SOME INTERESTING FINDINGS FROM ON-LINE AIR - QUALITY MONITORING 2006 DATA FOR SANATHNAGAR, HYDERABAD, A.

P
(by G.D. Agrawal, Technical Advisor, Envirotech Instruments (P) Ltd., New Delhi) Andhra Pradesh State Pollution Control Board established an On-line Ambient Air- Quality Monitoring Station at its Sanathnagar Headquarters which was commissioned in late November 2005. The supplier of the bulk of the instruments as also the integrating systems was M/s Eoc-tech of Australia, though some of the instruments were also from other prestigious manufacturers e.g. Met-One of USA and Synspec of Netherlands. The solerepresentatives of Eco-tech and Synspec in India, M/s Envirotech Instruments (P) Ltd., New Delhi procured and installed the systems and have been assigned the job of operating, maintaining and calibrating the systems and compiling the data by APPCB. The system have been operating continuously since commissioning in November 2005 and the data capture-rate for each parameter individually has been above 96%, the remaining 4% being accounted for by calibration, zero and span-check, minor repairs, routine maintenance and power break-down etc. The period for which consistent and acceptable values for all the parameters are available has been over 92% as verified by CPCB inspecting team. This paper presents some interesting findings from the above data for 2006 (Jan 1,2006 to December 31,2006) for the major air-quality parameters, parameter-wise. RESPIRABLE SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER, PM10 PM10, implying the suspended particulates less than about 10 mcirometers, when present in ambient air, can result in both short and long term reduction in lung function, especially in children, elderly, people with respiratory or heart diseases, or others sensitive to dust. Additional health effects may occur depending on the nature and amounts of chemicals present in the PM10. e.g. heavy metals, radio-nucleoids or carcinogens present. PM10, and its finer fractions PM2.5, are currently considered the most critical air-pollutant in India, as probably in the entire world. Standards for PM10 were first adopted by USEPA in 1987. In India, the current limits for residential areas are 60 ^g/m 3 for annual average and 100|.ig/m3 for 24-hr average PM10. Being mostly composed of secondary pollutants formed through chemical reactions, condensation and coagulation of gaseous pollutants and/or fine nuclei they are likely to peak later and down wind of the emissions and the locations of primary pollutant peaks. Significant amount of data for 24-hr and annual average values of RSPM or PM10 has been generated for various cities of India over the last 10 years, through monitoring with manual 2-stage fractionating samplers, mostly the ENVIROTECH Respirable Dust Sampler, APM 460. The continuous monitoring of PM10 at the ASPCB On-line Station of Hyderabad revealed the following: (i) Annual Average PM10: The annual average PM10 for 2006 for the station came to 128|ag/m3. This was some what higher than the values obtained by manual samplings in earlier years. (106jag/m3in 2001, 105^ig/m3in 2002, 107[xg/m3in 2003, 89(.ig/m3 in 2004, 88 ng/m 3 in 2005) 24-hr Average values: While even manual sampling had clearly revealed the strong seasonal variations with much much higher 24-hr PM10 values during winters and post-monsoon periods (essentially October to March) with low values in monsoons (July to September) and medium levels in summers (April to June),

(ii)

the distributions were much more strongly confirmed by the on line monitoring. The frequencies were as below: (i)
Season Post-Monsoon 9 10 4 — to 29 06 06 Winter 1 01 1 — to 29 06 06 & 10 12 3 0 — to 31 06 06 Nov. - Jan 196 and 165 333 (Jan 18) Spring 01 04 3 0 — to 2 06 06 Summers 04 05 3 — to 28 06 06 Monsoons 05 09 29 — to 3 06 06

<ii> (iii) (iv) (v)

Period Seasonal Mean Seasonal Peak 24-hr Avg. Distribution of 24hrs values in % <100 n g / m 3 I0l-l50n.g/m I5l-200ng/m
3 3 3

Sep. - Oct. 109 287 (Oct 22)

Feb - March 161 330 (Feb 18) In % (Days)

April- June 144 353 (April 29)

July-August 65 154(Sep 3)

