Submitted to:Prof. Reema Mohanty
On 13th May 2010

Indian Business Academy
Submitted by:Amit Dandapath-FPBO911/009

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Apart from the efforts of mine, the success of this project depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project. I would first like to thank our CEO, Mr. Manish Jain, and Dean, Dr. Subhash Sharma for being so encouraging and helpful throughout my report work . I would also like to express my profound gratitude to Prof. Reema Mohanty for her constant and valuable suggestions while doing the project work. Without her encouragement and guidance this project would not have materialized.



M.Comm Faculty

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S. No
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Introduction Objective Why Are Firms going Green? What can be the available options Rising challenges Global Megatrends How to achieve green growth? Sector Segments - Alternative Green Building Features of Green Buildings Green building perspectives & bottom line benefits Green building in a down economy Successful commercial green building projects Green marketing Conclusion Bibliography

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1. Introduction

As the world is facing problems with global warming and problem of climate change there is pressure from the developed countries on the developing
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countries to reduce their carbon footprint and help reduce the impact on the environment. The world has a fixed amount of natural resources - some of which are already depleted. So as population growths there is great strain on our finite resources. So the first step in this cause is to become sustainable and reduce the environmental impact and focus on going green as it has many benefits other than cost associated benefits. Based on significant research and input from experts in the field, including the advisory panel convened to help guide this study, Pew has developed the following definition: A clean energy economy generates jobs, businesses and investments while expanding clean energy production, increasing energy efficiency, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, waste and pollution, and conserving water and other natural resources. The clean energy economy comprises five categories: (1) Clean Energy; (2) Energy Efficiency; (3) Environmentally Friendly Production; (4) Conservation and Pollution Mitigation; and (5) Training and Support. As a Renewable Energy service provider targeting emerging markets, Green Power Renewable Energy will compete in the industry known as Renewable for Sustainable Power (RSP). RSP is a small, but fast-growing subset of the gigantic global energy industry, which is currently experiencing an economic revolution. One significant characteristic of this revolution has been astonishing growth. Over the past ten years, for instance, the world's demand for electricity has increased by 40 percent. Experts predict that, as industrialization sweeps developing countries, current demand could triple by 2020. Because so many new electricity users live in remote areas, most of this increased demand has been, and will continue to be, serviced by RE, As a result, renewable are by far the fastest growing segment of world energy use. The second trend of importance is the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, a bipartisan legislation effort to p osition the U.S. to lead the development of clean energy by ensuring that commercial financing for clean, new technologies is readily available for future energy use right here in America. A strong renewable electricity standard (RES) is an essential component of any comprehensive national energy policy, not just an important part of such a strategy, but an essential component. A national RES also will reduce our greenhouse gas emissions, increase our energy security, and enhance the reliability of the electricity grid by creating more homegrown renewable energy. Rapidly ramps up clean, domestic sources of electricity by requiring the gradual increase of the amount of renewable energy utilities produce. Sellers of electricity must obtain the following percentages of their electricity from renewable energy resources or from energy efficiency improvements .
YEAR __ % 2011-2013««««..3
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2014-2016««««. 6 2017-2018««««. 9 2019-2020«««« 12 2021-2039«««« 15

An aspiration goal of limiting global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius, broad terms have been formulated for the reporting and verification of countries actions; a collective commitment by developed countries for $30 billion in ³new and additional´ resources in 2010 -2012 to help devel oping countries reduce emissions, preserve forests, and adapt to climate change; and a goal of mobilizing $100 billion a year in public and private finance by 2020 to address developing county needs. To meet the above goals of the Copenhagen summit the gov ernment has to develop alternative projects, such as solar or wind energy or reforestation to reduce the carbon footprint. Government agency alone cannot do, it can only be done with the help of the private sector. There is immense pressure from the Central Pollution Control Board on the Business ,the companies should take this in positive terms in with if they focus on these objectives they can benefit themselves not just short term but in longer and much broader perceptive and create new opportunities of this they should focus on convocation that will help the business to grow and make them more competitive in long term, these initiative should range from layout change , operating activities to build green buildings so as reduce the impact on environment and will meet the business needs effectively.

2. Objective y Why the companies are going green. y To find a green business model that can be applied to different business y How the companies become self sufficient in carry in out their operation.
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y Market research on green marketing.

