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V. A. SASTRY, Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras.
INTRODUCTION Regardless of the air pollution problem to be attacked there are two fundamental approaches to control, (1) Contro! of the pollutant at the source so that excessive amounts are not emitted to the atmosphere and (2) Control by natural dilution of the pollutant in atmosphere. Control of the pollutant at the source may bo accomplished by (1) preventing the pollutant from coming into existence, (2) trapping, destroying or altering the pollutant that is emitted before it enters the atmosphere. The best method would be to prevent the pollution from coming into existence or, if this is impossible, to keep the quantity to a minimum. Depending upon circumstances this may be achieved by raw material change, process changes, operational changes, modification of process equipment and more efficient operation of existing equipment. If the polhitan to cannot, be prevented from forming, equipment which destroy, alter or trap the pollutant have to be used. The common methods used for reducing a pollutant to tolerable levels before it is emitted from the ^tack include (1) destruction of the pollutants by use of fire or catalytic burners (applicable only to those wastes that arc combustible), (2) masking the pollutant (e.g. odour masking by substances which give stronger odour), (3) counteracting the pollutant (e.g. when two antagonistic odour are intermingled, both odours are diminished) and (4) collecting the pollutant from waste stroam using collection equipment such as bag filters cyclone scparaters. Scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators, etc. The best method of controlling air pollution is to confine the contaminant at its source. If this is not possible, the second alternative is to control the harmful concentration of pollutants by natural dilution before it can reach the receptor. Methods of attempting to accomplish natural dilution include (3) use of tall 22
stacks, (2) Community planning in which coming the use of the air is adopted (air zoning) and (3) control of the process technique according to meteorological conditions. In employing tall stacks it is hoped that the discharge is high enough to disperse the pollutants into atmosphere without reaching the ground. Air zoning involves community planning to prevent harmful ground concentration from occurring within disigoated areas. In the third method, manufacturing methods are curtailed or completely shut down during period^ of adverse meteorological conditions. CONTROL EQUIPMENT FOR PARTICULATE EMISSIONS Dust collection in general is based on the size, shape, hygroscopic and electrical properties of the dust particles. Dust particles evolving from known sources and confined to well defined gas streams can be removed from a carrier gas by various collection device-. These devices use one of the following mechanisms (R 7): 1. Gravity Settling: The horizontal carrier gas velocity is reduced sufficiently to allow the particles to settle by force of gravity. 2. Intertial Forces: By suddenly changing the direction of the gas flow, the greater momentum of the particles causes them to depart from the gas stream flow lines. 3. Filtration: Dust-laden gases pass through a porous medium upon which dust particles are trapped, leaving a cleaner gas to be discharged. 4. Electrostatic precipitation: Electrically charged particles are attracted to objects- of an oppositecharge. 5. Particles Conditioning: By causing intimate contact of dust particles and water, a heavier waterparticle agglemarate is formed. This can be more easily separated from, the gas stream by one of the collection mechanisms Industrial Safety C,./onic!f
Some of the equipment used for dust removal are •ribcd briefly.
FIBROUS AND CLOTH FILTERS Filteration is one of the oldest method of removing particulate matter from gases. Two types of filters are in use. Fibrous or deep-bed filters, and cloth filters. In the deep-bed filters, a fibrous medium acts as the separator and the collection takes ph in the interestics of the bed. The efficiency of fibrous filters may be improved by coating the fibrous with a viscous fluid, such as a high flash point, low volatile oil. The resulting unit is called a viscous filter. Cloth filters a. _ used in the form of tubular bags or as cloth envelopes pulled over a wire screen frame like a pillow case. The most commonly used bag type filter consists of cylindrical bags which are hung in a frame work equipped with an automatic shaking device for cleaning the bags. The open lower ends of the bag, are connected to a dust hopper where also the inlet of dusting air is located. The gas passes upwards through the bags and the dust is collected on the inside of the same. The accumulation of dust increases the air resistance of the filter and therefore it is necessary to clean the bags regularly. Bag filters require large space and investment and maintenance cost is high. A relatively recent development in bag filters is the self-cleaning reverse jot filter. A wide variety of filter cloths like cotton, fabrics, wool fabrics, synthetic fabrics, etc. are available commercially. The greatest problem inherent in cloth filters is rapture of cloth. The most extensive use of cloth filters is in metallurgical industries, food and chemical process industries in connection with grinding and drying operations. Maximum continuous operating temperatures reported for various filters and their chemical resistance data are given in Tables 1 and 2 respectively.
Table 1 : Maximum operating Temperatures Reported for various Fabric Filter Media Fabric Maximum onerating T e m p e r a t u r e * (.C) 80-90 100-1.15 90 90-110 120-175 250-350 350 175
SETTLING CHAMBERS Settling chamber is a type of dust collector which in its relativity simple form consists only of an enlargement of dust, where the gas velocity is decreased to allow bigger particles to settle by gravity. This is usually made as a rectangular chamber and is often equipped with one or several intermediate walls to change the direction of flow and thus also makes use of the inertial forces.