55.4 (31) 17.9 (10) 16.1(9) 7.1(4) 3.6(2)
-

7.6 (7) 26.1(24) 34.8 (24) 22.8(21) 6.5(6) 2.2(2)
-

25.4 (16) 23.8(15) 19.0(12) 20.6(13) 7.9(5) 3.2(2)
-

19.6 (16) 48.2(27) 19.6(11) 3.6(2) 3.6(2) 3.6(2) 1.8(1)

94.9 (93) 4.1(4) 1.0(1)
-

20i-250|4.g/m 300-400ng/m >400p.g/m
3

25i-300^g/m 3
3

(iii)

Hourly average PM10 concentrations: On-line continuous monitoring made it possible to study the di-urinal variations in PM10. This revealed that a) The day- time, 9AM to 5PM always had lower PM10 concentration than the other parts of the day showing strong influence of larger mixing heights and better dispersion during day-time overshadowing the effects of larger emissions from higher traffic and other activities. b) In winters and autumns the morning transition periods were very conspicuous with high PM10 concentrations, low values during the day-time, another peak (generally lower than the morning peak) in the evening and finally the night with concentrations significantly larger than day-time but lower than the two transition time peaks. The situation can be clearly seen in Fig 1 c) As spring set-in, the domination of the morning peak faded and March onwards, the evening peak was the higher peak with night periods having similar or slightly lower values as the evening. These changes can be seen from Fig 2 and Fig 3 d) The worst high concentration of PM10 episodes occurred on following dates.

Night Period
Concentrations, ng/m3 Date Concentrations, ng/m3 Date 744 22/10 423 01/01 652 12/03 387 14/02 642 30/04 345 10/12 606 29/04 341 18/01 518 13/03 341 20/01 516 19/01 340 16/05 495 28/04 331 03/09 465 25/03 329 23/03 461 12/03 320 03/02 436 18/02 316 09/12 433 19/02 315 05/02

Morning Transition Period
Concentrations, |ig/m3 Date Concentrations, ng/m3 Date 812 18/01 489 13/01 676 02/02 484 12/04 624 25/02 467 04/01 595 31/01 459 17/02 556 23/02 458 30/12 522 18/02 453 14/02 519 12/02 449 29/01 510 01/02 442 29/12 508 01/01 438 30/02 508 20/12 436 11/02 501 04/02 429 03/01

Evening Transition Period
Concentrations, ng/m3 Date 305 24/03 305 29/04 296 21/03 291 12/10 284 15/02 284 22/03 278 07/10 264 23/03 262 11/10 256 12/05 255 11/05

e) Unlike the morning and evening transitions which are of small duration, the night periods are fairl\ i long, 10 hours. It would be desirable that in interests of health and comfort of weak and sensitive persons, a target limit of 300 uq/m3 of PM10 be set for the periodical averages, particularly for the night periods. NITRIC OXIDE, NO Nitric Oxide in itself is considered to be innocuous and no limit is prescribed for it. However, it is the direct emission from automobiles and other combustion sources and is the essential precursor for N0 2 which is an important pollutant. Since NO is quite rapidly converted to NO2, one would not expect any significant quantities of NO to be present in the ambient air except during period of peak emissions these being during the peak traffic periods. Interestingly the data reveals higher NO concentrations during nights and early mornings, than during the peak traffic hours of 0900-1100 or 1600-1900. Probably this is due to restrictions on trucks and other diesel driven heavy vehicles during the daytime. Nevertheless the extremely high NO concentrations on some particular nights as given below should by of concern. Table - A NO (ng/m3) March 24-25 April 27-28 April 29-30 June 18March 11-12 Night Of 19 3 212 236 264 161 314 Peak 1-hr NO. ng/m 3 97 161 161 130 193 Night 10-hr NO, ng/m

