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ONE-DIMENSIONAL STEADY STATE

CONDUCTION

Conduction in a Single Layer Plane


Wall

Assume: L
(1) Steady state k
(2) One-dimensional &
qQ
x
(3) Q& = 0
zdr
[W/m3] x

0 x
Find:
(1) Temperature distribution Fig. 3.1
(2) Heat transfer rate
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The Heat Conduction Equation

Starting point: The heat conduction equation for 3-D


T T T & T
( ) + ( ) + ( ) + Q = c (2.4)
x x y y z z zdr t

(2.4) becomes
d dT (3.1)
( )=0
dx dx

Assume: (4) Constant


d 2T
=0 (3.2)
2
dx
2
(3.2) is valid for all problems described by rectangular
coordinates, subject to the four above assumptions.

General Solution
Integrate (3.2)
dT
=C
dx 1

Integrate again
T = C1 x + C 2 (3.3)

C1 and C2 are constants of integration determined


from B.C.
Temperature distribution is linear
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Application to Special Cases
Apply solution (3.3) to special cases (different B.C.)
Objective:
(1) Determine the temperature distribution T(x)
(2) Determine the heat transfer rate Q& x
(3) Construct the thermal circuit

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Case (i): Specified temperatures at both
surfaces
L
Boundary conditions: k
Ts1 T ( x)
T (0) = Ts1 (3.4)
Ts 2
T ( L) = Ts 2 (3.5) 0 x

(1) Determine C1, C2 and T(x): LL


RRcd==
cd S
Ak
Ts1 Ts 2
q&x
Solution is given by (3.3) Q
x
Fig. 3.2
T = C1 x + C 2 (3.3)

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Applying B.C., general solution becomes:

Linear profile
x
T ( x ) = Ts1 + (Ts 2 Ts1 ) (3.4)
L

(2) Determine q x : Apply Fourier's law (1.5)

Q& T (1.5)
q& x = x
S x

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& T
Q = S (3.7)
x x
Differentiate (3.6) and substitute into (3.7)
S (T - T )
Q& = s1 s2 (3.8a)
x L
L
(3) Thermal circuit. Rewrite (3.8a): k
Ts1 T ( x)
(Ts1 - Ts2 )
Q& x = (3.8b)
Ts 2
L 0 x
S
LL
RRcd==
Define: Thermal resistance due to cd S
Ak
Ts1 Ts 2
q&x
conduction, Rcd Q
x
Fig. 3.2 7
L (3.9)
R = L
cd S k
Ts1 T ( x)
(3.8b) becomes
(Ts1 - Ts2 ) Ts 2
Q& x = (3.10) 0 x
R
cd LL
RRcd==
cd S
Ak
Analogy with Ohm's law for Ts1
q&x Ts 2
electric circuits: Q
x
Q& current Fig. 3.2
x
(Ts1 Ts 2 ) voltage drop
Rcd electric resistance

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Conduction in a Multi-layer Plane Wall
The Heat Equations and Boundary Conditions

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Heat must go through all layers with no change (unless heat
is generated e.g. 1000W must get through):

& Ts2 Ts1 Ts3 Ts2 Ts4 Ts3


Qx = 1 S = 2 S = 3 S
L1 L2 L3

Or using conduction resistance:


L1
& Ts2 Ts1 Ts3 Ts2 Ts4 Ts3T1 L2 L3
Qx = = = k1
L1 L2 L3 Ts1 1 k2 k3
3
Ts 2 2
1 S 2 S 3 S Ts 3
Ts4
0 x
T
And summing up the resistances and
exchanging temp. differences 11 LL1 LL2 LL3 11
S1
Ah S
Ak1 SAk2 S
Ak33 S
Ah4
1 1 2 2
Ts1 Ts 4 Ts1 Ts 4 T1 T
Q& x = = q&
R1 + R2 + R3 L1 + L2 + L3 Ts1 Qxx Ts 2 Ts 3 Ts 4

