from the King Wen
Sequence of Hexagrams
by Terence McKenna
The idea that time is experienced as a series of identifiable elements in flux is highly developed in the I
Ching. Indeed the temporal modeling of the I Ching offers an extremely welldeveloped alternative to the
"flatduration" point of view. The I Ching views time as a finite number of distinct and irreducible
elements, in the same way that the chemical elements compose the world of matter. For the Taoist sages
of preHan China time was composed of sixtyfour irreducible elements. It is upon relations among these
sixtyfour elements that I have sought to erect a new model of time that incorporates the idea of the
conservation of novelty and still recognizes time as a process of becoming.
The earliest arrangement of the hexagrams of the I Ching is the King Wen Sequence. It was this
sequence that I chose to study as a possible basis for a new model of the relationship of time to the
ingression and conservation of novelty. In studying the kinds of order in the King Wen Sequence of the I
Ching I made a number of remarkable discoveries. It is well known that hexagrams in the King Wen
sequence occur in pairs. The second member of each pair is obtained by inverting the first. In any
sequence of the sixtyfour hexagrams there are eight hexagrams which remain unchanged when inverted.
In the King Wen Sequence these eight hexagrams are paired with hexagrams in which each line of the
first hexagram has become its opposite, (yang changed to yin and vice versa).
The question remains as to what rule or principle governs the arrangement of the thirtytwo pairs of
hexagrams comprising the King Wen Sequence. My intuition was to look at the first order of difference,
that is, how many lines change as one moves through the King Wen Sequence from one hexagram to the
next. The first order of difference will always be an integer between one and six. When the first order of
difference within pairs is examined it is always found to be an even number. Thus all instances of first
order of difference that are odd occur at transitions from one pair of hexagrams to the next pair. When
the complete set of first order of difference integers generated by the King Wen Sequence is examined
they are found to fall into a perfect ratio of 3 to 1, three even integers to each odd integer. The ratio of
3/1 is not a formal property of the complete sequence but was a carefully constructed artifact achieved by
arranging hexagram transitions between pairs to generate fourteen instances of three and two instances of
one. Fives were deliberately excluded. The fourteen threes and two ones constitute sixteen instances of
an odd integer occurring out of a possible sixtyfour. This is a 3/1 ratio exactly.
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Figure 1
Figure 1 shows that when the first order of difference of the King Wen Sequence is graphed it appears
random or unpredictable. However when an image of the graph is rotated 180 degrees within the plane
and superimposed upon itself it is found to achieve closure at four adjacent points as in Figure 2.
Figure 2
While closure might logically be expected anywhere in the sequence, it in fact occurs at the conventional
beginning and end of the sequence. While an arrangement with closure might have placed any two
hexagrams opposite each other, what we in fact find is that the hexagrams opposite each other are such
that the numbers of their positions in the King Wen Sequence when summed is always equal to
sixtyfour. These facts are not coincidences, they are the artifacts of conscious intent.
Over 27,000 hexagram sequences were randomly generated by computer (all sequences having the
property possessed by the King Wen sequence that every second hexagram is either the inverse or the
complement of its predecessor). Of these 27,000 plus sequences only four were found to have the three
properties of a 3/1 ratio of even to odd transitions, no transitions of value five and the type of closure
described above. Such sequences were found to be very rare, occurring in a ratio of 1 in 3770. Here is the
complete graph of the King Wen first order of differnce with its mirror image fitted against it to achieve
closure:
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Figure 3
For these reasons I was led to view the King Wen Sequence as a profoundly artificial arrangement of the
sixtyfour hexagrams. Look carefully at Figure 3 immediately above. Review in your mind the steps
from the King Wen sequence that led to it. Notice that it is a complete set of the sixtyfour possible
hexagrams, running both sequentially forward and backward. Since it is composed of sixtyfour
hexagrams of six lines each it is composed of 6 x 64 or 384 lines or yao. One might make an analogy and
say Figure 3 is to the King Wen sequence as a cube is to a square; it is composed of the same elements as
the King Wen Sequence but it has more dimensions.
It is my assumption that the oracle building preHan Chinese viewed the forwardand backwardrunning
double sequence of Figure 3 as a single yao or line and that it is therefore open to the same treatment as
lines are subject to in the I Ching, namely multiplication by six and sixtyfour.
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Figure 4
Since a hexagram has six lines I visualized six double sequences in a linear order. But a hexagram is
more than lines; a hexagram also contains two trigrams. Thus over the six double sequences I overlaid
two double sequences, each three times larger than the six double sequences. A hexagram also has an
identity as a whole; thus over the six and the two double sequences a single, larger double sequence is
projected.
The sets of double sequences of each level share a common point of origin and all return to a single end
point. The resulting figure, show in Figure 4 on the extreme right, is to the original double sequence as a
tesseract is to a cube, for again more dimensions have been added. This figure itself can then be imagined
as a single hexagram, but one of a set of sixtyfour.
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Figure 5
The closure at the beginning and end of this figure suggested that it might be useful to model process. Its
384 subunits imply a calendar. Can it be coincidence that the length of a lunar month, 29.53 days, times
13 is 383.89? I believe that what we have here is a 384 day lunar calendar with resonances to other other
naked eye astronomical phenomena known to be of interest to the ancient Chinese (see below).
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Table 1
Using techniques that I developed for the problem I was able to mathematically collapse the hexagram
construct into a selfsimilar fractal curve that can be used to map the unfolding of temporal variables and
their resonances on all levels of duration.
My attack on the problem began with an examination of the simple wave of Figure 3. Thirteen discrete
line types comprise any simple version of the graph. These thirteen lengths are displayed on and off grid
in Figure 6:
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Figure 6
. As these lengths are always discrete units, we can assign to them values which are ascending integers.
