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John Kosta

Lab Report: DNA
Purpose: The purpose of our lab was to use PCR and use needed data to track the
history of our DNA. Other purposes of this lab were to perform basic procedures in the
lab and study the basic uses of the components we will be using throughout the year. Commented [1]: clean up wording and make sure you
cover the whole purpose

Hypothesis: If we correctly execute all of the steps of our lab in the correct order then Commented [2]: Should be just one sentence with
what you think will happen
we can accurately interpret the information of our DNA. I believe that i will discover roots
in my European and Filipino history through the information provided by my DNA.

Procedure: This PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) lab spanned over a set of many Commented [3]: next time just cite the packet
days which included a number of steps we needed to take and materials that we
needed to use in order to correctly execute the lab.
Some materials that we used were
- micro pipettes
- salt water solutions
- disposable tips for the micro pipettes so that we would reuse and contaminate
them with the different chemicals we were using
- Microfuge tubes
- Micro centrifuges
- Chelex mix
- Heating block
- PCR amplification device
We started by rinsing our mouths with the salt water solution and spitting into a
cup. This is where we would extract our DNA directly from. From there we extracted the
DNA using the micro-pipettes and transferred them into the microfuge tubes. Then we
centrifuged these tubes to get the raw DNA separate from the excess water and liquid
the we extracted from the cup. After this we added a chelex mix to the DNA and put it
onto the heat block at 99 degrees for 10 minutes. Throughout this process changing tips
as not to mix the chelex, mouth rinse, or any other liquids the tip may have come into
contact with. We then refrigerated our tubes for several days to prepare them for the
processing. When completed, we mixed the chelex and our DNA with a dye and
inserted it into a pouch inside a block of gel. We then put the block inside of the PCR
amplification device to see what our results were. This works by running an electrical
current throughout the block and illuminating or showing results for those who correctly
processed their DNA.
This is a photo of the PCR amplification device with the illuminated pouches.
Data/ Operation: I did not personally get any data from my DNA because of human Commented [4]: observations? and need them along
with the picture and label
errors throughout the lab. Maybe due to improper heating on the heating block which
would be the most likely scenario in my case. However instead of stopping here, those
who did not get data from the lab took a different route in using the data of an imaginary
class of students.
This class consisted of 37 students. 15 of them with +/+ alleles, 10 with +/-
alleles, and 12 with -/- alleles.

Frequency of each allele type

Frequency of +/+ 0.2916 or 10. 7892 students

Frequency of +/- 0.4968 or 18.3816 students

Frequency of -/- 0.2116 or 7.8292 students

These frequencies represent the number of students who have each type of
allele and do add up to 37 students. The students with two positive alleles have an alu
insert present on both chromosomes, the students with two negatives have no alu
inserts present, and those with one of each have an alu insert present on one of their
chromosomes. Commented [5]: this should be analysis

Analysis and Discussion: I claimed in the beginning of the lab that i would successfully Commented [6]: hypothesis
conclude with results of my lab being clear. However this was not the case. Throughout Commented [7]: why?
the lab there were many places in which one could make errors including the specific
amounts that we had to distribute with the pipettes or the amount of time on the heat
block. Although i did not come away with my own results i did come away with the
knowledge i gained from going through the lab. By following the steps and being
involved with reading throughout the procedure, i learned how and why this lab is a very
important part of biotechnology. Commented [8]: this is more reflection than analysis

Conclusion: This lab was very important to us because it not only helped us become Commented [9]: make sure you follow CLEAR
familiar with all of the lab procedures, safety, and equipment; but it also helped us take
our first steps into understanding how bioengineering works. Throughout the lab i could
have been more precise in my measurements as I could have double checked before
completing part of the procedure. I will be sure to change this on the next lab that we
do. Also during this lab i could have been more involved in reading directions out loud
for my group to better understand the next steps that we would have to take to complete
the lab successfully. This will also be a change i will be making throughout my
experience in labs in biotechnology. Overall this lab was very helpful in letting us take
our first steps into understanding this class and these labs in a deeper and more
thorough way.