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UNIT 3

MOF

Contents

Viscous Flow

Shear stress and pressure gradient relationship in Laminar Flow

Parallel Plates

Circular Pipes (Hagen Poiseulles equation)

Losses in Pipes

Major and Minor losses

Darcy Weisbachs equation

Pipe roughness

Friction factor

Moodys diagram

Connection of pipes

Pipes in series

Pipes in parallel

Objectives

Differentiate between laminar and turbulent flows in

pipelines.

Describe the velocity profile for laminar and turbulent flows.

Compute Reynolds number for flow in pipes.

Define the friction factor, and compute the friction losses in

pipelines.

Recognize the source of minor losses, and compute minor

losses in pipelines.

Analyze simple pipelines, pipelines in series, parallel, and

simple pipe networks.

3

Types of Flow

Laminar Flow or Viscous Flow (<2000)

Transition Flow (2000 to 4000)

Turbulent Flow (>4000)

Based on Reynolds No

Re =(VD/) - No unit

Reynolds Experiment

Reynolds Experiment

Types of Flow Based on Re

Flow of Viscous Fluid in a circular pipe

Hagen Poiseulle Equation

Shear Stress Distribution

Velocity Distribution

Maximum Velocity

Average Velocity

Pressure Difference

Step 2- Assumptions

Fluid Follows Newtons law of Viscosity

There is no slip between the particles at the boundary

(The fluid particles adjacent to the pipe will have zero velocity)

Hagen- Poiseulle derivation

Step -3 :Diagram

To determine Shear stress Distribution

Step 4 : Forces acting on the Fluid

To determine Shear stress Distribution

To determine Shear stress Distribution

To determine Velocity Distribution

Step-1: Shear stress is indirectly have the velocity

component.

To determine Maximum Velocity

Step -2 Apply Boundary condition

To determine Average Velocity

Step-3 : To determine discharge

To determine Average Velocity

Step 4- Determine Avg velocity

To determine the Pressure Difference

p

Forces acting on fluid

particle

= p x area

Sum of all the Forces acting on fluid particle, F=0

Boundary conditions to find

constants C1 and C2.

Average Velocity =

discharge / Total C/s area.

area of each strip

Average Velocity =

discharge / Total C/s area.

Problems-1

An oil of viscosity 9 poise and specific gravity 0.9

is flowing through a horizontal pipe of 60mm

diameter. If the pressure drop in a 100m length of

pipe is 1800 KN/m2 . Determine

Rate of Flow

Centre line velocity

Frictional Drag over the length of pipe

Power required to maintain the flow

Type of flow

Given Data:

Viscosity = 9 poise = 0.9 Ns/m2

Specific Gravity S = 0.9 . Density = 900 Kg/m3

Diameter of pipe = 0.06m

Length of Pipe L = 100 m

Pressure Difference p1-p2 = 1800 kN/m2

Formula Used:

II. Then Discharge Q = Area x Avg Velocity

III. Centre Line velocity Umax = 2 x Avg Velocity

IV. Frictional Drag Force F = shear stress x Area =

=Force x Distance / time

Power = Force x avg. velocity Answers:

Or Power = Q x Pr Difference Avg Velocity = 2.25 m/s

(vi) Type of flow Reynolds No Q = 6.636 lt/s

Umax = 4.5 m/s

o = 270 N/m2

F = 5.089 N

P = 11.45 kW

Re = 135 <2000 , Laminar FLow

Pressure

Forces

Friction

Forces

Equate the Forces

m

Frictional Factor f

Laminar Flow

f depends only on Reynolds No

Transition Flow

f depends on both Reynolds No and Roughness of pipe(Re and R/k)

Turbulent Flow

Smooth Pipe(Re)

Rough Pipe(R/k)

Given Data:

Head Losses in a pipe

Problem on losses.

Section A-A

Section B-B

p 2

p 2

V A

A

z A

V B

B

z B

h L

g 2g g 2g

Here, pA =pB = 0 Since it is open to atmosphere

VA = 0 since fluid is static at section 1 and VB=V2 velocity in pipe 2

considering datum as the centre line of pipe.

ZB = 0 and ZA= 8m

PiPES in SERIES

Total Head Loss H = head loss in pipe 1 +

head loss in pipe 2 + head loss in pipe 3

Discharge will be same in all pipes.

Pipes in parallel- Penstock

Total Discharge Q = Q1 + Q2 +..+ Qn

Head Loss will be same in all pipes.

Pipe Network

reservoirs and/or pumps, which deliver water from the treatment plant to the

consumer.

Water demand is highly variable, whereas supply is normally constant. Thus,

the distribution system must include storage elements, and must be capable

of flexible operation.

Pipe network analysis involves the determination of the pipe flow rates and

pressure heads at the outflows points of the network. The flow rate and

pressure heads must satisfy the continuity and energy equations.

The earliest systematic method of network analysis (Hardy-Cross Method) is

known as the head balance or closed loop method. This method is applicable

to system in which pipes form closed loops. The outflows from the system are

generally assumed to occur at the nodes junction.

For a given pipe system with known outflows, the Hardy-Cross method is an

iterative procedure based on initially iterated flows in the pipes. At each

junction these flows must satisfy the continuity criterion, i.e. the algebraic

sum of the flow rates in the pipe meeting at a junction, together with any

external flows is zero.

66

Hydraulic Transients:

Rapid pressure changes inside a closed conduit in unsteady flow

conditions.

Increasing diameter of conduit

Provision of surge tank and pressure relief valves

Water hammer:

Change in pressure above or below normal pressure caused by

sudden changes in the rate of flow of water.

Experienced in penstocks and closed hydraulic conduits.

Of valves or gates

Conversion of

Sudden closure

Of valves or gates

Increase in pressure

head

closure Of pipe material

To reduce water hammer :

Penstocks should be of short length.

Valves of turbine should be closed slowly.

To install pressure release valve.

SURGE TANK :

Artificial reservoir induced along the pressure conduit system.

Introduced U/S or D/S.

Handles excessive pressure changes in the pipe system

FUNCTIONS :

arising from sudden closure of gates or valves in the penstock.

To provide free reservoir surface.

To temporarily store water during load rejection.

To provide water to turbine to pick up new load safely.

Types of Surge

tanks:

1.Simple surge Tank :

References

5th edition, Laxmi Publications Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 2008

including Hydraulic Machines", Standard Book House New

Delhi. 2015.

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