The values of Figure 6 allow a quantification of line length. To quantify the degree and direction of skew
of individual lines, one direction of skew is designated as positive, giving lines skewed in that direction
positive values. Lines skewed in the opposite direction are given negative values. This gives values
adequately preserving and quantifying line length and direction of skew. The values labeled L in Figure 6
are used for the left side of a simple wave while the values labeled R, which are the same values with
their their sign reverse, are applied to the right side of any simple wave. The sign is important only in
combining values across scales but is ignored in the final graphing of combine values, either set of values
may be applied to either the right or left side. However, whichever schema is chosen must then be
followed throughout. Figure 7 represents the version of these values that we have used for the simple
graph.
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Figure 7
It is important to note that the valuations in Figure 7 are valuations of the simple wave on the smallest
scale of a single complex wave. The relative proportions of the three levels in the complex wave are
preserved and quantified by multiplying the valuations of the linear scale in the appropriate way. To
assign a value to a positionÊon the trigramatic scale, the valuation of that position on the linear scale
(Figure 7) is multiplied by three because the trigramatic scale is three times larger than the linear scale.
In a similar manner, the hexagramaticÊpositions are assigned a valuation by multiplying their linearlevel
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valuations by six, again because the hexagramaticÊscale is six times larger than the linear. Figure 7 uses
the value scheme in Figure 6 and is the version of value assignments we have used in all our calculations.
Note that in Figure 7 all parallel lines, regardless of the distances separating them, reduce to zero. Thus,
while the operations discussed so far have allowed quantification of skew direction, proportional ratios of
the wave parts, and the degree of departure from the parallel state, they have not provided a quantified
account of the fluctuating distances between the two parameters of the wave. The procedure for obtaining
these values is similar to, but distinct from, the procedures outlines above.
Figure 8
Figure 8 shows the seven types of divergence, congruence, and overlap which points in the simple wave
may display. The two possible assignments of positive and negative numbers are shown to the right and
left sides in Figure 8. Ê We have chosen to use the righthand schema to preserve the intuition that
overlap tends to carry a situation toward the zero state rather than away from it.
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Figure 9
Figure 9 shows the values this series of point assignments generates when applied to the simple wave.
When the valuations for skew, parallelism, and relative proportion have been combined in the manner
detailed above the following 384 values result(as read from position 383 to position zero):
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0, 0, 0, 2, 7, 4, 3, 2, 6, 8, 13, 5, 26, 25, 24, 15, 13, 16, 14, 19, 17, 24, 20, 25, 63, 60, 56, 55, 47, 53, 36, 38,
39, 43, 39, 35, 22, 24, 22, 21, 29, 30, 27, 26, 26, 21, 23, 19, 57, 62, 61, 55, 57, 57, 35, 50, 40, 29, 28, 26,
50, 51, 52, 61, 60, 60, 42, 42, 43, 43, 42, 41, 45, 41, 46, 23, 35, 34, 21, 21, 19, 51, 40, 49, 29, 29, 31, 40,
36, 33, 29, 26, 30, 16, 18, 14, 66, 64, 64, 56, 53, 57, 49, 51, 47, 44, 46, 47, 56, 51, 53, 25, 37, 30, 31, 28,
30, 36, 35, 22, 28, 32, 27, 32, 34, 35, 52, 49, 48, 51, 51, 53, 40, 43, 42, 26, 30, 28, 55, 41, 53, 52, 51, 47,
61, 64, 65, 39, 41, 41, 22, 21, 23, 43, 41, 38, 24, 22, 24, 14, 17, 19, 52, 50, 47, 42, 40, 42, 26, 27, 27, 34,
38, 33, 44, 44, 42, 41, 40, 37, 33, 31, 26, 44, 34, 38, 46, 44, 44, 36, 37, 34, 36, 36, 36, 38, 43, 38, 27, 26,
30, 32, 37, 29, 50, 49, 48, 29, 37, 36, 10, 19, 17, 24, 20, 25, 53, 52, 50, 53, 57, 55, 34, 44, 45, 13, 9, 5, 34,
26, 32, 31, 41, 42, 31, 32, 30, 21, 19, 23, 43, 36, 31, 47, 45, 43, 47, 62, 52, 41, 36, 38, 46, 47, 40, 43, 42,
42, 36, 38, 43, 53, 52, 53, 47, 49, 48, 47, 41, 44, 15, 11, 19, 51, 40, 49, 23, 23, 25, 34, 30, 27, 7, 4, 4, 32,
22, 32, 68, 70, 66, 68, 79, 71, 43, 45, 41, 38, 40, 41, 24, 25, 23, 35, 33, 38, 43, 50, 48, 18, 17, 26, 34, 38,
33, 38, 40, 41, 34, 31, 30, 33, 33, 35, 28, 23, 22, 26, 30, 26, 75, 77, 71, 62, 63, 63, 37, 40, 41, 49, 47, 51,
32, 37, 33, 49, 47, 44, 32, 38, 28, 38, 39, 37, 22, 20, 17, 44, 50, 40, 32, 33, 33, 40, 44, 39, 32, 32, 40, 39,
34, 41, 33, 33, 32, 32, 38, 36, 22, 20, 20, 12, 13, 10
Table 2: The 384 Values of the Complex Wave
These same values are to be graphed as a single line graph and are the primary valuation scheme for any
complex wave. The process of quantifying a given time in the modular hierarchy of the complex wave
will necessarily begin with reference to these values.
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Figure 10
Figure 10 shows the complex compound wave and its reduction into an ordinary graph. The 384 values
above can be ploted on a graph thus reducing the complex, trileveled, bidirectionally flowing complex
wave a single line moving in only one direction. Such a graph preserves certain qualities of the complex
wave: its divergence from the zero state where lines are parallel, the direction and degree of skew of
pairs of lines, the relative proportions of the three levels, and the distances between the fluctuating
parameters of the various component waves. However such a graph does not reflect the shift of values
that would occur if the singleline complex wave were nested into a particular position in the modular
hierarchy of fractal waves each level of which was 64 times larger than its predecessor. In such a case,
the 384 values above would serve as a schema of values to be combined through superimposition with
the values associated with whichever one of the 64 segments of the next largest level it is to be nested in.