3. Why Are Firms going Green?

Firms are implementing go green in their systems, policies and products due to economic and noneconomic pressures from their consumers, business partners, regulators, citizen group and other stakeholders. Some of the other reasons may include.
y Some scholar claim that green policies/products are profitable : green policies can reduce costs; green firms can shape future regulations and reap first mover advantage. y Now a day firms are becoming more concerned about their social responsibilities. They have taken S.R as a good strategic move to build up an image in the heart of Consumers. Even the socially responsible firms are getting leverage, whenever they intend to enter into foreign countries. There is example of firms like HCL, TCS, Infosys; these are heavily promoting them as environmentally concerned firms, so as to get important client abroad as well as domestic contracts. y Change in customers attitude: with increasing concern about environment, consumers attitude towards firms having green policies or green products are becoming motivating factor. y Governmental pressure: in all most all civilized countries Govt. has the law to protect the consumers and the environment from the harmful goods or byproducts and ensure through law that all types of consumers have the ability to evaluate the environmental composition of goods. Govt. established several regulations to control the amount of hazardous waste produced by firms and many by-products of production are controlled through the issuing of various environmental licenses, thus shaping the behavior organization towards more socially responsible one. Government has designed guidelines in such a way that consumer would have appropriate information which would enable them to evaluate organization¶s environmental claims. y Competitive pressure: competition is the integral part of business; and one can¶t over-look any competitive action taken by the competitor. So to be in the market one has to have a vigil over your competitor¶s move for marketing its products. y Cost or profit issue: firms may also use green strategy so as to have a control over the cost associated with waste disposal. Therefore firms that
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would able to introduce green -practices by not inculcating or lesser use of harmful ingredients would able to reduce its operating cost to a considerable extend.

4. What can be the available options

If you are looking for ways to put a little green in your wallet by putting some green in your portfolio, you might be surprised at the wide range of offerings available for your consideration. Let's take a look at 10 interesting areas, which are highlighted below.

Windmill farms are sprouting up around the world. Australia, Europe and the United States are all investing in wind as a l eading source of renewable energy. The business of wind not only includes the generation and sale of power, but also the design and construction of wind turbines. Few countries rely on wind for more than a tiny fraction of their power generation need, but many countries are interested in the possibility. If this is of interest to you, look for wind farm companies that sell windgenerated energy or companies that produce the windmill technology. There are few pure play stocks that deal in wind in the U.S. , which will likely change over time, but companies like General Electric have a presence in this market.
Water One of the most important natural resources we have is water as it is a necessity in our survival. However, there has been a lot of fear that we are running out of clean water sources as the global population continues to grow. To investors this has created a clear opportunity to invest in companies that collect, clean and distribute water. The largest water utility company in the U.S. is Aqua America, which supplies water to nearly 3 million people. Another company in the industry, on the purification side, is ITT Industries, which produces water purification systems that help to make drinkable water.

To see the power of water, one needs look n o further than China's massive Three Gorges Dam project. While this $25 billion structure on the
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Yangtze River will be the largest hydroelectric power station in the world, it's sure not the only one. Hydropower involves a lot of technology, a lot of infrastructure and a lot of power-hungry customers. Every one of those areas holds potential opportunities for investors. On the power side, two publically traded producers include PG&E Corp. which has one of the largest hydro operations and which has 17 hydro projects. (For related reading, see
Solar Energy Solar energy is powering homes, buildings and a variety of other items from lights to radios. As the cost of fossil fuels continues to rise and their availability continues to decline, the future looks bright for solar energy. If you think the sun is just starting to rise on this industry the companies to look at are those that produce solar energy panels, which will benefit if homeowners and businesses adopt solar technology. Two of the leading producers of solar panels are Evergreen Solar and Sun power Corp. which develop, manufacture and sell panels and components and will directly benefit from the increased adoption of solar power.

Fuel Cells On a smaller scale, researchers are working with fuel cell technology to develop an alternative method of powering automobiles. The U.S. government hopes that hydrogen powered cars will be commonplace by 2020. If this technology works, there are millions of cars - and millions of consumers waiting for it. If you think this is the type of energy is the wave of the future there are a few companies that operate in the space and and develop fuel cell technology. For example, some of the largest producers include Ballard Power Systems which produces cells that can be used in from cars to power plants, and Fuel Cell Energy which focuses on providing power options to commercial and industrial facilities. Efficiency Just about every aspect of efficiency is good for the environment. Energ y efficient construction and appliances reduce home energy use and energy efficient cars reduce our dependence on oil. From efficient lighting to creating the paperless office, innovative companies are developing innovative products that maximize the benef it that we get from the resources that we use. Efficiency is the watchword of the day and a developing field that will create the
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technologies that we will use tomorrow. This area is a little more difficult to invest in as there are no real pure play companies dealing strictly in efficiency. However, there are some companies that have done a great job at leveraging efficiency such as General Electric with its Ecomagination business unit.

Pollution Controls

Reduction is the key term here. From reducing green house gas emissions on industrial power plants to minimizing the emissions that come out of the tailpipe of your car, the pollution control industry is on the rise. Every time legislation mandates an improvement in the amount of some harmful chemical that can be released into the environment, the pollut ion control industry responds. If this is something you are concerned about, look for companies that develop pollution control technologies such as Fuel-Tech and Versar.
Waste Reduction

Recycling has become a standard practice for many people in recent decades. The stuff that was formerly thrown away and trucked off to the landfill is now turned into useful products. Most people are aware that household products such as paper, metal and glass are reprocessed and reused, but they never stop to consider the business behind these endeavors. Of course, these aren't the only items that are reused; waste oil, vegetable oil, batteries, cell phones, computers and even parts from cars can have a second life. Rec ycling these items involves a business enterprise humming along in the backgriound. In terms of your portfolio, waste management companies with a large base of recycling facilities may be of interest including companies such as Allied Waste Industries and waste management.

