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Where Did the Timewave Come From?

Derivation of the Timewave from the King Wen Sequence of Hexagrams

by Terence McKenna

The idea that time is experienced as a series of identifiable elements in flux is highly developed in the I Ching. Indeed the temporal modeling of the I Ching offers an extremely well-developed alternative to the "flat-duration" point of view. The I Ching views time as a finite number of distinct and irreducible elements, in the same way that the chemical elements compose the world of matter. For the Taoist sages of pre-Han China time was composed of sixty-four irreducible elements. It is upon relations among these sixty-four elements that I have sought to erect a new model of time that incorporates the idea of the conservation of novelty and still recognizes time as a process of becoming.

The earliest arrangement of the hexagrams of the I Ching is the King Wen Sequence. It was this sequence that I chose to study as a possible basis for a new model of the relationship of time to the ingression and conservation of novelty. In studying the kinds of order in the King Wen Sequence of the I Ching I made a number of remarkable discoveries. It is well known that hexagrams in the King Wen sequence occur in pairs. The second member of each pair is obtained by inverting the first. In any sequence of the sixty-four hexagrams there are eight hexagrams which remain unchanged when inverted. In the King Wen Sequence these eight hexagrams are paired with hexagrams in which each line of the first hexagram has become its opposite, (yang changed to yin and vice -versa).

The question remains as to what rule or principle governs the arrangement of the thirty-two pairs of hexagrams comprising the King Wen Sequence. My intuition was to look at the first order of difference, that is, how many lines change as one moves through the King Wen Sequence from one hexagram to the next. The first order of difference will always be an integer between one and six. When the first order of difference within pairs is examined it is always found to be an even number. Thus all instances of first order of difference that are odd occur at transitions from one pair of hexagrams to the next pair. When the complete set of first order of difference integers generated by the King Wen Sequence is examined they are found to fall into a perfect ratio of 3 to 1, three even integers to each odd integer. The ratio of 3/1 is not a formal property of the complete sequence but was a carefully constructed artifact achieved by arranging hexagram transitions between pairs to generate fourteen instances of three and two instances of one. Fives were deliberately excluded. The fourteen threes and two ones constitute sixteen instances of an odd integer occurring out of a possible sixty-four. This is a 3/1 ratio exactly.

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Figure 1

Figure 1 shows that when the first order of difference of the King Wen Sequence is graphed it appears random or unpredictable. However when an image of the graph is rotated 180 degrees within the plane and superimposed upon itself it is found to achieve closure at four adjacent points as in Figure 2.

Figure 2

While closure might logically be expected anywhere in the sequence, it in fact occurs at the conventional beginning and end of the sequence. While an arrangement with closure might have placed any two hexagrams opposite each other, what we in fact find is that the hexagrams opposite each other are such that the numbers of their positions in the King Wen Sequence when summed is always equal to sixty-four. These facts are not coincidences, they are the artifacts of conscious intent.

Over 27,000 hexagram sequences were randomly generated by computer (all sequences having the property possessed by the King Wen sequence that every second hexagram is either the inverse or the complement of its predecessor). Of these 27,000 plus sequences only four were found to have the three properties of a 3/1 ratio of even to odd transitions, no transitions of value five and the type of closure described above. Such sequences were found to be very rare, occurring in a ratio of 1 in 3770. Here is the complete graph of the King Wen first order of differnce with its mirror image fitted against it to achieve closure:

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Figure 3

For these reasons I was led to view the King Wen Sequence as a profoundly artificial arrangement of the sixty-four hexagrams. Look carefully at Figure 3 immediately above. Review in your mind the steps from the King Wen sequence that led to it. Notice that it is a complete set of the sixty-four possible hexagrams, running both sequentially forward and backward. Since it is composed of sixty-four hexagrams of six lines each it is composed of 6 x 64 or 384 lines or yao. One might make an analogy and say Figure 3 is to the King Wen sequence as a cube is to a square; it is composed of the same elements as the King Wen Sequence but it has more dimensions.

It is my assumption that the oracle building pre-Han Chinese viewed the forward-and backward-running double sequence of Figure 3 as a single yao or line and that it is therefore open to the same treatment as lines are subject to in the I Ching, namely multiplication by six and sixty-four.

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Figure 4

Since a hexagram has six lines I visualized six double sequences in a linear order. But a hexagram is more than lines; a hexagram also contains two trigrams. Thus over the six double sequences I overlaid two double sequences, each three times larger than the six double sequences. A hexagram also has an identity as a whole; thus over the six and the two double sequences a single, larger double sequence is projected.

The sets of double sequences of each level share a common point of origin and all return to a single end point. The resulting figure, show in Figure 4 on the extreme right, is to the original double sequence as a tesseract is to a cube, for again more dimensions have been added. This figure itself can then be imagined as a single hexagram, but one of a set of sixty-four.

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Figure 5

The closure at the beginning and end of this figure suggested that it might be useful to model process. Its 384 subunits imply a calendar. Can it be coincidence that the length of a lunar month, 29.53 days, times 13 is 383.89? I believe that what we have here is a 384 day lunar calendar with resonances to other other naked eye astronomical phenomena known to be of interest to the ancient Chinese (see below).

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Table 1

Using techniques that I developed for the problem I was able to mathematically collapse the hexagram construct into a self-similar fractal curve that can be used to map the unfolding of temporal variables and their resonances on all levels of duration.

My attack on the problem began with an examination of the simple wave of Figure 3. Thirteen discrete line types comprise any simple version of the graph. These thirteen lengths are displayed on and off grid in Figure 6:

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Figure 6

. As these lengths are always discrete units, we can assign to them values which are ascending integers. The values of Figure 6 allow a quantification of line length. To quantify the degree and direction of skew of individual lines, one direction of skew is designated as positive, giving lines skewed in that direction positive values. Lines skewed in the opposite direction are given negative values. This gives values adequately preserving and quantifying line length and direction of skew. The values labeled L in Figure 6 are used for the left side of a simple wave while the values labeled R, which are the same values with their their sign reverse, are applied to the right side of any simple wave. The sign is important only in combining values across scales but is ignored in the final graphing of combine values, either set of values may be applied to either the right or left side. However, whichever schema is chosen must then be followed throughout. Figure 7 represents the version of these values that we have used for the simple graph.