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These latter values have first been multiplied by by 64, indicating their membership in the next larger
level of the hierarchy. Thus 64 variants of the values of Table 2 would be generated, and it is these
various waves or frames which we treat as comprising the temporal maps of a given historical span. The
values of Table 2 are the basis of the quantified maps of temporal flux which Novelty theory rests on.
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Figure 11
The last three of the 384 segments of the wave on any level possess singularities which quantify as zero,
see Figure 11. When the wave on a given level enters those segments of itself which are zero states, it
ceases to contribute boundary constraints to its subsets on lower levels. The cessation of boundary
constraints imposed by higher levels in the hierarchy causes a "surge" toward the zero state each time
that a cycle enters its terminal phase on any level in the hierarchy. Such quantized transitions from one
modality to another are called "changes of epoches" By Whitehead. The appearance of life in an
inorganic world, of consciousness in an unconscious world, or of language in a world without language
are all examples of such epochal transitions. Our lives are filled with such transitions, but they are
terminations of relatively short cycles in the quantified hierarchy. Terminations of cycles or epoches of
really long duration cause extreme accelerations toward the zero state/ This idea is similar to Whitehead's
conception of concrescence and the Vedic conception of world ages which grow shorter as they tighten
around an axis point. The spiral image of the Christian apocalypse is another example of this intuition
that time is a series of tightening gyres around the quantized emergence of transformation.
A perfect selfconsistent proof that Table 2 does adequately conserve four qualitiesdivergence from the
zero state where lines are parallel, the direction and the degree of skew of pairs of lines, distances
between the parameters of the component waves, and the proportions of these three qualities relative to
the other levelsis afforded by comparing any two graph segments assigned to a single time but on
different scales relative to an arbitrary termination date that is the same for both. Any two such segments
will be found to be similar in form yet preserving their relative proportions. This demonstrable fact
confirms the idea that the complex wave derived from Figure 3 is adequately reflected and its useful
values retained throughout the series of operations which generate Table 2. What Table 2 and the graphs
made from it achieve is a clarity and simplicity of expression lacking in the trileveled complex wave.
Table 2 and the algorithm that accompanies it is a quantification of operational constructs which makes
this modular hierarchy of temporal variables a valid subject for rigorous scientific investigation.
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Autopsy for a Mathematical
Hallucination?
Matthew Watkins
Introduction by Terence McKenna
Recently, while in Mexico at the classic Maya site of Palenque, I made the aquaintance of a young
British mathematician and psychokinesiologist named Matthew Watkins. Watkins offered the strongest
and most interesting critique of the timewave and the assumptions of its construction yet made. Watkins
is confident that he has condensed the theory of the timewave into a formula (given below) and is further
convinced that there is no rational basis for assuming that the timewave represents the fluctuation of any
quantity which can be meaningfully understood as "novelty". Here in Watkins' own words is his formula
and his objection:
The Meeting
I first became aware of the Timewave theory when I discovered a magazine article on Terence McKenna
four or five years ago. It briefly mentioned that he had developed a theory which involved
mathematically modelling the historical ingression of "novelty" using a fractal generated from the King
Wen sequence of I Ching hexagrams. The idea had been revealed to him whilst in an altered state of
consciousness brought about by psilocybin mushrooms. I had been studying the I Ching for some time,
was working on a PhD in mathematics, and had occasionally contemplated the role of psychoactive
plants in ancient religious belief systems, so I was immediately fascinated and searched everywhere for
more information. I discovered McKenna's writings and recordings, but although the theory was often
referred to and used as a basis for some remarkable speculation, I was unable to find any detailed
description of its foundations. Such a description had originally been published in The Invisible
Landscape (Terence and Dennis McKenna) in the early seventies, an obscure book long out of print and
almost impossible to find.
When, in 1994, I discovered that The Invisible Landscape had been republished, I immediately obtained
a copy and studied it thoroughly. I was rather disappointed to find that the mathematical process which
was applied to the King Wen sequence to generate the fractal "timewave" seemed worryingly arbitrary
(no justification being given for many steps) and mathematically clumsy. Beyond that, the described
procedure fails to give the same "data points" which appear in the appendix and which are used to
ultimately define the fractal in question. More disappointing, I discovered that the December 21, 2012
date (now generally associated with McKenna's name) was in no way calculated  it was selected to give
the timewave the "best possible fit" with the historical occurence of novelty as McKenna sees it. It was
difficult to accept that such an exotic, imaginative idea could have such unsatisfactory foundations. I
thought that perhaps McKenna had been unable to effectively communicate something very real which
had been revealed to him, and decided to get in touch immediately.
We began an email dialogue about a year ago, after he responded to a letter I sent offering mathematical
advice (at this point I had completed my PhD on hyperspatial embeddings of differential manifolds).
Little was achieved for many months. He referred to an idea he was exploring which related the
distribution of large prime numbers to the timewave, but it was only when I received a copy of the
Timewave software that I was able to look into this. I was unable to find any evidence to support the
hypothesis, but I did find that the software manual gave a much more detailed account of the construction
of the timewave than The Invisible Landscape had. The manual contained the actual source code which
the software uses, so I was able to study it with great care and formulate a detailed critique of the theory.
We agreed to meet and discuss the issue in Palenque (in the Mexican state of Chiapas) in January, while
he was teaching at a Botanical Preservation Corps conference.