Organic farms eschew the use of pesticides, engage in sustainable farming practices and sell products that are often healthier to eat than the stuff composed of three-syllable words that you can't pronounce and a shelf -life measured in decades. They also engage in animal management practices that avoid the use of hormones and antibiotics, keeping those chemicals out of the food chain and out of the ground and water surrounding the farms .
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Best In Class

For many companies, the urge to go green is a relatively recent phenomenon. Like change everywhere, some firms adapt and some don't. Investment managers in the "green" space have begun to categorize firms by the place they hold along the "green" spectrum. Take oil companies fo r example. One would be hard pressed to think of these firms as green, and for the most part, they aren't. But if you take a closer look at their business models, it is easy to see that some are greener than others. Choosing the firms with the best environmental records And practices is another way of looking at ³green´

How to Grow a Green Portfolio

If a "green" investment catches your eye, there are plenty of ways to find a place for it in your portfolio. Mutual funds, exchange -traded funds, stocks, bonds and even money market funds that focus on the environment are all available.

5. Rising challenges

Over the next four years, UNIDO will continue to pursue its overarching development objective of industrial development for poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and environmental sustainability. It will promote capacity development, technology transfer, policy and institutional support, gender mainstreaming and sustainability, with the aim of enhancing growth, competitiveness and wealth creation in developing countries. Wealth creation, said Yumkella, is key in the fight against poverty. To better respond to the challenges of today, the Director-General emphasized three cross-organizational initiatives: industrial upgrading and enterprise competitiveness for existing industries in developing countries; greening industry; and South-South cooperation. Many African countries are rich in raw materials, so rural development and value addition have to be addressed in order to foster economic growth. The next four years will be challenging. Focus will be on change management, knowledge management, results -based management, field effectiveness and staff mobility, and accountability Of these, change management is a lynchpin.
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UNIDO has accomplished much in the past four years, but needs to continue doing more, and doing better. The Director-General closed his speech with an urgent plea to Member States to invest in the Organization and give it the resources it needs to achieve its aims.

6. Global Megatrends

The world¶s economic slowdown is not the only issue affecting developing countries as they strive to build their economies and improve living standards. In his speech, the Director-General discussed these so-called µglobal megatrends¶ and their implications. Here is an outline: 1) Food, fuel and financial crises continue to strain fragile economies. Loss of exports, reduced growth and concomitant rising unemployment is resulting in deepening poverty for many. Meanwhile, food prices have increased by more than 50 per cent over the past three years and the longterm trend for fuel prices is upwards. 2) Demographics rapid population growth in developing countries means increased demand for food and fuel. In 1959, Africa¶s population was estimated at 221 million. In 2009, it reached one billion and continues to increase rapidly. 3) Illicit economy is growing worldwide. Statistics show that poverty, and the lack of jobs and economic prospects for growing populations, is linked to an increase in crime and illegal migration. 4) Climate change is the defining global trend of our time. Developing countries are suffering most from the effects of global warming even though they contribute the least to greenhouse gas emissions. 5) Green growth and green industry energy access is crucial for development, economic growth and poverty reduction. Developing countries are ready to adopt clean technologies and build green industry, but they need international help to do so. 6) Globalization is creating greater interdependence and market connectivity, but not all developing countries and regions are growing at the same pace. Some are booming while in others the share of global trade has grown only slightly in the past decade.

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7. How to achieve green growth? A. Innovation

The proceedings got under way with an inspirational presentation by Gunter Pauli on ³how to respond to the basic needs of all, with what we have´. Pauli listed case after case in which small, unlikely ideas have grown into powerful expressions of self-sufficiency, generating jobs and revenue, while being environmentally sound and sustainable. Referring to organic waste, he said: ³Natural systems never throw things into a landfill or use an incinerator.´ ³But in coffee growing, for example, we have developed a consumption pattern in which we only give value to 0.2 per cent. That¶s what ends up in our coffee cup. The rest is waste,´ Pauli said. He then described a programmer in Colombia, which converts coffee bean husks into a substrate for growing shitake mushrooms. After the mushrooms have been harvested, the spent substrate is used as animal feed. Today, in countries like Zimbabwe, women are working with this method, building up businesses along with self-confidence, providing jobs and food for the local population, and generating revenues from the coffee that is exported. ³In future the lateral mind will be one of the keys. It¶s the linkages between ideas and technologies, that is when innovation comes,´ agreed Gerard Evenden. He said the essence of Masdar City, the global clean technology cluster in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, of which he is designer, is innovation. Currently, seven per cent of the energy needed to run Masdar, a city of 100,000 people, is produced from the waste generated by those people. ³Innovation is not about technology,´ said Deborah Wince-Smith. ³I would define innovation as the integration of imagination, ideas, ingenuity, and impact. Together we have transformational power. Every human being can be an innovator.´ She also pointed out that by 2020, 80 per cent of global consumers will be outside of the developed world, so globalization and integration must work in cooperation, not competition
B. New thinking needed

