 52 Quill shafts. 182. frequency response 319-20. PUC-22 592 476 Puff ports 213-~14. 587 Peripheral jet hovercraft 48 Pressure coefficient 345.6 1835 Power consumption principal reasons 18&3 in head winds and waves 406 SR. 42 exciting moment 307 design 487-576 motions 340-1 ACV 487 Pitching 273 basic theories 492-504 Planing craft 1. turning tracks ibr 229 damping 333 4 Propulsion system 28. 179 coellicient of sidewall 115 . 74 Pump analysis 7 4 6 characteristics. drag due to 116 on rigid surface 5 1-2 theory 72 Radial flow pumps 558 Plough-in 173-85.626 Index Overturning 173-85. Pressure head equation 283 319. 174. 148 183 5 Relative transvcrse righting arm 150 methods for prevcnting 327-8 Remote monitoring 604-5. 231 Platforming 7 3 4 . 37. 37.N6 186 per ton-knot 20 Power loss with increased temperature 5 8 4 5 Parabola-shaped sidewalls 114 Power pcr unit seat 398 Parabolic water plancs 114 Power plant Passenger accommodation 42 limitations 399 Passcnger ferries 44 weight of 395 6 Patrol vessels 40 Power transmission 564-73 Payload factor 397 design criteria 564-~6 Payload fraction 38493 Power unit selection 577-61 1 Peripheral Interfacc Module (PTM) 609 design requirements 604-6 Peripheraljct air cushion 50-1 Powering estimation 585-7.~o at high speed 177 85 Position determination 220-3 at low speed 176 Post-hump spced 374 in waves 185-6 Power augmented ram wing (PARWIG) craft measures for improving resistance to 5-9. 462 Pitch Prcssure-flow of lift fans 296 amplitude. 41.42 methodology 508-9 Planing stern seal 154 SES 488-92 Plate thickness in hull structural design 474. 175. 604-5 principal reasons 180-3 Residual drag 84-5 progression 178-80. 87 angle 306 Propulsion devices.150 measures for improving resistance to Relative sidewall thickness 1 4 8 9 .148. 149.214.333 Pressureilength ratio 86.

10 for 293 Shear forces 471 Rolling 273.268. 11 Sidewall hovercraft 4. 4 0 2 4 Safety factors 4734. 175. 28 heeling 155 SES-200 30.269. 281-2 Rotating thruster unit 508 geometric configuration 145-8 Rotation derivatives 220-3 hydrodynamic forces and moments acting Rudders 208-1 1 on 285-6. 32841. 357 thickness ratio 332-3. 281-2 Rolling angle and craft speed 178 chines 335 Rolls-Royce 'Marine Proleus' gas turbine configurations 66 englnes 13 depth 333 Rotatable nozzles 562 depth ratio 400 Rotating ducted thrusters 213 draft 280.A. 82. Index 627 Restoring moment during heeling 223 plough-in in following waves for 3 2 6 8 Retractable water rudder 210.345. 30. 273-4.270 159 clearance 79. 39. 113 coefficient 103 B. 444 .28. 474.A. 337 Righting moment of howlstern seal during SES-100B 27. 86. 158 thickness 66.303 drag of 115-16 inner draft 333 Running attitude 156 9. Kolezaev method 114 Seasickness 368 equivalent cushion beam method 111-13 Seaspeed 16 Hiroomi Ozawa method 1 13-14 Seaworthiness 90. 5 Scaling criteria 351 development in UK 9 22 during static hovering tests 343-8 Sidcwall water friction drag 104-10 over water 348-52 B.27. Kolezaev method 109 Scaling laws 342-52 MARIC method 104-6 Sea Action Group (SAG) 44 mcthod used in Japan 106-8. 475 wetted surface of 110 Saunders-Roe Limited 10. 336 Rigid body dynamics 277 Shafts and boss. frequency response curves Shaw. 336. 337 SES-100 86 Ridz quality 43 SES-100A 27. 4465. 399 abrasion force 441 scaling conditions 352 air feed holes 449-50 Service speeds 43 assembly and manufacturing technology SES 449 51 applications 41-5 attachments 449 dynamic transverse righting moment of bounce analysis 267-70. drag due to 116 Rigid bow seal l35 Shallow watcr drag 91 Role naramcters 378-9 Shanghai Hu Ilong Shipyard 35 Roll amplitude. 336.349 water surcace deformation inlbeyond air Ride characteristics 367 cushion on calm water 197-200. 30. 108 Seakeeping quality 43 NPL method 109 Seal drag 121 Sidewall wave-making drag l 11-14. 171 location of inlets and appendages 188-90 coating 439.85. 198 Ride control system (RCS) 30. 344.A. 104. R. 280. 336. 285 Sidewail 109 stiNness 359 air leakage 280. 85. 295.454 Single wall theory 52-5 effcct of principal dimensions 33&3 Skirt key observations 33941 abrasion and corrosion 434 requirements 3645. 321. 210 static transverse stability on cushion Reversing gcar 562-3 1 3 7 52 Reynolds law 342 transverse dynamic stability 152 63 Reynolds number 100.