Terence and I had four lengthy, good natured, and most enjoyable discussions during the week I was in
Palenque, and I was able to explain my critique stepbystep. By the final discussion he seemed to have
fully grasped the nature of the problem, and had admitted that the theory appeared to have "no basis in
rational thought". He claimed (and this struck me as sincere) that he was only interested in the truth, and
that someone "disproving" the theory was just as a much of a relief to him as someone confirming its
validity. He proposed that we collaborate on a piece provisionally entitled "Autopsy for a Mathematical
Hallucination" in which we would carefully take the theory apart and see what had gone wrong. He
claimed that I was the first person to approach him with a serious mathematical critique of his ideas,
partly explaining why such an unjustifiable theory had not only survived for so long, but also attracted so
much interest and attention.
The Formula
The timewave is a mathematical function defined by applying a "fractal transform" to a piecewise linear
function. The latter function is an expression of 384 "data points" (positive integer values) derived from
the King Wen sequence. Strangely, McKenna's description of the derivation in The Invisible Landscape
fails to yield the data points which appear in the appendix and which have been used since. However, a
complete description can be found in the TimeExplorer software manual. With some effort, the
multistep description, largely expressed in graphical or intuitive terms, can be condensed into a single
formula.
We define a set of 64 values h[1], h[2],..., h[64] such that h[k] is the number of lines which must be
changed in hexagram k to give hexagram k+1. Here "hexagram 65" is interpreted as hexagram 1,
"hexagram 0" as hexagram 64, etc. These values are as follows:
h[1]:=6; h[2]:=2; h[3]:=4; h[4]:=4; h[5]:=4; h[6]:=3; h[7]:=2; h[8]:=4;
h[9]:=2; h[10]:=4; h[11]:=6; h[12]:=2; h[13]:=2; h[14]:=4; h[15]:=2; h[16]:=2;
h[17]:=6; h[18]:=3; h[19]:=4; h[20]:=3; h[21]:=2; h[22]:=2; h[23]:=2; h[24]:=3;
h[25]:=4; h[26]:=2; h[27]:=6; h[28]:=2; h[29]:=6; h[30]:=3; h[31]:=2; h[32]:=3;
h[33]:=4; h[34]:=4; h[35]:=4; h[36]:=2; h[37]:=4; h[38]:=6; h[39]:=4; h[40]:=3;
h[41]:=2; h[42]:=4; h[43]:=2; h[44]:=3; h[45]:=4; h[46]:=3; h[47]:=2; h[48]:=3;
h[49]:=4; h[50]:=4; h[51]:=4; h[52]:=1; h[53]:=6; h[54]:=2; h[55]:=2; h[56]:=3;
h[57]:=4; h[58]:=3; h[59]:=2; h[60]:=1; h[61]:=6; h[62]:=3; h[63]:=6; h[64]:=3;
h[0]:=3;
The formula for the values w[0], w[1],..., w[383], the 384 "data points" which lie at the heart of the
entire timewave construction, can be expressed in the popular mathematical programming language
MAPLE as follows (Peter Meyer has written a conversion to C):
w[k] := abs( ((1)^trunc((k1)/32))*
(h[k1 mod 64]  h[k2 mod 64] +h[k mod 64]  h[1k mod 64])
+ 3*((1)^trunc((k3)/96))*
(h[trunc(k/3)1 mod 64]  h[trunc(k/3)2 mod 64] + h[trunc(k/3) mod 64]  h[1trunc(k/3) mod 64])
+ 6*((1)^trunc((k6)/192))*
(h[trunc(k/6)1 mod 64]  h[trunc(k/6)2 mod 64] + h[trunc(k/6) mod 64]  h[1trunc(k/6) mod 64]) )
+ abs ( 9  h[k mod 64]  h[k1 mod 64]
+ 3*(9 h[trunc(k/3) mod 64]  h[ trunc(k/3)1 mod 64])
+ 6*(9 h[trunc(k/6) mod 64]  h[ trunc (k/6)1 mod 64]) );
Here trunc represents trunctation (rounding a number down to its integer part), abs means absolute
(positive) value, and mod 64 means "the remainder after dividing by 64". Of this formula, McKenna
writes:
Naturally [it] is of interest to myself, Terence McKenna and to others, especially Peter
Meyer and other mathematicians and computer code writers who have help to advance and
formulate the theory of the timewave over the years. On March 25, '96 Peter Meyer sent me
email which contained the following statement: "I have tested it (the formula) and have the
pleasure of reporting that the formula produces correct values. I have congratulated him by
email." As of April 1, 1996 Watkins has significantly advanced understanding of the
timewave by writing the formula that has eluded other workers since 1971.
Although I was happy to have clarified the issue, I am unaware of any one else who had attempted to
find such a formula. It was no great feat, being merely the compression of a stepbystep computer
algorithm (as given by Peter Meyer in the TimeExplorer software manual) into a single mathematical
expression, something which any competent mathematician could achieve with relatively little effort.
The Objection
The formula is really quite inelegant, and I personally found it hard to believe that if a map of temporal
resonance was encoded into the King Wen sequence, it would look like this. In any case, my main
concern was with the powers of 1. These constitute the "missing step" which isn't mentioned in The
Invisible Landscape, but which turns up as a footnote of the TimeExplorer software manual. On p.79 we
find
Now we must change the sign of half of the 64 numbers in angle_lin[] as follows
For 1 <=j <=32
angle_lin[j]=angle_lin[j]
When reading this, I immediately thought "WHY?", as did several friends and colleagues who I guided
through the construction. There is no good reason I could see for this sudden manipulation of the data.
Without this step, the powers of 1 disappear from the formula, and the "data points" are a different set of
numbers, leading to a different timewave. McKenna has looked at this timewave and agree that it doesn't
appear to represent a map of "novelty" in the sense that the "real" timewave is claimed to. It is possible
that by changing the "zero date" Dec. 21, 2012, one could obtain a better fit, but there's no longer any
clear motivation to attempt this, as the main reason for taking the original timewave seriously were
McKenna's (often very convincing) arguments for historical correlation. These would all be rendered
meaningless without the aforementioned step.
