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JAI Quality Management Model (Japanese, American & Indian Model)

Submitted to:Dr. Subhash Sharma (Dean)

Indian Business Academy
Submitted by:Amit Dandapath Reg. No-FPB0911/009

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Apart from the efforts of mine, the success of this project depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project. I would first like to thank our and Dean, Dr. Subhash Sharma for being so encouraging and helpful throughout my report work. I would also like to express my profound gratitude to Prof. Sowmya C S for her constant and valuable suggestions while doing the project work. The project report entitled ³JAI (Japanese, American & Indian) Quality Management Process´ without her encouragement and guidance this project would not have materialized.

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Dean¶s Certificate This is to certify that Amit Dandapath is a bonafide student of Indian Business Academy, Bangalore and is presently pursuing his Post Graduate Program in Management. Under my guidance he has submitted his paper titled ³JAI (Japanese, American & Indian) Quality Management Process´ in partial fulfillment of the requirement during the Post Graduate Program in Management. This paper has not been previously submitted as part of another degree or diploma of another Business School or University.

Dr. Subhash Sharma (Dean) Indian Business Academy Lakshmipura, Thataguni Post, Kanakapura Main Road, Bangalore-560062

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Mentor¶s Certificate

This is to certify that Amit Dandapath is a bonafide student of Indian Business Academy, Bangalore and is presently pursuing his Post Graduate Program in Management. Under my guidance he has submitted his paper titled ³JAI (Japanese, American & Indian) Quality Management Process´ in partial fulfillment of the requirement during the Post Graduate Program in Management. This paper has not been previously submitted as part of another degree or diploma of another Business School or University.

Prof. Sowmya C S (Mentor) Indian Business Academy Lakshmipura, Thataguni Post, Kanakapura Main Road, Bangalore-560062

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Student Declaration I am Amit Dandapath, the undersigned, a student of Indian Business Academy, Bangalore declare that this ³JAI (Japanese, American & Indian) Quality Management Process, in partial fulfillment of the requirement during the Post Graduate Program in Management (PGPM), From Indian Business Academy, Bangalore. This is my original work and has not been previously submitted as a part of another degree or diploma of another Business School or University. The findings and the closing remarks of this paper are based on my personal study and experience.

Mr. Amit Dandapath Reg. no.-FPB0911/009 Indian Business Academy Lakshmipura, Thataguni Post, Kanakapura Main Road, Bangalore-560062

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INDEX S. No Contents
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7.a 7.b 7.c 8 8.a 8.b 8.c 9 10 11 12 13 14 Introduction Application of Total Quality Management Benefits of TQM Unique Features of TQM System TQM triangle TQM Implementation Model Japanese Model Kaizen 5S(Methodology) Toyota Production System American Model Six Sigma 5Why Canon Production System Indian Model How to Make Decision Why a company follows a particular model 3-D Model Conclusion References

Page No
7 9 11 12 13 13 14 16 17 19 22 23 25 27 29 34 35 36 38 39

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1. Introduction: Total Quality Management is a management approach that originated in the 1950's and has steadily become more popular since the early 1980's. TQM is mainly concerned with continuous improvement in all work, from high level strategic planning and decision-making, to detailed execution of work elements on the shop floor. A preliminary step in TQM implementation is to assess the organization's current reality. TQM encourages participation amongst shop floor workers and managers. It should be kept in mind that TQM should be purpose driven. Be clear on the organization's vision for the future and stay focused on it. TQM can be a powerful technique for unleashing employee creativity and potential, reducing bureaucracy and costs, and improving service to clients and the community. A name itself is sufficient to describe everything but a bit more clarification will add to a base for the description. Total quality management is a management¶s approach towards the quality, it can be in regard to products, customer satisfaction and employees satisfaction. The concept of TQM was developed by an American W. Edwards Deming and i.e. why it is called as Deming¶s concept of TQM .He introduced this concept for improving the quality of various products and services. Earlier it was just related with the quality of products which a organization is producing but now other concepts like marketing, finance design, customer service has also joined the area. This means that now good number of things is there to manage. TQM works on one belief that mistakes can be avoided and defects can be prevented. And management should believe in watching each and every step.