Obviously such high values point to excessive emissions of NO by vehicles and/or industrial furnaces on these nights. A look at the NO values in some nights of December 2006 may be indicative of the situation. Table - B NO (ng/m3) 9-10 24-25 Night of 5-6 7-8 8-9 25-26 28-29 29-30 30-31 264 124 Peak 1-hr 174 103 119 107 133 239 148 Peak Time 0300 0000 0100 0300 0400 0200 0300 0500 0500 94 54 24 36 62 57 38 40 30 Av.10hrs It appears that the heavy trucks and trailers pass the highway in the area during 0000 to 0500 hrs. If the concentrations of NO? in the city area are to be controlled, obviously the precursor NO shall also need to be watched and controlled. It may be desirable to specify a limit of 100 ^q/m3 on 1-hr NO and of 50 jiq/m3on night average NONITROGEN - PI-OXIDE, NO? Emitted as NO from all combustion sources, but most significantly from diesel vehicles and rapidly oxidized to N0 2 in the atmosphere, N0 2 is probably currently the most critical gaseous air-pollutant in India. In itself it is acidic and causes lacrymation but more importantly it is involved in photochemical reactions resulting in formation of 0 3 , Fine Particulates (PM2.5/PM10) and carcinogens like PAN. Also it has a significant rising trend in almost all Indian cities. The current standards in India would limit N0 2 to 80 |ag/m3 24 hr average and 60 jag/m3 annual average in residential areas. The data of the ASPCB On-line station reveals the following situation for 2006 in respect of N0 2 : i) Values Date Hour Values Date Hour 1316 Feb 19 0000 385 April 29 0000 The very high 1-hr N0 2 concentrations observed were as below: 816 Feb 21 0200 374 Jan 31 0300 695 Feb 15 0400 359 Feb 22 0300 692 Jan 19 0100 357 Dec 08 0300 550 Jan 11 0000 337 April 30 0100 526 444 444 Jan April Feb 19 05 19 0100 2000 0100 325 321 318 Mar Mar Jan 12 21 18 0000 0000 0900 429 Jan 18 0600 307 Feb 18 0200 409 Feb 20 0100 301 Feb 15 0500 407 May 13 0000 300 Feb 14 0300 399 Mar 24 0100

Besides the above values of over 300 ng/m3, there were 21 values between 200-300 ng/m3. At no time N0 2 concentration was more than 200 j^g/m3 for more than 2 continuous hours excepting on Feb 19. Also it may be seen that all the very high values occurred around midnight. There were no 1-hr values exceeding 200 ng/m3 in the months May, June, July and August. ii) The peak 24-hr average of 113 jxg/m3 occurred on March 25. Also on April 29, the 24 hour N0 2 was 80|ig/m3. On no other day, the 24-hour average N0 2 touched or exceeded the specified limit of 80p,g/m3.

iii) iv)

The annual average NO2 for 2006 was 40jjg/m3, far lower than the specified limit of 60|ag/m3. Thus while a trend over years needs to be watched, as also the rather high values around midnight, there is no immediate cause of concern.

SULPHUR-DI-OX1DE. SP 2 A highly reactive, pungeant, reducing, acidic gas, SO2 is the most talked of air-pollutant all over the world and even in India (though most data show that S0 2 concentrations remain low in India) since it is involved in most adverse impact of air-pollution including acid-rain, corrosion, building damage, plant-damage and health damage. The data of the ASPCB Online Station Hyderabad showed: i) ii) The annual average S0 2 at the station during 2006 was 28|xg/m3, significantly below the prescribed 60(ig/m3 limit. The 24-hr average S0 2 exceeded 80 fxg/m3 prescribed for residential areas on January 19(103|ag/m3), January 24(149|xg/m3), February 5(84^g/m3). February 6(83|ag/m3) April 29 (89fxg/m3), May 12(82^ig/m3) September 29 (128^ig/m3) and October 12 (104|ig/m3) and December 18 (HOjag/m3). Leaving these few days, the 24-hr average S0 2 remained within the prescribed limit and normally even below 60p.g/m3. Not-with-standing the low annual average and 24-hr average values, the hourly S0 2 concentration often reached very high values e.g. 708|ag/m3 on September 29 at 2000 hrs, 645^g/m3, 589|ag/m3 and 486^g/m3 on January 24 at 0500hrs 0600hrs and 0100 hrs respectively and 430^g/m3 on January 19 at 0400 hrs. Besides the above excessive values, values exceeding 300 ^ig/rn3 were observed on January 19 (374|ag/m3 at 0500 hrs), January 24 (366|xg/m3 and 358|ig/m3 at 0700 and 0800hrs respectively) April 30 (349^g/m3 at 2000 hrs), April 28 (311ng/m3 at 2300 hrs) December 18 (308|ag/m3 at 0200 hrs) and September 29 (304|ag/m3 at 1900 hrs). in addition to the above excessive values exceeding 200^g/m3 were observed on January 19 (0600,2200 and 2300hrs) January 22 (0200hrs) January 24(0400) January 27(0600hrs) January 29(0900hrs) February • 5(0600hrs) February 06(0200hrs) February 11 (0900hrs). February 12(0600hrs), February 14 (0400 - 0600hrs) February 19 90000hrs) March 11 (2200-2300hrs), March 25 (0000, 0400hrs) April 28 (0000, 2200, 2300 and 2400hrs) May 11 (0800 and 2400 hrs) May 16 (1900 and 2100 hrs). May 19 (1800hrs), September 27 (1800hrs) September 29 (0600-0800hrs) October 12 (0800 and 2300hrs) October 16 (01 OOhrs) October 21 (2100-2300hrs) December 2 (0900 hrs) and December 6 (0500hrs). All these high values are so sporadic and short-lived, not seeming to be related to calms, inversions, vehicular emissions or other urban activity that they could only be accounted for by some sporadic, industrial emissions. While they do not breach any prescribed standards, they could cause crop losses (e.g. mangoes) and health effects. We shall strongly plead for laving down limits for 1hr average SO? say at 200ug/m3.