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Figure 7

It is important to note that the valuations in Figure 7 are valuations of the simple wave on the smallest scale of a single complex wave. The relative proportions of the three levels in the complex wave are preserved and quantified by multiplying the valuations of the linear scale in the appropriate way. To assign a value to a positionÊon the trigramatic scale, the valuation of that position on the linear scale (Figure 7) is multiplied by three because the trigramatic scale is three times larger than the linear scale. In a similar manner, the hexagramaticÊpositions are assigned a valuation by multiplying their linear-level

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valuations by six, again because the hexagramaticÊscale is six times larger than the linear. Figure 7 uses the value scheme in Figure 6 and is the version of value assignments we have used in all our calculations.

Note that in Figure 7 all parallel lines, regardless of the distances separating them, reduce to zero. Thus, while the operations discussed so far have allowed quantification of skew direction, proportional ratios of the wave parts, and the degree of departure from the parallel state, they have not provided a quantified account of the fluctuating distances between the two parameters of the wave. The procedure for obtaining these values is similar to, but distinct from, the procedures outlines above.

Figure 8

Figure 8 shows the seven types of divergence, congruence, and overlap which points in the simple wave may display. The two possible assignments of positive and negative numbers are shown to the right and left sides in Figure 8. Ê We have chosen to use the right-hand schema to preserve the intuition that overlap tends to carry a situation toward the zero state rather than away from it.

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Figure 9

Figure 9 shows the values this series of point assignments generates when applied to the simple wave. When the valuations for skew, parallelism, and relative proportion have been combined in the manner detailed above the following 384 values result(as read from position 383 to position zero):

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0, 0, 0, 2, 7, 4, 3, 2, 6, 8, 13, 5, 26, 25, 24, 15, 13, 16, 14, 19, 17, 24, 20, 25, 63, 60, 56, 55, 47, 53, 36, 38, 39, 43, 39, 35, 22, 24, 22, 21, 29, 30, 27, 26, 26, 21, 23, 19, 57, 62, 61, 55, 57, 57, 35, 50, 40, 29, 28, 26, 50, 51, 52, 61, 60, 60, 42, 42, 43, 43, 42, 41, 45, 41, 46, 23, 35, 34, 21, 21, 19, 51, 40, 49, 29, 29, 31, 40, 36, 33, 29, 26, 30, 16, 18, 14, 66, 64, 64, 56, 53, 57, 49, 51, 47, 44, 46, 47, 56, 51, 53, 25, 37, 30, 31, 28, 30, 36, 35, 22, 28, 32, 27, 32, 34, 35, 52, 49, 48, 51, 51, 53, 40, 43, 42, 26, 30, 28, 55, 41, 53, 52, 51, 47, 61, 64, 65, 39, 41, 41, 22, 21, 23, 43, 41, 38, 24, 22, 24, 14, 17, 19, 52, 50, 47, 42, 40, 42, 26, 27, 27, 34, 38, 33, 44, 44, 42, 41, 40, 37, 33, 31, 26, 44, 34, 38, 46, 44, 44, 36, 37, 34, 36, 36, 36, 38, 43, 38, 27, 26, 30, 32, 37, 29, 50, 49, 48, 29, 37, 36, 10, 19, 17, 24, 20, 25, 53, 52, 50, 53, 57, 55, 34, 44, 45, 13, 9, 5, 34, 26, 32, 31, 41, 42, 31, 32, 30, 21, 19, 23, 43, 36, 31, 47, 45, 43, 47, 62, 52, 41, 36, 38, 46, 47, 40, 43, 42, 42, 36, 38, 43, 53, 52, 53, 47, 49, 48, 47, 41, 44, 15, 11, 19, 51, 40, 49, 23, 23, 25, 34, 30, 27, 7, 4, 4, 32, 22, 32, 68, 70, 66, 68, 79, 71, 43, 45, 41, 38, 40, 41, 24, 25, 23, 35, 33, 38, 43, 50, 48, 18, 17, 26, 34, 38, 33, 38, 40, 41, 34, 31, 30, 33, 33, 35, 28, 23, 22, 26, 30, 26, 75, 77, 71, 62, 63, 63, 37, 40, 41, 49, 47, 51, 32, 37, 33, 49, 47, 44, 32, 38, 28, 38, 39, 37, 22, 20, 17, 44, 50, 40, 32, 33, 33, 40, 44, 39, 32, 32, 40, 39, 34, 41, 33, 33, 32, 32, 38, 36, 22, 20, 20, 12, 13, 10

Table 2: The 384 Values of the Complex Wave

These same values are to be graphed as a single line graph and are the primary valuation scheme for any complex wave. The process of quantifying a given time in the modular hierarchy of the complex wave will necessarily begin with reference to these values.

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Figure 10

Figure 10 shows the complex compound wave and its reduction into an ordinary graph. The 384 values above can be ploted on a graph thus reducing the complex, tri-leveled, bi-directionally flowing complex wave a single line moving in only one direction. Such a graph preserves certain qualities of the complex wave: its divergence from the zero state where lines are parallel, the direction and degree of skew of pairs of lines, the relative proportions of the three levels, and the distances between the fluctuating parameters of the various component waves. However such a graph does not reflect the shift of values that would occur if the single-line complex wave were nested into a particular position in the modular hierarchy of fractal waves each level of which was 64 times larger than its predecessor. In such a case, the 384 values above would serve as a schema of values to be combined through superimposition with the values associated with whichever one of the 64 segments of the next largest level it is to be nested in.

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These latter values have first been multiplied by by 64, indicating their membership in the next larger level of the hierarchy. Thus 64 variants of the values of Table 2 would be generated, and it is these various waves or frames which we treat as comprising the temporal maps of a given historical span. The values of Table 2 are the basis of the quantified maps of temporal flux which Novelty theory rests on.

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Figure 11

The last three of the 384 segments of the wave on any level possess singularities which quantify as zero, see Figure 11. When the wave on a given level enters those segments of itself which are zero states, it ceases to contribute boundary constraints to its subsets on lower levels. The cessation of boundary constraints imposed by higher levels in the hierarchy causes a "surge" toward the zero state each time that a cycle enters its terminal phase on any level in the hierarchy. Such quantized transitions from one modality to another are called "changes of epoches" By Whitehead. The appearance of life in an inorganic world, of consciousness in an unconscious world, or of language in a world without language are all examples of such epochal transitions. Our lives are filled with such transitions, but they are terminations of relatively short cycles in the quantified hierarchy. Terminations of cycles or epoches of really long duration cause extreme accelerations toward the zero state/ This idea is similar to Whitehead's conception of concrescence and the Vedic conception of world ages which grow shorter as they tighten around an axis point. The spiral image of the Christian apocalypse is another example of this intuition that time is a series of tightening gyres around the quantized emergence of transformation.