TQM is now a day¶s called as TPM (total productivity management) and an organization needs to consider ABCD for the effective application of TQM where A stands for accident cure , B stands for breakdown , C stands for cost reduction and D stands for damage. This policy of ABCD is in relation to product and if TQM needs to be introduced a positive attitude from the side of management and employees is required and then a collective effort will come up. TQM should give chance for unleashing employee¶s creativity and potential. The aim of TQM is to reduce variations in quality of the products as well as in the working of whole organization. For the successful implementation of TQM, an organization must and as father and mother takes care for their home collectively the same way , management and managers are supposed to take care for their organization with
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the help of tool called TQM. Total quality management is called total because entire organization is involved, Quality means degree of excellence. And management in literal sense means getting things done by others. In a TQM effort, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services and the culture in which they work. The earlier introduced quality management concept is now taken over by Total quality management. To have effective TQM the first requirement is strong internal motivation and emotional involvement for implementation. So the concept of TQM talks about adopting the new policy, creating quality products, eliminate defects, estimate for breakdown, accidents etc. Hence TQM should be purpose driven so first the whole organization should be willing to accept the change then only TQM can actually affect the organization in a positive way.

Companies who have implemented TQM include Ford Motor Company, Phillips Semiconductor, SGL Carbon, Motorola and Toyota Motor Company. TQM is the concept that quality can be managed and that it is a process. The following information is provided to give an understanding of the key elements of this process. Many TQM experts use special terms to explain TQM, such as the voice of the customer table, QFD implementation, Cross-Functional Management, and Hosing Planning (some terms are mis-defined). These terms are confusing to many people, particularly novices, in many companies. The initial, simplistic step of implementing TQM is to determine the organization¶s goals or obstacles according to the dream oriented or problem oriented approach. In Japan, almost every company uses the problem oriented approach during the initial phases of TQM. Everyone, from top management to the line workers in an organization, determines and defines the problems. Each employee defines the problems using a statement beginning with "I don¶t like to . . ." This is a key issue. Jobs listed this way by each employee are not only the employee¶s problems, but also the organization¶s problems. Using an approach like this is good because it not only helps pinpoint problems; it also opens up discussion within the organization.

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL 2. Application of Total Quality Management: The paradigm of TQM applies to all enterprises, be it Manufacturing, Service, Information industries, Institution, Government Organization or an Association. A first approach to TQM implementation is a skillfully designed training program to continuously improve professional skills of the employees. Several training techniques can be employed to ensure the effectiveness of the program which include on the job training, industry level seminars and workshops. Another important element in implementing TQM is looking out for new technology to modify the process or what is known as reengineering it. Management should be committed to process innovation to evaluate how thing are being done and the need to change them. Through process innovation, lower layers of the organizational chart can communicate to top level management. I. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Manufacturing Sector Performance Reliability and consistency Conformance to specification Durability Serviceability Features Aesthetics Perceived quality

II. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

Services Sector Time to serve Timeliness of the service Completeness of serviced Consistency Courtesy Responsiveness Accuracy-first time right Convenience- easy to obtain

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III.

Information 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Right time data supply Time save Data quality management Data storage Data allocation Data collection

IV.

Institution 1) 2) 3) 4) Control the process Better management Quick decision making Information providing

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL 3. Benefits of TQM: Total Quality Management (TQM) is very important for Quality assurance in manufacturing. TQM combines the benefits of a Statistical Process Control system with a variety of other functionality including continuous improvement through corrective action. Without a system to hold your employees and departments responsible for their actions, it is almost impossible to ensure the quality of your products. 1) Reduction of defects because TQM promotes quality awareness and participation of all members of the organization, not just the QA or QC department. It means quality at the source. 2) Total quality management system leads to ease of problem solving. Through measurements such as SPC and other techniques such as failure analysis, defects and failures (even potential failures) can be identified and addressed. 3) TQM also leads to continuous improvement of processes and products. TQM system should also improve the efficiency of people and machine. 4) TQM leads to quality products which leads to customer satisfaction. 5) And finally, by reducing defects and improving machine and personnel efficiency, TQM should lead to cost savings and profitability improvement (bottom line). 6) A philosophy that improves business from top to bottom 7) A focused, systematic and structured approach to enhancing customer's satisfaction 8) Process improvement methods that reduce or eliminate problems i.e. non conformance cost. 9) Tools and techniques for improvement - quality operating system what the customer wants¶ in terms of service, product and the whole experience Delivering 10) Intrinsic motivation and improved attitudes throughout 11) Enhanced control education in waste and rework 12) Increase in process ownership- employee involvement and empowerment 13) Everyone from top to bottom educated 14) Improved customer/supplier relationships (internally & externally)

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL 4. Unique Features of TQM System:In order to build a competitive edge, business has to be driven by vision, where entrepreneurial dynamism drives for success. TQM is the required strategic tool, for the necessary transformation of the organization not only by making the organization µcustomer focused¶ in all its functions and activities, but also by managing the organization by µvision¶ of the future. Towards this strategic management process, TQM should be built upon some unique feature. Are «..