iii)

CARBON-MONO-OXIDE, CO CO is, a colourless, odourless gaseous air-pollutant causing direct and instant health effects, so serious that even short exposures of a few minutes to concentrations of 100ppm or more could be fatal. The health effects depend on length of exposure and for ambient -air 1-hr average and 8-hr average limits are generally prescribed, not 24-hr or annual average limits as for most other pollutants. Carbon-mono-oxide is a primary pollutant, the major source being emissions of petrol-driven automobiles, although in-efficiently operating industrial furnaces and other combustion processes (refuse-burning, agricultural-residue-burning, incineration of solid-wastes cooking etc) could also contribute. The 1-hr average limit for CO for residential areas in India is currently 4mg/m3 (3.5ppm), while the 8-hr limit is 2mg/m3 (1.75ppm), both of these an order of magnitude lower (much more stringent) than in the USA or most other countries. The reasons for prescribing such stringent limits could be: (a) If the current CO concentrations in most of India are low enough even to meet such stringent limits, why to encourage polluters to degrade the environment, through laying lenient limits, and (b) CO is essentially the result of incomplete and hence energy - inefficient combustion of fossil-fuels and bio-mass and why to encourage such in efficient burning of natural resources through laying lenient CO limits. The picture emerging from the 2006 continuous data of the ASPCB On-line Air-monitoring Station at Hyderabad reveals the following: i) During 2006, the 1-hour average value exceeded the 3.5ppm prescribed limit only on one day, April 29, when it was 4.16ppm and 4.15ppm respectively at 2200 and 2300 hours. Leaving these two values the 1-hr average value exceeded even 3.0ppm only once on March 12, The 8-hour average value exceeded the prescribed 1.75 ppm limit also on these days when the 1-hr limit exceeded 3ppm viz. March 12 and April 29 and besides on March 25 (0200 to 0900hrs) and December 10 (0100 to 0800 hrs). It might be noted that most of the high concentrations occurred during late nights and early mornings. Also March 12 and December 10 were Sundays. Thus it appears that meteorological factors rather than peak traffic density resulted in these excedences. While in winters the nights and morning transition periods had higher CO concentrations, during summers and rainy season, the evening concentrations were generally higher than nights or mornings. All-in-all CO remained low and complied with even the present stringent limits.

ii) iii)

iv)

