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Viscous Flow
Shear stress and pressure gradient relationship in Laminar Flow
Parallel Plates
Circular Pipes (Hagen Poiseulles equation)
Losses in Pipes
Major and Minor losses
Darcy Weisbachs equation
Pipe roughness
Friction factor
Moodys diagram
Connection of pipes
Pipes in series
Pipes in parallel
Differentiate between laminar and turbulent flows in
Describe the velocity profile for laminar and turbulent flows.
Compute Reynolds number for flow in pipes.
Define the friction factor, and compute the friction losses in
Recognize the source of minor losses, and compute minor
losses in pipelines.
Analyze simple pipelines, pipelines in series, parallel, and
simple pipe networks.

Types of Flow
Laminar Flow or Viscous Flow (<2000)
Transition Flow (2000 to 4000)
Turbulent Flow (>4000)
Based on Reynolds No
Re =(VD/) - No unit

Reynolds Experiment
Reynolds Experiment
Types of Flow Based on Re
Flow of Viscous Fluid in a circular pipe
Hagen Poiseulle Equation

Step -1: To determine the

Shear Stress Distribution
Velocity Distribution
Maximum Velocity
Average Velocity
Pressure Difference
Step 2- Assumptions
Fluid Follows Newtons law of Viscosity
There is no slip between the particles at the boundary
(The fluid particles adjacent to the pipe will have zero velocity)
Hagen- Poiseulle derivation
Step -3 :Diagram
To determine Shear stress Distribution
Step 4 : Forces acting on the Fluid
To determine Shear stress Distribution

Step -5 Equate the Forces

To determine Shear stress Distribution

Step 6 Boundary Condition

To determine Velocity Distribution
Step-1: Shear stress is indirectly have the velocity
To determine Maximum Velocity
Step -2 Apply Boundary condition
To determine Average Velocity
Step-3 : To determine discharge
To determine Average Velocity
Step 4- Determine Avg velocity
To determine the Pressure Difference

Forces acting on fluid

Force = pressure x area

= p x area
Sum of all the Forces acting on fluid particle, F=0
Boundary conditions to find
constants C1 and C2.
Average Velocity =
discharge / Total C/s area.

Discharge = Actual Velocity x

area of each strip
Average Velocity =
discharge / Total C/s area.
An oil of viscosity 9 poise and specific gravity 0.9
is flowing through a horizontal pipe of 60mm
diameter. If the pressure drop in a 100m length of
pipe is 1800 KN/m2 . Determine
Rate of Flow
Centre line velocity
Frictional Drag over the length of pipe
Power required to maintain the flow
Type of flow
Given Data:
Viscosity = 9 poise = 0.9 Ns/m2
Specific Gravity S = 0.9 . Density = 900 Kg/m3
Diameter of pipe = 0.06m
Length of Pipe L = 100 m
Pressure Difference p1-p2 = 1800 kN/m2
Formula Used:

I. Find average velocity u.

II. Then Discharge Q = Area x Avg Velocity
III. Centre Line velocity Umax = 2 x Avg Velocity
IV. Frictional Drag Force F = shear stress x Area =

V. Power required to maintain flow = Work Done/time

=Force x Distance / time
Power = Force x avg. velocity Answers:
Or Power = Q x Pr Difference Avg Velocity = 2.25 m/s
(vi) Type of flow Reynolds No Q = 6.636 lt/s
Umax = 4.5 m/s
o = 270 N/m2
F = 5.089 N
P = 11.45 kW
Re = 135 <2000 , Laminar FLow

Equate the Forces
Frictional Factor f
Laminar Flow
f depends only on Reynolds No

Transition Flow
f depends on both Reynolds No and Roughness of pipe(Re and R/k)
Turbulent Flow
Smooth Pipe(Re)
Rough Pipe(R/k)
Given Data:
Head Losses in a pipe
Problem on losses.

Section A-A

Section B-B

Applying Bernoulli Equation between sections A-A and B-B

p 2
p 2

z A
z B
h L
g 2g g 2g
Here, pA =pB = 0 Since it is open to atmosphere
VA = 0 since fluid is static at section 1 and VB=V2 velocity in pipe 2
considering datum as the centre line of pipe.
ZB = 0 and ZA= 8m
Total Head Loss H = head loss in pipe 1 +
head loss in pipe 2 + head loss in pipe 3
Discharge will be same in all pipes.
Pipes in parallel- Penstock
Total Discharge Q = Q1 + Q2 +..+ Qn
Head Loss will be same in all pipes.
Pipe Network

A water distribution system consists of complex interconnected pipes, service

reservoirs and/or pumps, which deliver water from the treatment plant to the
Water demand is highly variable, whereas supply is normally constant. Thus,
the distribution system must include storage elements, and must be capable
of flexible operation.
Pipe network analysis involves the determination of the pipe flow rates and
pressure heads at the outflows points of the network. The flow rate and
pressure heads must satisfy the continuity and energy equations.
The earliest systematic method of network analysis (Hardy-Cross Method) is
known as the head balance or closed loop method. This method is applicable
to system in which pipes form closed loops. The outflows from the system are
generally assumed to occur at the nodes junction.
For a given pipe system with known outflows, the Hardy-Cross method is an
iterative procedure based on initially iterated flows in the pipes. At each
junction these flows must satisfy the continuity criterion, i.e. the algebraic
sum of the flow rates in the pipe meeting at a junction, together with any
external flows is zero.

Hydraulic Transients:
Rapid pressure changes inside a closed conduit in unsteady flow

Control of Hydraulic Transients:

Changing profile of penstock

Increasing diameter of conduit
Provision of surge tank and pressure relief valves
Water hammer:
Change in pressure above or below normal pressure caused by
sudden changes in the rate of flow of water.
Experienced in penstocks and closed hydraulic conduits.

Caused by Sudden closure

Of valves or gates

Conversion of

Kinetic head Dynamic head

Sudden closure
Of valves or gates

Increase in pressure

Speed of Elastic property

closure Of pipe material

Velocity of flow Penstock length

To reduce water hammer :
Penstocks should be of short length.
Valves of turbine should be closed slowly.
To install pressure release valve.
Artificial reservoir induced along the pressure conduit system.
Introduced U/S or D/S.
Handles excessive pressure changes in the pipe system


To absorb water hammer pressure from elastic shock waves

arising from sudden closure of gates or valves in the penstock.
To provide free reservoir surface.
To temporarily store water during load rejection.
To provide water to turbine to pick up new load safely.
Types of Surge
1.Simple surge Tank :

1. Bansal, R.K., Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics Machines,

5th edition, Laxmi Publications Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 2008

2. Modi P.N and Seth "Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics

including Hydraulic Machines", Standard Book House New
Delhi. 2015.