force acting on 264 S R N 6 241 contact drag 277-8 state of the art 23549 damage patterns 433 4 Skirt design 232. 441.250 SK. 184 SK.N2 11. 364 hydrodynamic forccs acting on skirts delerrnination 399 running on water 265 improvement 332 Skirt bag Spray suppression skirts 270-1. 448 shifting installation 215 Skirt lift apparatus 214-15. 507 tension acting on curved sections 262 SR. 124 delamination 4 3 3 4 . 439. 446 total drag 99 tension and tear strength 443 luck-in at bow skirt 326 test facilities 440 tuck-under 261-7 thickness effect 330 tuck-under boundary 453 Skirtiterrain intcraction drag 121-3 type cffcct on seaworthiness 329-30 SKMR-I 25.48-9. 64. 442. 215 shifting system 165 Skirt loading 437-41. 10. 239. 16. 165. 359 observation under water 238 and cushion beam ratio 358 pressure drag 101-2 ratio 400-1 processing 450 statistics 356 service lik 433 Skirt joints. 60 specific weight 44. 441. 456 7 D-type 184. 233. 13 242-5. 349-50 Slipstream jet velocity 497 with extended flexible nozzle 236 Small waterplane thin hull vcsscls (SWATH) 1 Skirt analysis 232. 17. 361. 442.570 forccs acting on 262-3 Speed forces analysis for deformed fingcrs 266 degradation 330. 13 Skirt configuration 53.5. 59. 14. 249. 12.463 wave-making drag coellicicnt 101 Slamming 1.N1 7. 341. 331. 438 Skirl drag coefficient 134 drag ibrcc 44 1 Skirt fingers 436. 452-7 S-N curve 569. 301-3 clastic deformation and hysteresis etTect impact force 442 250-1 manufacture flow chart 450 Skirt height 328-9.244. amphibious ACV 235 42 331.628 Index Skirt (contd) evolution 235 cumponcnts.7. 13. 418.245. 46G7 weight 265-7. 435 Skirt friction drag 99-101 gcometric features 451. 452 Skirt geometry 453 ground interference drag 124 design 323 hydrodynamic foi-ces acting on 294. SR. 333.7 241 520 design 451-7 drag and thrust curves 119 development 235 49 skirt configuration 240 .N4 11. selection 447-9. 368. 233. 11. BH. 463. 450 dynamic response 271-2 inward inclination angle 454 effect on seaworthincss 328 30 Skirt force (morncnt) 284 Ihilurc modes 435-6. 347 tearing 434 open wcavc cloth 443 tcst boxes 343 selection 442-7 test rig 5 6 8 . 331. 447. 330. 396 forces in wavcs 364-5 weight pcr unit area 346.N3 11. 5&9. 272. 433~57 deformability 455 main issues 234 deformation 242 Skirt drag 98-103. 134. 330. 12. 445. 437 stiKness 455 prcssure force 437 systcni 184 vibration forces 437 tailoring 449-50 Skirt material 64.

