PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES AN AYURVEDIC APPROACH

-

:

Dr. Rajesh Kotecha Dr. Mita Kotecha

"Environmental They

problems

are

really

social

problems.

begin with people as the cause,

and end with prcple as - Sir Edmund Hillary.

victims"

Modern on are e.g. 1. ecological when released

technological and balance into the of

development, put natural

rapid

growth

of

industrialization place

urbanization harmful

tremendous i.e. are

pressure takes by

systems. They

Pollution

potentially

substances

pollutants received

environment.

various

agents,

In Air - Release of materials into atmosphere which make

air unsuitable for breathing. 2. In water - Deteriorating water quality due to addition of unwanted 3. In materials. land - Dumps and disposals can deteriorate the health a result of of improvement workers reduced has in by industrial industrial but of et hygiene, pollution in is the in

of human beings. As percentage developed and alarming. workers reported Delhi affected

countries A 15% recent in

markedly al

developing still Orissa New and involving PRIA,

underdeveloped engaged has

world, study a

number (Sharma

diseases 1994)

cement a

industry, from study on

Rajgangpur, Occupational in

population conducted

affected

silicosis.

Environmental Health Status of coal As far is as the preventive

mining area aspect points of

19S4 and workplace of utmost

found number of suspected cases of pneumoconiosis. environment importance. (1) Preventive measures (2) Preventive measures to cope up with polluted air. to cope up with polluted water. concerned, following are

... .

(3) land. (4)

preventive

measures of

to

cope

up in

with the

pollution workers

of for

Strengthening

immunity

prevention of occupational disorders as well as for better physical & mental performance to procure maximum output from them. The following sutra of Ayurveda indicates the bunch of thoughts in the areas of present, topic.
e

•9 •

' ^ f? ^IHPF^H

^

^TFWrq^l' Charaka Samhita

The understanding of the total nature of a thing does not arise from a fragmentary knowlede of it. It means, when we think of solution, we have to think it in total. A problem can not be solved completely - if we apply various solutions on its different fragments. In this context, suggested ancient total Ayurvedic solutions scholars healthy thought life a which lot can and be for

applied for people working in industrial sector also. For prevention of occupational disease in workplace, we have to think of pollutants as well as persons who are working or residing there. Tn other words if we think of a person as an entity and strengthen his such entities may be considered in work place. immunity,a group ot of particular context

Immunomodulation of a person in industries may

provide dual advantage (1) Prevention of occupational disease and (2) Better physical and mental conditions of workers, can help in procuring optimum output from them. Keeping this view, following recommendations of ancient scholars are of major importace. Strengthening of Immunity : The earliest were for centred the on normal efforts at strengthening immune mechenism identification resistance of of the the body. factors This responsible explains the Which

detailed description on Bala, Oja and Vyadhikhamatva as seen in classical texts of Ayurveda. The afforts at strengthening Bala lead to the discovery and fc • mulation of a variety of single drug as well as compounds which subsequently classified under Rasayana in general.

Table - 1

AYURVEDIC Vyadhi k s h a m a t v a (Resistance against the d i s e a s e )

CONCEPT OF

IMMUNITY

Vyadhi Utpad Pratibandhaktva (Preventing the development disease) of a Vyadhi Bala Virodhi (Resisting the developed d i s e a s e in the body)

Bala [Capacity of resisting d i s e a s e )

Snhaja Kalaja Kalaja

- Natural Capacity - Temporal Capacity - Temporal Capacity

Yukti kri ta Acqui red Capacity

For BALA :

the

understanding

of

Vyadhikshamatva;

Bala,

Oias

and Rasayana terms are of utmost importance : In a broad the for life. sense Bala can be stated as inherent or Every human is born- with of exercise strength and or a latent can be healthy vitality. acquired strength that aids in the maintenance of health and sustain potential reached living. certain literally strength-limitations physical power, means which

through Bala

sustained

Bala counteracts the disorder state developing in a body. THE NATURE OF BALA : Sahaja Bala : Natural constitutional strength. - Kalaja Bala : Temporal strength is the one which is based on the season and the age of the person. - Yuktikrita : Acquired strength, which is achieved by the combination of diet and other regimens. As per the another classification, immunity and resistance of prevented before its onset. OJ A : The and Bala is the Oja effect denotes of is 'Oja' in the body. The it relation cause between Oja effect. and Bala identical two to that between meanings, the host one type of Bala is Pratyanika Bala denoting to the capacity which increases the so that disease may be

similar

irplies that substance which is responsible for the strength or in another words it signifies the substance of body which

