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Osteologi

1. Pendahuluan
Fungsi
Klasifikasi tulang
Komposisi
Osteogenesis
2. Osteologi khusus
Bones of human: 206

Skeleton axiale (80)


Cranium (22) hyoid (1), ossicula
auditoria (6) = (29)
Truncus:

Ossa costae, sternum (25)

Columna vertebralis (26)

Skeleton appendiculare (126)


Cingulum ekstrimitas cranialis (4)

Ekstrimitas cranialis (60)

Cingulum ekstrimitas caudalis (2)

Ekstrimitas caudalis (60)


Skeleton axiale (truncus)
Consists of: costae, sternum, columna
vertebralis (vertebrae, sacrum, vertebrae,
sacrum, coccyx)

Vertebrae:
*) Children, vertebrae=33, arranged as follows:
Vertebrae cervicalis: 7

Vertebrae thoracalis: 12

Vertebrae lumbalis: 5

Vertebrae sacral: 5 ( sacrum)

Vertebrae coccygeal: 3~4 ( coccyx)


Columna vertebralis

Vertebrae separated
by discus
intervertebralis

Each vertebrae is
given a name
according to its
location

Figure 5.14
Structure of a typical vertebrae

(corpus)
General features of vertebrae
Corpus vertebrae
Arcus vertebrae
Pediculus:
Incisura vertebrae sup. dan inf.
foramen intervertebralis
Lamina consists of:
processus (7):
process spinousus (1)

process transversus (2)

processus articularis sup.


dan inf. (4)
foramen vertebralis
Vertebral canal
Regional variations of vertebrae
Vertebrae cervicalis
Corpus vertebrae: small
foramen vertebralis: larger;
triangular
processes spinosus:
C3-C5: short & bifida
C6: long
C7: longest; not bifida
processus transversus: short,
bifida, foramen transversum
processus articular: horizontal
Atypical vertebrae

Atlas (C1)
Corpus dan
processus spinousus
are absent
Terdapat:

arcus anterior,
posterior
2 lateral masses
Groove/sulcus for
arteri vertebralis
Axis (C2):
Have dens epistropheus
Facies articularis anterior
articulates with fovea dentis,
arcus anterior os atlas
C6:
Tuberculum caroticum:
tuberculum anterior dari
processus transverse C6

Vertebra prominens (C7):


processus spinosus: long;
blunt (no bifid)
Can be palpated when
flexion of the neck
Used as clinical landmark in
counting cervical and
thoracic spinous processes.
Vertebrae thoracalis
Corpus vertebrae:
heart-shape, fovea costalis superior
& inferior
Foramen vertebralis: smaller;
rounder
Processus spinosus:
long, point oblique-inferior
Processus transversus:
fovea costal transversalis
Processus articularis: coronal
Articulatio costovertebralis &
costotransversalis
Vertebrae lumbalis
Corpus vertebrae: larger,
kidney-shape
Foramen vertebralis:
larger; triangular
Processus spinosus: projects
horizontally
Processus transversus: long
processus articularis: projects
sagitally
(+) processus
mammilaris&accesorium proc.
artic. sup.
Sacrum
Facies anterior:
promontorium, foramina
sacralis anteriora (4 pairs)
Facies posterior:
crista sacralis media,
foramina sacral posterior (4
pairs), crista sacralis
intermedia, crista sacralis
lateralis, hiatus sacralis,
cornu sacralis
Pars lateralis:
Facies auricularis: tuberositas
sacralis
Cornu

Hiatus sacralis

palpation

Trans-sacral (epidural) anasthesia


Clinical correlation:
Scoliosis; kyphosis; lordosis
Laminectomy
Surgical removal of the processus spinosus and their supporting
lamina vertebralis to relieve pressure on the corda spinalis or
nerve root caused by blood clot, tumor, herniated/ruptured
discus intervertebralis
Coccygeal trauma; fx-dislocation of the sacrococcygeal
joint
Note:
In aging, decrease of height (0,5- 2cm) occur between the ages 50-55
because of compression and shrinkage of the discus intervertebralis
which collectively account for 25% of the height of columna
vertebralis.
Lordosis & kyphosis during
development
Sternum
Manubrium sterni :
incisura jugularis, incisura
clavicularis, incisura costalis
Corpus sterni
Processus xiphoideus