526 transverse stability 358 Subsystem design 354-5 as function ol' Froude number 177 Supercavitating propcllers 522. geometric parameters 259 design requirements 355 62 Stern double planing bag 247 dynamic stability of ACV travelling ovcr Stern planing rigid seal 247. 173. 14. 476 static transverse stability of ACV l69 SES 459 static transversc stability on cushion Structural strength 137-52.361.76.N5 13. 531-7 during lake-off 159-61 outline dcsign procedure 535 effcct of VCG 171-2 Supports 571 factors affecting ACV 168-72 Surface contact propulsion 5 7 6 6 for ACV 163-8 design considerations 574-6 in waves 161 Surhcc cffect ships (SES) I on cushion in motion 154 9 Sway 273 with flexible bowlstern seals 154-5 Swivelling pylons 211. Index 629 SR. pressure distribution acting on transverse stability 171 inner surface 260 effect of various parameters on transvcrse Streamline slability 14&51 analysis 60-2 in waves 364 diagram 61 internal stability skirts 190 Strength calculation 461 longitudiiial stability trunks 456 Strength of hull 464 rcquirements 399 Strouhal number 346 for large hecling angles 361-2 Structural design 458-86 skirt configurations 261 ACV 459 60 standards 355-62 current state 460 static transversc i~lltialstahility of ACV features 458-60 360 hull 474. 173 without cushion compartmentation SR. 174. 1 70-1 418 transverse stability moment of hcclcd SES overturning 186 al spccd 160 plougli-in boundary 186 transverse stability trunks 456 SR. 68. 69 SES 356 Slatic hovering performancc of SES on water coordinate system of craft l67 66-8 criteria and standards for stability of SES Static hovcriiig tests 343-8 stability in turns 162 Static thiust 5 0 1 4 stability in wavcs 162 Stator systems. 249 watcr 173 Stern scal 12S-9. 143 analysis.N6-012 185 Standing's formula 197 Stability 135 86 Static air cushion characteristics on water acceptable 137 surface 66-71 and cushion height Static air cushion performance of ACVs on ACV 355 water surfilcc 68-71. design 518 static stability 161-2 Steel 459 damagc requirements 363 Stern bag skirts.248 eflect of stability skirt clearancc on Stern skirt. 214. former IJSSK 467-73 static transverse stability without LSK calculation 465-7 141-2 Strut palms. drag of 116 transversc dynaiilic stability 152-63 Subcavitating propellers 520. 176. 86.15.N6 13. 212 with rigid stern seal 155-6 Systems 28 . 154 effect of fan flow rate on transverse hydrodynamic forcc acting on 303 stability 01.ACV 172 with air bag 248.

336. 590 Total drag 85 Utility design parameters 378-9 of ACV model 71 1-IIA 118 of ACV model 7202 118 VA. acceptahle levels 480 158 analysis 479 Transverse motions of SES in beam seas assessment 485 279-94 critical operational frequencies 484 Transverse righting moment 160. 470 Utility applications 44 Torsional stress 564 Utility craft 45.1 to 3 series 11 over water 1 17-21 Variable depth sonar (VDS) 32 ACV 117-19. Sir John 1. 335. 165.630 Index Tacoma Marine Industries 40 Tuck-under 267 Take-off 1249. 368. 356-60. 502 Transmission shaft Vertical acceleration 320.22-3 Torsion load 470.295 damping 370-2 Transverse roll stiffness versus cushion design 481 heightlwidth ratio 360 detail design phase 4 8 3 ~ 5 Transverse shift of ccntrc of cushion area diesel engines 5 9 6 5 165-6. 451 TCG 162 Teeth 271 UH-15P 502 Thornycroft. 2 UK 9 2 1 . 209 fatigue endurance of 569-71 Vessel trim 604 sections for analysis 567 Vibration 28. 117. 31.367 design load case matrix 568 Vertical fins for course stability 208. 4 0 Thrust Underwater appendage drag 115-17 deduction 544 US 25-32 in head seas 338 amphibious craft 25 Thrustllift ratio 181 surface effect ship development 26-30 Torsion 469 USSR (formcr) 22-5. 209 design stresses 566-8 Vertical rudder 208.166 during construction 485 Trim 187-204 exciting force 482 angle 181. 185 high operational speed 477 calculation 153 4 TSO 2372 and I S 0 3945 standards 4 7 ~ factors influencing 188 low natural frequency 476 prediction above hump speed on calm malfunctions caused by 477 water 203-4 permissible rules 482 regulation using weight of persons and preliminary design phase 482-3 water (oil) ballast 215 severe and supcrharmonic excitation TSL-A 600. 159-61 Turning diameter 374 dynamic stability during 127 Turning pcrformancc 227 31 holes 71 Turning tracks performance 72 between bank and non bank turn 230 water contact phenomenon of how seal for propulsion devices 229 during 105 Twin bag skirt 154.601 source 476 . 365-8. 47686 Transport eficiency 397 absorption 478-82 Transverse metacentric height 162. 578 VCG171 2 Transmission configuration 5 8 2 ~ 4 Velocitv streamlines 501. 182.118 Variable-pitch ducted fans 516 SES 119 21 Variable-pitch propeller hub construction skirt 99 and controlsystem 514 Total system weight 577-9. design factors 566 366.