Many effect of

studies

are

conducted Recently, of

on

the

immunomodulatory (1988) reported (Hydrocotyl (Asparagus

herbs. Vacha

Singh

immunopotentiative asiatica),

effect (acorus

Mandukparni Shatavari

calamus).!

racemosus) . These drugs caused increase and singh (1988)

in iminunooglobulins

of the human beings and widal titre in the rabbits. Hejamadi reported immunity,enhansive property of a herbal compound Balya as its individual ingredients caused increase in serum Ig A ad Ig M. Further, Hejamadi and Singh (1989) reported the effect of Varahikanda prurita), aged persons. (Dioscorea Amalaki Rao and and bulbifera), the serum Kapikacchu immunoglobulin worked on and of the (Mucuna the

(Phyllanthus emblika) and Guduchi Shastri antibody that (1989)

(Tinospora cordifolia) on (Phaseolus of Mungo)

Masha

Mashabheda

(Phaseolus vulgaris) suppression

for their effect on humoral cell is classics mediated having dealt

enhancement

immunity in albino rats. Chudasama and Singh (1985) reported Ashvagandha action. can herbs be said that as Ayurvedic on to well as having class In effect context immunity disese industrial functions. specified workers, as Thus, with There class provide are of it both such (Withania somnifera) immunopromotor certain

general herbs.

enhancement in physical and mental prevention against

strength,

may definitely

occupational

disease as well

optimum output in production by them can be achieved. Suggestions for prevetiopagainst different pollutants : 1 drugs The for Vyoshantak Vati & as the far Gudavaleha as may be active is

pneumoconiosis very much useful and to

preventive

aspect

concerned. drugs may the

Not only prevention but we assume that above two to check further progression of extent it able will be to relieve its after some

disease

symtomatology. definite

The study on these two drugs are going on so regarding availble

conclusion

completion of it.

RASAYANA provides

:

Rasayana

may

be

defined

as

the

therapy

which

the optimum quality of the body tissues by which thus prevents live a long ageing several thus process by enablig of to

it promotes both physical and mental health, the disease and There of drugs diseases are for and period of youthfulness. classification of -Bala, immunity

therapeutic usage prevention disease of in

enhancement

Ojas,

improves

against

general. Rasayana group of drugs

are mainly responsible for

enhancementof Bala, Ojas and prevention of diseases. Wide range of single and compound Rasayana drugs are prescribed as immunopromotors for enhancing the immunity of the body in general, but at the same time many of them are for curing a particular disease also which is clear from the classification of Rasayanagiven in table - 2 and table - 3. Table - 2
C L A S S I F I C A T I O N OF R A S A Y A N A (REJUVENATORS) - 1

Kamyam (Health Promotor)

Prana Kamah

:

P r o m o t e s physical health e.g. Asparagus racemosus, Wi thani a somni fera Phyllanthus emblica etc Promotes mental health e.g. C o n v o l v u l u s p l e u r i c a u l i s H y d r o c o t y l e asiatica, Acorus ca1 ami s, Social s t a t u s , lusture, c o m p l e x i o n and glow p r o m o t o r . relieve p a r t i c u l a r type of

Medha Kamah

:

Shri N a i m i 11 i k a

Kamah

:

T h a t is used to disease. e.g.

Black Bitumen, semecarpus H y d n o c a r p u s wight ina e t c . use of milk or

anacardium,

Ajasrika

The continuous

ghee.

Table - 3
C L A S S I F I C A T I O N OF R A S A Y A N A A c c o r d i n g to M o d e of A c t i o n Shodhana, body then (REJUVENATORS) which bring first about - 2

purify the rejuvenation

S h a n a n a , w h i c h act the b o d i l y h u m o u r s Ayush Rasayana Which Which Which Code increases make^ makes of good body the

by pacifying (Dosha)

lifespan. stout. body slim.