*) Angulus sternalis:
The angle of the junction of
manubrium and corpus sterni
which connects costal cartilage
II laterally; lies opposite lower
border of V.Th.IV posteriorly

Sternum = chest; manubrium = handle; xiphoid = sword; costae = rib


Costae (12 pairs)

General features:
Costae 1~7 = costae
vera
Costae 8~10 = costae

spuriae
Costae 11~12 =
costae (spuriae)
fluitantes
Intercostal spaces (ICS) is
space between the ribs
musculus intercostalis
Articulatio sternoclavicular
Characteristic of typical os costae
Posterior end:
capitulum costae: facies articularis superior et inferior
capituli costae, crista capituli costae
collum costae
tuberculum costae: facies articularis tuberculi costae
Corpus:
angulus costae
sulcus costae (~ anterior end)
Atypical os costae

Costae I:
tuberculum musculi
scaleni anterior, sulcus
arteri/vena subclavia
Costae XI dan XII lack
of collum costae,
tuberculum, and
angulus costae.
Clinical correlation:

Fx of the ribs are most frequent between ribs 3 and 10.


The 1st two pair of ribs are protected by the clavicles; the
last two pairs move freely and will give with an impact.
Little can be done to assist the healing of broken ribs
other than binding them tightly to limit movement.
Skull division

Based on the articulation, the


skull can be subdivided into
cranium and mandible
connected by
temporomandibular joint
Based on the position
cranium itself is divided into:
calvaria (cranial
vault/skullcap)
basis cranii (cranial base)
Skull division (contd)

Based on the function


skull can be divided
into:
Neurocranium
Viscerocranium/splachn
ocranium
Neurocranium (8)
Larger; superior-posterior; to
protect brain.
The skull protects the brain
and the organs of special
senses
Unpaired:
Frontale, ethmoidale,

sphenoidale, occipitale
Paired:
Temporale, parietale
Viscerocranium (14)
Smaller; inferior-anterior; to
form frame for eyes, nose,
and mouth.
Cranial parts of the
respiratory and digestive
tracts
Unpaired: mandibula,
vomer
Paired:
Maxilla, nasale, lacrimale,

palatinum, zygomaticum,
concha nasalis inferior
parietal bone

Frontal bone Sphenoid bone

Temporal bone

Zygomatic bone
Occipital bone

Nasal bone

Maxilla

Mandible

Zygomatic: Gk. Zygoma, yolk


Mandibulae
Corpus
Margo superior: arcus alveolaris

Margo inferior: basis

Outside: protuberantia mentalis,


foramen mentale
Inside: spina mentalis, linea
mylohyoidea

Ramus:
Processus coronoideus

Process Condyloideus

Incisura mandibularis

foramen mandibularis; lingula


mandibulae
Calvaria
Superior
Bones: frontale, parietale (2),
occipitale
Sutura:

coronaria,

sagittalis

lambdoidea

Facies interna
sulcus sagittalis ~ sinus sagittalis
superior
Sulcus arteriosus ~ a. meningea

Facies posterior
protuberantia occipitalis externa

Linea nuchae superior et inferior

L. Sutura = sew
Facies interna basis cranii

Base of skull forms 3 fossae:


Fossa cranii anterior

Fossa cranii media

Fossa cranii posterior


Fossa cranii anterior
Formed by pars orbital os
frontalis, lamina cribrosa
os ethmoidale, ala parva
os sphenoidale
Structures:
Crista frontalis

foramen caecum ~
v.emissaria
crista galli

Lamina cribriformis

Foramina cribriformis
~ N.olfactorius (I)

L. ethmoid = sieve; L. cribriform = sieve-like


Fossa cranii media (1)
Formed by corpus&ala magne
os sphenoidale, pars petrosa
os temporale
Structures:
corpus os sphenoidale

canalis opticus ~ N.opticus


(II)
processus clinoideus
anterior
process clinoideus

posterior
sella turcica ~ gld. pituitary

L. Sphenoid = wedgelike; L. Sella turcica = Turks saddle


Fossa cranii media (2)
canalis caroticus ~
fissura orbitalis superior
medial~.; lateral~.