97 Waban Aki 45 coefficient 88. 397 Water surfacc deformation 189. 3 8 . 388 physical dimensions 540 equilibrium equation 142 prcssure effects around intake 553 of ACV 389~90. 91. frequency response Western countries 382 for 320 Weight estimate 379-84 Wave height 338. 198 vs. 312 high-speed boats 382 4 Wave exciting force.464 Viya. 278 geometries 541 concept 49. D. 563 197-200.340 checklist 391-2 .403 selection 543. inloff cushion due to moving rectangular 557 air cushion 193 flush-type inlet 538 Wave pumping 274.ycur 96 Wave interference 323 VT.K. 548 54.5. 90. 563 of fuel and oil 396 Watcr propulsor types 491 of hull 393. 559-62 of air propellers 51 3 steering 562 3 of deck equipment and painting 3 9 3 4 tlirusl vs. 550. 3 influence of water depth 92 Watcr contact plienomcnon of bow seal ratio 91 during take-off 105 Wave-making drag-lift ratio 89 Water jets 537 64 Wave profilc advantages 538 and Froude number 189 cavitat~on556-7 bcyond cushion. 522. Weight 554.2 14. 562 components 379 80 performancc 540-1 distribution 38. 396 iniheyond SES air cushion on calm water of water-jet unit 562.1 Index 631 tests and trials 486 Wave impact watcr jets 540 force distribution 472-3 Vickers 12 loading coefficient 462 Vortex theory 524 6 presrul-e 463-5. frequency response ibr MARIC 380 320 USSR 381 Wave exciting moment. craft speed 558 of electrical equipment 396 vibration 540 of equipment 394 weight vs. 15 Wave-making drag 86-93. 346. 1ilodel7205 199 efficiency 492. 94.551. 349 50.92. 74 inlet velocity 560-1 rate 75-6 inlet with sccondary slow specd intake 546 WD-901 37. 349 overall propulsivc cficiency (OPC) 538.73-6 inlet losses 544 6 motion 74. inlet diameter 562. 9 6 5 Wake factors 544 coeflicient of slender sidcwalls 114 Warner. 42 noise 539. 540 Weber number 100. 189 integrated control systems 5 6 3 4 WD-902 38 KaMcWa 522 Wcapon systems 32. 8 9 .549. 94.37.521. displacement 394 Water surface profile 192 Weight classilication Wavc amplitude 1 9 6 7 former USSR 381-2 Wave equation 298-9. 192 of life-saving equipment 395 at inboard profile 194 of mctallic structure 393 HD-2 194 of power plant 395-6 inlbcyond ACV air cushion over calnl o f ship systems 395 water 190 6 of skirt systcm 265-7.

) I . 273 Wind tunnel model lcsts 347 Yawing angles and overturning 183 Wind tunnel tcsts 343 . 106. 9 6 5 . 63 Wing in ground ell'cct machines (WIG and Wcstland AircraSt Limited 1 1 PAKWIC. 26 107. 52-5. 6 Wetted surlhcc Work boats 45 corrzction coefficierlt o l 109 of sidewalls 104.I D 30 Wetted surface5 188 XR-S 29 Whirl speed 568 9 Wind direction and speed 228 Yaw 92. 5 9 . correction coefficient XR-IA 26. 108 XR. 107. 110 XR-I 138 Wetted hurlhcc area.632 Index West. A A .