CYCLONE SEPARATORS In its simplest form, a cyclone collector consists of a cylindrical shell fitted with a tangential inlet through which the dust-laden gas enters, an axial exit pipe for discharging the cleansed gas, a conical base, and a hopper to facilitate the collection and removal of dust. Dust-laden gas is swirled in the cylindrical and conical section by admitting it tangentially at the periphory. The gas proceeds downwards into the conical section, forms another spiral upward within the downward spiral and thence travels to the outlet. Particles, which are thrown from the rotating streamlines and are able to reach the walls of the cyclone, slide down to the hopper. The collecting efficiency of a cyclone depends, apart from the diameter, height and dimensions of central pipe. For certain applications where a high collecting efficiency is desired and large gas volumes are involved, it has been proved to be economical to build together a large number of small diameter (about 150 mm) cyclones, to form a so-called multi-cyclone. In a multi-cyclone, the two features of having a small diameter to increase the centrifugal force, and a large cross sectional area to maintain a low pressure drop, are combined. The small diamensions of the cyclones in a multi-cyclone permit them to be made of cast iron, which makes them comparatively more suitable for collection of abrasive dust. The cyclone is the most universal equipment avai'able for dust collection, but it cannot be used for very fine fractions. For collecting dust particles of less than 5 micron diameter at an efficiency of more than 90%, fabric filter, wet separators or electrostatic precipitators have to be used. •October-December, 19S7
Cotton Wool Vinyon Nylon Orion Silicone covered glass cloth Abestes Dccron
Table 2 : Chemical Resistance of various filter Fabrics Chemical Resistance Fabric Acid •• •. •• Poor Good Good .• . . •• . . •• . • Poor Poor Good Alkali Fiarlygood Poor Poor Good Good Poor
of fine materials, (2) volume of gases are very large, (3) water availability and disposal are problems and (4) valuable dry material is to be recovered. The design factors of electrostatic precipitators have been discussed by Schmidt and Flodin. Electrostatic precipitators are now being used in our country for pollution control in cement plants, chemical industries, refineries, carbon black industry, etc. The efficiency of electrostatic precipitators in collecting fly ash in thermal power plants varies from 98 to 9 9 . 9 % . In cement industries in India, the capital plus running cost of electrostatic precipitators would work out to approximately Rs. 4 / - per tonne of dust removed annually. WET SCRUBBERS In a scrubber, gas cleaning is done by injecting water into a high velocity turbulent gas stream. The high velocity area is created by either a ventury section, an orifice plate or sprays. This turbulence serves to break up the water into very fine droplets and to trap the solid particles within the droplets. The final collection is made by the separation of the water spray from the gas stream,. The scrubbers in common use in air pollution control include: (1) gravity spray tower, (2) YClUUfi Scrubber, (3) disintegrator, (4) wet-type dynamic precipitator, (5) wet impinger scrubber, (6) collector with self induced sprays, (7) wet contrifugal scrubbers and (8) cyclone spray chambers. A wet separator can, in practice be used for cleaning operation for contaminants in any state (solid, liquid or gaseous), at temperature upto 300°C or even above. Generally wet scrubbers find use where (1) fine particles must be removed at high efficiency, (2) cooling is desired and moisture addition is not objectionable, (3) gaseous contaminants as well as particulates are involved, (4) gases to be treated are combustible. (5) volumes arc relatively low and (6) large variation in process flows must be accommodated. SELECTION OF DUST COLLECTING EQUIPMENT
•C'olton Wool Vinyon Nylon Asbestec Orion
The heat and chemical resistance of filter fabrics .such as these used in bag filters have improved steadily in the past decade through the use of such synthetic materials as glass fibre. ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS When gas containing an aerosol is passed between two electrodes that are electrically insulated from each other and between which there is considerable difference in electrical potential, aerosol particles precipitate on the low-potential electrode. Electrostatic precipitation requires a discharge electrode (usually negative) of small cross-sectional area such as a wire and a collecting electrode (usually positive and at ground potential) of large surface area such as a plate or a tube. Basically an electrostatic precipitator has four principal parts:,. (1) a source of high voltage, (2) high voltage ionising electrodes and collecting electrodes, (3) a means for disposal of the collected material and (4) an outer housing to form an enclosure around the electrode. There are four steps involved in electrostatic precipitation: (1) electrically charging the particles by ionisation, (2) transporting the charged particles by the force exerted upon them in the electric field to a collecting surface, (3) neutralising the electrically charged particles precipitated on the collecting surface and (4) removing the precipitated particles from the collecting surface. There are two broad classes of electrostatic precipitators: (1) one-stage precipitators and (2) two-state precipitators. The one-stage precipitators like wire-intube type or wire-in-plate type combine ionisation arid collection in a single step. In the two-stage electrostatic precipitator, there is a preionising step followed by collection. It is generally unsuitable for dealing with heavy dust concentration. Thus, it finds its principal application in air conditioning plants.
The selection of a dust collector in an industry involves many considerations. Some are subject to scientific rationale and others are gained by experience. Electrostatic precipitators find their use where' Successful selection requires careful balancing and evaluation of the following factors: (J) very high efficiencies are required for the removal 24 Industrial Safety C,./onic!f
1 . Particle Characteristics: Size distribution, shape, density, stickiness, hygroscopity, electrical properties. 2. Carrier Gas Properties: Temperature, moisture content, corrosiveness, flammability. 3. Process Factors: Clas (low rate, particle concentration, allowable pressure drop, continuous or intermittent operation, desired efficiency, ultimate w; disposal. 4. Economic Considerations: Installation cost, operation cost, maintenance cost. The suggested minimum particle size ranges for •different collecting equipment are shown in Table 3.
Table 3 : Ranges of minimum particle size for different collections Type of Collection Settling chamber Inertia! collector Centrifugal collector Cyclone (Small diameter) Filter Wet collector Electrostatic precipitators Minimum Particle Size, (m) 100-200 50-200 40-60 20-30 0.5—2.0 1.0—2.0 0.001—1.0
age when the gases or vapour to be controlled are organic in nature. Equipment employing the principle of flame combustion include (1) fume and vapour incinerators, (2) after-burners and (3) flares, either steam injection or venturi flare. The use of after-burners on incinerators has been met with varying success depending on the kind of after-burner used and the type of incinerator. Flare design should provide for smokeless combustion of gases of variable composition and a wide raage of flow rates. Venturi flares mix air with the gas in the proper ratio prior to ignition to achicve smokeless burning. Steam injection flares mix stream with the stack gases as they reach the stack. When the concentration of combustible portion of gas stream is below flammable range and when lower operating temperatures are desired, catalytic combustion processes are used. Catalytic combustion process is used with success for the control of effluent gases, fumes and odours from refineries burning waste cracking gases, phenolic-resin curing ovens, paint and enamel baking ovens, coffee roasting processes, foundry core baking ovens and chemical plants discharging maleicand pathalic anhydrides. Gases and fumes containing excessive amounts of particulate matter reduce the effectiveness of catalytic combustion units due to coating that forms on the catalyst. ABSORPTION In this process, effluent gases arc passed through absorbers (scrubbers) which contain liquid absorbents that remove one or more of the pollutants in the gas stream. The efficiency of this process depends on (1) amount of surface contact between gas liquid, (2) contact time, (3) concentration of absorbing medium, and (4) speed of reaction between the absorbent and the gases. Absorbents are being used to remove sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, sulphur trioxides and fluorides and oxides of nitrogen. The absorbents may be either reactive or non-reactive with the pollutant removed by them. Some of the reactive absorbents arc regenerative (i.e. they may be treated and " reused), while others are of non-regenc. „tive type. The equipment using the principle of absorption for the removal of gaseous pollutants include (1) packed vver, (2) plate tower, (3) bubble-cap plate tower, (4) spray tower and (5) liquid jet scrubber absorbers. Selective chromatographic absorption of gases on small pellets may offer much higher rates than those achieved in packed towers. 25
Through improved technology, good charging procedure and incorporation of the appropriate cleaning equipment it is possible to reduce considerable air pollution from different industries. Maintaining air pollution control equipment at designed efficiency requires constant attention, ll is not unusual to find electrostatic precipitators that appear to be operating properly but are actually performing at 5-10% below design efficiency because the operating conditions have changed from the conditions used to design the equipment. CONTROL METHODS FOR GASEOUS POLLUTANTS The control of gaseous pollutants from stack gases depends on their properties. The methods of control include: (1) combustion, (2) absorption, (3) adsorption, (4) closed collection and recovery systems and (5) masking and counter action (odours). COMBUSTION Combustion processes like flame combustion or catalytic combustion can be utilised to greatest advant•October-December, 19S7
The absorbents commonly used for different gases is given in Table 4.