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Strategically planned vision, mission and goals. Leadership and management to lead from the front. Customer and market focused business strategy. Focus on development, involvement and empowerment of people. Culture of management by facts through data management with focus on customer satisfaction. 6) Innovative and creative process management with focus on customer analysis. 7) Respect for society and the environment.

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL 5. TQM triangle:-

TQM Superior Business Result

Leadership, and Strategic Planning

Continuous Improvement Marketing and customer focus

Human resource Management

Processing and quality management

Information & Analysis

6. TQM Implementation Model:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Process Improvement Manage variation Fix a known problem: QI Story Prevent recurrence: SPC, Kaizen System Improvement Daily Management Quality Assurance Theory of Constraints Strategic Policy Management Product Improvement

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL 7. Japanese Model: - "The involvement of work people in Japan has lead
mainly to process improvement rather than to product improvement."

PPresePresident
TQC Promotion

Top Management

Section Chief

Quality Circle

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL 7. a. Kaizen:Introduction:-³Kaizen means improvement. Moreover, kaizen means continuous improvement in personal life, home life and social life. When applied to the workplace, kaizen means continuous improvement involving everyone, managers and workers alike´. Kaizen is a daily activity, the purpose of which goes beyond simple productivity improvement. It is also a process that, when done correctly, humanizes the workplace, eliminates overly hard work , and teaches people how to perform experiments on their work using the scientific method and how to learn to spot and eliminate waste in business processes. In all, the process suggests a humanized approach to workers and to increasing productivity: "The idea is to nurture the company's human resources as much as it is to praise and encourage participation in kaizen activities." Successful implementation requires "the participation of workers in the improvement." Kaizen (Japanese for "improvement" or "change for the better") refers to a philosophy or practices that focus upon continuous improvement of processes in manufacturing, engineering, supporting business processes, and management. It has been applied in healthcare, government, banking, and many other industries. When used in the business sense and applied to the workplace, kaizen refers to activities that continually improve all functions, and involves all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers. It also applies to processes, such as purchasing and logistics, which cross organizational boundaries into the supply chain. By improving standardized activities and processes, kaizen aims to eliminate waste. Kaizen was first implemented in several Japanese businesses after the Second World War, influenced in part by American business and quality management teachers who visited the country. It has since spread throughout the world.

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Various part of Kaizen:1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Just in time Zero defects Kanban Quality circles Continuous quality improvement Five µS¶ Self managed teams Total quality management

The five main elements of kaizen:1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Teamwork Personal discipline Improved morale Quality circles Suggestions for improvement

7. b. 5S (Methodology)
'5S' is the name of a workplace organization methodology that uses a list of five Japanese words which are Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu and Shitskuke. Transliterated and translated into English, start with the letter S. The list describes how items are stored and how the new order is maintained. The decision making process usually comes from a dialogue about standardization which builds a clear understanding among employees of how work should be done. It also instills ownership of the process in each employee.

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y Phase 1 - Sorting: Go through all tools, materials, etc., in the plant and work area. Keep only essential items. Everything else is stored or discarded. y Phase 2 - Straightening or Setting in Order: There should be a place for everything and everything should be in its place. The place for each item should be clearly labeled or demarcated. Items should be arranged in a manner that promotes efficient work flow. Workers should not have to repetitively bend to access materials. Each tool, part, supply, piece of equipment, etc. should be kept close to where it will be used (i.e. straighten the flow path). Seiton is one of the features that distinguish 5S from "standardized cleanup". y Phase 3 - Sweeping or Shining or Cleanliness (Systematic Cleaning): Keep the workplace clean as well as neat. At the end of each shift, clean the work area and be sure everything is restored to its place. This makes it easy to know what goes where and ensures that everything is where it belongs. A key point is that maintaining cleanliness should be part of the daily work not an occasional activity initiated when things get too messy. y Phase 4 - Standardizing: Work practices should be consistent and standardized. Everyone should know exactly what his or her responsibilities are for adhering to the first 3 S's. y Phase 5 - Sustaining the discipline: Maintain and review standards. Once the previous 4 S's have been established, they become the new way to operate. Maintain focus on this new way and do not allow a gradual decline back to the old ways. While thinking about the new way, also be thinking about yet better ways. When an issue arises such as a suggested improvement, a new way of working, a new tool or a new output requirement, review the first 4 S's and make changes as appropriate.

