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1.

0 DETERMINATION OF FOUNDATION EARTHING CONDUCTOR


In order to determine the cross section area of foundation conductors in square millimeter, the following
equations are as per IS 3043 - 1987 has been considered.

1.1 Conductor cross sectional area in square milli meters is given by the following equation
as per 14 of IS 3043 - 1987

I√t
S= ---- Eqn 1
k
Where
S = Conductor cross sectional area in mm²

I = Average fault current in kA

t = Fault current duration in sec

k = Material Constant

The Material Constant can be obtained from the following equation

Qc (B+20)
k= √ δ 20 ---- Eqn 2

Where
3
Qc = Volumetric Heat Capacity of Conductor Material (J/°C mm )

B = Reciprocal of temperature Co-Efficient of resistivity at 0°C for the conductor (°C)

δ20 = Electrical resistivity of conductor material at 20°C ( Ohm-mm)

1.2 Calculation:

1.2.1 CALCULATION OF MATERIAL CONSTANT

k factor has been arrived considering the normal conditions :

Volumetric Heat Capacity of Conductor Material Qc (J/°C mm3) = 0.0038

Reciprocal of temperature Co-Efficient of resistivity at 0°C for the conductor B (°C) = 202

Electrical resistivity of conductor material at 20°C δ20 ( Ohm-mm) = 0.000138

Using the Eqn 2. k factor is caculated as :

k=
√ 0.00380.000138
x (202+20)

k= 78.185954

k~ 80 (IS:3043-1987)
1.2.1 CALCULATION OF CONDUCTOR CROSS - SECTIONAL AREA

Using the Eqn 1. Area of conductor is caculated as :

Average fault current in kA = 50

Fault Duration time t in Sec = 1

Material Constant k = 80

50000 x √1
S=
80

S= 625.0

Allowance for Corrosion = 1.0 % Per Year

Number of Year before replacement say = 20 Years

Total allowance = 20 x 1.0%

= 20%

Safety factor = 1.5

Conductor size required = Cross sectional area x Total allowance x Safety factor

= 1125

Conductor size in mm2 = 1125

Conductor size in mm2 ~


1200

Hence, Considered 1Rx12x100 or 2Rx6 x 100 mm GI Strips


A. EARTH ELECTRODE

a) Type / Material = Pipe / C.I.


b) FAULT CURRENT as per Fault Level Calculations in kA = 50
c) Diameter in mm d = 100
d) Length in mm L = 3000
e) Soil resistivity in ohm meter p = 72.44
f) Fault Duration time t in Sec = 1

B. CURRENT DENSITY AT THE SURFACE OF EARTH ELECTRODE:

3
7.57x 10
a) As per cl.no. 10.3 of IS 3043:1987 I = A/m2
√(pxt)

Where t = duration of fault


p = soil resistivity

7.57x 103
b) Max.allowable current density =
√(72.44 x 1)

= 889.4195242 A/m2

c) Surface area of one 100mm dia. 3 meter = 2 x 3.14 x r x L


long earth electrode

Where r in mm = 100 = 2 x 3.14 x 0.05 x 3


r in m = 0.05
L in mm = 3000 = 0.942 m2
L in m = 3

d) Max.current dissipated by one earth electrode = Current Density x Surface area of electrode

= 889.4195242x 0.942

= 837.8331918 Amps

Round of to = 838 Amps

50000
e) No. of earth electrode required =
838

= 59.66587112

Total No. of earth electrode required in no.s = 60


A. EARTH ELECTRODE

a) Type / Material = Pipe / C.I.


b) FAULT CURRENT as per Fault Level Calculations in kA = 50
c) Diameter in mm d = 100
d) Length in mm L = 3000
e) Soil resistivity in ohm meter p = 72.44
f) Total No. of earth electrode required in no.s = 60
g) Resistance of electrode® 100 x p loge 4 x L
=
as per cl.no.9.2.2. of IS:3043 2 x 3.14 x L d

100 x72.44 loge 4 x 3000


=
2 x 3.14 x 3000 100

= 0.7994 ohms per electrode

0.7994
f) Overall resistance of earthing with 60 electrodes R1 = 60

= 0.0133 ohms

B. EARTH STRIP/CONDUCTOR

a) Type = GI Strip
b) Length of strip in mm Ls = 2200000
c) Width of strip in mm t = 12
d) Depth of burial in mm w = 200
e) Soil resistivity in ohm meter p = 72.44

f) Resistance of Earth Strip ® = 100 x 72.44 loge 2 x Ls2


as per cl.no. 9.2.3 of IS:3043 2 x 3.14 x Ls wt

R2 = 0.0050 ohms

EARTH RESISTANCE

Earth resistance due to pipe electrode R1 in ohms = 0.0133


Earth resistance due to Earth strip R2 in ohms = 0.005
R1 X R2
Net Earth resistance R in ohms = R1+R2

= 0.0036 ohms
Which is less than ONE ohm.