Table 4 : The Common Absorbing Solutions used for Removing Different Gaseous Pollutants from Gas Streams Gaseous Pollutant C o m m o n A b s o r b e n t used in Solution
Dimethylaniline, jniKtu.ro of xylidine and water ( 1 : 1 ) ammonium sulphite, basic aluminum sulphate, cthanol amines (monoclhenol amine, dicthano! ajnine, methyl dictlutnol amine or iryothanol amine), sodium sulphite, ammonium sulphite and bisulphite, water, alkaline water, a suspension of calcium hydroixde, calcium sulphite calcium sulphate, barium thionates a n d sulphates. Sodium hydroxide and phenol mix (mole ratio 3 : 2) tripotassium phosphate, sodium alajnine or potassium dimethyl glycine, otluiriolamines, soda ash solution containing suspended iron oxide or hybroxide, soda ash alone, sodium thioaisonate, a m m o niacal liquor from coke ovens. Water, sodium hydroxide. Water, aquous nitric acid.
gaseous pollutants by absorbents are: (1) contact of the gaseous or vaporous pollutant with the solid absorbent, (2) separation (deserption) of the absorbed gaseous pollutant from the solid absor- ;nt by regeneration or replacement of the absorbent and (3) recovery of the gases for the final disposal. The efficiency ol" removal of gases by absorbents depends on (1) the physical and chemical characteristics of the absorbent including the surface area per gram of absorbent and (2) the concentration and nature of gas to be absorbed. Desorption is accomplished by raising the temperature of the granular bed above the uoiling temperature of the pollutant by superheated steam, submerged heating elements or combustion gases. Desorption may also be performed by reducing the pressure. The absorbents commonly used for removal of different gases are :,'n in Table 5.
Table 5 : The Common Absorbents used for Removing Different Gaseous Pollutants from Gas Streams Gaseous Pollutant Sulphur dioxide Adsorbents used in solid form
Hydrogen fluoride Oxides of nitrogen
Packed tower consists of a vertical shell, filled with a suitable packing material and liquid flows over the surface of the packing in this films. The efficiency of packing towers are being improved in recent years by use of new kinds of packing materials. Plate tower consist of a vertical shell in which are mounted a large number of equally spaced circular perforated plates: gases and vapours bubble upward through the liquid seal above each plate. Bubble-cap plate tower consists of a vertical shell in which are mounted a large number of equally spaced circular bubble-cap plates. In spray tower the absorbing liquid is sprayed through the gas. By applying centrifugal force and the liquid spray to the gas path at the same time, maximum contact of gas and liquid is possible. In the liquid jet scrubber, the absorbing liquid enters the equipment under pressure through the top and vapours and gases are let in the upper side. Pratt and Rutherford have described the design and operation of a spray scrubber used to reduce the hydrogen sulphide from a rayon plant. ABSORPTION In this process the effluent gases are passed through absorbers which contain solids of porous structure. The commonly used absorbers include active carbon, silica gel, activated alumina, lithium chloride, activated bauxite, etc. Active carbon appears to be the absorbent most suitable for recovering organic solvent vapours. The steps necessary for effective removal of 26
Hydrogen sulphide Hydrogen fluride Oxides of nitrogen Organic solvent vapours
Pulverised limestone or dolomite, alkalisod alumina (aluminium oxide plus sodium oxide) Iron oxide lumpline stone, porous sodium f l u o ride pellets Silica gel Active carbon.
CLOSED CIRCUIT AND RECOVERY SYSTEMS Gases like sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons can be recovered from the waste gas streams if they are present in sufficient concentrations. For example, where the concentration is of the order of 5 to 10% sulphur dioxide, as in smelter gases, the sulphur content may be recovered economically. The most usual method at smelters is to use the sulphur dioxide stream as the raw material for the manufacture of sulphuric acid. Similarly the vapour-recovery methods used in refiners are useful when the concentration of hydrocarbons in the effluent stream is high and relatively uncontaminated. Oxides of nitrogen from waste gas streams in a nitric acid plant are recovered using-commercial zeolite. Oxides of nitrogen absorbed in the bed are recovered as enriched oxides of nitrogen and nitric acid by regenerating the bed at elevated temperature with hot air or steam. In the allcalised alumina sorption process, oxides of sulphur in the stack gas are absorbed on spheres Industrial Safety C,./onic!f
( I . b 111111) of aikalised alumina (a mixture of aluminium oxide and sodium oxide) in a bed suspended in t h e s t r e a m . The oxides are t! removed f r o m the spheres by reaction with a reducing gas containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide, producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. The hydrogen sulphide is converted to elemental sulphur, which can be sold, and the regenerated aikalised alumina is recycled. The process would remove about 90% of the oxides of sulphur in the stack gas. On a 800 MVV power plant burning coal of 3% sulphur content, it would produce about 180 tons of sulphur per clay. In another process known as wet lime process for removing sulphur oxides from power plants, pulverised limestone is injected into the boiler furnace, where the heat drives off carbon dioxide, converting the calcium carbonate to the reactive oxide form. The oxide then reacts with the sulphur oxides to form solid sulphites and sulphates. Some of the conversion takes place before the stack gas reaches the water scrubber, but most of it takes place in the scrubber after the reactants dissolve in the water. The resulting solids, as vvei! as the fly ash removed in the scrubber, go to the settling pond, and water from the settling pond is recycled to the scrubber. MASKING AND COUNTERACTION OF ODOROUS GASES Odour masking and odour counteraction are becoming extremely popular in odour control, because of their effectiveness and comparatively low cost. Odour masking is based on the principle that when two odours are mixed, the stronger one will predominate. Thus, when a sufficient amount of a pleasant odour is mixed, with unpleasant one, the latter will become unnoticeable by using perfumes like odonel, putrifactive odours are masked. Odour counteraction, on the other hand, is based on the principle that certain pairs of odours, in appropriate relative concentrations, are antagonistic. Thus, when two odours are mixed the noticeability of each is greatly diminished. Selection of the proper counteractant is more difficult than the selection of a masking agent. The application usually consists of spraying on, over or about the odoriferous area by means of calibrated atomising nozzles. Odour masking on a commercial scale is a relatively new development with the following possible application routes; (1) spraying, vaporising or atomising the selected odorant into air, (2) adding to a process wherever possible, (3) adding to scrubbing liquors and •October-December, 19S7
