Challenges. General De la Rosa mentioned them during the Opening speech.

The rapid evolving nature of Security and Defense make the education of our cadres particularly important and difficult these days. Younger generations demand new methods while new types of operations imply the need to teach and train new techniques better suited to carry them out. As for HOW to teach, our young staffers were born in the era of cell phones, GPSs, laptops and the internet. Their mindsets are digital. They refuse to search in a sequential way as we did in encyclopedias, they ³google´ it for a point-to-point access. ³Now´ is measured in milliseconds and ³Home´ is round and blue as seen from space. Younger generations demand that we relate with them digitally too. Not jus t by using VTCs or the Web for everything. They were born in a Global World and understand it far better than we do. That is not, by any means, an advantage. The world today is far more complex than the one twenty years ago, and the knowledge that they wil l need to face its challenges is very different from what it was required during the Cold War or the Gulf War. What we need now is flexibility, an open mind and the ability to relate dispersed pieces of information so that we make sense of scattered data. It is very unlikely that we will have all the data available in a timely manner. It is not so much having all the pieces of the puzzle as knowing how to look at what we have and being able to see the whole picture. And we need our Officers to be able to wo rk in a team. And we need them to be able to lead it properly. They will have to lead not conscripts with hardly any training but highly skilled personnel, so their leadership will have to be unlike what we were used to. They will have to work ± indeed, we already are ± not only within the narrow margins of their own national service. Even Joint Operations are a thing of the past. Combined-Joint was the next step; and a difficult one for many. We had to learn how to deal with other militaries from different services. We worked hand

in hand with our former opponents and boarded planes from Eastern European nations which, conversely, were flying using NATO procedures. Today, internal and foreign relations are ever more difficult to separate. Our partners today when we go to work are diplomats, policemen, firefighters and even long-haired NGO militants. Learning their ways and having them learn ours will be as necessary as knowing how to work with our own Army or Air Force. But our Officers not only need to be familiar with Operations. Management of resources of all type in an efficient way will be required on a daily basis. More and more war is becoming the continuation of business by other means and the involvement of national industries will also be a key fac tor we will have to ponder. Building on those ideas we developed the Curriculum of the Staff Course in the Higher Defense College in Madrid. We are now in the process of updating it so that it better adapts to the needs of our Armed Forces. We start by providing our students with key background information they need to be familiar with prior to arriving to the course. They should arrive with the scattered information we mentioned before and we intent to provide the method so they can make the most of it. The Staff Course goes from the whole to the parts. We start with an overview of how the World is organized, how it is governed, which and where are the challenges. A strategic analysis of key areas both for our national interests and for those of our allies is our first step. Next, we will focus on Operations themselves. Once we understand where we are going to fight, with whom and what for, we concentrate on HOW to do it. We stay up in the Strategic and the Operational Levels. Moreover, we keep Operations and Logistics hand in hand as one cannot succeed without the other. Our students learn how to plan and how to best use the assets they have at their disposal. They not only grasp the idea of deploying forces but also of force generation and sustainability.

Most of the rest of the course will focus on practicing what they have learned through a series of exercises designed to mimic real operations planning within the limits of a school class. Some people are born leaders, for all the rest, there is a method we can use to make up for our lack of natural talent. Leadership is one of our key topics and we will devote quite some time to it. Students from the Diplomatic School and the Journalism School will participate along with representatives of Medecins sans Frontiers or the Red Cross in some or those exercises so that we grow used to working with them and vice versa. Finally, we will devote some time to new threats and to the role of the Armed Forces as a tool of the State for operations ³other -than-war´. We speak of cyber defense, space, terrorism, migrations, climate change, energy security, « you name it. And we just give them the tools to discuss the topics. We make sure there are teachers available to lead the seminars and let them develop the ideas. Our Armed Forces are evolving and we intent to evolve one step before them. In our College, we believe that our students need to master the ability to investigate and analyze. That is central in our idea of higher military education. That is why we provide the papers they need to know beforehand but also demand they do some investigation on their own. Then, our Tutor-teachers will lead the discussions and individual works and engage with the students in further investigation and development of the subjects, mostly in syndicate groups of no more than 10 -15 students. The ability to transmit what you know or think in a coherent way is something all Staff Officers need. Our most important task is to inform our superiors in a precise, concise and to-the-point way. That feature has to be developed to the maximum extent possible.

Excellency being our goal, there is a number of nations who entrust their Officers to our College. All in all, 37 countries have, so far, sent their personnel to ESFAS to get their Staff Degree. Of course, most nations in the 5+5 are represented every year. But there is more to our College than the Staff Course. We also have the Flag Officers¶ Course which our Colonels have to take prior to being promoted. Unlike the Staff Course, this one is ± at least for the time being ± only for national students. Becoming a General Officer is much more than taking another step from the former rank. All of the attendees are already highly competent professionals who excelled in long years of service. The program is not designed to teach them anything but to provide them with the latest strategic, political and economical information available so they are in an excellent starting position. ESFAS is part of the CESEDEN (Spanish Center for National Defense Studies) , which also includes EALEDE (Higher Defense Studies College). Meant to serve as a civilian-military College in Security and Defense issues, EALEDE provides tuition for many courses, namely, the National Defense Course, the Human Resources Management Course, the Logistic Management Course,

Infrastructure Management Course and the Financial Resources Management Course, European Security and Defense Course, 5 + 5 Course, Higher Latin American Officers Course, Afghan Officers Course and the Security and Defense Master. They include both military and civilian students and constitute the basis for some of the investigative activity of the Center. They say that modern warfare is about winning the ³hearts and minds´. Muscle is fought with muscle but if you are to win hearts and minds you have to build better hearts and better minds for your own people. And that is our goal. Thank you.

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