A new way of thinking is called for ± thinking green, said Suzana Kahn Ribeiro. ³Public awareness is very important. Consumers are now becoming aware of environmental problems and they are demanding other kinds of products,´ she observed. ³The most challenging thing is to help people learn how to live in a greener manner, change their behavior. We must invest in raising awareness in people.´ For Wince-Smith, the focus has to be on making the business case. ³One of my concerns about the climate issue is that we still have to think about energy security. If we delink energy security and the need for energy for every single thing we do and only talk about the
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climate challenge, we are creating an unsustainable model for global support,´ she said. ³Firstly, let¶s look at energy efficiency. We have to link innovations to the demand and business case and cultural attitudes if we want to move forward.´ ³It¶s a matter of basic market conditions,´ remarked Ola Alter ³In Sweden, we are about to phase out fossil fuels completely from the heating sector. It¶s basically using waste heat and energy in a more intelligent way, but it would not have been possible without a high CO2 tax. The ecological cost was reflected in the market. So we are changing the whole heating sector .
C. Technology transfer

Developed countries continue to export old technologies to the developing world, Evenden pointed out. He said that energy-wasting buildings with singleglazed windows are still being constructed around the world. There need to be export controls on old technology. Ribeiro said that some multinational companies prefer to build factories in countries with weak legislation so that the product can be cheaper. What is needed is to build institutional capacities in the least developed countries in order to create a business envir onment that can attract innovative solutions and avoid the transfer of old technologies. ³The rich countries can afford to waste, although they should not for moral reasons. The poor countries can¶t afford to waste,´ noted von Weizsäcker. ³It¶s the duty of the rich countries to cooperate with poor countries in terms of technology, etc., to make efficiency and sustainability worldwide issues and not just those of the technologically-advanced.´ Referring to Pauli¶s discussion of biomass, Alterå observed that the solutions are not always to be found in sophisticated technology. There was so much to be achieved on the ground and in that sense he was optimistic about green growth.

8. Sector Segments - Alternative A. Building retrofits

An average-sized single-family home in the United States would require an investment of as little as $2,500 in energy-efficiency retrofits to produce a cost savings in the range of 30 percent per year.( 7) This would involve caulking to plug air leaks in the house and adding insulation to attics and basement ceilings. For an additional $2,500, further energy savings are available through replacing windows with air leaks and installing energy efficient appliances.
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Despite these potential savings, most homeowners have not retrofitted their homes because they are unaware of the costs savings available to them or they cannot afford the upfront expenses and time commitment involved. But these barriers to retrofit investments will come down through the specific government spending programs that finance retrofits, the building codes that establish higher efficiency standards in buildings, and the more general regulatory environment that raises the costs of burning conventional fossil fuels. As the market becomes more extensive and efficient, this will further encourage new investment in retrofits. In particular, banks, utility companies and various types of nonprofit groups will increasingly organize themselves to supply the upfront financing for these projects. In addition, construction crews wil l begin to organize their services to take advantage of the expanding opportunities. The potential market for building retrofits is huge. There are roughly 110 million occupied housing units in the United States, including 80 million single-family detached homes, as well as smaller numbers of a) ached units, apartments, and trailers. As a rough approximation, assuming an average investment in retrofits would be around $4,000 per unit implies an overall potential market of $400 billion. We would then add the corresponding market for non-residential structures. The U.S. Green Building Council surveyed the existing stock of these structures in 2008, including all educational buildings, hospitals, retail outlets, and office buildings of various sorts. They estimated the costs of retrofitting all of these buildings at $358 billion.
B. Cogeneration

Energy cogeneration systems utilize the heat generated by industrial processes to generate electricity on-site. These systems therefore offer a significant means for utilizing available energy sources at higher levels of efficiency, These investments will thus be encouraged" along with other energy efficiency investments "through regulations that set a cap on carbon emissio ns and subsequent increases in conventional fossil fuel prices. The Energy Information Administration projects that investment in on-site cogeneration is expected to grow by about 40 percent between 2007 and 2030 . It is reasonable to expect that this will roughly entail an additional $5 billion in inv estment each year.
C. Renewable energy

Investments in renewable energy "wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, and hydroelectric power" will aim at advancing technologies to the point where they are fully cost-competitive with conventional fossil fuels, and to integrate these cost-competitive technologies into the U.S. economy¶s ongoing operations. This will also proceed across the range of markets in which renewable energy
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sources are viable including on- and off-grid electricity generation, nonelectricity forms of energy generation, and alternative fuels.