(4) spreading or floating on contaminated surfaces without dilution. By using perfumes like nitrobenseno, citronelia, synthetic ro< \ pinotar, alpha cinnamic aldehyde, cucalyptour citriedora, votivar oil, jasmine oil, etc., pleasant smells were imparted to leathers during processing itself. The methods for source control of odorous gases include; (1) change of composition of process material or removal of causative impurities, (2) drawing the odorous air from working atmosphere by exhau;. --2S and diluting and relatively clean air, (3) masking, counteraction or sorptions of odorous gases in a suitable solvent or by absorption using active carbon, (4) removal of odour bearing dusts by cyclone separate: and (5) combustion of odorous compounds to odourless non-objectionable products. AIR POLLUTION FROM AUTOMOBILES The three main types of automotive vehicles being used in our country are (1) passenger cars powered by four stroke gasoline engines, (2) motor cycles, scooters and autorickshaws powered mostly by small two stroke gasoline engine and (3) large buses and trucks powered mostly by four stroke diesel engines. Emissions from gasoline powered vehicles are generally classified as (1) exhaust emissions, (2) crank-caseemissions and (3) evaporative emissions. The amount of pollutants, that an automobile emits depends on a number of factors, including the design and operation (idle, acceleration, etc.). Of the hydrocarbons emitted by a car with no controls, the exhaust gases account for roughly 65%, evaporation from the fuel tank and carburettor for roughly 15'% and blowby or crank-case emission (gases that escape around the piston rings) for about 20%. Carbon monoxide nitrogen oxides and lead compounds are emitted almost exclusively in the exhaust gases. Effect of engine operating conditions on the- composition of auto exhaust is shown in Table 6.;
Table 6 : Effect of Engine Operating Conditions on the Composition of Auio Exhaust Idle Accelert tion Cruising Deceleralion 11:1-12.5:1
Air-fuel ratio Exhaust Analysis CO % N o , ml/m 3 Hydro carbons, ml/m 8 Unburn! Fuel /^supplied fuel (1 ml/pi 3 —1 ppni)
11:1-12.5:1 11:1-13:113:1-15:1 4-6 10-50 500-1000 4-6
0-6 1-4 2-4 100 -40000 1000-3000 10-50 50-500 2-4 200-3C0 2-4 4000-1200 20-60
Diesel-powered vehicles create relatively minor poiItilioit piobtnir. umipaicil to gasoline powwul which." . The diesel engine exhausts only about a tenth of tire amount of carbon monoxide exhausted by a gasoline engine, although its hydrocarbon emissions may approach those of the gasoline engine Blowby is negligible in the diesel, since the cylinders contain only air on the compression stroke. Evaporative emissions arc also low because the diesel uses a closed injection fuel system and because the fuel is less volatile than gasoline. The major problems of diesel engine are smoke and odour. E X H A U S T EMISSIONS The important exhaust emissions from a gasoline engine are carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and particulates containing lead compounds. These emissions vary with air-fuel ratio, spark timings and the engine operating conditions. To meet the exhaust emission standards for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, the automobile manufacturers have used two basic methods. The first is to inject air into the exhaust manifold near the exhaust valves, where exhaust gas temperature is highest, thus inducing further oxidation of unoxidise or partiallyoxidised substances. The second basic method is to design cylinders and adjust the fuel-air ratio, spark timing and other variables to reduce the amounts of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide is the exhaust to the point where air injection is not required. Devices and methods to control hydrocarbon emissions fall into three classes: (1) devices that modify engine operating concisions such as intake manifold vacuum breakers, carburation mixture improvers, th tie retarders, etc. (2) devices that 'troat' exhaust gases such as afterburners, catalytic converters, absorbers and adsorbers and filters, (3) use of modified or alternate • fuels. C R A N K CASE EMISSIONS Crank case emissions consist of engine blowby which leak past the piston mainly during the compression stroke, and of oil vapours generated into the crank ease. The quantity of blowby depends on engine design and condition and operating .conditions. Worn out piston rings and cylinder liner may greatly increase blowby. These gases mainly contain hydrocarbons and aacount nearly 25% of the total hydrocarbons emissions from a passenger car. 28
Emissions of hydrocarbons from the crank case til atitoimibiH'?; I'itu Ik* liiigolv climimttpii by nosiiivr crank case ventilation (PCV) system. These system^ recycle crank case ventilation air and blowly gases the engine intake instead of venting them to the atmosphere. E V A P O R A T I V E EMISSIONS Through a short term experiment ' ^termination of Indian Im:'!.ute of Petroleum it has been estimates that an average Indian passenger car would emi: 20 Kg of hydrocarbons through evaporation annually. . . controlling evaporation of fuel from the carbure tor and fuel system, are being developed that store fuel vapours in the crank case or in charcoal canister that absorb hydrocarbons, for recycling to the engine Evaporative emissions mig; also be dealt with b> changing the properties of gasoline such us reducing the volatility of. fuel and replacing the C, and - elofinic hydrocarbons in the fuel with the less-reaca\c C< and C 5 paraffine hydrocarbons. Mechanical can also be used to control evaporative emissions. The panel on Electrically Powered Vehicles n USA estimated that the systems used now to cenircl carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon in autoe.\hu'.:>;s - i $25 to $50 to the cost of the car. The p^ne'. s-1J that it should become commercially feasible in the n o : decade to reduce emissions from automobiles using ininternal combustion es... ;e to 500 ml/'m 3 (500 ppm hydrocarbons, 0.5% carbon monoxide and 250 ml; sf (250 ppm) nitrogen oxide. The systems used, t..e pin;" estimated, might add $50 to $300 to the cost of the car produced in 1975-1989. C O N T R O L O F H Y D R O C A R B O N EMISSIONS FROM AUTOMOBILES Devices and methods ? control hydro, -boa emissions fall into three classes. 1. Devices that modify engine operating cona tions. 2. Devices that treat exhaust gases. 3. Use of modified or alternate fuels.
Devices proposed for modifying engine operating conditions, usually called induction devices have as th:!: goal improvement of combustion during all or a portion of the driving cycle. They may be generally classified as follows: 1. 2. 3. Fuel cut off during d e c l a r a t i o n . Intake manifold vacuum breakers. Exhaust system vacuum breakers. Industrial Safety C,./onic!f
Vacuum control throttle openers.
Carburetion mixture improvers.
Improved carburettors involving heating of the fuel or fuelnair mixture to vaporise the fuel completely or alternately, mechanical disporsion of fuel droplets to a lire and stable aerosel are in use but they do not marketly reduce the hydrocarbon content of exhaust. The advantages of. devices to remove hydrocarbons directly from exhaust gas is that the same device may be used for all phases of the operating cycle, although the physical dimensions and the chemical composition of the exhaust gas will vary from one phase to another. The various devices proposed may be classified as; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Afterburners Catalytic converters Liquid washing devices (absorbers) Absorbers (porous solids) Miscellaneous filters, condensers, and dilution devices.