The footnote associated with this step reads:
22. This is the mysterious "half twist". The reason for this is not well understood at present
and is a question which awaits further research
This struck me as absurd. After all, why introduce such a step into an (already overcomplicated)
algorithm whilst admitting that the reason for doing so is "not well understood at present"? I confronted
McKenna on this issue, and he immediately grasped the significance of my challenge. He would have to
either (1) justify this mysterious "half twist" or (2) abandon the timewave theory altogether.
He claimed not to remember the exact details for its inclusion, as it had been decided upon over 20 years
ago. After some time, he pointed out the antisymmetry which occurs in the central column of values in
the figure below:
Figure 1
These are the values of angle_lin[] referred to earlier, and to which the "half twist" is applied. But the
antisymmetry is a natural consequence of the fact that the right hand graph is simply a 180degree
rotation of the left hand graph. The values in the column represent relative slopes, and the effect of the
"half twist" is the confuse the evaluation.
Having conceded that the above doesn't constitute a justification of the "half twist", McKenna went on to
claim that without it the collapse of the "multilevelled complex bidirectional wave" into the 384
values "fails to preserve" some geometric property. The "collapse" is pictured in the figure below:
Standard and Revised Data Set Comparisons [skip
to next]
With equation [76] and [77], and the graph in Fig. 11, we have completed this formalized
development of the TWZ data set. We are now in a position to compare these results with
those of the standard development reported by McKenna and Meyer in the Invisible
Landscape and the TimeExplorer manual, as well as address the issues raised by the
Watkins Objection.
Fig. 12 is a graph of both the standard and reviseddata sets, and it shows some
remarkable similarities as well as significant differences. One interesting feature of this
graph, is the nature of each wave at its respective endpoints. Recall that the value of the
wave at x = 0 will be discarded because it is a duplicate or "wrap" of the value at x = 384.
This will not effect the relative values of the two waves at x = 384, because they are both
zerovalued at this endpoint. However, the value of each wave at x = 1 is not the same,
with the standard wave having a value of 10 while the revised wave value is zero.
Figure 11
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Why does this matter, you may ask, since there are many obvious differences between the
two waves  what is the significance of this difference? For the standard wave, it has
been argued that the zero value at the end of the waveform implies some kind of
singularity at the end of the process  or at the end of time. This revised wave is implying,
that there may be singularities at bothends of the continuum. This is also an argument for
a closed system that may be undergoing some kind of cyclic renewal process  perhaps
each cycle expressing ever higher ordered states of complex form, or Novelty.
There are concepts emerging from the field of quantum cosmology that may describe an
analogous cyclic process. This is a theory in which universes are treated like quantum
particles that inhabit a larger, or higher dimensional domain called a multiverse. Michio
Kaku [12] , a theoretical physicist and cofounder of string field theory, has described a
process where universes emerge from the zeropoint, or vacuum field, go through an
evolutionary process, then perhaps return to the zeropoint field at the end of the cycle.
This cycle may then repeat itself, possibly with increased complexity and Novelty. Could
this be similar to the process that the TimeWave and Novelty Theory attempt to reveal?
Perhaps further investigation into the nature of the TimeWave will shed some light on
these questions.
Figure 12
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Another significant feature of Fig. 12 is the apparent agreement of the two waves in the
lower frequency domain. Frequency content of any waveform expresses itself as
variations in the rate of change of its value as the wave propagates in some realm, that
could be either a space or time domain, or both. So the slope of a waveform at any given
point, or its general shape, can reveal frequency content (the magnitude and rate of
specific underlying processes). Examination of the wave pair in Fig. 12 shows that there
is a common lower frequency process occurring for each waveform. The higher
frequency processes appear as relatively shorter duration peaks riding upon the slower
process. The lowest frequency process occurring in these waveforms can be seen by
drawing an imaginary line between the highest of all the peaks as one moves over the
domain of the waveforms. Slightly higher frequency components can be seen by drawing
that imaginary line over the peaks and valleys upon which the sharpest and shortest
duration peaks ride. The graphs do differ in the higher frequency domain as can be seen
by the steeper slopes of the largest standard wave transitions. This could very well be due
to high frequency noise present in the standard data set because of the imbedded
mathematical errors.
The low frequency, or long duration processes, are those that may occur on the scale of
millennia or even billions of years, whereas the higher frequency processes may occur on
the scale of a human lifetime. Could it be that the lowest frequency process is the
signature of some creative principle at work, be it strange attractor, zeropoint field, or
eschaton. Could this creative energy be perturbing the fabric of spacetime in such a way
as to trigger the creation and conservation of higher ordered states  something like the
gravitational energy of a passing nearby star triggering the formation of a comets from the
Ort cloud? Is this lowest frequency process then a kind of ground state, upon which all
higher frequency processes express themselves? Perhaps in time these questions will be
answerable, although certainly not today.
An obvious feature of Fig. 12 that clearly shows in this graph, is the difference in the
average wave value between standard and revised waves. The average wave value for the
standard wave is somewhat greater than the average value of the revised wave. This
difference in average wave value appears to be the result of differences in the higher
frequency components of the wave pair, perhaps due to noise in the standard wave that is
produced by the mathematical errors that are present. These high frequency components
of the standard wave show up as the steep peaks that rise well above the peaks in the
revised wave. In the Fourier analysis that follows, these large peaks appear as high
frequency noise that adds randomness to the wave. The impact of this difference on the
final TimeWave, is to shift the average level of novelty upward (lower values) from that
expressed by the standard wave. In other words, the revised wave expresses a process
with somewhat higher levels of novelty, than does the standard wave. Since Novelty isn't
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a calibrated process, it's not possible to determine what the more "reasonable" level of
Novelty would be. All that can be expressed then, is relative Novelty.