A perfect self-consistent proof that Table 2 does adequately conserve four qualities--divergence from the zero state where lines are parallel, the direction and the degree of skew of pairs of lines, distances between the parameters of the component waves, and the proportions of these three qualities relative to the other levels--is afforded by comparing any two graph segments assigned to a single time but on different scales relative to an arbitrary termination date that is the same for both. Any two such segments will be found to be similar in form yet preserving their relative proportions. This demonstrable fact confirms the idea that the complex wave derived from Figure 3 is adequately reflected and its useful values retained throughout the series of operations which generate Table 2. What Table 2 and the graphs made from it achieve is a clarity and simplicity of expression lacking in the tri-leveled complex wave. Table 2 and the algorithm that accompanies it is a quantification of operational constructs which makes this modular hierarchy of temporal variables a valid subject for rigorous scientific investigation.

Autopsy for a Mathematical Hallucination?

Matthew Watkins

Introduction by Terence McKenna

Recently, while in Mexico at the classic Maya site of Palenque, I made the aquaintance of a young British mathematician and psychokinesiologist named Matthew Watkins. Watkins offered the strongest and most interesting critique of the timewave and the assumptions of its construction yet made. Watkins is confident that he has condensed the theory of the timewave into a formula (given below) and is further convinced that there is no rational basis for assuming that the timewave represents the fluctuation of any quantity which can be meaningfully understood as "novelty". Here in Watkins' own words is his formula and his objection:

The Meeting

I first became aware of the Timewave theory when I discovered a magazine article on Terence McKenna

four or five years ago. It briefly mentioned that he had developed a theory which involved mathematically modelling the historical ingression of "novelty" using a fractal generated from the King Wen sequence of I Ching hexagrams. The idea had been revealed to him whilst in an altered state of consciousness brought about by psilocybin mushrooms. I had been studying the I Ching for some time, was working on a PhD in mathematics, and had occasionally contemplated the role of psychoactive plants in ancient religious belief systems, so I was immediately fascinated and searched everywhere for more information. I discovered McKenna's writings and recordings, but although the theory was often referred to and used as a basis for some remarkable speculation, I was unable to find any detailed description of its foundations. Such a description had originally been published in The Invisible Landscape (Terence and Dennis McKenna) in the early seventies, an obscure book long out of print and almost impossible to find.

When, in 1994, I discovered that The Invisible Landscape had been republished, I immediately obtained

a copy and studied it thoroughly. I was rather disappointed to find that the mathematical process which

was applied to the King Wen sequence to generate the fractal "timewave" seemed worryingly arbitrary (no justification being given for many steps) and mathematically clumsy. Beyond that, the described procedure fails to give the same "data points" which appear in the appendix and which are used to ultimately define the fractal in question. More disappointing, I discovered that the December 21, 2012 date (now generally associated with McKenna's name) was in no way calculated - it was selected to give the timewave the "best possible fit" with the historical occurence of novelty as McKenna sees it. It was difficult to accept that such an exotic, imaginative idea could have such unsatisfactory foundations. I thought that perhaps McKenna had been unable to effectively communicate something very real which had been revealed to him, and decided to get in touch immediately.

We began an e-mail dialogue about a year ago, after he responded to a letter I sent offering mathematical advice (at this point I had completed my PhD on hyperspatial embeddings of differential manifolds). Little was achieved for many months. He referred to an idea he was exploring which related the distribution of large prime numbers to the timewave, but it was only when I received a copy of the Timewave software that I was able to look into this. I was unable to find any evidence to support the hypothesis, but I did find that the software manual gave a much more detailed account of the construction of the timewave than The Invisible Landscape had. The manual contained the actual source code which the software uses, so I was able to study it with great care and formulate a detailed critique of the theory. We agreed to meet and discuss the issue in Palenque (in the Mexican state of Chiapas) in January, while he was teaching at a Botanical Preservation Corps conference.

Terence and I had four lengthy, good natured, and most enjoyable discussions during the week I was in Palenque, and I was able to explain my critique step-by-step. By the final discussion he seemed to have fully grasped the nature of the problem, and had admitted that the theory appeared to have "no basis in rational thought". He claimed (and this struck me as sincere) that he was only interested in the truth, and that someone "disproving" the theory was just as a much of a relief to him as someone confirming its validity. He proposed that we collaborate on a piece provisionally entitled "Autopsy for a Mathematical Hallucination" in which we would carefully take the theory apart and see what had gone wrong. He claimed that I was the first person to approach him with a serious mathematical critique of his ideas, partly explaining why such an unjustifiable theory had not only survived for so long, but also attracted so much interest and attention.

The Formula

The timewave is a mathematical function defined by applying a "fractal transform" to a piecewise linear function. The latter function is an expression of 384 "data points" (positive integer values) derived from the King Wen sequence. Strangely, McKenna's description of the derivation in The Invisible Landscape fails to yield the data points which appear in the appendix and which have been used since. However, a complete description can be found in the TimeExplorer software manual. With some effort, the multi-step description, largely expressed in graphical or intuitive terms, can be condensed into a single formula.

We define a set of 64 values h[1], h[2],

, changed in hexagram k to give hexagram k+1. Here "hexagram 65" is interpreted as hexagram 1, "hexagram 0" as hexagram 64, etc. These values are as follows:

h[64] such that h[k] is the number of lines which must be

h[1]:=6; h[2]:=2; h[3]:=4; h[4]:=4; h[5]:=4; h[6]:=3; h[7]:=2; h[8]:=4; h[9]:=2; h[10]:=4; h[11]:=6; h[12]:=2; h[13]:=2; h[14]:=4; h[15]:=2; h[16]:=2; h[17]:=6; h[18]:=3; h[19]:=4; h[20]:=3; h[21]:=2; h[22]:=2; h[23]:=2; h[24]:=3; h[25]:=4; h[26]:=2; h[27]:=6; h[28]:=2; h[29]:=6; h[30]:=3; h[31]:=2; h[32]:=3; h[33]:=4; h[34]:=4; h[35]:=4; h[36]:=2; h[37]:=4; h[38]:=6; h[39]:=4; h[40]:=3; h[41]:=2; h[42]:=4; h[43]:=2; h[44]:=3; h[45]:=4; h[46]:=3; h[47]:=2; h[48]:=3; h[49]:=4; h[50]:=4; h[51]:=4; h[52]:=1; h[53]:=6; h[54]:=2; h[55]:=2; h[56]:=3; h[57]:=4; h[58]:=3; h[59]:=2; h[60]:=1; h[61]:=6; h[62]:=3; h[63]:=6; h[64]:=3;

h[0]:=3;