Being a strong oxidant, ozone is known to be, along with CO, an air-pollutant directly and instantly causing severe health problems, particularly to those especially vulnerable like children, aged persons, sick and those involved in heavy physical activity during the exposure period. Due to the instant health effects, one-hour average concentration limits have been prescribed in U.S. and European countries, unlike the 24hr or even annual average limits for most other air-pollutants. U.S. Federal limit for 1-hr average ozone is 120ppb, but California has an even more stringent 1-hr limit of 90ppb. In view of the severe and instant health effects, health advisory levels of 1-hour average 03 at 150ppb and stage I Episode Levels of 1-hour average O3 at 200ppb has also been prescribed in California. It might also be noted that in the Azusa and Pasadena areas of Los Angles, notorious for vehicular air-pollution, the U.S. Federal limit for O3 was exceeded on as many as around 200 days in the year 1960, and the number of such O3 excedence days was still around 100 in 1990. Even to day, ozone is a problem air-pollutant in many U.S. and European cities. Ozone is essentially a secondary air-pollutant formed through photochemical reactions in the atmosphere involving nitrogen-oxides and hydrocarbons and normally its concentrations peaks in afternoon, down wind of, and later than the emissions of primary pollutants. In India, so far, no standards or limits for O3 have been notified, nor is there much data indicating the factual situation existing in different parts of the country. The on-line continuous monitoring data for 03 at the ASPCB on-line monitoring station Hyderabad reveals the following: (i) The highest 1-hourly concentration monitored was 119ppb for 1100 hours on March 25,2006. Other values above 100ppb were 114 ppb, 112ppb and 102ppb at 1300, 1400 and 1200 hours respectively on April 13, 2006. Thus on this day (April 13,2006), the O3 concentration remained above lOOppb continuously for 3 hours. Four 1-hr average values on March 31, 3 on April 1, and 2 on May 4 also exceeded 90 ppb, the California State limit. Thus since not even one 1-hr average 03 value exceeded the U.S. Federal limit of 120ppb, there is no cause of serious concern and yet since a few values on a few days in spring season (March 15 May 15) do exceed the California State limit of 90ppb, a watch needs to be mainained. A rather unexpected observation was the significant ozone concentration during night periods, both in terms of peak 1hour average values during night (as high as 50 ppb for 0600 hours on April 1) as also the overall averages for the 10-hr night periods (35-40ppb) on several nights. The factors responsible for these as also the health implications, if any, need to examined. As could be expected, O3 concentration show a well-marked seasonal variation. The fair weather months of October to Mid- May observed higher 03 values particularly the spring months of Mid-March to Mid-May. The cloudy monsoon months of Mid-May to September saw much lower values, the night 1-hr values remaining below 20ppb and even the day time peak 1-hr values almost always below 50bbp.

OZONE, Og

(ii)

(iii)

BENZENE/TOLUENE/XYLENE, BTX All these three are aromatic hydrocarbons well known carcinogens and carcinogenprecursors, present in vehicular emissions and also used as solvents in many industrial processes. Currently there are no limits prescribed in India on their concentrations in ambient air, nor is there much reliable data for India. ASPCB On-line Station Hyderabad was the first continuous monitoring effort for BTX in India and the data for 2006 reveals the following: (a) Benzene: In the month of February there were 14 days (1,2,4,5,11, 12, 14, 15,17,18, 20, 23,24 & 25) and 44 occasions when hourly averages of Benzene were recorded above 8ppb with values ranging between 8ppb to 18.8ppb on different timings. 90% of the high hourly values were observed between 0000 -0900 hrs and the highest hourly value of 18.8ppb was observed on February 14 around 0600hrs 32 of these 44 were above 10ppb. The data of values exceeding 10 ppb for rest of the months is as follows: Values Date Hour Values Date Hour Values Date Hour Values Date Hour 31.4 Dec 22 0500 15.8 Jan 16 0300 12.3 May 13 2300 10.8 Oct 26 2300 27.6 Dec 24 0400 15.7 May 12 0000 12.3 Dec 10 0800 10.8 Nov 10 1900 22.8 May 12 2300 15.3 May 12 2200 12.2 May 12 0200 10.7 April 29 0100 19.9 May 28 1800 15.1 April 22 2000 11.9 Dec 25 0100 10.5 May 12 0300 18.8 Dec 26 0600 15.1 May 11 2300 11.8 Jan 30 0800 10.5 May 13 2200 18.3 May 11 2100 14.8 May 11 2200 11.8 Dec 26 0200 10.5 May 14 0000 18.3 Jan 16 0200 14.4 Dec 24 1000 11.7 April 29 2300 10.5 Dec 06 2200 18.1 Oct 27 2300 13.5 April 17 1700 11.2 April 30 0100 10.4 April 23 2100 17.9 May 13 0000 13.0 Jan 30 0900 11.2 May 12 2100 10.3 April 28 0300 17.5 Dec 22 0300 12.9 May 13 0100 11.1 April 29 0000 10.3 Dec 26 0700 16.3 Dec 22 0400 12.5 April 22 2200 11.0 Dec 24 0200 10.2 Nov 10 2000