engine cylinder and is quenched so rapidly as it leaves, the cylinder that it does not have sufficient time to decompose. It will, of course, eventually decompose at atmospheric temperature, but the reaction rate under these conditions is extremely slow. An obvious attack is to maintain exhaust gases at a high temperature for sufficient length of time to promote decomposition at greater than atmospheric temperatures of a catalyst could be found to further accelarate the reaction, it could be incorporated in a suitable device that could be installed in the automobile exhaust system. Carbon monoxide remains in the exhaust if the oxidation of Co to CO- is not complete. Generally this is due to a lack of sufficient oxygen. After burners, catalytic reactors etc. are used for CO oxidation, the catalytic reactor or catalytic converter, can operate either on rich or lean mixtures and operates at lower temperatures than the thermal reactor. A catalytic device consists of the active catalyst deposited on a support system and place in a can that looks about the muffler. General Motors has evaluated about 800 materials as possible catalyst. Platinum and Palladium are possibilities for the oxidising catalyst. For control of pollutants in diesel exhaust a variety of after burners, both catalytic and direct flame, have been used to reduce hydrocarbons, aldehydes, carbon monoxide, smoke, hydrogen and other combustibles. The biggest problem here is the low temperature and low combustible concentration of the exhaust. Both factors limits the effectiveness of any practical device. The solutions to the automobile exhaust is not yet found. It is apparent that the most probable solution will be complete oxidation of exhaust hydrocarbons, either catalytically or by direct flame, or the decomposition of nitric oxide, or both. SMOKE CONTROL FROM DIESEL ENGINES The following remedial measure have been considered to reduce smoke and considerable success has. been achieved. 1. Good maintenance of injective system. 2. Improved combustion process brought about by (a) Carburation of a lighter supplementary fuel (b) Fumigation of a part of the diesel fuel. 3. Modification of the combustion chamber design. 4. Derating the engine. 5. Use of smoke supprosent additives like barium based and manganese based additives.. 29
The principle of after burners involves the ignition and burning of the hydrocarbons in exhaust gas. Two of the inherent problems of the after burners, flame maintenence and difficulty of low temperature ignition, are overcome by the catalytic convertor. The most vexing problem faced by those working on the catalyst problem is over coming, catalyst susceptibility to lead compounds formed from the tetraethyl lead used as an antiknock additive in fuels. Lead is a notorious catalyst poison. The liquids proposed for washing out pollutants from exhaust gas include water, solutions of inorganic substances such as potassium permanganate, dichromate or perorcides and various organic solvents including fuel oil. So far no system using this method is commercialised. The use of antiknock agents other than tetraethyl lead has been tried. The compound, methyl cycle pentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl is under test. CONTROL OF OXIDES OF NITROGEN Several methods for reducing the nitric oxide content of auto exhaust have been studied. The most appealing of these is catalytic decomposition of nitric oxide between the exhaust valve and the end of the tail pipe. Nitric oxide is not stable at atmospheric temperature. The only reason it is present in exhaust gases is that it forms at the high temperatures in the •October-December, 19S7
ip—ssmemt of Emissions f r o m Industries The emission from industries are usually assessed ^ following methods (a) material balance, (b) using • emission factors and (c) carrying out stack sampling, r The first two methods give the theoritically possible r emission and the third one measures the actual emissions coming out of any industry. From input and output quantities following material balance calculations, the emissions can be assessed. Emisision factor is a statistical average of the mass of pollutant emitted from each source of pollution per unit quantity of material handled, processed or burnt. By using emission factor for the specific process, one can calculate the total emission of different pollutants by knowing the quantity of material manufactured, processed or burnt. The purpose of stack sampling is to determine the actual quantity and types of pollutants that are contained in the gases emitted from a source. The purpose of stack sampling survey is (a) to provide basic data for the design of air pollution control equipment, (b) to check the performance of control equipment, to determine the compliance or otherwise of emissions with emission standards or norms and (d) to determine the emission factors for use in the compilation of emission inventories. The dust in a gas steam is usually collected in a filtering media which allows the gas to pass through and retains the dust upt'o a certain minimum size. The dust can also be collected through impingement by bubbling through water. The selection of trapping
device depends on many parameters, namely, the temperature and pressure encountered, the moisture content of the gas, the physical and chemical properties of the dust and the gas stream to be sampled. The different types of trapping media used in collection of dust samples from stack gases bubblers and their characteristics are shown in Table 12.
Table 12 : Characteristics of Trapping Media used in (he Collection of Dust samples from Gaseous Streams Trapping medium A l u n d u m thimble Paper thimble Fibre glass Membrane Bubblers filters filters Characteristics of the medium Resistant to temperature upto 540°C a n d high moisture contents; suitable f o r high dust loading. Suitable for temperature upto 120°C, low moisture contents a n d high dust loading. Suitable for high dust loading; higlv collection efficiency. ±tigh collection efficiency; low resistance to gas flow. D u s t not suitable in water; resistant to corrosion.
REFERENCES 1. Desai, H. B. " A i r pollution control technology in petroleum, C P H E R I & S O C L E N Bombay (Sep. 1973).
refineries" Proc. Symp. Air. Pol. Control• Techniques, CLI,
Sinha, J. K. "Pollution from cement industry" Proc. 3rd Cement Industry Operation Seminar, New Delhi (1973). Engineer, N. B. a n d Doshi, V. C. "Air pollution in cement
C P H E R I & S O C L E N , Bombay (Sep. 1973). " R e p o r t of the sub-committee appointed by the panel on cement industry" Cement Industry Assn. Bombay (1973). Mathura, H. B., Ja, G. S. and Bakshi, R. K. " C o n t r o l of particulate emissions from iron a n d steel industry" Proc.
industry" Proc. Symp. Air. pollution control Techniques,
Symp. Air pollution Control Techniques, CLI, CPHERI &
S C C L E N , B o i r b a y (Sep. 1973). A n o n "Industrial plants and stations show progress in pollution control" power, 114, 27 (1970).
J uty-September, 1987
Pollution Problems from Different Industries
DR. C. A. SASTRY, Professor and Head, Centre for Bio-Sciences & Bio-Technology, I.I.T. Madras. Information on emissions associated with different industries is given in Table 1. Petroleum Refineries Depending on the size and complexity of the refinery, the number and type of units could vary considerably from one to another. Some of the common processes that one would come across in a medium sized refinery, are high vacuum distilation unit for preparation of cracking and bitumen food stocks, catalytic cracking, thermal cracking, catalytic reforming, asphalt blowing and acid/caustic treating. Modern refineries have hydrosulphurisors. The pollutants commonly found in petroleum refineries include sulphur dioxide, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, odorous materials, particulate matter. Information on potential sources of pollutants from petroleum refining is given in Table 2. The characteristics of substances found in refinery emissions depend upon the types of crude processed and the complexities of the refineries. In general, the estimated daily emissions (without rigourous controls, from a refinery processing 10,000 tonnes of crude per day is shown (1) in Table 3).
Introduction Even though there are many ditfcrent sources -which contribute to air pollution, industries contribute a major share. There are a number of industries like cement factories, petroleum refineries, iron & steel industry, non-ferrous metal industries, thermal power plants, fertilizer industry, inorganic and organic chemical industries, and pulp and paper industries etc. which are responsible lor air pollution. Industrial sources generate a range of air pollutants specific to the process involved. Air pollution sources are divided for convenience into two classes, (a) specific and (b) multiple sources. Specific sources are largely industrial in nature, thus permitting their potential to pollute a community atmosphere to be readily assayed on an-industry-byindustry (source-by-source) basis. They are fixed and commonly occupy a limited area relative to the community. Multiple sources are those which cannot be assayed practically on a source-by-source basis e . g . combustion of fuels in stationary sources, combustion of fuel for power production, for transportation and domestic purposes, etc. incineration of solid wastes, evaporation of petroleum products and odour sources come under multiple sources.