D. Nonelectric renewable energy

Electricity represents only one form of renewable energy that final users can generate themselves. There are other forms of decentralized renewable energy production such as geothermal pumps, solar hot water systems and even wood-burning stoves, in which individual households and businesses alike could invest. If we assume that the investment in these nonelectrical forms of energy production is roughly equivalent to investment i n renewable electricity generation by end-users "as calculated by the EIA" then investment by final users would total about $3 billion per year.
E. Alternative fuels for motor vehicles

Biofuels from non-food sources "for example, cellulosic biofuels" that can be used for motor vehicle transportation represent another area of growing clean-energy investment. By 2020, the market for ethanol from a variety of sources is expected to be about 20 billion gallons per year. To produce one -third of this quantity of ethanol from cellulosic sources by 2020, additional investment of about $50 billion would be needed over 10 year s, or about $5 billion per year.

9. Green Buildings Currently, conventional buildings in the U.S. have an enormous carbon footprint (see table 1)1 which can be prevented and reversed through the construction of new and retrofitting of existing buildings to be environmentally friendly, or ³green.´2 Green buildings are designed, constructed, and operated to maximize operational efficiency and minimize environmental impact. There are several different green elements that can be incorporated into a building that not only reduce environmental impact but have also proven to be cost effective investments.

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Green Buildings are the Friendly Structures sustainable building, is the practice of creating structures and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from sitting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renova tion, and deconstruction. This practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Now, it is beyond imagination, how much damage has been inflicted on earth by the construction of various types of buildings using sand and water from the rivers, stones from the mountains, cement manufactured from the ingredients dug from the land. In addition, carbon emission from the buildings and manufacture of construction materials warm up the air and spa ce. The concept of Green Buildings envision a new approach to save water, energy and material resources in the construction and maintenance of the buildings and can reduce or eliminate the adverse impact of buildings on the environment and occupants .

10. Features of Green Buildings

1. Rainwater recovery systems y Rainwater and other non-potable water such as condensation can be recycled for toilet flushing and site irrigation 2. Occupancy sensors that ensure lights turn off when not in use 3. ³Green´ cleaning products 4. Cool roof y materials with highly reflective coating on the roof that allow the hottest rays to bounce off 5. Recycling and solid waste management programs 6. Strategic landscaping y Select plans that require little water and maintenance 7. Tinted windows y Maximize natural light while blocking heat 8. Low-flow fixtures and waterless urinals 9. Preferred parking for high efficiency vehicles 10. Highly energy efficient HVAC systems 11. Low or no-volatile organic compound (VOC) paints and adhesives 12. Solar panels 13. Bicycle storage
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14. Location suited to take advantage of mass transit

Concept cross section of a Green Building
A. Land: The landscaping and the exterior design in a green building shall be in such a way that there is more shaded area, the light trespass is eliminated and local species of plants are grown. B. Water: The green building by its design and shape shall not disrupt the natural water flows, it should orient and stand just likes a tree. Rain falling over the whole area of the complex shall be harvested in full either to replenish the ground water table in and around the building or to be utilized in the services of the building. The toilets shall be fitted with low flesh fixtures. The plumbing system should have separate lines for drinking and flushing. Grey water from kitchenette, bath and laundry shall be treated and reused for gardening or in cooling towers of air conditioning. C. Energy: The solar energy at the top of a green building is harvested to supplement the conventional energy,. The natural light is harvested in the intermediate floors to minimize the usage of electricity. Sunlight is restricted by the high grown trees outside the lower floors of the building. High efficiency light fixtures make a pleasant lighting apart from saving the energy. High-efficiency windows and insulation in walls, ceilings, and floors are used for the benefit of better temperature control.

Green buildings improve internal environment for the occupants A. Light: In a designed green building the occupants shall feel as if they are in outdoor location. The interior and exterior designs shall go hand in hand by blending the natural and artificial lighting and presenting transparent views wherever possible. B. Air: In the air conditioned environment, a green building shall be specially equipped to ensure the Indoor Air Quality for a healthy atmosphere. Even the nasal feelings shall be pleasant free from the odor of paints and furnishings. Green buildings preserve the environment at places far away from the buildings.
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We all know that a building is constructed using cement, sand, steel, stones, bricks, and a lot of finishing materials. These materials are quarried or procured from far away from the location of the buildings. Building materials are responsible for about 20 percent of the greenhouse gasses emitted by a building during its lifetime. Green buildings shall use the products that are nontoxic, reusable, renewable, and/or recyclable wherever possible. Locally manufactured products are preferred so that the collective material environment of the locality remains a constant and moreover the fuel for the transport of materials is saved. As we see, our food and domestic products are tagged with green as a fashion of eco friendly practices; building materials are also going green. The futuristic green buildings are to use green materi als which are in research stage now.
A. Green wood: A Stanford team has done a research for wood alternate. Hemp fibers and biodegradable plastic when pressed together and heated form layers and this material is as strong as wood. When buried in land fill, it degrades faster. This wood creates more raw materials when it breaks down. Microbes produce methane gas when they decompose this wood substitute and other debris thrown into landfills. Another type of bacteria absorbs this gas and turns it into plastic that can be used to create a new wooden plank. By this cycle, there is a continuous source of raw material for this wood. When this material at research comes to market, it may help to control deforestation and promote the rainfall. B. Green Cement: Bruce Constants at Calera, based in Los Gatos, has developed a green method to produce both cement and aggregate, another component of Concrete. Their method sequesters Carbon Di Oxide from power plant flues and mixes the gas with sea water to produce the minera l raw materials of concrete. For every ton of green cement Calera manufactures half a ton of fly ash from coal plants is used apart from preventing production and emission of Carbon Di Oxide. C. Other Green Building materials: Renewable plant materials like bamboo (because bamboo grows quickly) and straw, lumber from forests ecology blocks, dimension stone, recycled stone, recycled metal are some of the other materials used in a Green Building.