, entire timewave construction, can be expressed in the popular mathematical programming language MAPLE as follows (Peter Meyer has written a conversion to C):

The formula for the values w[0], w[1],

w[383], the 384 "data points" which lie at the heart of the

w[k] := abs( ((-1)^trunc((k-1)/32))* (h[k-1 mod 64] - h[k-2 mod 64] +h[-k mod 64] - h[1-k mod 64])

+ 3*((-1)^trunc((k-3)/96))*

(h[trunc(k/3)-1 mod 64] - h[trunc(k/3)-2 mod 64] + h[-trunc(k/3) mod 64] - h[1-trunc(k/3) mod 64])

+ 6*((-1)^trunc((k-6)/192))*

(h[trunc(k/6)-1 mod 64] - h[trunc(k/6)-2 mod 64] + h[-trunc(k/6) mod 64] - h[1-trunc(k/6) mod 64]) )

+ abs ( 9 - h[-k mod 64] - h[k-1 mod 64]

+ 3*(9- h[-trunc(k/3) mod 64] - h[ trunc(k/3)-1 mod 64])

+ 6*(9- h[-trunc(k/6) mod 64] - h[ trunc (k/6)-1 mod 64]) );

Here trunc represents trunctation (rounding a number down to its integer part), abs means absolute (positive) value, and mod 64 means "the remainder after dividing by 64". Of this formula, McKenna writes:

Naturally [it] is of interest to myself, Terence McKenna and to others, especially Peter Meyer and other mathematicians and computer code writers who have help to advance and formulate the theory of the timewave over the years. On March 25, '96 Peter Meyer sent me e-mail which contained the following statement: "I have tested it (the formula) and have the pleasure of reporting that the formula produces correct values. I have congratulated him by e-mail." As of April 1, 1996 Watkins has significantly advanced understanding of the timewave by writing the formula that has eluded other workers since 1971. Although I was happy to have clarified the issue, I am unaware of any one else who had attempted to find such a formula. It was no great feat, being merely the compression of a step-by-step computer algorithm (as given by Peter Meyer in the TimeExplorer software manual) into a single mathematical expression, something which any competent mathematician could achieve with relatively little effort.

The Objection

The formula is really quite inelegant, and I personally found it hard to believe that if a map of temporal resonance was encoded into the King Wen sequence, it would look like this. In any case, my main concern was with the powers of -1. These constitute the "missing step" which isn't mentioned in The Invisible Landscape, but which turns up as a footnote of the TimeExplorer software manual. On p.79 we find

Now we must change the sign of half of the 64 numbers in angle_lin[] as follows

For 1 <=j <=32

angle_lin[j]=-angle_lin[j] When reading this, I immediately thought "WHY?", as did several friends and colleagues who I guided through the construction. There is no good reason I could see for this sudden manipulation of the data. Without this step, the powers of -1 disappear from the formula, and the "data points" are a different set of numbers, leading to a different timewave. McKenna has looked at this timewave and agree that it doesn't appear to represent a map of "novelty" in the sense that the "real" timewave is claimed to. It is possible that by changing the "zero date" Dec. 21, 2012, one could obtain a better fit, but there's no longer any clear motivation to attempt this, as the main reason for taking the original timewave seriously were McKenna's (often very convincing) arguments for historical correlation. These would all be rendered meaningless without the aforementioned step.

The footnote associated with this step reads:

22. This is the mysterious "half twist". The reason for this is not well understood at present and is a question which awaits further research This struck me as absurd. After all, why introduce such a step into an (already overcomplicated) algorithm whilst admitting that the reason for doing so is "not well understood at present"? I confronted McKenna on this issue, and he immediately grasped the significance of my challenge. He would have to either (1) justify this mysterious "half twist" or (2) abandon the timewave theory altogether.

He claimed not to remember the exact details for its inclusion, as it had been decided upon over 20 years ago. After some time, he pointed out the antisymmetry which occurs in the central column of values in the figure below:

Figure 1

These are the values of angle_lin[] referred to earlier, and to which the "half twist" is applied. But the antisymmetry is a natural consequence of the fact that the right hand graph is simply a 180-degree rotation of the left hand graph. The values in the column represent relative slopes, and the effect of the "half twist" is the confuse the evaluation.

Having conceded that the above doesn't constitute a justification of the "half twist", McKenna went on to

claim that without it the collapse of the "multi-levelled complex bi-directional wave" into the 384 values "fails to preserve" some geometric property. The "collapse" is pictured in the figure below:

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Standard and Revised Data Set Comparisons

With equation [76] and [77], and the graph in Fig. 11, we have completed this formalized development of the TWZ data set. We are now in a position to compare these results with those of the standard development reported by McKenna and Meyer in the Invisible Landscape and the TimeExplorer manual, as well as address the issues raised by the Watkins Objection.

Fig. 12 is a graph of both the standard and reviseddata sets, and it shows some remarkable similarities as well as significant differences. One interesting feature of this graph, is the nature of each wave at its respective endpoints. Recall that the value of the wave at x = 0 will be discarded because it is a duplicate or "wrap" of the value at x = 384. This will not effect the relative values of the two waves at x = 384, because they are both zero-valued at this endpoint. However, the value of each wave at x = 1 is not the same, with the standard wave having a value of 10 while the revised wave value is zero.

Figure 11

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Why does this matter, you may ask, since there are many obvious differences between the two waves - what is the significance of this difference? For the standard wave, it has been argued that the zero value at the end of the waveform implies some kind of singularity at the end of the process - or at the end of time. This revised wave is implying, that there may be singularities at bothends of the continuum. This is also an argument for a closed system that may be undergoing some kind of cyclic renewal process - perhaps each cycle expressing ever higher ordered states of complex form, or Novelty.