Table 1 : Air Pollution Problems from some Typical Industrial and other sources Besides smoke, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen a n d fly-ash, the following specific pollutants may also be found Hydrogen fluoride, ammonia, fluorides, fertiliser dust and sulphuric acid mist. Acid fumes. Tin, lead, etc. fumes and oxides solvents and thinners. Mercaptans and sulphides Cement a n d lime dust Nitrobenzene and aniline, thinners, solvents and base material Polynuclear hydrocarbons, carbon soot a n d hydrogen sulphide Polynuclear hydrocarbons and aerosols of tar Hydrogen sulphide and mercaptans Hydrogen sulphide, hydrocarbons, odours of mercaptans Metallic fumes, dust Chlorine Soot Hydrocarbons, H C H O Hydrocarbons, H C H O
Sources Fertiliser indus try and aluminium manufacturing plants Heavy chemical industry like acid plants, synthetic fibre, etc. Lead casting and melting, pigments, etc. Tanneries and leather industry Cement industry Paints, pigments and dye industry C a r b o n black manufacture Coal tar industry Paper and paper products Refinery and pelro-chejnical industry Metallurgical industry Electrolytic manufacture of chlorine Coal burning (power plants) Vehicle emission (a) Petrol (b) Diesel
J uty-September, 1987
Table 2 : Potential Sources of Pollutants in a Petroleum Refinery ; of emission Hydrocarbons Potential source Air blowing, barometric condensers, blind changing, blow-down system, boilers, catalyst regeneratorss compressors, cooling towers, decoking operations, flare, heaters, incinerators, loading facilities, processing vessels, pumps, sampling operations, tanks turn around operations, v a c u u m jets, effluenthandling equipment. Boilers, catalyst regenerators, decoking operations, flares, heaters, incinerators, treaters, acid sludge disposal. Catalyst regenerators, compressor engines, coking operations, incinerators. Boilers, catalyst regenerators, compressor engines, flares. Boilers, catalyst regenerators coking operations, heaters, incinerators. Air blowing, barometric condensers, drains process vessels, steam blowing tanks, treators, effluent handling equipment. Catalyst regenerators, compressor engines. Catalyst regenerators.
Sulphur oxides Carbon monoxide Nitrogen oxides Particulate matter Odours Aldehydes Ammonia
However with adequate controls the levels of the above emissions could be brought down to reasonable values. In the Esso refinery at Bombay, reductions have been achieved as given (1) in Table 4.
Table 3 : Estimated Daily Emissions from A Refinery Processing 10 kt/d (without rigorous controls) Pollutant C a r b o n monoxide Sulphur dioxide Sulphur trioxide Hydrocarbons Particulate matter Oxides of nitrogen A m m o n i a , aldehydes, organic acids a n d aerosols Estimated range of emissions t/d 40—120 30—90 less than 2 30—60 3—10 1—3 less than 1
The prevailing environmental conditions in our country has been studied by Central Mining Institute, Dhanbad and the concentration of air borne dust at different operations in ten cement factories reported (2). The findings of these studies are shown in Table 5.
Table 5 : Air Borne Dust Concentrations at Different Locations in a Cement Factory Concentration of air borne d u s t particles per miOperation/ location (1) Lime stone crushing At the kiln firing end At clinker cooler area Around cemunt mill Packing of cement Loading of cement into wagon A r o u n d coal crushing plant A r o u n d coal drier A r o u n d coal mill General atmosphere within factory area In front of office Minimum (2) 957 110 430 146 1,024 3,670 771 1,920 325 145 35 M a x i m u m Average (3) 6,905 1,596 6,430 3,267 8,480 18,020 4,180 3,385 4,000 950 918 (4) 2,367 580 1,394 1,214 3,330 6,723 1,843 1,609 1,769 567 181
Table 4 : Quantity of Pollutants Emitted from the Esso Refinery (with controls) Pollutant C a r b o n monoxide Sulphur dioxide Hydrocarbons Particulate matter R a n g e of emission?, t/d 20—30 10—20 5—10 0.5—1.0
Cement Industries Portland cement is manufactured from a suitable mixture of limestone and clay, or from marls which are first crushed and ground, either in the dry state or with water. The raw mixture is thereafter burnt at a sintering temperature and the clinker thus obtained is ground to a fine powder with the addition of gypsum to give cement. Cement is packed in jute bags and despatched in this form in railway wagons or trucks. Alternately, it is also despatched in bulk as loose cement. Thus by the very nature of the above processes, there is considerable generation of dust, size of which ranges from 1 tolOO m and above. 26
The concentration of air borne dust at limestone crushing, cement packing machines, around' wagons during cement loading, and at the coal grinding and coal drier areas was rather high, whereas the same around the kiln firing end, clinker cooler and cement mills was within the permissible limits.3 The question of fixing dust emission standards for cement kilns has been engaging the attention of various countries. In India a recommendation was made 4 that dust emission should be restricted to 200.300 mg/m 3 in wet processing plants and to 300-340 mg/m 3 in dry and semi dry process plants. Industrial Safety C,./onic!f
and Steel Industry The steel industry is one of the major sources air pollution. During the operation o\ an ffiXegf^.cJ steel plant many harmful materials are emitted which are in the form of fumes, dust, smoke and gases. The processes with high potential for air pollution are (1) metarial handling, (2) coke making and (3) steel making. Raw materials used include, (a) iron ore, (b) coal and (c ) lime and dolomite. AH the materials handling operations like unloading of raw materials, coal handling and washing are generally carried out in open air. The emissions from stocking and handling of raw materials can be reduced to a great extent by the correct use of grabs, covered tipplers and conveyors.5 Production of metallurgical coke is essential for blast furnance operation, as coke helps the reduction of iron ore and pig iron. The very nature of coking process results in the emission of pollutants like smoke, grit and dust. The rate of emission is highest during the charging operation, the actual quantity varying widely from plant to plant depending upon the condition of the oven, the type of coal used and the mode of operation at each plant. Refining of steel by oxygen generates copious fumes containing very fine iron oxide particles. The most commonly employed processes of steel-making use either an open hearth furnace, oxygen-converter furnace or an electric arc furnace. Fumes from oxygen-converter furnace are more intense compared to those from other furnaces. Oxygen converter furnaces using top blown oxygen process give out 8 to 12 kg of fumes per tonne of steel produced. The potential sources of pollutants in iron and steel industry are shown in Table 6.