B r i mhana R asayana Lekhana Achara Some of and Rasayana Rasayana

conduct. for the p r e v e n t i o n been

the proved R a s a y a n a d r u g s

t r e a t m e n t of p a r t i c u l a r d i s e a s e or c o n d i t i o n s have 4. Table - 4

p r e s e n t e d in table -

R A S A Y A N A AS Discase or e n t i t y

A C H O I C E O F D R U G FOR P R E V E N T I O N OF D I S E A S E OR ENTITY Ayurvedi c Name of Drug Ha ri d ra Amalaki Ha ri t aki Bhal 1 a t a k a

AND

TREATMENT

L a t i n Name of Drug C u r c u m a longa P h y l l a n t h u s emblica Terminal!a Senecarpus anacardi urn Ti n o s p o r a cordifolia chebula

Prameha (D. m e l l i t u s ) Pandu (Anaemi a) Ar sha (Piles) Vatarakta (Gout) Kustha (Leprosy) Vatavyadhi PIi ha roga (Diseases of S p l e e n ) Vyapasmrit i (Loss of M e m o ry) Ni n d r a n a s h a (Insomnia)

Guduchi Khadi ra Guggulu Pi ppa 1 i Sara

Acacia

Catechu mukul

Commiphora

Pi pe r 1ongum

1 r amh i 5

Cente1 1 a a s i a Iica

K s h i ram (Milk)

C e r t a i n R a s a y a n a drugs

are having

best properties/actions,

some of w h i c h have been shown in table - 5. Table - 5

BEST P R O P E R T I E S / A C T I O N S

OF SOME

RASAYANA DRUGS

(REJUVENATORS) Property/ Act i oris Anthelmintic Rejuvenator

A y u r v e d i c Name of the Drug Vi d a n g a Amalaki Hari taki

L a t i n N a m e of the D r u g Embeli a ri bes Phy 1 1 arithus embli ca Termi na1i a chebula

Produc i ng wholesone effect As t ri ngent, di gesti on promotor As t r i ngent, digestion promotor Curing dysuria

Guduchi

Ti n o s p o r a cordi foli a A e g l e marine I os

Bi 1 va

Gokshura

Tri b u l u s t e r r e s t ri s G l y c y r r h i za glabra

Yasti madltu

C a u s i n g good eyesi ght, vi rili ty St rength promotor

Bala

Sida

cordifolia

Ancient Ayurvedic Rasayana drugs, ions are q u o t e d 10 in

scholars

have d e s c r i b e d many

compound

important

compound

R a s a y a n a drug p r e p a r a t -

t a b l e - 6.

Table - 6
SOME Triphala COMPOUND RASAYANA Shri PREPARATIONS Siddha Modaka Kalpa

Rasayana Rasayana

Guduchyadi Amalaki

Nirgundi Shiva 'Amrita

Rasayana Rasayana

Gudika Bhallataka

Bhringarajadi

Am r iLa Vartti ka

Sarsvatari shla

In a d d i t i o n , neeya, general Balya,

some g r o u p of drugs like J i v a n e e y a , (Table 7).

Brimha-

V a y a h s t h a p a n a etc.

are also useful for imroving

immunity a g a i n s t d i s e a s e s

Table - 7 S O M E E X A M P L E S OF J IVAN IYA, B R I M H A N I Y A , BALYA AND V A Y A H S T H A P A N A G R O U P O F DRUGS Latin Name of the Drug Glycyrrhiza glabra Leptadenia reticulata Withania somnifera Ipomoea paniculata Asparagus racemosus Si da cordi foli a

Group

Ayurvedic Nace of the D r u g Yast i u a d h u J i vant i Ashvagandha Paya sya Shatavari Bal a

Ji vani ya (Nutri ents ) Bri mhani ya (Roborants ) Balya (St rength promotors) Vayahsthapana (Longevi ty Promotors)