foramen rotundum ~
foramen ovale ~
foramen spinosum ~
foramen lacerum ~
tegmen tympani=roof of
cavum tympani
Fossa cranii posterior
Formed by os occipital &
pars petrosus os temporal
Structures:
foramen magnum~
medulla spinalis;
N.accessorius (XI)
canalis hypoglossi~

protuberance occipitalis
interna
foramen jugularis
(between pars petrosus os
temp. & os occ.)
meatus acusticus internus
~
Basis cranii (facies inferior)
Arcus alveolaris os palatina
Foramen incisivum
~ a.palatina major;n.nasopalatinus

Apertura nasalis posterior (Choane)


Processus pterygoideus
Condylus occipitalis
Canalis hypoglossus~
Canalis caroticus~
Processus styloideus
Foramen stylomastoideum
~a/v.stylomastoidea;n.facialis

Fossa mandibularis
Tuberculum articularis
Basis cranii (facies inferior)
Facies lateralis cranii

Porus acusticus externus


Processus mastoideus
Arcus zygomaticus
Fossa temporalis
Facies anterior cranii

Regio frontalis:
squama frontalis
tuber frontalis
arcus superciliaris
glabella
Clinical correlation:

Cleft palate
Craniosynostosis , ex:
Crouzons syndrome
(sagittal)
Mandibulofacial
dysostosis (Treacher
Collin syndrome)
Sutural/wormian bones
Sutura metopica

metopic suture = Gk. Metopon, forehead


General characters of the skull at birth
The skull at birth is large in proportion
to rest of the skeleton 1/4 (adult 1/7)
The facial portion equals about 1/8
that of the cranium in size, whereas in
adult it is one half (1/2)
Many bones consist of more than one
piece
Cranial fontanelles unossified
membrane between the bones at the
angles of parietal
Anterior frontanelle closes during
middle of 2nd year
Posterior frontanelle closes by the
end of 2nd month after birth
Mastoid fontanelle

Sphenoidal fontanelle
Sinus paranasalis
Paired air spaces in bones of the skull
surrounding nasal area,
communicates via ducts into the
nasal cavity.
Which drain into meatus nasi media:
1. Sinus frontalis
2. Sinus maxillaris
3. Sinus ethmoidalis
Which drain into recessus
sphenoethmoidalis:
1. Sinus sphenoidalis
Clinical correlation:
The moist and warm vascular lining within the nasal
cavity is susceptible to infections. Infections of the nasal
cavity can spread to the several areas:
1. Sinus paranasalis
2. The eyes via the ductus nasolacrimalis
3. The middle ear, from nasopharynx via tuba
auditorius. Prolonged middle ear infection (acute
otitis media) can cause mastoid air cells infection
called mastoiditis
4. Meninges via the sheaths of the N. olfactorius which
pass through lamina/foramina cribriformis
meningitis
Fig. meningitis, mastoiditis
Fig. lateral wall of nasal cavity
Fig. The section of temporal bones to shows mastoid air
cells, mastoid antrum, and middle ear.
Quiz:

Name the structures through each foramen at


the base cranii!

State the definition and the clinical


importance of the points at cranium (vertex,
glabella, asterion, pterion)!
Skeleton axiale (truncus)
Consists of: costae, sternum, columna
vertebralis (vertebrae, sacrum, vertebrae,
sacrum, coccyx)

Vertebrae:
*) Children, vertebrae=33, arranged as follows:
Vertebrae cervicalis: 7

Vertebrae thoracalis: 12

Vertebrae lumbalis: 5

Vertebrae sacral: 5 ( sacrum)

Vertebrae coccygeal: 3~4 ( coccyx)


Columna vertebralis

Vertebrae separated
by discus
intervertebralis

Each vertebrae is
given a name
according to its
location

Figure 5.14
Structure of a typical vertebrae

(corpus)
General features of vertebrae
Corpus vertebrae
Arcus vertebrae
Pediculus:
Incisura vertebrae sup. dan inf.
foramen intervertebralis
Lamina consists of:
processus (7):
process spinousus (1)

process transversus (2)

processus articularis sup.