Table 6 : Potential Sources of Pollutants in iron and steel Industry Pollutant Dust or particulates M a j o r source
cesses. Various kinds of dust collectors and gas cleaning equipment are being employed in steel mills to suit different operations. Non-Ferrous Metal Industries The non-ferrous metal industries such as copper, lead and aluminium are also major sources of air pollution. Copper sulphide is the major ore used for production of copper. The ore is crushed, slurry is made treated in flotation cells and the rich ore is sent to the smelter. The rich ore is normally roasted in a multiple hearth furnace to remove moisture, to burn part of contained sulphur and to preheat the material before changing into reverberatory furnace. The emissions from this industry include dust and sulphur dioxide of about 2 — 8% in the flue gases. Lead is produced from lead sulphide and its manufacturing method is more or less identical to copper production. The major emissions are dust, fumes and sulphur dioxide. During sintering the sulphur dioxide ranges between 1.5 to 5% in the emission. Dust load varies from 2 — 15 g/m 3 during sintering, 5 — 15 g/m 3 in blast furnace waste gases and 3 — 20g/m 3 in reverberatory furnace gas. The aluminium metal is produced by electrolytic reduction of alumina- Gases like CO, C0 2 , HF, CF 4 , SO;>, are liberated along with dust, alumina, etc. The carbon monoxide is burnt to carbon dioxide. The major pollutants emitted are gaseous fluorine compounds, sulphur dioxide and fluoride particulates. Fertilizer Industry The major fertilisers made in India include phosphatic fertilisers, urea ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, nitrophosphates and combination of some of these. The raw materials required (sulphuric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, ammonia, etc.) are made in the industry itself. The potential sources of pollutants and the type of emissions from a fertiliser industry is shown in Table 7.
Table 7 : Sources of Pollutants from Fertiliser Industry Potential source Sulphuric acid plant Nitric acid plant Phosphoric acid plant A m m o n i a plant Urea plant Nitrophosphate plant A m m o n i u m nitrate T y p e of emission SO2, S 0 3 a n d acid mist Oxides of nitrogen Fluorides, phospheric acid mist S 0 2 , oxides of nitrogen, ammonia Urea dust, ammonia Fertiliser dust, ammonia, fluorides Dust, ammonia
Material handling dolomitic plant, LD converters, electric smelting furnaces, electric are furnace, grinding equipment, etc. All stack gases from furnaces and boilers Sulphur dioxide LD Converters, electric furnaces and C a r b o n monoxide other furnaces Pickling tanks, acid regeneration plant and Acid fumes battery room Electric furnances, LD converters Oxide fujnes Oil a n d solvent fumes Oil storage tanks, cold mills, painting chambers of the maintenance shop Pickling tanks, coke ovens, etc. •Odour Furnaces, boilers, confined work areas, Heat work space near machines.
Gases such as sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen •etc. are also emitted from some of the above proJ uty-September, 1987
In the urea plant, there is possibility for leakage of ammonia from various places. The various loca27
lions from which ammonia normally leaks in a total recycle process include ammonia charge pumps, recovered solution charge pumps and recovery tower. In the gasification section, the gas produced contains 46% carbon monoxide which is toxic. There is likelihood of carbon monoxide pollution of atmosphere if any leaks develop in the system. Normally these leaks are very nominal and the air samples do not indicate presence of carbon monoxide. Thermal Power Plants Thermal power plants utilise fuel to produce steam for power generation. The combustion of fuels produce significant amount of air pollutant. The types of pollutant depend on the nature of fuel used. If coal is used, fly ash, sulphur dioxide, oxides of. nitrogen are the major pollutants. In the case of fuel oil sulphur dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen are major pollutants emitted to the atmosphere. The amount of fly ash and sulphur dioxide released depend on the sulphur and ash content of the fuel used. Data on particulate emission from coal fired boilers without air pollution control is given6 in Table 8.
Table 8 : Particulate Emission from Coal Fired Boilers (without rigorous pollution control) Types of furnaces Particulate in kg per t of coal burnt
such as raw materials used, products made, processes adopted and types of equipment used. Almost all the pollutants are traced in the stack emissions from different chemical industries. The predominant ones are oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide and fluoride, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (organo chemical industries), mercury and chlorine gas (chloralkali plants) and particulate matter. The sources of different pollutants from chemical industries are shown in Table 9. Nature and quantity of pollutants discharged into atmosphere by chemical industries depend upon raw material, products, processes and equipment use.
Table 9 : Pollutants from Different Chemical Industries Pollutant Sulphur dioxide Hydrogen sulphide Oxides of nitrogen Hydrogen fluoride C a r b o n monoxide Mercury and chlorine Hydrocarbons Source Sulphuric acid plant, CS., plant, oil refineries etc. Viscose rayon, oil refinery, CS» plant, dye manufacture, tanneries. Nitric acid manufacture, explosive industry, automobiles. Fertilisers, chemical, aluminium industry. Oil refinery, furnaces, automobiles. Chloroalkali industries. Organic chemical industry, refineries, automobiles. Mine quarries, pottery power station, cement. and ceramic,
Pulverised General Dry bottom Wet bottom without fly ash reinjection Wet bottom with fly ash reinjection Cyclone Spreader stoker Without fly ash reinjection with fly ash reinjection All other stockers Note :
7.3 A 7.8 A 6.OA 10.8A 0.9A
6. OA 9.1A 2.3 A
A is multiplication factor representing % ash in coal values represent mass of particulates reaching control equipment used on this type of furnace; they are not emissions.
Absorbents and adsorbents like magnesium oxide slurry, lime slurry, soda ash, ammonia alkalised alumina, activated carbon, monoethanolamine are used for removal of sulphur dioxide from stack gases from chemical industries. Hydrogen sulphide is removed by adsorption on iron oxides, absorption in liquid caustic soda, combustion, catalytic conversion to sulphur or scrubbers. Oxides of nitrogen are removed by adsorption, burning and catalytic combustion. Sulphuric Acid Plants Sulphuric acid is produced by burning sulphur to sulphur dioxide, which is converted to sulphur trioxide over vanadium pentoxide catalyst. The sulphur trioxide is then absorbed in towers with circulating sulphuric acid to yield 98.5% commercial grade acid. In sulphuric acid plants usually pollutants discharged are S0 2 and acid mist. There will be occasional gas leaks. In normally well operated plants gas leaks can be avoided to a great extent. Frequent fertilizers. The estimated production of P2O5 and Industrial Safety C,./onic!f
The three major air pollutants from power station are thus: particulate matter (fly ash and soot), sulphur oxides (SO^ and SOH) and oxides for nitrogen (NO and NOu). Besides, these, there is possibility of emission of carbon monoxide and unburnt carbon; but in the modern thermal power stations with automatic combustion control system, the formation of these products is eliminated. Another pollutant from coal fired stations is coal dust emission from the coal handling plant. Chemical Industries The nature and quantity of air pollutants let out by chemical industry will depend on number of factors 28
downs of plant, due to power failure, low voleffcct not only the performance of the pant also increase SOL, emission. Material fatigue on tings and converter can cause leaks due to failureNormally the conversion efficiency of SCX to SO:i by catalyst is 98 - -98.5%. By use of quench air system, SO- discharge in the system can be reduced. An absorption tower has to be operated with 98 to 99'i sulphuric acid. Any acid concentration beyond this range of circulating acid strength induces thick curdy white stack emissions. By proper control absorption tower operation, acid mist can be controlled. A break-through in the process technology of manufacturiing sulphuric acid was achieved in 70's. Double catalyst, Double Absorption (DC DA) has gradually replaced the earlier single context technology on account of pollution control measure. The production of sulphuric acid during 1985 in the country is about 5 million tonnes. Capacity of more than 1.5 million tonnes of H 2 S 0 4 per year has been established in recent years with DCDA system. AH new plants in India will be based on DCDA processes since it is not only economically viable but profitable to use DCDA system for sulphuric acid plants with capacity above 100 tonnes per day. Super Phosphate Plants Sulphuric acid production in India in recent years is closely following the growth rate of phosphatic
ISI 8635-1977 1. Fluorine (as F 2 ) (a) Phosphoric Acid plants Existing New (b) S S P P l a n t s Existing New (c) T S P Plants Existing New
sulphuric acid for the next three years is given in Table 10.