A sixth phase, µSafety¶ 'is sometimes added. It is reasonable to assume that a properly planned and executed 5S program will inherently improve workplace safety, but some argue that explicitly including this sixth S ensures that workplace safety is given primary consideration.'

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL 7. c. Toyota Production System
Introduction:-The Toyota Production System (TPS) is an integrated sociotechnical system, developed by Toyota that comprises its management philosophy and practices. The TPS organizes manufacturing and logistics for the automobile manufacturer, including interaction with suppliers and customers. The system is a major precursor of the more generic "Lean manufacturing." Taiichi Ohno, Shigeo Shingo and Eiji Toyoda developed the system between 1948 and 1975.

Goals:-The main objectives of the TPS are to design out overburden (Muri) and inconsistency (Mura), and to eliminate waste (muda). The most significant effects on process value delivery are achieved by designing a process capable of delivering the required results smoothly; by designing out "Mura" (inconsistency). It is also crucial to ensure that the process is as flexible as necessary without stress or "Muri" (overburden) since this generates "muda" (waste). Finally the tactical improvements of waste reduction or the elimination of muda are very valuable. There are seven kinds of muda that are addressed in the TPS:

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

Over-production Motion (of operator or machine) Waiting (of operator or machine) Conveyance Processing itself Inventory (raw material) Correction (rework and scrap)

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Continuous Improvement Challenge: - We form a long-term vision, meeting challenges with courage and creativity to realize our dreams. Kaizen: - We improve our business operations continuously, always driving for innovation and evolution. Genchi Genbutsu: - Go to the source to find the facts to make correct decisions.

Respect for People Respect: - We respect others, make every effort to understand each other, take responsibility and do our best to build mutual trust. Teamwork: - We stimulate personal and professional growth, share the opportunities of development and maximize individual and team performance.

External observers have summarized the principles of the Toyota Way as: Long-term philosophy OR short-term financial goals.
o o o o o The right process will produce the right results. Create continuous process flow to bring problems to the surface. Use the "pull" system to avoid overproduction. Level out the workload. Work like the tortoise, not the hare. Build a culture of stopping to fix problems, to get quality right from the first. o Standardized tasks are the foundation for continuous improvement and employee empowerment.
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o Use visual control so no problems are hidden. o Use only reliable, thoroughly tested technology that serves your people and processes. o Add value to the organization by developing your people and partners o Grow leaders who thoroughly understand the work, live the philosophy, and teach it to others. o Develop exceptional people and teams who follow your company's philosophy. o Respect your extended network of partners and suppliers by challenging them and helping them improve. o Continuously solving root problems drives organizational learning o Make decisions slowly by consensus, thoroughly considering all options Implement decisions rapidly. o Become a learning organization through relentless reflection and continuous Improvement.

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8. American Model:-

Top Management

Steering Committee

Volunteers

Department

Facilitators
Supervisor Circle Leader

Operator Circle Members

8. a. Six Sigma: Introduction: - Six Sigma is a business management strategy originally developed by Motorola, USA in 1981. As of 2010, it enjoys widespread application in many sectors of industry, although its application is not without controversy.

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Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes. It uses a set of quality management methods, including statistical methods, and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization ("Black Belts", "Green Belts", etc.) who are experts in these methods. Each Six Sigma project carried out within an organization follows a defined sequence of steps and has quantified targets. These targets can be financial (cost reduction or profit increase) or whatever is critical to the customer of that process (cycle time, safety, delivery, etc.). The term six sigma originated from terminology associated with manufacturing, specifically terms associated with statistical modeling of manufacturing processes. The maturity of a manufacturing process can be described by a sigma rating indicating its yield, or the percentage of defect-free products it creates. A six-sigma process is one in which 99.9% of the products manufactured are free of defects, compared to a one-sigma process in which only 31% are free of defects. Motorola set a goal of "six sigma¶s" for all of its manufacturing operations and this goal became a byword for the management and engineering practices used to achieve it. One key innovation of Six Sigma involves the "professionalizing" of quality management functions. Prior to Six Sigma, quality management in practice was largely relegated to the production floor and to statisticians in a separate quality department. Formal Six Sigma programs borrow martial arts ranking terminology to define a hierarchy (and career path) that cuts across all business functions.