Amri ta Hari taki

Tinorpora cordifolia Terminalia chcbula

2

We are also studying of of silicosis silicosis

effect of Guda its use is traditionally

(jaggery) popular

on the and among

patients treatment workers. 3

because

for

prevention

If we think of thick herbal plantations nearby workplace, it can help in are betterment of which solely of healthy may on out workplace in and The question herbs be grown weather

possibly

envirenment. particular

workplace

dependent

soil of that area. Lastly, with effect certain as This

It can easily be worked it can be said

that where dealt

and what plant shall planted. precisely herbs as opens and a well that Ayurveda of the therapies and new path having cure towards immunouodulatory occupational solution for

prevention

diseases.

better health of workers as well of manpower. REFERENCES : 1. Ashtanga Hridayam and : With

as for maximum utilization

commentary (Ayurveda Vidyottini 185,

of

Arunadatta Uttar

(Sarvanga 2. Cha. 3.

Sundara)

Hemadri : With

Rasayana) Hidi

Sthanam Cha. 40/48 to 58 Chaukhambha Orietalia, 1982. Bhaishajya 73/7, 39, Ratnavali 54, 181, : commetary 182 and Chaukhambha Sanskrit of Chakrapani 10, 18, Datta Cha.

Sansthan, varanasi, 1983. Cnaraka Samhita Dipika), With comentary Cha. (Ayurveda Sutra Sthana 4/9,

11/36, Cha. 25/40, Cha. 28/7 : Chikitsa Sthana Cha. 1/10-12, 13, 41, 47, Nirnaya Sagar Press, Bombay, 1941. 4. Chakrapani Datta : Chakradatta Cha. 66/167 with the Bhavartha Chaukhambha Sandipani Hindi comentary, 5. to 176.

Sanskrit Series, Varanasi, 1976. Chaudasama & Singh : A clinical study on the Rasayana to & R, aspect of Ashwagadha (Withania somnifera) with refernce Krish a (Uderweight) patients, M.D.(Ayu) Thesis, IPGT Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, 1986.

6.

Dalhana : Commentary on Sushruta Samhita (Nibandha

Sanyraha Cha. 27), Commentary on Shloka No. 2, Chaukharnbha Sanskrit Series, Varansi, 4th ed. 1980. 7. Daniel P. Stress et al : Basic & Clinical Immunology, Cha. 1. p.no. 1, 2. Large Medical Pub. Eruzer Asia (P) Ltd., California, 1980. 8. Hejamadi & Singh : Clinical studies on the Ayurvedic management of the ageing Uni. Jamnagar, 1989. 9. Jain, in Kotecha the & Shukla of : the Role of certain due to indegenous Pranavaha A report, drugs for drugs 1995 . 10 Kotecha & Singh (1991) : Ayurvedic immunotherapeutuic usage : Jan 1 91. PP. 4. to 11. 11. PRIA & RKKMS : A study on occupational and environmental Health Status of the coal mining*area. A report : 1994. 12. Rao, Shastri & Mistri special beams Thesis, : in Studies on to & the phenomena of by and Vyadhikshamtva using certain neonates, with Balya reference I.P.G.T. Immunogenicity R. 'Ayu' A journal of Guj. Ayu. Uni. treatment specia] disorders (Jara) , A Ph.D. Thesis, Guj. Ayu.

Shrotodusti with

referance to

silicosis:

experimental' * animals

M.D.(Ayu)

Gujarat Ayurved

University, Jamnagar, 1989. 13. Sharma et al health of workers : 1994. 14. 15Singh G. : Note on on the Immunity promotive & Ayu. effect of Rasayana drugs by personal communications. Workshop Traditional Govt, of Medicine Guj. Immunology, Unversity, Technology Mission India, : A study on occupatinal and environmental and population living in the vicinity of Orissa. A report

cement and refractory plant in Rajgangpur,

Jamnagar and L.S.P.S.S. Coimbatore.'1988.
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

AUTHOR : 1 Dr. Rajesh Kotecha is working as an,officer on special duty in J.R.D. Tata Foundation for Research in Ayurveda and Yoya Sciences, Chitrakoot (M.P.) 2 Dr. Mita Kotecha is working as a Head. Department of Dravyaguna, Faculty of Ayurveda, Mahatma Gandhi Grainodaya Vishvavidyalaya, Chitrakoot (M.P.)

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