Table 10 : Estimated Demand of Sulphuric Acid and P a O f r ('000 metric tonnes) PaO s 1986-87 1676 5172 1987-8 1917 5416 1988-89
1989-90 2247* 5898
* more nitro phosphates expected.
In a super phosphate plant rock phosphate is ground in closed circuit grinding mills, to 80 — 85% through 100 mesh. By using dust collector bags particulates from this section can be controlled to permissable limits. Rock phosphate used contains usually 3 — 4% fluorine of which about 25% is released during mixing operation with acid while the remaining 75% is retained in single super phosphate. At mixer exis the fluorine concentration will be about 5500 — 6000 mg/NM. 3 Among the gaseous pollutants, SO s has done more harm to the global environment than any other single chemical present in the stack emissions of industrialised nations. An official estimate puts a figure of about 5 million tonnes of SO. emissions in India from all sources including power plants during 1985. If converted to sulphuric acid this would mean an acid of about 7 . 5 million tonnes. A comparison of standards laid down by IS! and central pollution control board for gaseous pollutants for sulphuric acid and super phosphate plants is given in Table 11. MINAS* (1983-84)
Table 11 : Comparison of Standards Laid Down by I S I and Central Pollution Control— Board
1.50 kg/T of P 2 0 5 0 . 6 5 kg/T of P2Q5 0.50 kg/T of product 0 . 1 0 kg/T of product 0 . 3 kg/T of product 0.075 kg/T of product
N o standard No standard 25 m g / N M 3 as Total F or 0 . 1 2 kg fluoride/T of product or 0 . 2 0 kgF/T of rock phosphate percent. No standard N o standard 150 m g / N M 3 of particulate matter for granulation mixing grinding. Single conversion of 10 kg/T of 100% D C D A 4 kg/T of 100% H 2 S Q 4 H2S04
Particulate matter when emitted through stacks 500 p i g / N M 3 (a) S S P Plants 4 kg/T of product (b) T S P Plants Sulphur dioxide (a) plans upto 200 T P D (b) Plants above 200 T P D (c) New plants upto 200 T P D (d) New plants above 200 T P D 16 12 12 4 kg/T of 100% H 2 S 0 4 kg/T of 1 0 0 % H 2 S 0 4 kg/T of 100% H 2 S 0 4 kg/T of 100 % H 2 S 0 4
Sulphur trioxide (a) Existing plants (b) New plants upto 200 T P D (W) New plants above 200 T P D
5 kg/T of 100% H 2 S 0 4 5 kg/T of 100% H 2 S 0 4 0 . 5 kg/T of 100% H 2 S 0 4
50 m g / N M 3 or 0 . 0 1 kg/T of 100% H2SQ4
*Minijnu»n National Standards by Central Pollution Control Board.
Paper Industry Odorous and particulates pollutants are emitted from diiferent stages of pulp and paper making. During digestion, some cellulose is demethylated which reacts with sulfide to yield mercaptans and methyl sulphide. Hydrogen sulphide may also be produced. Build-up of head pressure in the digester is intermittently relieved to the atmosphere, thereby contributing small volume of volatile and turpentine compounds. It is reported that Euclyptus pulping gives out very small quantities of isopropyl mercaptan. Digestion parameters like pressure, temperature, nature •of wood, time and concentration of cooking materials influence the quantities of pollutants discharged. •Odorous noncondensable gases escape from blow heat recovery system, unless collected and treated. From pulp washing, some occluded volatile sulphur compounds are lost from the residual black liquor and usually exhausted through roof vents above washers. •Considerable quantities of methyl mercaptans, methyl sulphide and hydrogen sulphide leave multiple effect •evaporators through barometric leg of the jet condenser from chemical recovery section hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan, sulphur containing compounds and non sulphur organic compounds are released in small •concentration into the atmosphere usually recovery furnances are provided with electrostatic precipitator. Magnitude of loss of sulphur compounds from recovery furnaces is estimated as "sulphidity". Emissions from this source include hydrogen sulphide and mercaptans. The dust concentration from the stack of recovery boilers vary from 600 — 2000 mg/NM, 3 sulphur dioxide concentration 60 — 150 mg/NM 3 and hydrogen sujphide 10:— 110 mg/NM. 3 Mercaptans in digester gas (intermittent discharge) vary from 200 — 2500 mg/NM. 3 Methods used for control of air pollution include black liquor oxidation, combustion, chlorine oxidation, oxidation by air or ozone, scrubbing, stripping, absorption etc. Ventury scrubber and principle collectors used for collection of salt cok e from refurnace effluent gases.
can voltalize or be thermally degraded into vol-.— substances which are subjected to heat. Volan_e matter is driven oil and is condensed on cooling into a blue haze of droplets, most of which are in range of 0.1 to 1 micron diameter. The most common source of oil mists in the textile industry is ix tenter frame, because of the higher operating temperature which range from 125 — 150°C. Compound in tenter exhausts are partially oxidised and; therefore, more odourous and corrosive. Other processes proing oil mists include heat setting and drying Te.\i_rizers produce the cleanest oil mists, consisting mainiy of spinning oils. Plastilizers are driven off from all high temperature processes involving vinyl, such as extrusion coating, tentering and calendering. Acid mists are produced during the carbonizing of wool and during some types of spray dyeing. Organic solvent vapours are released during and after all solvent processing operations. Solvent dyeing and printing and the application of finishes from solvent solution create problems. Odours are often associated with oil mists and solvent vapours. In other cases odorant is present mainly in vapour phase. The most common odour problem of this type are the carrier odours from aqueous polyester dyeing and processes subsequent to it. Resin finishing also produces odours, chiefly of formaldehyde. Other sources of odours are sulphur dyeing on cotton, reducing or stripping dyes with hydrosulphide, bonding, laminating, black coating, bleaching with chlorine dioxide etc. Dust and fly ash are produced during processing of natural fibres and synthetic staple prior to and during spinning, napping and carpet shearing. To a lesser extent, most other textile processes produce lint, which, while it is not a major pollutant by itself, complicates abatement processes for other pollutants. Air pollution abatement technique in textile industry include (a) those that destroy the pollutants, (b) those that collect the pollutant in a revolatively concentrated dry form and (c) those that wash the pollutants from exhaust gases into water or some other collecting fluild. Industrial Safety C,./onic!f
Textile Industry Emissions from textile processes excluding steam .generation fall into four general categories (a) oil and acid mi'st, (b) solvent vapours, (c) odours and (d) dust and lint. Oil mists are produced when textile materials containing oils, plasticizer and other materials that 30
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