ENERGY STAR for Buildings Space Types Applicable for Commercial Real Estate:

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Offices Retail stores Hospitals Hotels/motels Supermarkets/grocery stores Banks/financial institutions Medical office

11. Green building perspectives & bottom line benefits

The question of whose responsibility it is to transform commercial real estate into a sustainable industry has been eagerly debated over the past decade. While some feel it is a task for developers¶, others assert that if owners and tenants demand it, green buildings will become readily available in response. Although all sides of the debate have valid grounds, the reality is that the responsibility of greening the industry rests in the hands of everyone involved.

Speak with any developer and they will tell you that their goal is to deliver to their client the best building a specified budget and a defined time frame will allow. Some claim that green buildings are virtually impossible to build as a result of these strict limitations, especially in tough economic times when clients are watching every extra dolla r a project requires. While this justification may have been relevant in the past, when green construction materials had a premium due to the lack of knowledge and availability in the industry, it is no longer germane. Now that the costs of green building materials are becoming competitive with conventional materials, developers who previously dismissed green buildings should take a second look. Green buildings have been sustainably designed and constructed within roughly the same budgets and time frames as conventional building projects across the country. Decreased material costs coupled with cost sensitive, strategic choices of integrated sustainable design elements have made green buildings a superior investment.

Although developers must make an initial investment to learn green building techniques, they can gain a fairly complete understanding from completing a single project. It is highly recommended to seek assistance from a green building consultant or have someone knowledgeable about green bu ilding on the project team. After this initial obstacle is accomplished, green building
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practices have proven to be easily adaptable and as straightforward as conventional approaches. The investment in education can be quickly recovered through profits made from an increase in the number of projects acquired simply because of green building knowledge. Studies have also shown a willingness of companies to pay more for green space. A 2007 study conducted by the Jones Lang LaSalle firm surveyed corporate comme rcial buyers¶ demand for green space and found that 77% would pay more for green office space. additionally; a 2008 Costar Group study found buildings that earned the ENERGY STAR sell on average for $61 per square foot more than comparable non-green buildings

In the slow yet necessary process of constructing and converting buildings into environmentally conscious, sustainable operations, owners net leasing their buildings may feel as though they are incurring the bulk of the cost while their tenants reap the evident financial benefits. Although this is true to some extent, owners of net leased properties have the opportunity to realize key benefits which make ³greening´ their buildings financially and economically sensible. Owners that make the decision to green their properties sooner rather than later have the potential to benefit from some government incentives and a clear competitive advantage, both of which will inevitably slowly dissolve as more buildings are greened and exceedingly feasible government mandates are implemented. Tenants across the nation are beginning to demand the greening of space they lease due to the economic, environmental and human health benefits green buildings offer. A survey of tenants conducted in breaker¶ factor in their location decisions.11 Forward -thinking top U.S. companies (and excellent tenants) which have started to operate out of USGBC LEED certified or ENERGY STAR labeled buildings includes: Walgreens REI Chipotle Mexican Grill Whole Foods Pizza Fusion PNC Bank Best Buy Office Depot Starbucks Subway McDonalds Staples

Commercial real estate owners of green buildings can gain a competitive advantage by securing and retaining high quality, desired tenants. Recent studies show that green buildings generally have higher occupancy rates and rents. For example, a 2008 Costar Group study 12 found that LEED certified buildings have a 4.1% higher occupancy rate and rent for $11.33 per square foot more than conventional buildings.
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12. Green building in a down economy

Despite the current down economy, the overall green building movement continues to experience growth. One can draw this conclusion by simply looking at the numbers. For example, Green build, the world¶s largest conference and expo dedicated to green building, had more than 28,000 attendees in 2008, which is an increase of 25% from Green build 2007. Moreover, in April of 2003, a mere 84 buildings had received LEED certification. The most recent number of certified projects released by the USGBC was 2,878 in May of 2009. This number will only continue to grow, evidenced by the 21,252 projects currently registered seeking LEED certification. The sustained growth in this sector may be baffling to those who believe in sticking to what they know during hard economic times; however, departure from conventional buildings may be exactly what is needed. Green buildings pave the way for businesses to prosper through a triple bottom line encompassing financial, social and environmental goals, which has proven an endearing strategy during hard economic times. Some industry professionals have recognized this economic climate as the perfect opportunity to ³green´ business and use triple bottom line benefits to save money and gain a competitive advantage as other options are less obvious. A recent study released by A.T Kearney found that companies focused on sustainability outperformed industry averages by 15% during the current financial crisis.7The green building movement will continue to grow as more companies recognize that a small upfront investment in ³green´ can assist in retaining value and provide protection from a volatile market.