One final feature of Fig. 12 that requires some discussion, is the correlation number at the
top of the graph. In order to determine and quantify the degree of interdependence, or
interrelatedness of the standard and revised waveforms, a mathematical operation called
correlation was performed with these two number sets. The number at the top of the
graph is the result of that analysis  a value of 0.564. A correlation of 1.0 would mean that
the waveforms are identical, whereas a correlation of zero would indicate no functional
relationship between the two. Additionally, a correlation of 1 would indicate that the
waveforms were mirror images of one another  a peak reflected by a trough etc. In this
case a correlation of 0.564 indicates that these two waveforms show a significant level of
interdependence, although far from identical. This level of correlation could be
considered likely for two number sets that share a common origin, as well as sharing
many of the same developmental procedures.
Data Wave and Random Number Set Comparisons
One method for assessing the information carrying potential of the Data Wave, and
convincing oneself that it is not a random process, is to compare it with a data set that has
been randomly generated. Several such random wave sets were consequently produced to
be compared with the revised and standard Data Wave number sets directly, and to also
use as input to the TWZ software to generate random seeded TimeWaves. Fig. 13 is a
graph of the revised Data Wave with a random wave set overlay, and it clearly shows that
these number sets bear little resemblance to one another. Correlation analysis of the two
sets shows a correlation of 0.03, or essentially uncorrelated as one would expect for any
random number set. Fig. 13 also appears to show that the revised Data Wave is a very
different type of number set from the random wave set, and it appears to showing some
kind of information carrying process. Is this in fact the case, or does it just appear that
way?
Examination of the power spectra for the data and random waves shown in Figs. 12 and
13 can reveal something about the nature of these three waveforms and their relationship.
The conversion of time, or space domain waveforms into frequency domain waveforms
(frequency spectrum or power spectrum) is performed using a mathematical operation
called a Fourier transform. With this method, a frequency spectrum can be produced,
which can tell us how much power is contained in each of the frequency components
(harmonics) of a given waveform, and thereby providing the frequency distribution of the
wave power. This distribution would typically be different for information carrying
waveforms than for random, or noise signals. The random, or noise signal spectrum is
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typically flat over the signal bandwidth, and often distinguishable from an information
carrying signal spectrum that exhibits (f = frequency) behavior.
Figure 13
Fourier transform operations were performed on the data sets shown in Figs. 12 and 13,
with the results shown in Fig. 14. The top graph of Fig. 14 includes plots for the standard
and revisedData Wave power spectra, while the bottom graph displays the Random Wave
power spectrum. The colored lines drawn through each of the spectra are power function
curvefits, that show the frequency rolloff characteristics of each wave. Notice that the
two power spectra in the top graph exhibit frequency rolloff (power level decreases with
increasing frequency), whereas the lower graph power spectrum exhibits a flat frequency
response (power level is frequency independent). This frequency rolloff is characteristic
of information carrying signals, whereas the flat response is characteristic of noise or
random signals.
The revised data wave spectrum, shown in the top graph in green, is exhibiting the nearly
perfect frequency response that is typical for an information carrying waveform. On
the other hand, the standard data wave power spectrum shown in blue, exhibits frequency
rolloff, but with a flatter response that is not . In fact, the flatter frequency response
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of the standard data wave is the likely result of high frequency noise
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Figure 14
that increases the power at the tail end of the spectrum and prevents a steeper rolloff.
This is something that should be expected from the distorted standard data wave with
imbedded mathematical errors, which would tend to add randomness to the wave. The
signature of such randomness can be seen in the Random Wave power spectrum, shown in
the lower graph in red. This plot shows the typically flat frequency response of a random,
or noise signal with no information content. Apparently, the graphs in Fig. 14 are
showing that the standard and revised data waves are definite information carrying
waveforms, but that the distorted standard data wave has imbedded high frequency noise
that flattens its response. This is essentially what Figs. 12 and 13 are showing as well.
[continue] [index] [hyperborea] [back]
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Standard, Revised, and Random Generated TimeWave Results
(1) The TimeWave Zero Screen Set Comparisons [index]
Once the Data Wave, or 384 number data set has been generated, it becomes the input
data for the TimeWave Zero software package. As mentioned previously, the software
performs what has been called a fractal transform, or expansion of the 384 data number
set to produce the TimeWave viewed on the computer screen as a graph of Novelty. In
order for this fractal expansion to be performed properly, the software requires that the
384 number data set shown in Fig. 10 be reversed, such that data point 384 becomes data
point 1 and data point 0 is discarded (since itís a duplicate or wrap of data point 384).
Figure 15a
Three separate data sets were used in order to generate the TimeWaves needed for
comparison  the standard data set, the revised data set, and a random data set. The
results of some of these TimeWave comparisons will be shown in the graphs that follow,
beginning with the default TimeWave graphs that are included with the TimeExplorer
software as precomputed waveforms. Figs. 15a and 15b show the TimeWave that is
stored by the software as Screen 1, and it covers the period between 1942 and 2012. Fig.
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15a shows both the TimeWave resulting from the standard data set on the left, and that
for the revised data set on the right. On the other hand, Fig. 15b is the TimeWave
generated by the random data set, and it clearly bears little resemblance to the graphs of
Fig. 15a.
This is the TimeWave graph that McKenna has called "history's fractal mountain",
because of its mountainlike shape. There are several features to notice here, with the first
being that these two plots have remarkably similar shapes  obviously not identical, but
there is clearly a common dominant process at work. Another common feature of
significance shown in these two graphs, is that the major decent into Novelty (peak of the
mountain) begins sometime in 1967. Finally, as mentioned earlier, the TimeWave
produced by the revised Data Wave number set, shows a higher average level of Novelty
for this time period (lower values), than does the TimeWave produced by the standard
data set. This Novelty difference is the likely result of the
Figure 15b
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standard wave distortion, caused by the imbedded mathematical errors that produce
significant high frequency noise in the wave. As shown in Fig. 14, the high frequency
components of the revised data wave are lower than the standard wave by an order of
magnitude.