There are concepts emerging from the field of quantum cosmology that may describe an analogous cyclic process. This is a theory in which universes are treated like quantum particles that inhabit a larger, or higher dimensional domain called a multiverse. Michio Kaku [12] , a theoretical physicist and co-founder of string field theory, has described a

process where universes emerge from the zero-point, or vacuum field, go through an evolutionary process, then perhaps return to the zero-point field at the end of the cycle. This cycle may then repeat itself, possibly with increased complexity and Novelty. Could this be similar to the process that the TimeWave and Novelty Theory attempt to reveal? Perhaps further investigation into the nature of the TimeWave will shed some light on these questions.

Figure 12

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Another significant feature of Fig. 12 is the apparent agreement of the two waves in the lower frequency domain. Frequency content of any waveform expresses itself as variations in the rate of change of its value as the wave propagates in some realm, that could be either a space or time domain, or both. So the slope of a waveform at any given point, or its general shape, can reveal frequency content (the magnitude and rate of specific underlying processes). Examination of the wave pair in Fig. 12 shows that there is a common lower frequency process occurring for each waveform. The higher frequency processes appear as relatively shorter duration peaks riding upon the slower process. The lowest frequency process occurring in these waveforms can be seen by drawing an imaginary line between the highest of all the peaks as one moves over the domain of the waveforms. Slightly higher frequency components can be seen by drawing that imaginary line over the peaks and valleys upon which the sharpest and shortest duration peaks ride. The graphs do differ in the higher frequency domain as can be seen by the steeper slopes of the largest standard wave transitions. This could very well be due to high frequency noise present in the standard data set because of the imbedded mathematical errors.

The low frequency, or long duration processes, are those that may occur on the scale of millennia or even billions of years, whereas the higher frequency processes may occur on the scale of a human lifetime. Could it be that the lowest frequency process is the signature of some creative principle at work, be it strange attractor, zero-point field, or eschaton. Could this creative energy be perturbing the fabric of space-time in such a way as to trigger the creation and conservation of higher ordered states - something like the gravitational energy of a passing nearby star triggering the formation of a comets from the Ort cloud? Is this lowest frequency process then a kind of ground state, upon which all higher frequency processes express themselves? Perhaps in time these questions will be answerable, although certainly not today.

An obvious feature of Fig. 12 that clearly shows in this graph, is the difference in the average wave value between standard and revised waves. The average wave value for the standard wave is somewhat greater than the average value of the revised wave. This difference in average wave value appears to be the result of differences in the higher frequency components of the wave pair, perhaps due to noise in the standard wave that is produced by the mathematical errors that are present. These high frequency components of the standard wave show up as the steep peaks that rise well above the peaks in the revised wave. In the Fourier analysis that follows, these large peaks appear as high frequency noise that adds randomness to the wave. The impact of this difference on the final TimeWave, is to shift the average level of novelty upward (lower values) from that expressed by the standard wave. In other words, the revised wave expresses a process with somewhat higher levels of novelty, than does the standard wave. Since Novelty isn't

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a calibrated process, it's not possible to determine what the more "reasonable" level of Novelty would be. All that can be expressed then, is relative Novelty.

One final feature of Fig. 12 that requires some discussion, is the correlation number at the top of the graph. In order to determine and quantify the degree of interdependence, or inter-relatedness of the standard and revised waveforms, a mathematical operation called correlation was performed with these two number sets. The number at the top of the graph is the result of that analysis - a value of 0.564. A correlation of 1.0 would mean that the waveforms are identical, whereas a correlation of zero would indicate no functional relationship between the two. Additionally, a correlation of -1 would indicate that the waveforms were mirror images of one another - a peak reflected by a trough etc. In this case a correlation of 0.564 indicates that these two waveforms show a significant level of interdependence, although far from identical. This level of correlation could be considered likely for two number sets that share a common origin, as well as sharing many of the same developmental procedures.

Data Wave and Random Number Set Comparisons

One method for assessing the information carrying potential of the Data Wave, and convincing oneself that it is not a random process, is to compare it with a data set that has been randomly generated. Several such random wave sets were consequently produced to be compared with the revised and standard Data Wave number sets directly, and to also use as input to the TWZ software to generate random seeded TimeWaves. Fig. 13 is a graph of the revised Data Wave with a random wave set overlay, and it clearly shows that these number sets bear little resemblance to one another. Correlation analysis of the two sets shows a correlation of 0.03, or essentially un-correlated as one would expect for any random number set. Fig. 13 also appears to show that the revised Data Wave is a very different type of number set from the random wave set, and it appears to showing some kind of information carrying process. Is this in fact the case, or does it just appear that way?

Examination of the power spectra for the data and random waves shown in Figs. 12 and 13 can reveal something about the nature of these three waveforms and their relationship. The conversion of time, or space domain waveforms into frequency domain waveforms (frequency spectrum or power spectrum) is performed using a mathematical operation called a Fourier transform. With this method, a frequency spectrum can be produced, which can tell us how much power is contained in each of the frequency components (harmonics) of a given waveform, and thereby providing the frequency distribution of the wave power. This distribution would typically be different for information carrying waveforms than for random, or noise signals. The random, or noise signal spectrum is

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typically flat over the signal bandwidth, and often distinguishable from an information

carrying signal spectrum that exhibits

(f = frequency) behavior.

Figure 13

Fourier transform operations were performed on the data sets shown in Figs. 12 and 13, with the results shown in Fig. 14. The top graph of Fig. 14 includes plots for the standard and revisedData Wave power spectra, while the bottom graph displays the Random Wave power spectrum. The colored lines drawn through each of the spectra are power function curve-fits, that show the frequency roll-off characteristics of each wave. Notice that the two power spectra in the top graph exhibit frequency roll-off (power level decreases with increasing frequency), whereas the lower graph power spectrum exhibits a flat frequency response (power level is frequency independent). This frequency roll-off is characteristic of information carrying signals, whereas the flat response is characteristic of noise or random signals. The revised data wave spectrum, shown in the top graph in green, is exhibiting the nearly

perfect

the other hand, the standard data wave power spectrum shown in blue, exhibits frequency

roll-off, but with a flatter response that is not

frequency response that is typical for an information carrying waveform. On

. In fact, the flatter frequency response

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of the standard data wave is the likely result of high frequency noise

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Figure 14

that increases the power at the tail end of the spectrum and prevents a steeper roll-off. This is something that should be expected from the distorted standard data wave with imbedded mathematical errors, which would tend to add randomness to the wave. The signature of such randomness can be seen in the Random Wave power spectrum, shown in the lower graph in red. This plot shows the typically flat frequency response of a random, or noise signal with no information content. Apparently, the graphs in Fig. 14 are showing that the standard and revised data waves are definite information carrying waveforms, but that the distorted standard data wave has imbedded high frequency noise that flattens its response. This is essentially what Figs. 12 and 13 are showing as well.