13. Successful commercial green building projects PNC Bank ± LEED Certified

Currently, PNC Financial Services Group, Inc. has more certified green buildings than any other company on earth.8 As of June 2009; the company had achieved USGBC LEED certification for 66 buildings. Ways LEED certification has benefited PNC¶s bottom line:

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1. According to Gary Saulson, PNC¶s corporate real estate director, PNC has been able to build green branches for $2.6 million, which is approximately $100,000 less than some competitors are spending on comparable non-green branches. y More than 50% of each branch is made from recycled materials, including flooring, wall coverings, and carpet. Many of these recycled materials cost less than non -recycled products. 2. Energy usage in PNC¶s green branches is reduced by 50% or more compared to non -green branches due to high-efficiency systems and insulation and maximum use of natural light (which has also been associated with positive consumer response). 3. Water usage in green branches is reduced by 6,200 gallons a year.

Walgreens ± LEED Registered

Walgreens, the largest drugstore chain in the U.S., opened their first (and the first) environmentally friendly drugstore on June 24th, 2009 in Mira Mesa, California. It has registered with the USGBC and expects to receive LEED certification within 4 to 6 months. The company has plans to open three more LEED certified locations by the end of 2009, one of which is located in Chicago. In 2007, Walgreens began taking a sustainable approach to reduce their carbon footprint and save money by installing solar panel systems at select locations. The perusal of green building certification further solidifies the company¶s serious commitment to people, the environment, and achieving economic advancement through efficient measures.

As the green Mira Mesa Walgreens location just opened a few weeks ago, specific quantitative financial benefits achieved have yet to be revealed. The company has stated that the store managed to reduce lighting related energy use by 50% through the use of skylights, solar tubes, LED lights and highly efficient coolers and freezers. The building¶s µwhite roof¶,11 another green feature, will significantly reduce cooling related energy use. Furthermore, all landscaping was done with native plants, which will require no watering whatsoever. The environmentally friendly building has already generated a great deal of free publicity for the company, yet another reason Walgreens made an excellent decision to build to LEED standards. In the company¶s 2008 social respon sibility report, financial savings realized through already in place environmentally friendly measures were discussed. For example, the company saved $5.7 million in energy costs by
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using high-efficiency fluorescent lighting in over 6,000 stores. The compa ny¶s green building plans were also briefly touched upon and will hopefully be evaluated from both a financial and environmental stand point in the 2009 report.

14. Green marketing

The promotion of environmentally safe or beneficial products as result new ³green´ products were introduced that were less damaging to the environment. Divergent aspects of green marketing include ecologically safer products, recyclable and biodegradable packaging, energy -efficient operations, and better pollution controls. Advances produced from green marketing include packaging made from recycled paper, phosphate -free detergents, refillable containers for cleaning products, and bottles using less plastic. As today¶s consumers become more conscious of the natural environment, businesses are beginning to modify their own thoughts and behavior in an attempt to address the concerns of consumers. Green marketing is becoming more important to businesses because of the consumer¶s genuine concerns about our limited resources on the earth. By implementing green marketing measures to save the earth¶s resources in production, packaging, and operations, businesses are showing consumers they too share the same concerns, boosting their credibility
Green marketing , also alternatively known as environmental marketing and sustainable marketing, refers to organization.s efforts at designing, promoting, pricing and distributing products that will not harm the environment

Positive aspects of green marketing
y a good green marketing program is one that either: adds renewables that would not already be added or supports renewable projects that might not otherwise continue to operate . If these things are already happening and being paid for by all, then the program doesn't meet the bottom -line test: green marketing programs must make a difference.
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y A sign of a good green marketing program is one that has strong links to local environmental groups and that achieves broad support among regional and national grou ps with an interest in promoting renewable power. y A green marketer that is seriously interested in greening the electric system will have a program that is linked to a larger vision and a strategic plan for making renewable an increasingly larger part of the generation mix. y For green marketing programs to be successful in the long run, they should both improve the environment and be fair to consumers. Prices should not be excessively higher than the actual cost of the resources in the portfolio. This is particularly true for green pricing programs, which are scrutinized by regulators, and in imperfectly competitive markets, because in these cases, there is no real competition in the green market.