Six Sigma identifies several key roles for its successful implementation. Executive Leadership includes the CEO and other members of top management. They are responsible for setting up a vision for Six Sigma implementation. They also empower the other role holders with the freedom and resources to explore new ideas for breakthrough improvements. Champions take responsibility for Six Sigma implementation across the organization in an integrated manner. The Executive Leadership draws them from upper management. Champions also act as mentors to Black Belts.
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Master Black Belts, identified by champions, act as in-house coaches on Six Sigma. They devote 100% of their time to Six Sigma. They assist champions and guide Black Belts and Green Belts. Apart from statistical tasks, they spend their time on ensuring consistent application of Six Sigma across various functions and departments. Black Belts operate under Master Black Belts to apply Six Sigma methodology to specific projects. They devote 100% of their time to Six Sigma. They primarily focus ona Six Sigma project execution, whereas Champions and Master Black Belts focus on identifying projects/functions for Six Sigma. Green Belts, the employees who take up Six Sigma implementation along with their other job responsibilities, operate under the guidance of Black Belts. Yellow Belts, trained in the basic application of Six Sigma management tools, work with the Black Belt throughout the project stages and are often the closest to the work.

Process /Methodology of Six Sigma: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Identification and selection of the right project(Define) Measure key product characteristics(Measure) Identification of key causes and process determinants(Analyze) Improve process and optimize performance(improve) Control the gains(control)

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL Quality management tools and methods used in Six Sigma: Within the individual phases of a DMAIC or DMADV project, Six Sigma utilizes many established quality-management tools that are also used outside of Six Sigma. The following table shows an overview of the main methods used.

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

5 Whys Analysis of variance ANOVA Gauge R&R Axiomatic design Business Process Mapping Catapult exercise on variability

Histograms Homoscedasticity Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Pareto chart Pick chart Process capability

8. b. 5 Whys
The 5 Whys is a question-asking method used to explore the cause/effect relationships underlying a particular problem. Ultimately, the goal of applying the 5 Whys method is to determine a root cause of a defect or problem. The following example demonstrates the basic process: My car will not start. (The problem) Why? - The battery is dead. (First why) Why? - The alternator is not functioning. (Second why) Why? - The alternator belt has broken. (Third why) Why? - The alternator belt was well beyond its useful service life and has never been replaced. (Fourth why) Why? - I have not been maintaining my car according to the recommended service schedule. (Fifth why, a root cause)

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List of Six Sigma companies
The following companies claim to have successfully implemented Six Sigma in some form or another: LLC 100% Effective Training LTD 3M Acme Markets Advanced Micro Devices Agilent Technologies Air Canada ALCAN Amazon.com AXA Bank of America Bechtel Corporation EMC Finning Flextronics Ford Motor Company General Electric General Dynamics Maple Leaf Foods McKesson Corporation [15] Merrill Lynch Methodia Microflex Inc. Motorola
Mumbai Dabbawala or NMTBSA

National Australia Group Europe Network Rail New Page Corporation Nielsen Company Nortel Networks Organo Corporation Owens-Illinois Pakistan International Airlines Pakistan State Oil Patheon Penske Truck Leasing

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL 8. c. Canon Production System
The Three Basic Structures of CPS 1. Quality Assurance (QA) System. Canon tries to ensure the best quality in all stages of development, production, and delivery to gain worldwide respect for their products. 2. Production Assurance (PA) System. PA is aimed to achieve just-in-time manufacturing, fast delivery, low cost, and also adopt the "visual control" philosophy. Canon has devised two subsystems to attain these PA goals: Canon's HIT System (equivalent to just-in-time) and Signal System. The HIT System means making parts and products only when needed and only in the quantity needed. Canon uses either HIT cards or signals for this purpose. 3. Personnel Training (PS) System. Under this system, Canon's employees are continually educated through a life-long education program.

Elimination of 9 wastes:The other critical instruments for realizing CPS objectives are the "four investments" (technologies, human resources, facilities, and welfare) and Waste Categories and 9 Wastes to Be Eliminated 1. Work-in-process- Stocking items not immediately needed 2. Quality- producing defective products. 3. Facilities- Having idle machinery and breakdowns, taking too long for setup. 4. Expenses- Overinvesting for required output. 5. Indirect labor - Excess personnel due to bad indirect labor system. 6. Talent - Employing people for jobs that can be mechanized or assigned to less skilled people. 7. Motion - Not working according to the best work standards. 8. Product Design - Producing products with more functions than necessary.