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Standard, Revised, and Random Generated TimeWave Results

(1) The TimeWave Zero Screen Set Comparisons

Once the Data Wave, or 384 number data set has been generated, it becomes the input data for the TimeWave Zero software package. As mentioned previously, the software performs what has been called a fractal transform, or expansion of the 384 data number set to produce the TimeWave viewed on the computer screen as a graph of Novelty. In order for this fractal expansion to be performed properly, the software requires that the 384 number data set shown in Fig. 10 be reversed, such that data point 384 becomes data point 1 and data point 0 is discarded (since itís a duplicate or wrap of data point 384).

Figure 15a

Three separate data sets were used in order to generate the TimeWaves needed for comparison - the standard data set, the revised data set, and a random data set. The results of some of these TimeWave comparisons will be shown in the graphs that follow, beginning with the default TimeWave graphs that are included with the TimeExplorer software as pre-computed waveforms. Figs. 15a and 15b show the TimeWave that is stored by the software as Screen 1, and it covers the period between 1942 and 2012. Fig.

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15a shows both the TimeWave resulting from the standard data set on the left, and that for the revised data set on the right. On the other hand, Fig. 15b is the TimeWave generated by the random data set, and it clearly bears little resemblance to the graphs of Fig. 15a.

This is the TimeWave graph that McKenna has called "history's fractal mountain", because of its mountain-like shape. There are several features to notice here, with the first being that these two plots have remarkably similar shapes - obviously not identical, but there is clearly a common dominant process at work. Another common feature of significance shown in these two graphs, is that the major decent into Novelty (peak of the mountain) begins sometime in 1967. Finally, as mentioned earlier, the TimeWave produced by the revised Data Wave number set, shows a higher average level of Novelty for this time period (lower values), than does the TimeWave produced by the standard data set. This Novelty difference is the likely result of the

Figure 15b

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standard wave distortion, caused by the imbedded mathematical errors that produce significant high frequency noise in the wave. As shown in Fig. 14, the high frequency components of the revised data wave are lower than the standard wave by an order of magnitude.

Fig. 16a shows the standard and revised TimeWave graphs for Screen 4 of the TWZ display. Again, these two plots are quite similar in terms of their appearance, and seem to be showing evidence of some common underlying process. The differences may be due to the fact that the standard number set produces more high frequency noise because of the imbedded errors in the number set. The correlation between these two graphs was found

to be 0.731, not as high as Screen 1, but still a significant correlation nonetheless. On the

other hand, the random data set TimeWave shown in Fig. 16b, shows very little correlation

Figure 16a

with either of the graphs in Fig. 16a. This is expected, since random number sets are by definition, un-correlated with any other number set.

A complete set of comparisons like those shown in Figs. 15 and 16 were performed on all

the TimeWave Zero screen sets (Screens 1-10) with very similar results. The correlation results for the TWZ Screen set comparisons ranged from a low of 0.73 to a high of 0.98

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with an average correlation of 0.86, showing that the standard and revised TimeWaves in this screen set were remarkably similar. This was not the case for other TimeWaves that were examined, which will be shown later. In other cases of TimeWave comparison, the differences between the standard and revised waves, appears to show that the revised TimeWave expresses a Novelty process having better alignment with known historical process ñ something one would expect from a more precise formalization process. More analysis is certainly in order, but the data thus far seems to make that case.

Figure 16

(2) Comparisons for Other Significant Historical Periods

Several other TimeWave periods having historical significance were examined for comparison, but the two reported here are the periods from 1895-1925, and from 1935-1955. The first period includes major advances in physics and technology, as well

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as a world war; and the second period includes the development and use of nuclear weapons, as well as two major wars. Fig. 17 is a graph of the TimeWave comparison for the 1895-1925 period, and again these plots are remarkably similar in form. Several significant dates are marked with green and red arrows to signify Noveland Habitual phenomena. The first powered flight happens at Kittyhawk on December 17, 1903; followed by Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity (STR) on June 30, 1905; General Relativity in 1915, and the World War I period of 1914-1918. The events that would be considered novel (manned flight and breakthroughs in physics) all occur at Novelty troughs or Novelty descents. The Habitual phenomenon (war), on the other hand, appears to drive what seems to be a very novel period, back into habit. When both novel and habitual phenomenon are occurring simultaneously, they both influence the shape of the TimeWave. WWI may have driven the wave further into habit than it did, if it weren't for the simultaneous occurrence of very novel phenomena. For example, the work on the General Theory of Relativity occurs in the midst of World War I with its "Same 'OLE" habitual nature. The more novel process of a significant advancement in scientific knowledge, actually appears to suppress what would have been a major ascent into habit, and actually driving the wave into novelty troughs.

Figure 17

Notice that the standard TimeWave on the left doesn't show the regression into habit

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during the First World War - the revised TimeWave clearly does. This is one case in which the revised TimeWave appears to provide a better description of the Novelty process than does the standard TimeWave. However, this is something that should be expected for a process with a more precise and consistent mathematical model.

Fig. 18 shows the 1915 time period, for which the two waves exhibit a substantial disagreement. With the exception of a brief two-month period, the standard TimeWave shows a steady descent into Novelty. The revised TimeWave, however, shows more of what one might expect for a planet embroiled in global conflict. Additionally, the revised TimeWave shows several instances where the determined march into habit is either slowed or temporarily reversed; and with the publication of the general theory in early 1916, the level of Novelty becomes too great for the forces of habit, and the wave plunges. This figure provides a good example of how the standard and revised TimeWaves can exhibit behavioral divergence, and how this divergence tends to affirm the improved accuracy of the revised waveform. Let us now take a look at another period that most of us are familiar with - the period that includes World War II, nuclear energy development, and the Korean War.