Fig. 16a shows the standard and revised TimeWave graphs for Screen 4 of the TWZ
display. Again, these two plots are quite similar in terms of their appearance, and seem to
be showing evidence of some common underlying process. The differences may be due to
the fact that the standard number set produces more high frequency noise because of the
imbedded errors in the number set. The correlation between these two graphs was found
to be 0.731, not as high as Screen 1, but still a significant correlation nonetheless. On the
other hand, the random data set TimeWave shown in Fig. 16b, shows very little
correlation
Figure 16a
with either of the graphs in Fig. 16a. This is expected, since random number sets are by
definition, uncorrelated with any other number set.
A complete set of comparisons like those shown in Figs. 15 and 16 were performed on all
the TimeWave Zero screen sets (Screens 110) with very similar results. The correlation
results for the TWZ Screen set comparisons ranged from a low of 0.73 to a high of 0.98
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with an average correlation of 0.86, showing that the standard and revised TimeWaves in
this screen set were remarkably similar. This was not the case for other TimeWaves that
were examined, which will be shown later. In other cases of TimeWave comparison, the
differences between the standard and revised waves, appears to show that the revised
TimeWave expresses a Novelty process having better alignment with known historical
process ñ something one would expect from a more precise formalization process. More
analysis is certainly in order, but the data thus far seems to make that case.
Figure 16
(2) Comparisons for Other Significant Historical Periods
Several other TimeWave periods having historical significance were examined for
comparison, but the two reported here are the periods from 18951925, and from
19351955. The first period includes major advances in physics and technology, as well
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as a world war; and the second period includes the development and use of nuclear
weapons, as well as two major wars. Fig. 17 is a graph of the TimeWave comparison for
the 18951925 period, and again these plots are remarkably similar in form. Several
significant dates are marked with green and red arrows to signify Noveland Habitual
phenomena. The first powered flight happens at Kittyhawk on December 17, 1903;
followed by Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity (STR) on June 30, 1905; General
Relativity in 1915, and the World War I period of 19141918. The events that would be
considered novel (manned flight and breakthroughs in physics) all occur at Novelty
troughs or Novelty descents. The Habitual phenomenon (war), on the other hand, appears
to drive what seems to be a very novel period, back into habit. When both novel and
habitual phenomenon are occurring simultaneously, they both influence the shape of the
TimeWave. WWI may have driven the wave further into habit than it did, if it weren't for
the simultaneous occurrence of very novel phenomena. For example, the work on the
General Theory of Relativity occurs in the midst of World War I with its "Same 'OLE"
habitual nature. The more novel process of a significant advancement in scientific
knowledge, actually appears to suppress what would have been a major ascent into habit,
and actually driving the wave into novelty troughs.
Figure 17
Notice that the standard TimeWave on the left doesn't show the regression into habit
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during the First World War  the revised TimeWave clearly does. This is one case in
which the revised TimeWave appears to provide a better description of the Novelty
process than does the standard TimeWave. However, this is something that should be
expected for a process with a more precise and consistent mathematical model.
Fig. 18 shows the 1915 time period, for which the two waves exhibit a substantial
disagreement. With the exception of a brief twomonth period, the standard TimeWave
shows a steady descent into Novelty. The revised TimeWave, however, shows more of
what one might expect for a planet embroiled in global conflict. Additionally, the revised
TimeWave shows several instances where the determined march into habit is either
slowed or temporarily reversed; and with the publication of the general theory in early
1916, the level of Novelty becomes too great for the forces of habit, and the wave
plunges. This figure provides a good example of how the standard and revised
TimeWaves can exhibit behavioral divergence, and how this divergence tends to affirm
the improved accuracy of the revised waveform. Let us now take a look at another period
that most of us are familiar with  the period that includes World War II, nuclear energy
development, and the Korean War.
Figure 18
Figure 19 shows the standard and revised TimeWave comparison graphs for the period
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19351955, and there are obvious similarities and clear differences between the two
waves. Both graphs show that WWII begins and ends during steep ascents into habit, but
they describe somewhat diverging processes, for much of the middle period of the war.
The revised TimeWave shows that a very novel process is apparently at work for much of
the period of the war. The standard TimeWave does show novel influences, but it is
neither as consistent nor dramatic as for the revised TimeWave. Some very potent novel
process seems to be occurring during much of the war period, and that process may be
suppressing a major ascent into habit that might otherwise be happening. Could this novel
process be the development of nuclear science and technology, eventually leading to the
production and use of nuclear weapons? That may be an offensive notion, but let's take a
closer look at it.
The development of nuclear science is really about becoming more aware and
knowledgeable of a process that powers the sun and the stars  more aware of just how a
very powerful aspect of nature works. What one then does with such knowledge is a
different process entirely  and largely a matter of consciousness and maturity. As we can
see from the revised TimeWave graph, the moment that this knowledge is converted to
weapons technology  the nuclear explosion at Trinity Site in New Mexico  the wave
begins a steep ascent into habit.
The use of this awesome power against other human beings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki
occurs shortly after the test at Trinity Site, and occurs on a very steep ascending slope of
habit. Perhaps the process of becoming more aware of nature, and ourselves  is very
novel indeed. It is the sacred knowledge of the shaman, who returns from an immersion
into an aspect of nature, with guidance or healing for her or his people. We seem to have
lost the sense of sacred knowledge with its accompanying responsibility, somewhere
along the way. Perhaps it is time to regain that sense, and reclaim responsibility for our
knowing.
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Figure 19
The revised TimeWave of Fig. 19 also shows the period of the Korean war as a very steep
ascent into habit, although something occurring early in 1952 did momentarily reverse the
habitual trend.