1S 2 S 3 S Fig. 3.5
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& T (3.24)
Q =
x R L1 L2 L3
T 1
k1
T s 1 1 k22 k3
3
Ts 2
T = overall temperature difference Ts 3
Ts 4
across all resistances 0 x
T 4

11 LL1 LL2 LL3 11


S
R = sum of all resistances S1 S SAk Ak3 3 S
Ah Ak 1 Ah4
T 1 1 1 2 2 2
T 4
Ts1 Qq& x Ts 2 Ts 3 Ts 4
x
Fig. 3.5

Determining temperature at any point, for example


at the point 2, apply equation for heat transfer rate
for appropriate layer Ts1 Ts 2
&
Qx =
L1
1 S 11
Radial Conduction in a Single Layer
Cylindrical Wall
The Heat Conduction r2
Equation r
Assume: 0
r1
(1) Constant
T
(2) Steady state: =0
t Fig. 3 .6
(3) 1-D: = =0
z
(4) No energy generation: Q& zdr = 0

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Simplified Heat equation in cylindrical coordinates:
d dT (3.33)
(r )=0
dr dr

General solution

T(r) = C1 ln r + C2 (3.34)

(1) Determine temperature distribution - profile


Specified temperatures at both surfaces
r1 r r2
B.C.
T(r1) = Ts1 0
Ts1
T
T(r2) = Ts 2 s2
Fig.13
3 .7
Ts1 Ts 2
T (r ) = ln ( r/r2 ) + Ts 2 (3.35)
ln ( r1/r2 )
Logarithmic profile

(2) Determine the radial heat transfer rate Q& r : Apply


Fourier's law
& dT (3.36)
Q = .S(r)
r dr
For a cylinder of length L the area S(r) is
S(r) = 2 rL (3.37)
Differentiate (3.35)
dT Ts1 Ts 2 1
= (3.38)
dr ln( r1 / r2 ) r 14
Ts1 Ts2
Q& r = (3.39)
(1/2 L)ln(r2 /r1 )

(3) Thermal circuit: Define the thermal resistance for


radial conduction, Rcd
r1 r r2
ln ( r r )
Rcd = 2 1 (3.40) 0
2 L Ts1
T
s2
(3.44) into (3.42) Rcd
Ts1 Ts 2
q&rr
Q
Fig. 3.7
Ts1 Ts2
Q& r = (3.41)
Rcd
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Heat is transferred from inside to outside the tube
Which profile is correct? 1 or 2?

Q& r

Superheated
steam

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Radial Conduction in a Multi-layer
Cylindrical Wall
r4
r3
k3
Assume: r2 k2
r1 k11 2 3
(1) One-dimensional T 4
(2) Steady state T1 h
4
h1 Ts1 Ts2 Ts3 Ts4
(3) Constant conductivity
(4) No heat generation
(5) Perfect interface contact &
qQ
T1 r r T 4

Rcv1 Rcd 1 Rcd 2 Rcd 3 Rcv 4
Fig . 3.10
Three conduction resistances:

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ln(r /r )
Rcd1 = 2 1
2 L
1
ln(r /r )
Rcd2 = 3 2
2 L
2
ln(r4 /r3 )
Rcd3 =
2 3 L

Heat transfer rate: Ohm analogy


T s1 T s4
Q& r=
ln(r2 /r1 ) ln(r3 /r2 ) ln(r4 /r3 )
+ +
2 1 L 2 2 L 2 3 L
(3.42)
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Contact Resistance
Perfect interface contact vs. actual
contact (Fig. 3.11)
Gaps act as a resistance to heat flow
T
The temperature drop depends on Tct
the contact resistance Rct
x
Rct is determined experimentally Fig. 3.11
Operational
Fouriers law: temperature

T
Q& x =
Surface

R1 + Rct + R2
temperature

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