Figure 18

Figure 19 shows the standard and revised TimeWave comparison graphs for the period

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1935-1955, and there are obvious similarities and clear differences between the two waves. Both graphs show that WWII begins and ends during steep ascents into habit, but they describe somewhat diverging processes, for much of the middle period of the war. The revised TimeWave shows that a very novel process is apparently at work for much of the period of the war. The standard TimeWave does show novel influences, but it is neither as consistent nor dramatic as for the revised TimeWave. Some very potent novel process seems to be occurring during much of the war period, and that process may be suppressing a major ascent into habit that might otherwise be happening. Could this novel process be the development of nuclear science and technology, eventually leading to the production and use of nuclear weapons? That may be an offensive notion, but let's take a closer look at it.

The development of nuclear science is really about becoming more aware and knowledgeable of a process that powers the sun and the stars - more aware of just how a very powerful aspect of nature works. What one then does with such knowledge is a different process entirely - and largely a matter of consciousness and maturity. As we can see from the revised TimeWave graph, the moment that this knowledge is converted to weapons technology - the nuclear explosion at Trinity Site in New Mexico - the wave begins a steep ascent into habit.

The use of this awesome power against other human beings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki occurs shortly after the test at Trinity Site, and occurs on a very steep ascending slope of habit. Perhaps the process of becoming more aware of nature, and ourselves - is very novel indeed. It is the sacred knowledge of the shaman, who returns from an immersion into an aspect of nature, with guidance or healing for her or his people. We seem to have lost the sense of sacred knowledge with its accompanying responsibility, somewhere along the way. Perhaps it is time to regain that sense, and reclaim responsibility for our knowing.

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Figure 19

The revised TimeWave of Fig. 19 also shows the period of the Korean war as a very steep ascent into habit, although something occurring early in 1952 did momentarily reverse the habitual trend.

Correlation Data and TimeWave Comparisons

Correlation analysis was performed for all the data sets compared in this report, as well as the remaining eight TWZ screen sets not shown here, and selected time periods. This type of analysis allows us to examine the relationship between data sets, and estimate their degree of interdependence - i.e. how similar their information content is. The results of these analyses are shown graphically in Fig. 20, and they include the ten TimeWave screens included with the TWZ software, nine selected historical windows, and the 384 number data sets. In all cases shown, the revised and random data sets are being correlated (compared) with the standard data set. Since any number set correlated with itself, has a correlation coefficient of one, the blue line at the top of the graph represents the standard data self-correlation.

Recall that a correlation of 1 signifies number sets that have identical information content,

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a correlation of zero signifies no common information content, and a correlation of -1

means that the number sets information content exhibit "mirror image" behavior - wave peaks to wave valleys etc. The green line in the graph shows the degree of correlation between the revised waveform and the standard waveform, for each of the separate TimeWaves that were examined. The red line shows the correlation level between waves generated by the random seeded data sets, and those generated by the standard data set. The first point of each line, is the correlation coefficient for each of the 384 number data sets examined - random, revised, and standard data sets.

Figure 20

The first feature to notice about the revised and standard data set correlations shown in Fig. 20, is the fact that the revised 384 number data set shows a correlation with the standard number set of about 60% - a comparison that is shown in Fig. 12. This is a

significant cross-linking of information content, and something that one might expect for number sets with a common base and very similar developmental procedures. The next feature of significance is the fact that the correlation between the revised and standard TimeWaves, for all ten TWZ screen sets, is better than 70% and as high as 98%, showing

a very high level of interdependence. The time periods represented by these ten

TimeWave screens, ranges from 4 years to 36,000 years, which is labeled on the graph.

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The duration of these TimeWave periods may have a bearing on the level of correlation, as we shall see in a moment.

Beginning with the period 1895-1925, the graph shows more scatter in the correlation between standard and revised data sets, which ranges from about 98% down to 8%, with one anti-correlation of -95%. Notice that the correlation appears worse for very short time periods, one to two months or so. One possible explanation is that the very short time period TimeWaves are generated by a very few data points - in other words a low wave sampling frequency or rate. A small, and under-sampled input data set would add a higher level of noise to the wave signal, and consequently produce the higher data scatter observed. The sampling theorem, from information theory, states that aliasing (noise generation) begins to occur when the signal sampling rate becomes less than twice the highest frequency component of the sampled signal. This is certainly something that may be occurring in the mathematics of TimeWave generation.

Additionally, as mentioned previously, this difference could be the consequence of having an improved model of the process. It is important to remember through all of this comparison analysis, that the standard data set is generated by a process with imbedded flaws - not enough to destroy the information content of the wave signals, but enough to cause some distortion of that information content. This correlation analysis is interesting, primarily because it leaves the standard TimeWave intact, more or less - but the important point to remember is that even with low correlation the revised data set appears to produce a better TimeWave.

It is probable that the variations we observe in Fig. 20 are the result of both the distortion of the information content of the 384 number data set, as a result of mathematical errors, and the low data wave sampling rate that occurs for short duration TimeWaves (an unexamined but plausible thesis). It is also important to point out here, that when we do see significant differences in the TimeWaves generated by the standard and revised data sets, those differences have revealed a revised TimeWave of greater apparent accuracy. However, it is important that we examine a significant variety of additional TimeWave periods, to gather more statistics on the functioning of the revised wave; but the data in hand so far, seem to be suggesting that the mathematical formalization of the data set generating process, does improve the TimeWave accuracy.

Another significant feature of the revised data correlation plot in Fig. 20 that should be mentioned here, is the fact that the correlation coefficient for the 1915 period is nearly -1, signifying an anti-correlation or mirror image relationship between the waves. This is the TimeWave comparison that is shown if Fig. 18. If one were to place an imaginary two-sided mirror between the standard and revised TimeWave graphs, then the reflection on either side of the mirror would closely resemble the wave that is on the other side -

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hence the description of anti-correlation as a mirror image relationship. Also notice, that a green dotted line marks the average of all the standard/revised wave correlations at about

70%.

The red line of Fig. 20 shows the correlation of the random number generated waves, with the standard data set. By definition, the random data sets should show little or no correlation with either the standard or revised data sets, nor with any other random number set. In several cases in Fig. 20, this turns out to be true, but there are also several cases in which the random set correlation is not near zero, contrary to expectation. In general, the red line plot of Fig. 20 shows a much lower level of correlation with the standard number set than does the revised set - as expected. Each data point on the red line, however, is actually an average of either two, or seven random number set correlations. In other words, either two or seven random number correlations were averaged to produce each point on the red line graph. It turns out that most of the sixteen correlation points produced by averaging only two random sets, have much more scatter than do the four points produced by averaging seven random set correlations. The 384 number random data set, and the periods 1895-1925, 1905, and 1915, were all produced by averaging seven random set correlations. The violet dotted line running through the random number set correlations, is the average correlation level for all the random sets shown, and it shows a very low average correlation of about 5%.

