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CONDUCTION

Wall

Assume: L

(1) Steady state k

(2) One-dimensional &

qQ

x

(3) Q& = 0

zdr

[W/m3] x

0 x

Find:

(1) Temperature distribution Fig. 3.1

(2) Heat transfer rate

1

The Heat Conduction Equation

T T T & T

( ) + ( ) + ( ) + Q = c (2.4)

x x y y z z zdr t

(2.4) becomes

d dT (3.1)

( )=0

dx dx

d 2T

=0 (3.2)

2

dx

2

(3.2) is valid for all problems described by rectangular

coordinates, subject to the four above assumptions.

General Solution

Integrate (3.2)

dT

=C

dx 1

Integrate again

T = C1 x + C 2 (3.3)

from B.C.

Temperature distribution is linear

3

Application to Special Cases

Apply solution (3.3) to special cases (different B.C.)

Objective:

(1) Determine the temperature distribution T(x)

(2) Determine the heat transfer rate Q& x

(3) Construct the thermal circuit

4

Case (i): Specified temperatures at both

surfaces

L

Boundary conditions: k

Ts1 T ( x)

T (0) = Ts1 (3.4)

Ts 2

T ( L) = Ts 2 (3.5) 0 x

RRcd==

cd S

Ak

Ts1 Ts 2

q&x

Solution is given by (3.3) Q

x

Fig. 3.2

T = C1 x + C 2 (3.3)

5

Applying B.C., general solution becomes:

Linear profile

x

T ( x ) = Ts1 + (Ts 2 Ts1 ) (3.4)

L

Q& T (1.5)

q& x = x

S x

6

& T

Q = S (3.7)

x x

Differentiate (3.6) and substitute into (3.7)

S (T - T )

Q& = s1 s2 (3.8a)

x L

L

(3) Thermal circuit. Rewrite (3.8a): k

Ts1 T ( x)

(Ts1 - Ts2 )

Q& x = (3.8b)

Ts 2

L 0 x

S

LL

RRcd==

Define: Thermal resistance due to cd S

Ak

Ts1 Ts 2

q&x

conduction, Rcd Q

x

Fig. 3.2 7

L (3.9)

R = L

cd S k

Ts1 T ( x)

(3.8b) becomes

(Ts1 - Ts2 ) Ts 2

Q& x = (3.10) 0 x

R

cd LL

RRcd==

cd S

Ak

Analogy with Ohm's law for Ts1

q&x Ts 2

electric circuits: Q

x

Q& current Fig. 3.2

x

(Ts1 Ts 2 ) voltage drop

Rcd electric resistance

8

Conduction in a Multi-layer Plane Wall

The Heat Equations and Boundary Conditions

9

Heat must go through all layers with no change (unless heat

is generated e.g. 1000W must get through):

Qx = 1 S = 2 S = 3 S

L1 L2 L3

L1

& Ts2 Ts1 Ts3 Ts2 Ts4 Ts3T1 L2 L3

Qx = = = k1

L1 L2 L3 Ts1 1 k2 k3

3

Ts 2 2

1 S 2 S 3 S Ts 3

Ts4

0 x

T

And summing up the resistances and

exchanging temp. differences 11 LL1 LL2 LL3 11

S1

Ah S

Ak1 SAk2 S

Ak33 S

Ah4

1 1 2 2

Ts1 Ts 4 Ts1 Ts 4 T1 T

Q& x = = q&

R1 + R2 + R3 L1 + L2 + L3 Ts1 Qxx Ts 2 Ts 3 Ts 4

1S 2 S 3 S Fig. 3.5

10

& T (3.24)

Q =

x R L1 L2 L3

T 1

k1

T s 1 1 k22 k3

3

Ts 2

T = overall temperature difference Ts 3

Ts 4

across all resistances 0 x

T 4

S

R = sum of all resistances S1 S SAk Ak3 3 S

Ah Ak 1 Ah4

T 1 1 1 2 2 2

T 4

Ts1 Qq& x Ts 2 Ts 3 Ts 4

x

Fig. 3.5

at the point 2, apply equation for heat transfer rate

for appropriate layer Ts1 Ts 2

&

Qx =

L1

1 S 11

Radial Conduction in a Single Layer

Cylindrical Wall

The Heat Conduction r2

Equation r

Assume: 0

r1

(1) Constant

T

(2) Steady state: =0

t Fig. 3 .6

(3) 1-D: = =0

z

(4) No energy generation: Q& zdr = 0

12

Simplified Heat equation in cylindrical coordinates:

d dT (3.33)

(r )=0

dr dr

General solution

T(r) = C1 ln r + C2 (3.34)

Specified temperatures at both surfaces

r1 r r2

B.C.

T(r1) = Ts1 0

Ts1

T

T(r2) = Ts 2 s2

Fig.13

3 .7

Ts1 Ts 2

T (r ) = ln ( r/r2 ) + Ts 2 (3.35)

ln ( r1/r2 )

Logarithmic profile

Fourier's law

& dT (3.36)

Q = .S(r)

r dr

For a cylinder of length L the area S(r) is

S(r) = 2 rL (3.37)

Differentiate (3.35)

dT Ts1 Ts 2 1

= (3.38)

dr ln( r1 / r2 ) r 14

Ts1 Ts2

Q& r = (3.39)

(1/2 L)ln(r2 /r1 )

radial conduction, Rcd

r1 r r2

ln ( r r )

Rcd = 2 1 (3.40) 0

2 L Ts1

T

s2

(3.44) into (3.42) Rcd

Ts1 Ts 2

q&rr

Q

Fig. 3.7

Ts1 Ts2

Q& r = (3.41)

Rcd

15

Heat is transferred from inside to outside the tube

Which profile is correct? 1 or 2?

Q& r

Superheated

steam

16

Radial Conduction in a Multi-layer

Cylindrical Wall

r4

r3

k3

Assume: r2 k2

r1 k11 2 3

(1) One-dimensional T 4

(2) Steady state T1 h

4

h1 Ts1 Ts2 Ts3 Ts4

(3) Constant conductivity

(4) No heat generation

(5) Perfect interface contact &

qQ

T1 r r T 4

Rcv1 Rcd 1 Rcd 2 Rcd 3 Rcv 4

Fig . 3.10

Three conduction resistances:

17

ln(r /r )

Rcd1 = 2 1

2 L

1

ln(r /r )

Rcd2 = 3 2

2 L

2

ln(r4 /r3 )

Rcd3 =

2 3 L

T s1 T s4

Q& r=

ln(r2 /r1 ) ln(r3 /r2 ) ln(r4 /r3 )

+ +

2 1 L 2 2 L 2 3 L

(3.42)

18

Contact Resistance

Perfect interface contact vs. actual

contact (Fig. 3.11)

Gaps act as a resistance to heat flow

T

The temperature drop depends on Tct

the contact resistance Rct

x

Rct is determined experimentally Fig. 3.11

Operational

Fouriers law: temperature

T

Q& x =

Surface

R1 + Rct + R2

temperature

19

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