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9. New-product run-up - Making a slow start in stabilizing the production of a new product

Guidelines of the Canon's Suggestion System: 1. Always show a positive response to suggestions for improvement. 2. Help workers to write easily and give them helpful suggestions about their work. 3. Try to identify even the slightest inconvenience for the workers. (This requires very good superior-subordinate control.) 4. Make the target very clear. Example: How many suggestions do we need this month? Which area (quality, delivery, manpower, etc.) do we need to work on now? 5. Use competition and games to arouse interest, such as displaying individual achievement charts. 6. Implement accepted suggestions as soon as possible. Give awards before payday

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL 9. Indian Model:Top Management Steering Committee Facilitator Leader/Dy. Leader Members of Quality Non-Members

Indian Model
It is basically to control the process or help to follow particular rules of regulation in a company. Indian model was stating from British time, that time worker was use to follow the order when any top rank people gives any order the lower rank person should follow. After this model come in to Indian quality control model now any type decision company going to take they call a top management meeting and they decide what have to do and how to control the process and how many thing we have to consideration. A hierarchical organization is an organizational structure where every entity in the organization, except one, is subordinate to a single other entity. This
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arrangement is a form of a hierarchy. In an organization, the hierarchy usually consists of a singular/group of power at the top with subsequent levels of power beneath them. This is the dominant mode of organization among large organizations; most corporations, governments, and organized religions are hierarchical organizations with different levels of management, power or authority. For example, the broad, top-level overview of the general organization of the Catholic Church consists of the Pope, then the Cardinals, then the Archbishops, and so on. Members of hierarchical organizational structures chiefly communicate with their immediate superior and with their immediate subordinates. Structuring organizations in this way is useful partly because it can reduce the control overhead by limiting information flow; this is also its major limitation.

A top to down approach (is also known as step-wise design) is essentially the breaking down of a system to gain insight into its compositional sub-systems. In a top-down approach an overview of the system is first formulated, specifying but not detailing any first-level subsystems. Each subsystem is then refined in yet greater detail, sometimes in many additional subsystem levels, until the entire specification is reduced to base elements. A bottom-up approach is the piecing together of systems to give rise to grander systems, thus making the original systems sub-systems of the emergent system. In a bottom-up approach the individual base elements of the system are first specified in great detail. These elements are then linked together to form larger subsystems, which then in turn are linked, sometimes in many levels, until a complete top-level system is formed. This strategy often resembles a "seed" model, whereby the beginnings are small but eventually grow in complexity and completeness. However, "organic strategies" may result in a tangle of elements and subsystems, developed in isolation and subject to local optimization as opposed to meeting a global purpose.

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL Inspiring Your Staff from Top to Bottom
A. Start at the top Can you inspire yourself Absolutely. Think about your business plan. Consider the quality of life of your employees and what the company means to their livelihood. Think about why you started your company and what moved you to want to be successful in the first place. B. Ask questions. People feel valuable when they¶re asked about what¶s important to them. Find out what¶s meaningful to your employees and what inspires them to do good work. Make sure they know you¶re sincere, too. Sending out a broadcast e-mail or memo is probably not appropriate here; instead, try to be more spontaneous, informal, and personal. Weave your questions into conversations and then make and keep good mental notes. Write down what they say if necessary and then do what you can to create an environment that supports what you¶ve gleaned through your ³research.´

C. Add some fun. All work and no fun make for a pretty boring workplace; it doesn¶t do much for inspiration either. Infuse your office and the lives of your employees with some fun. Celebrate small milestones like the completion of half a report or an employee¶s newfound skill as the go-to person for help with the copy machine. Present cupcakes to employees having a birthday. Bring in lunch occasionally or serve your staff ice cream at the next meeting D. Recognize and reward. Nothing inspires people to work hard like a public pat on the back. Expressing your happiness with a job well done is important not only for the person receiving the praise but for colleagues, too. Public expression of kudos makes people feel good and motivates others to work hard so that they too will be recognized for their contributions. E. Start a speaker¶s bureau. You¶re not the only one who can benefit from the wisdom of a motivational speaker. Consider bringing in experts who know how to get people on their feet. Many companies hold ³Lunch and Learn´ sessions during which a speaker talks about a specific work-related topic during the lunch hour. Find local speakers willing to talk for nothing or a modest fee by inquiring at your local chamber of commerce, asking around at various networking events, and just by some general snooping. You¶d be surprised at the level of talent in your own backyard
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F. Listen to gripes, whining, and bad news. If you consistently ignore the complaints -- and you¶re bound to have them -- your people will lose faith in your ability to lead. Listening to bad news is actually a perfect opportunity to inspire. Once people know they¶ve been heard, they are often primed for something positive. Acknowledge their concerns, thank them for having the courage to speak up, and then try your best to do something about it. A cheerleading squad is essential in the workplace, but the players also need an opportunity to think and regroup

In an organizational set-up there are three types of control System:1. Down ward control: - this is also known as superior ± subordinate control. In this type, a superior communicates with his subordinates. The main purposes of downward control are:

A. B. C. D. E.

To establish and disseminate goals of an organization. To give information about organizational policies and procedures. To develop plans for achievement of the organizational goals. To select, develop and motivate members of organization. To organize goals in an effective manner.

