# Work and Energy notes

How is work defined?
Work is done when force acting on a body produces displacement in it. Work is a scalar quantity.

What are the essential conditions for work to be done?
For work to be done, the following conditions are to be satisfied: 1. 2. A force should act on the body. The body should move in the direction of the force or opposite to it, i.e. the body must be displaced.

On what factors does the amount of work done depend on?
The amount of work done depends on the following facto rs: 1. 2. Magnitude of the force. Displacement of the body in the direction of force.

How is amount of work measured?
The amount of work done depends on: 1. 2. 3. The force applied. The displacement of the body The angle between the direction of the force and that of the displacement of the body.

When is work done: a) positive, b) negative, and c) zero?
Work done on a body is positive when the force acts in the direction of displacement. Work done on a body is negative when the force acts opposite to the direction of displacement. Work done is zero when the body moves in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the force applied.

Give examples when the work done is zero.
1. 2. No work is done by the person against gravity when he walks horizontally carrying a suitcase in his hand or on his head. When the body moves along a circular path the force acts along the radius of the circular path and the motion of the body is in the tangential direction. So the angle between the force and the direction of motion is 90. Hence no work is done on a body when it moves a circular path.

What is meant by energy?
Energy is the capacity to do work. Thus, the amount of energy possessed by a body is equal to the amount of work it can do when the energy is released. SI units of energy and work are the same. Energy is scalar quantity.

What is mechanical energy?
Energy by the virtue of which an object can do mechanical work directly is called mechanical energy.

What is kinetic energy?
The energy possessed by abody by virtue of its motion is called kinetic energy.

total work done = F x S But total work done by a moving body before coming to rest is equal to kinetic energy.How I kinetic energy of a body expressed? The total amount of work which a moving body can do before coming to rest is equal to its kinetic energy. Let a body of mass m moving with velocity v be at a position A at any given time. kinetic energy of the body = F x S For the body.           According to newton s second law of motion. force=mass x acceleration=ma So. Therefore work done by the body = Therefore Kinetic energy = Hence the kinetic energy of a body of mass m and velocity v is . But F x S= work done by the body. So the kinetic energy of a moving body can be determined by measuring the total work it could do before coming to rest. we have initial velocity = v Final velocity = 0 Acceleration = -a Distance travelled = S Using the equation. Therefore. substituting the value of a from (2) in (1). So. If this body moves against an opposing force F then its velocity gradually decreases. Derive the formula for kinetic energy. Then. Let the body come to rest after covering a distance S at position B.

What is the commercial unit of energy? The commercial unit of energy is kilowatt -hour (kWh). When an object is thrown up. the total mechanical energy remains constant. Define power. So. power =    . Give a few examples of transformation of energy. its kinetic energy gradually gets converted into potential energy gained by virtue of its increasing height. Thus. Chemical energy of a firecracker is converted to thermal energy and light and sound energy when it combusts. Power may also be defined as the amount of work done in one unit of time. One kWh is the unit of energy used by a machine in an hour if it consumes energy at a rate of 1000 J/s or 1000 W. As a result the total energy remains unchan ged. The rate of doing work is called power.What is potential energy? Energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position or configuration is called potential energy. potential energy of a stretched catapult gets conv erted to kinetic energy of the pellet that is released. When the kinetic ene rgy of that object becomes zero and it starts falling back to the ground. . Power is a scalar quantity and the SI unit of power is J/s or W. Define conservation of mechanical energy. the kinetic energy starts to increase by virtue of its increasing speed and the potential energy decreases by virtue of decreasing height. Potential energy possessed by virtue of height above the gro und is known as gravitational potential energy.