dan inf. (4)
foramen vertebralis
Vertebral canal
Regional variations of vertebrae
Vertebrae cervicalis
Corpus vertebrae: small
foramen vertebralis: larger;
triangular
processes spinosus:
C3-C5: short & bifida
C6: long
C7: longest; not bifida
processus transversus: short,
bifida, foramen transversum
processus articular: horizontal
Atypical vertebrae

Atlas (C1)
Corpus dan
processus spinousus
are absent
Terdapat:

arcus anterior,
posterior
2 lateral masses
Groove/sulcus for
arteri vertebralis
Axis (C2):
Have dens epistropheus
Facies articularis anterior
articulates with fovea dentis,
arcus anterior os atlas
C6:
Tuberculum caroticum:
tuberculum anterior dari
processus transverse C6

Vertebra prominens (C7):


processus spinosus: long;
blunt (no bifid)
Can be palpated when
flexion of the neck
Used as clinical landmark in
counting cervical and
thoracic spinous processes.
Vertebrae thoracalis
Corpus vertebrae:
heart-shape, fovea costalis superior
& inferior
Foramen vertebralis: smaller;
rounder
Processus spinosus:
long, point oblique-inferior
Processus transversus:
fovea costal transversalis
Processus articularis: coronal
Vertebrae lumbalis
Corpus vertebrae: larger,
kidney-shape
Foramen vertebralis:
larger; triangular
Processus spinosus: projects
horizontally
Processus transversus: long
processus articularis: projects
sagitally
(+) processus
mammilaris&accesorium proc.
artic. sup.
Sacrum
Facies anterior:
promontorium, foramina
sacralis anteriora (4 pairs)
Facies posterior:
crista sacralis media,
foramina sacral posterior (4
pairs), crista sacralis
intermedia, crista sacralis
lateralis, hiatus sacralis,
cornu sacralis
Pars lateralis:
Facies auricularis: tuberositas
sacralis
Cornu

Hiatus sacralis

palpation

Trans-sacral (epidural) anasthesia


Clinical correlation:
Scoliosis; kyphosis; lordosis
Laminectomy
Surgical removal of the processus spinosus and their supporting
lamina vertebralis to relieve pressure on the corda spinalis or
nerve root caused by blood clot, tumor, herniated/ruptured
discus intervertebralis
Coccygeal trauma; fx-dislocation of the sacrococcygeal
joint
Note:
In aging, decrease of height (0,5- 2cm) occur between the ages 50-55
because of compression and shrinkage of the discus intervertebralis
which collectively account for 25% of the height of columna
vertebralis.
Quiz:

Discuss the curves of the vertebral column,


the origin, and the location of the curves!
(Module task)
Sternum
Manubrium sterni :
incisura jugularis, incisura
clavicularis, incisura costalis
Corpus sterni
Processus xiphoideus

*) Angulus sternalis:
The angle of the junction of
manubrium and corpus sterni
which connects costal cartilage
II laterally; lies opposite lower
border of V.Th.IV posteriorly

Sternum = chest; manubrium = handle; xiphoid = sword; costae = rib


Costae (12 pairs)

General features:
Costae 1~7 = costae
vera
Costae 8~10 = costae

spuriae
Costae 11~12 =
costae (spuriae)
fluitantes
Intercostal spaces (ICS) is
space between the ribs
musculus intercostalis
Characteristic of typical os costae
Posterior end:
capitulum costae: facies articularis superior et inferior
capituli costae, crista capituli costae
collum costae
tuberculum costae: facies articularis tuberculi costae
Corpus:
angulus costae
sulcus costae (~ anterior end)
Atypical os costae

Costae I:
tuberculum musculi
scaleni anterior, sulcus
arteri/vena subclavia
Costae XI dan XII lack
of collum costae,
tuberculum, and
angulus costae.
Clinical correlation:

Fx of the ribs are most frequent between ribs 3 and 10.


The 1st two pair of ribs are protected by the clavicles; the
last two pairs move freely and will give with an impact.
Little can be done to assist the healing of broken ribs
other than binding them tightly to limit movement.