2. Up Ward control:- this is also known as subordinate ± superior control. In this type, a subordinate communicates with his superior. The main purposes of upward control are: A. B. C. D. E. To give reports on various projects. To enhance understanding. To clarify one's situation. To seek help. To request for facilities.

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL
3. Horizontal control:- this is also known as interactive control. In this type a person communicates with individuals of relatively equal status in the organization. Individuals at each level, giving social support to one another, may freely communicate among themselves, but fail to communicate upward or downward. The main purposes of horizontal control are: A. B. C. D. E. To inquire something. To convey some information. To seek help. To help others. To coordinate with each other.

Example hierarchy in software company: level 4 - Associate / assistant Software Engineer (basically a trainee) duration to go to next tier (1 to 1.5Yrs) Software engineer - next to ASE (1.5 Yrs) level 3 - Senior Software Engineer (1.5 Yrs) level 2 -Team lead, Technical lead (2-3 Yrs) level 1 - Project Manager (3-5 Yrs) level 0 - Senior Project Manager , location manager, account manager, resource manager, delivery manager After tier 0 you become a President, VP, Chief Operating Officer(COO), one among the board of directors and move across organizations

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL 10. How to Make decision: Any company when take any decision they at first find the problem and find any simple solution when they fill now require permission top management then they inform in to top management and take permission from there. The top CEO or VP when they take decision they call a board meeting and call all share holder or top post employer. There they think all possible solution and inform to next level manager and told to guide or hand over. Problem solving and decision-making are important skills for business and life. Problem-solving often involves decision-making, and decision-making is especially important for management and leadership. There are processes and techniques to improve decision-making and the quality of decisions. Decisionmaking is more natural to certain personalities, so these people should focus more on improving the quality of their decisions. People that are less natural decisionmakers are often able to make quality assessments, but then need to be more decisive in acting upon the assessments made. Problem-solving and decisionmaking are closely linked, and each requires creativity in identifying and developing options, for which the brainstorming technique is particularly useful. See also the free SWOT analysis template and examples, and PEST analysis template, which help decision-making and problem-solving. SWOT analysis helps assess the strength of a company, a business proposition or idea; PEST analysis helps to assess the potential and suitability of a market. Good decision-making requires a mixture of skills: creative development and identification of options, clarity of judgment, firmness of decision, and effective implementation. For group problem-solving and decision-making, or when a consensus is required, workshops help, within which you can incorporate these tools and process as appropriate. Here are some useful methods for effective decision-making and problem-solving: First a simple step-by-step process for effective decision-making and problemsolving.

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL 11. Why a company follows a particular model: Why they follow KAIZEN: - Interested in more information about quality, continuous improvement, kaizen events and other ways organizations are involving people in business decisions and process improvements. Employee suggestion programs can help with quality and process improvement, when implemented effectively. Learn about the role of quality and continuous improvement in business and management. The pitfalls of an ill-conceived employee suggestion program are multiple, legendary and most frequently - avoidable. A carefully constructed suggestion program, launched with organizational commitment, clarity and ongoing control can positively impact your bottom line. With these tips and ideas you can implement an employee suggestion program that will succeed beyond your wildest dreams. Why they follow Six sigma :- The term "six sigma process" comes from the notion that if one has six standard deviations between the process mean and the nearest specification limit, as shown in the graph, practically no items will fail to meet specifications. This is based on the calculation method employed in process capability studies. Capability studies measure the number of standard deviations between the process mean and the nearest specification limit in sigma units. As process standard deviation goes up, or the mean of the process moves away from the center of the tolerance, fewer standard deviations will fit between the mean and the nearest specification limit, decreasing the sigma number and increasing the likelihood of items outside specification.
y y y y y y

have steady production of clearly defined standard products a reasonable number of units made a high value product have flexible working practices and a disciplined workforce short setup times on machines quality can be assured, e.g. zero defects either though good working practices or though a cost penalty