Negative aspects of green marketing
y Selling green power at a mark-up that would have been produced anyway with the cost shared by all. y Programs that do not in some way directly benefit the renewable generator. An example of this would be a utility that has an existing power purchase contract with a renewable gener ator, but does not flow any benefit through to the generator. y Programs that make false claims and do not adequately inform consumers about the nature of their product. For example, selling "nuclear and coal free" power when consumer money are sent to a nuclear- and coal-owning utility. y Collecting premiums in exchange for vague promises to build renewable in the future. Consumers should not be asked to pay for someone else's investment when they get nothing in return, and when no tangible benefit to society results.

Green marketing ± adopted by the firms

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Green marketing has been widely adopted by the firms worldwide and the following are the possible reasons cited for this wide adoption: 1) Opportunities:- As demands change, many firms see these changes as an opportunity to be exploited and have a competitive advantage over firms marketing non-environmentally responsible alternatives. Some example of firms who have strived to become more environmentally responsible, in an attempt to better satisfy their consumer needs are:

McDonald's replaced its clam shell packaging with waxed paper because of increased consumer concern relating to polystyrene production and Ozone depletion. Tuna manufacturers modified their fishing techniques because of the increased concern over driftnet fishing, and the resulting death of dolphins. Xerox introduced a "high quality" recycled photocopier paper in an attempt to satisfy the demands of firms for less environmentally harmful products.



2) Social responsibility :- Many firms are beginning to realize that they are members of the wider community and therefore must behave in an environmentally responsible fashion thus resulting in environmental issues being integrated into the firm's corporate culture. An example of a firm that does not promote its environmental initiatives is Coca-Cola which invested large sums of money in various recycling activities, as well as having modified their packaging to minimize its environmental impact. Another firm who is very environmentally res ponsible but does not promote this fact, at least outside the organization, is Walt Disney World (WDW) with an extensive waste management program and infrastructure.

3) Governmental pressure :- governmental regulations relating to environmental marketing a re designed to protect consumers through regulations designed to control the amount of hazardous wastes produced by firms by issuing of various environmental licenses, thus modifying organizational behavior. In some cases governments try to "induce" final consumers to become more responsible by taxing individuals who act in an irresponsible fashion. For example in Australia there is a higher gas tax associated with leaded petrol. 4) Competitive pressure:-Another major force in the environmental marketing
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area has been firms' desire to maintain their competitive position. In many cases firms observe competitors promoting their environmental behaviors and attempt to emulate this behavior. In some instances this competitive pressure has caused an entire industry to modify and thus reduce its detrimental environmental behavior. For example, it could be argued that Xerox's "Revive 100% Recycled paper" was introduced a few years ago in an attempt to address the introduction of recycled photocopier paper by other manufacturers. In another example when one tuna manufacture stopped using driftnets the others followed suit. 5) Cost or profit issues: - Disposing of environmentally harmful by-products, such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated oil are becoming increasingly costly and in some cases difficult. In minimizing wastes firms often develop more effective production processes that reduce the need for some raw materials thus serving as a double cost savings. In other cases firms attempt to find end-of-pipe solutions, instead of minimizing waste by trying to find markets or uses for their waste materials, where one firm's waste becomes another firm's input of production.

GREEN CODE G eneralise with care. Consumer behaviour will not necessarily be consistent across different product types, and particular market segments may respond to certain issues on the green agenda but not others. R emember, the validity of a piece of market research is not related to the degree to which it supports your preferred option. E xplore the context from which market research data comes. Be clear on the nature of the sample used, the questions asked, the way i n which responses were recorded and the time and place from which the responses come. E nsure that where market research is crossing international borderlines, that the terminology and interpretation remains consistent. Terms like µ environment¶, µgreen¶ and µconservation¶ do not always translate precisely between languages. N eutrality is important. Ensure that when you pose questions to consumers, that they can make any response without being made to feel guilty or uncomfortable, and ensure that your own preconceptions about the green agenda (such as an assumption that green products will cost extra) are not encoded within the questions.
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15. Conclusion y Different initiative have been taken to reduce the energy consumption by different corporate to become sustainable, but to achieve this success people have to be accountable in terms of the amount of energy utilized when they are not working. y Green culture need to develop within the organization so that people can come up with their ideas that suppo rt sustainability. y Government organization have to work with the private sector so find new ways to recycle the e-waste generated y As the companies are trying to reduce their carbon foot print, their focus is on effective energy utilization they also have to look into other aspect of their business, from supply chain to marketing. y Information technology companies have set the path in reducing their carbon foot print, and developed a green model which can be applied to other business sectors. y Companies with green product have to make the customer aware of their green product and initiative; they have to make the reports available to general public. y Companies have to increases their spending on green initiative so as to focus on their long term goals. y Companies also have to pressurize their suppliers to behave in a environmentally friendly way. y Companies should look at minimizing environmental harm, not necessarily eliminating it. 16. Bibliography

www.worldwatch.org www.gogreenindia.in www.gogreeninitiative.org www.greenpeace.com
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www.gogreen.in www.savetheplanet.com www.greeninitatives.com www.greenmarketing.com

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