It is also possible that the same process proposed for producing the larger correlation scatter of the revised data set, could be at work for the random data sets - i.e. short duration time periods with low sampling frequencies, could be causing data scatter due to noise. If a small number of the 384 data file points are used to generate a short period TimeWave, then there is a much higher probability of correlation between the random sets and the TimeWave number sets. Without further investigation, however, this is a speculative, if plausible thesis.

The graphs of Fig. 20 do show that the standard and revised data sets and their derivativeTimeWaves are remarkably well correlated. In the regions where the correlation weakens, or breaks down entirely, the revised TimeWave appears to show a Novelty process that is in closer agreement with known historical process. In addition, the plots in Fig. 20 may be revealing a process whereby short period TimeWaves produce sampling noise that weakens the correlation. This data supports the view, that the information content of the standardTimeWave is somewhat distorted, but not destroyed; and suggests that the revised TimeWave and its piecewise linear function is able to correct this distortion, and provides an improved expression of the Novelty process.

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Concluding Remarks

The development of the 384 number data set from the set of First Order of Difference (FOD) integers has been expressed as a process that is piecewise linear in nature. This process involves the combination and expansion of straight-line segments, which can be expressed mathematically as a piecewise linear function. The standard development has been described by McKenna and Meyer in the TimeWave Zero documentation and in other reports. But this process includes a procedural step called the "half twist", that is not consistent with the structure of piecewise linear mathematics; and consequently produces a distortion of the FOD information content. Watkins elaborated on this in some detail, in his well-documented expose on the nature of the halftwist, in which he described the distortions and inconsistencies involved. He then concluded that this distortion would render the TimeWave meaningless, as a realistic graphical depiction of the Novelty process as had been described by McKenna. I maintain that this conclusion was premature, and apparently incorrect.

The revised development of the 384 number data set includes the use of mathematics that correctly expresses the piecewise linear development process, and therefore produces an undistorted expansion of the FOD number set. The TimeWave that results from this expansion process, is then an accurate reflection of the FOD number set, provided the set can be described or modeled by a piecewise linear function. The piecewise linear function described here, may only be an approximation to some more complex function that has yet to be found. In fact, I would argue that this is quite likely for a phenomenon or process of this nature, which further study may shed some light on. Nonetheless, if the revised TimeWave is a reasonably accurate reflection of the information content of the FOD number set, then the standard TimeWave should have a degree of accuracy proportional to its degree of correlation with the revised TimeWave. As we have seen thus far, these two TimeWaves show an average correlation of about 70%, so that the standard wave has an average accuracy of about 70% when compared with the revised wave. However, we have also seen this correlation as high as 98%, or as low as 6%, with one case of a mirror image or anti-correlation of -0.94.

This work has served to clarify and formalize the process by which the 384 number TimeWave data set is generated. This has been done by showing that the process is describable within the framework of piecewise linear mathematics in general, and vector mathematics in particular. Each step has been delineated and formalized mathematically, to give the process clarity and continuity. The formalized and revised data set serves as the foundation of the TimeWave generated by the TimeWave Zero software, which is viewed as a graphical depiction of a process described by the ebb and flow of a phenomenon called Novelty. Novelty is thought to be the basis for the creation and

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conservation of higher ordered states of complex form in nature and the universe.

The results reported here make no final claims as to the validity of the TimeWave as it is expressed by Novelty Theory, nor does it claim that the current TimeWave is the best description of the Novelty process. It does show that the proper mathematical treatment of the FOD number set, produces a TimeWave that appears to be more consistent with known historical process. This consistency is general, however, and more work needs to be done to examine the specific reflections or projections that the TimeWave may be revealing. If Novelty Theory is a valid hypothesis, reflecting a real phenomenon in nature, then one would expect that it is verifiable in specific ways.

It has also seemed appropriate to examine some of the steps in this wave development process in terms of their correspondence with elements of philosophy and science. The flow of Yin and Yang energy reflected in the expression of the forward and reverse bi-directional waves, for example, finds philosophical correspondence in a natural cycle of life-death-rebirth, or in the process of the shamanic journey - immersion, engagement, and return. Correspondence can also be found in science, in the fields of cosmology, astronomy, astrophysics, and quantum physics - the life cycles and motion of heavenly bodies, quarks, and universes; the harmonic and holographic nature of light and wave mechanics; and the cyclic transformation of matter to energy, and energy to matter. The reflection of all natural phenomena and processes over the continuum of existence, from the smallest scales up to the largest scales, must surely include whatever process is occurring in the I-Ching as well. The question is, are we are clever and conscious enough to decipher and express it correctly and appropriately?

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Terence McKenna, for bringing this intriguing and provocative

notion into the collective, and for the courage and foresight shown, by his willingness to open himself and his ideas to scrutiny and boundary dissolution. If there is any relevance or meaning to be found in the TimeWave or Novelty Theory, then it is surely something that is larger than he, or any of us; and it is also something that is properly in the domain of all human experience, with each of us a witness, participant, and contributor.

I would also like to express my thanks and appreciation to Mathew Watkins for his work

in exposing the mathematical inconsistencies, vagaries, and procedural errors of the standard TimeWave data set development, and challenging a theory that may have become far too sedentary and inbred for its own good. Whatever the final outcome of this endeavor of Novelty Theory, he has set the enterprise on its proper course of open and

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critical inquiry.

I am also greatly indebted to Peter Meyer for his skill and foresight in creating a TWZ software package that is flexible, accessible, and friendly to the serious investigator. Without his DOS version of TimeWave Zero software, this work would have been much more difficult if not impossible. He has created a software package that makes these notions realistically testable, in a relatively straightforward manner. This made it possible for me to examine the effects of the revised data set on the TimeWave itself, as well as facilitating the examination of the detailed structure of the wave in work to follow.

My thanks also to Dan Levy for his offer to publish this work on his Levity site, as well as hosting an upcoming TimeWave mathematical annex to Novelty Theory. I want also to acknowledge Brian Crissey at Blue Water Publishing for his help in integrating the new process into the TimeWave Zero software packages and documentation.

[John Sheliak] sheliak@dsrt.com

[Terence McKenna] syzygy@ultraconnect.com

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