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL
Why they follow JIT
y y y y y y y y

regular meetings of the workforce (e.g. daily/weekly) discuss work practices, confront and solve problems an emphasis on consultation and cooperation (i.e. involving the workforce) rather than confrontation modify machinery, e.g. to reduce setup time reduce buffer stock expose problems, rather than have them covered up reveal bad practices take away the "security blanket" of stock

Hierarchy More easy control over the resources because with it resources can be rationed and allocated to different units to use them to their most productive uses at micro level. 1. Clearly defined reporting lines make it easy for employees to know to whom to report. 2. Reduce redundancies by eliminating extra and unproductive processes 3. Stream line processes by giving it more focus and adoptive nature. 4. It helps to reduce costs because the controlling of various cost control centers are controlled at micro level. 5. It gives focus and direction to an organization.

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL 12. 3-D Model: - Quality control is a process by which entities review the
quality of all factors involved in production. This approach places an emphasis on three aspects. Elements such as controls, job management, defined and well managed processes, performance and integrity criteria, and identification of records Competence, such as knowledge, skills, experience, and qualifications will improve the 3-D Model. The model based on ³JAI (Japanese, American & Indian) Quality Management Process´ Soft elements, such as personnel integrity, confidence, organizational culture, motivation, team spirit, and quality relationships.

Continuous Improvement J

Good Control Quality/Service/Process

Quality & A Innovation JAI 3-D Model

I

Laborious & Management

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL
Meaning of JAI is Wining, so JAI Model means success in business, according to my JAI model of quality management it will help to success in business in organization and company. JAI is consist of J+A+I, J - means continuous improvement of processes, A ± means Quality and Innovation, I ± means Laborious and Management initiative. To get a better perspective in management and development we need to follow a 3 Dimensional approach which consist of joining of three cultures of the world giants i.e. Japan, America and one of the fastest developing economies India. Japanese tends to continuous improvement of process and leads to a better processes which leads to cost reduction and better quality. Americans tends to innovation which provides world the best products. Americans believe in providing the customers the possible solutions and providing the novel products in the market. India is known for their hard work and the best brains, Indians do have a tendency of working hard and providing the best possible results. Laborious work are better done in India as well as best brains working on project helps the companies to deal in better manner. Combining these three found 3-D JAI Model will give a better product with better process and better systems so that the output to the world will be improving every day. We need to work together to provide better services to the world and do have an advantage of gaining better exposure and better output.

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL 13. Conclusion:As per the study carried out in this paper, it is been realized that every country has its own strength and different competitive advantage. Every country has its own core competencies which has led them to succeed in many areas.3D approach leads to the combination of these competencies to make world know about novel systems and products and to provide world with better future prospects up till now every country was working for their own profits and gains but there was no common platform so that a better business world is developed rather than competing to each other it is lucrative to work together and provide a better platform for Innovation, Improvement and Hierarchical aspects. I will like to conclude that this business scenario could be better if JAI works together and provide a better platform for business. The involvement of work people in Japan has lead mainly to process improvement rather than to product improvement, Sorting go through all tools, materials, etc. In the plant and work area keep only essential items. Everything else is stored or discarded. Workers should not have to repetitively bend to access materials. Each tool, part, supply, piece of equipment, etc. should be kept close to where it will be used Keep the workplace clean as well as neat Maintain and review standards When an issue arises such as a suggested improvement, a new way of working . So JAI is perfect model.

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THEME PAPER JAI MODEL 14. Bibliography: 1) Book: Total Quality Management Movement Author: Drummond H Publishing Date: 1994 2) Book: Total Quality: Management, Organization, And Strategy, 4th Edition Author: Evans James R. Publishing Date: 2009 3) Book: Total Quality Management 3rd Edition (s) Author: Bester field Publishing Date: 2008 4) Book: Total Quality Management - Principles And Practice Author: Mandal Publishing Date: 2004 5) Book: Implementing TQM Author: Joseph R Jablonski Publishing Date: 2005 6) Ogunbekun IO. Cash for health care: the unending search. World Health Forum, 1991. 7) Awobem FJ, Bekibele CO, Baiyeroju AM. Patients¶ perception of the quality of eye care at the University College Hospital, 2005. 8) Centre for Disease Control. Total Quality Management: Team members¶ manual. Centre for Disease Control, Atlanta, 1996. 9) http://www.pmhut.com/six-sigma-vs-total-quality-management 10) http://www.essayworld.com/members/essays/11/1495.shtml 11) http://members.tripod.com/fjcm/topics.htm 12) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound_change

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