Besides the above, there were 21 other values exceeding 8ppb. In all 109 Hourly values during the year exceeded 8ppb.

(b) Toluene: Similar to Benzene, during February alone there were 17 day (2,4,5,11,12,13,14 to 19 & 21 to 25) and 59 occasions when hourly average of Toluene were recorded above 200ppb with values ranging between 200ppb and 775ppb at different times. Most of these high values were observed between 0000 to 0900hrs and the highest hourly value of 773.5 ppb was observed on February 19 around 0600 hrs. The data of values exceeding 200 ppb in remaining months is a follows: 367.4 341.3 325.8 Oct Oct May 25 12 16 1300 Hour 0200 0400 Values 280.5 279.6 279.1 May Date Jan April 12 30 30 0000 Hour 0800 0000 Values 252.6 251.5 250.3 April Date April May 29 29 12 Hour 0100 0300 0100 Values 233.0 230.1 223.9 Date Nov April Oct 18 09 29 Hour 2200 0500 0200 In all some 95 values exceeding alone. Values Date 325.5 317.2 310.0 293.2 293.2 291.0 May April April Jan Oct Oct 18 16 30 30 30 12 0900 2000 0000 0600 0200 0100 267.3 266.4 262.7 262.4 260.6 257.4 April May April Oct May Nov 28 28 12 12 13 29 0100 0000 2300 2300 0000 1900 248.1 246.6 246.5 237.4 235.1 234.4 April May Nov Sep Oct Jan 28 22 11 17 03 23 2300 0800 2300 0100 0500 1400 222.1 220.2 221.5 206.4 204.9 203.3 April May April Oct Jan May 28 11 29 14 31 16 0100 0800 0400 0600 0800 0300 200pp b were observed, of which 59 were in February

(c) Xylene: Like benzene and toluene, in February alone there were 15 days (4 and 12 to 25) and 111 occasions when hourly average value of Xylene were recorded above 20ppb, the values ranging between 0000 and 0900 hrs and the highest hourly value of 61.5ppb observed on February 18 around 0200hrs. The data for values exceeding 20ppb in rest of the months is as follows: Values 91.6 31.0 59.4 43.6 41.7 37.9 36.1 30.3 29.7 May May May Date May May May May May May 12 13 12 12 11 11 12 12 13 2300 0000 0100 2200 Hour 2300 2200 0100 0200 0000 22.4 21.7 21.2 21.0 20.1 20.1 20.1 Values 24.1 22.5 April March April June Date March March June March April 12 29 24 28 18 30 12 19 25 0200 0000 0300 Hour 0000 0000 2300 2300 0000 0400 24.4 24.4 23.1 23.0 27.5 24.9 24.8 Values 29.4 28.0 May March May April March May Date April May May 12 11 25 11 14 18 24 13 30 osnn 01 no 2100 0300 2300 0000 Hour 2200 0100 2300 In all 138 values during Jan - June 2006 exceeded 20 ppb, of which 111 were in Feb alone. Since June 2006, no 1-hour value exceeded 20ppb and only 3 values have exceeded 15 ppb.

