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© Petrocontrol

Two DCS control configurations Mass balance Heat balance

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© Petrocontrol

Objective: Separate into light and heavy fractions. DeC4 separation example
Feed C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8
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LLK LIK LK HK HIK HHK HHK

Distillate product

Bottoms product

© Petrocontrol

7 0.98 22 26 ____ 80.2 0.Practical separation Feed C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 Moles 0.91 Impurities 1.39% 4 © Petrocontrol .1% 0.9 12 14 18 22 26 ___ 100 LLK LIK LK HK HIK HHK HHK Distillate 0.1 7.09 ____ 19.01 0.89 11.3 13.02 Bottoms 0.1 7.8 17.

Mass balance configuration PC LC FC FC FC FC LC FC 5 © Petrocontrol .

Reflux In mass balance configuration those are set directly. How? (3) Feed is normally a given (4) Pressure is normally preset 6 © Petrocontrol . Distillate yield = CUT 2.Two major handles 1.

Heat balance configuration PC LC FC FC FC Feed Reflux Distillate FC LC FC Bottoms 7 © Petrocontrol .

Reflux (without changing the cut) – Reflux flow is also dictated by heat balance: Reboiler duty and reflux duty 8 © Petrocontrol .reflux duty 2. CUT – Distillate flow is dictated by heat balance: Reboiler duty .If we are to keep the same handles in heat balance 1.

Sensitivity of cut control Mass balance diagram Product contamination Bottom Incorrect Cut Correct Cut Top Top Yield 9 © Petrocontrol .

1% yield mistake 10 © Petrocontrol .Quiz • Estimate the bottom contamination with 1% cut error – There are 50% lights in the feed – Top yield is 49% -.

1% cut mistake Feed 50 LK 50 HK Distillate 49 0 Bottoms 1 50 2% bottom contamination 11 © Petrocontrol .

Simple conclusion on column control • Knowledge of how to correctly set the cut is essential – 1% mistake in yield  Roughly 2% contamination • What about reflux mistakes? 12 © Petrocontrol .

The effect of reflux contamination Bottom Low reflux Top Top Yield Infinite reflux 13 © Petrocontrol .

Heat balance Mass balance Differences 14 © Petrocontrol .

Heat balance column PC LC FC FC FC FC LC FC 15 © Petrocontrol .

Mass balance column PC LC FC FC FC FC LC FC 16 © Petrocontrol .

Reflux duty Distillate FC Direct Reboiler duty Fractionation Reboiler & Control Reflux duty 17 © Petrocontrol .Which one is more complicated? Which is more popular? Heat Balance Cut Control Mass Balance Reboiler duty Direct .

Heat balance with simple inference PC LC FC FC FC TC FC LC FC Without such inference the operator is in the dark 18 © Petrocontrol .

What’s the tray TC advantage? Heat Balance without tray temperature Cut Control Reboiler – reflux duty Fractionation Reboiler & control reflux duty Heat balance with tray temperature Direct tray TC Direct reflux FC 19 © Petrocontrol .

(Cut doesn’t change) • Sensitive to feed composition changes -(Cut should change but doesn’t) • Columns with a pickling section 20 © Petrocontrol .When do you use mass balance? • Used on high reflux column because drum level control is easier (but this is no better for quality control) • Mass balance is not sensitive to heat disturbances -.

Column with a pickling section PC LC FC FC FC Main product FC FC LC FC 21 © Petrocontrol .

Is this mass or heat balance? PC LC FC FC FC FC LC FC 22 © Petrocontrol .

How about 2 TCs? PC TC FC LC FC FC TC FC LC FC Danger of competition between 2 cut models  Instabilities 23 © Petrocontrol .

Two temperature inferences • Two cut models are never in agreement  Weeping or flooding • Dynamic lags between top and bottom  Oscillations Stripping temperature Rectifying temperature 24 © Petrocontrol .

Quiz What’s your favorite heat balance DCS control? 25 © Petrocontrol .

One TC with reflux ratio setting? PC Slow ratio control LC FC FC FC TC FC LC FC 26 © Petrocontrol .

Do not fall into this trap PC LC FC FC FC TC FC LC FC Reboiler outlet temperature is sensitive to HHK Not sensitive to bottom LK 27 © Petrocontrol .

Pressure control (Closing the heat balance) 28 © Petrocontrol .

Column with a partial condenser PC LC FC FC FC TC FC LC FC 29 © Petrocontrol .

Total condenser .hot vapor bypass PC Regulate pressure by flooding the condenser LC FC FC FC FC LC FC 30 © Petrocontrol .

Another common hot vapor bypass PC PC LC FC FC FC FC LC FC 31 © Petrocontrol .

Avoid this trap. Why? PC DPC LC FC FC FC FC LC FC Interactions make pressure control unstable 32 © Petrocontrol .

Better solution PC Pressure setpoint DPC LC FC FC FC FC LC FC 33 © Petrocontrol .

Condenser manipulation PC What’s the problem here? LC FC FC FC FC LC FC 34 © Petrocontrol .

Flooded drum PC FC FC FC FC LC FC 35 © Petrocontrol .

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