(d) 24 - Hour concentration of BTX Benzene Highest 5.9ppb (May 12) 14days with > 3ppb Expecting Feb 2006 in which the highest value observed was 11.7 ppb and there were 16 days with 24hr average of above 3ppb Toluene Highest 96.5ppb (Jan 18) 24 days with > 30ppb Excepting Feb 2006 in which the highest value observed was 218.7ppb and there were 20 days with 24hrs average of above 30 ppb. Xylene Highest 14.3ppb (April 12) 11 days with > 6ppb Excepting Feb 2006 in which the highest value observed was 27.6 ppb and there were 17 days with 24 hr average of above 5ppb (e) In view of the above values, the following limits may be set as goals Benzene Toluene Xylene 1-hr Average 8ppb 200ppb 20ppb 24-hr Average 2ppb 25ppb 5ppb

HIGH POLLUTION EPISODES Screening of the 2006 data of the On-line station shows that the following were High Pollution Episodes: (i) February was the month full of events and 19 days were such on which the values of Organic pollutants. BTX (Benzene, Toluene and Xylene) were observed higher together and four days when only. Benzene was significantly higher than the normal observations. The period April 28-29-30 and May 11-12-13 were probably the longest and worst high pollution episodes which involved all the parameters monitored except 0 3 , Viz PMio. CO, N0 2 , S0 2 and BTX. The central day i.e. April 29 and May 12 was the worst. Following days had high levels of all pollutants; PM10, CO, N0 2 , S0 2 and BTX (all excepting 0 3 ) Jan 18, Feb 19, March 24 and 25 June 19, 23 and August 26 Jan 19-20, Feb 19 and August 20 had high level of PM i0 , CO, N0 2 and S0 2 but this time BTX levels remained normal. On Oct 21 high levels of PM10, CO, N0 2 & S0 2 were recorded on the occasion of Diwali. However, BTX levels remained normal. Jan 01 was a day of high pollution involving high concentration of PMi0, CO & Xylene. However, N02. Benzene and Toluene stayed normal. March 25 Sep 1.2 and 3 were also days of high pollution, involving high concentration of PM10, CO, S0 2 Xyleno ar.d Ozone. However N0 2 , Benzene and Toluene stayed normal. March 12 saw high concentrations of PM10, CO, N0 2 Toluene and Xylene. This time S02 and Benzene were not involved.

(ii)

(iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii)

Availability of hourly concentrations for all parameters and all days of the year from a CAAQMS such as at Hyderabad makes it possible to examine the environmental scenario in depth and also examine the behaviour of different pollutants, the sources and phenomena involved and the likely impacts in detail. This study was just an over-view to create interest and support for more detailed and in-depth analyses. For the area represented by the CAAQMS studied, February appears to be most critical from point of view of air quality. In this month PM10, NO2 and BTX all remained high on most of the days. This being the flowering season for mangoes, citrus and other fruits as also for wheat, gram, peas and other crops should be of critical interest to an agricultural community like India's. April- May- June afternoons could be of concern for O3 and the months from December to April for PM 10, NO2 and CO. High values of SO2 were only for very short periods and sporadic, probably related to industrial emissions. The rather unexpectedly high concentrations of almost all parameters (except 0 3 ) during late nights and early mornings (including CO, NO, N0 2) BTX and PM10) seems to be a cause of concern and needs further study. The morning peak for PM10, particularly during winters should be an interesting area for research.

Figure 1: The hourly variation graph of PMio for winter season.

Time (Hrs.)

Figure 2: The hourly variation graph of P M j o for spring Season

Time (Hrs.)

Figure 3: The hourly variation graph of PMio for summer Season

Availability of hourly concentrations for all parameters and all days of the year from a CAAQMS such as at Hyderabad makes it possible to examine the environmental scenario in depth and also examine the behaviour of different pollutants, the sources and phenomena involved and the likely impacts in detail. This study was just an over-view to create interest and support for more detailed and in-depth analyses. For the area represented by the CAAQMS studied, February appears to be most critical from point of view of air quality. In this month PM10. NO2 and BTX ail remained high on most of the days. This being the flowering season for mangoes, citrus and other fruits as also for wheat, gram, peas and other crops should be of critical interest to an agricultural community like India's. April- May- June afternoons could be of concern for 03 and the months from December to April for PM 10, NO2 and CO. High values of SO2 were only for very short periods and sporadic, probably related to industrial emissions. The rather unexpectedly high concentrations of almost all parameters (except 03) during late nights and early mornings (including CO, NO, N02, BTX and PM10) seems to be a cause ot concern and needs further study. The morning peak for PM10, particularly during winters should be an interesting area for research.

Figure 1: The hourly variation graph of PMio for winter season.
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