Correlation Data and TimeWave Comparisons
Correlation analysis was performed for all the data sets compared in this report, as well as
the remaining eight TWZ screen sets not shown here, and selected time periods. This type
of analysis allows us to examine the relationship between data sets, and estimate their
degree of interdependence  i.e. how similar their information content is. The results of
these analyses are shown graphically in Fig. 20, and they include the ten TimeWave
screens included with the TWZ software, nine selected historical windows, and the 384
number data sets. In all cases shown, the revised and random data sets are being
correlated (compared) with the standard data set. Since any number set correlated with
itself, has a correlation coefficient of one, the blue line at the top of the graph represents
the standard data selfcorrelation.
Recall that a correlation of 1 signifies number sets that have identical information content,
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a correlation of zero signifies no common information content, and a correlation of 1
means that the number sets information content exhibit "mirror image" behavior  wave
peaks to wave valleys etc. The green line in the graph shows the degree of correlation
between the revised waveform and the standard waveform, for each of the separate
TimeWaves that were examined. The red line shows the correlation level between waves
generated by the random seeded data sets, and those generated by the standard data set.
The first point of each line, is the correlation coefficient for each of the 384 number data
sets examined  random, revised, and standard data sets.
Figure 20
The first feature to notice about the revised and standard data set correlations shown in
Fig. 20, is the fact that the revised 384 number data set shows a correlation with the
standard number set of about 60%  a comparison that is shown in Fig. 12. This is a
significant crosslinking of information content, and something that one might expect for
number sets with a common base and very similar developmental procedures. The next
feature of significance is the fact that the correlation between the revised and standard
TimeWaves, for all ten TWZ screen sets, is better than 70% and as high as 98%, showing
a very high level of interdependence. The time periods represented by these ten
TimeWave screens, ranges from 4 years to 36,000 years, which is labeled on the graph.
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The duration of these TimeWave periods may have a bearing on the level of correlation,
as we shall see in a moment.
Beginning with the period 18951925, the graph shows more scatter in the correlation
between standard and revised data sets, which ranges from about 98% down to 8%, with
one anticorrelation of 95%. Notice that the correlation appears worse for very short time
periods, one to two months or so. One possible explanation is that the very short time
period TimeWaves are generated by a very few data points  in other words a low wave
sampling frequency or rate. A small, and undersampled input data set would add a higher
level of noise to the wave signal, and consequently produce the higher data scatter
observed. The sampling theorem, from information theory, states that aliasing (noise
generation) begins to occur when the signal sampling rate becomes less than twice the
highest frequency component of the sampled signal. This is certainly something that may
be occurring in the mathematics of TimeWave generation.
Additionally, as mentioned previously, this difference could be the consequence of
having an improved model of the process. It is important to remember through all of this
comparison analysis, that the standard data set is generated by a process with imbedded
flaws  not enough to destroy the information content of the wave signals, but enough to
cause some distortion of that information content. This correlation analysis is interesting,
primarily because it leaves the standard TimeWave intact, more or less  but the important
point to remember is that even with low correlation the revised data set appears to
produce a better TimeWave.
It is probable that the variations we observe in Fig. 20 are the result of both the distortion
of the information content of the 384 number data set, as a result of mathematical errors,
and the low data wave sampling rate that occurs for short duration TimeWaves (an
unexamined but plausible thesis). It is also important to point out here, that when we do
see significant differences in the TimeWaves generated by the standard and revised data
sets, those differences have revealed a revised TimeWave of greater apparent accuracy.
However, it is important that we examine a significant variety of additional TimeWave
periods, to gather more statistics on the functioning of the revised wave; but the data in
hand so far, seem to be suggesting that the mathematical formalization of the data set
generating process, does improve the TimeWave accuracy.
Another significant feature of the revised data correlation plot in Fig. 20 that should be
mentioned here, is the fact that the correlation coefficient for the 1915 period is nearly 1,
signifying an anticorrelation or mirror image relationship between the waves. This is the
TimeWave comparison that is shown if Fig. 18. If one were to place an imaginary
twosided mirror between the standard and revised TimeWave graphs, then the reflection
on either side of the mirror would closely resemble the wave that is on the other side 
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hence the description of anticorrelation as a mirror image relationship. Also notice, that a
green dotted line marks the average of all the standard/revised wave correlations at about
70%.
The red line of Fig. 20 shows the correlation of the random number generated waves,
with the standard data set. By definition, the random data sets should show little or no
correlation with either the standard or revised data sets, nor with any other random
number set. In several cases in Fig. 20, this turns out to be true, but there are also several
cases in which the random set correlation is not near zero, contrary to expectation. In
general, the red line plot of Fig. 20 shows a much lower level of correlation with the
standard number set than does the revised set  as expected. Each data point on the red
line, however, is actually an average of either two, or seven random number set
correlations. In other words, either two or seven random number correlations were
averaged to produce each point on the red line graph. It turns out that most of the sixteen
correlation points produced by averaging only two random sets, have much more scatter
than do the four points produced by averaging seven random set correlations. The 384
number random data set, and the periods 18951925, 1905, and 1915, were all produced
by averaging seven random set correlations. The violet dotted line running through the
random number set correlations, is the average correlation level for all the random sets
shown, and it shows a very low average correlation of about 5%.
It is also possible that the same process proposed for producing the larger correlation
scatter of the revised data set, could be at work for the random data sets  i.e. short
duration time periods with low sampling frequencies, could be causing data scatter due to
noise. If a small number of the 384 data file points are used to generate a short period
TimeWave, then there is a much higher probability of correlation between the random sets
and the TimeWave number sets. Without further investigation, however, this is a
speculative, if plausible thesis.
The graphs of Fig. 20 do show that the standard and revised data sets and their
derivativeTimeWaves are remarkably well correlated. In the regions where the correlation
weakens, or breaks down entirely, the revised TimeWave appears to show a Novelty
process that is in closer agreement with known historical process. In addition, the plots in
Fig. 20 may be revealing a process whereby short period TimeWaves produce sampling
noise that weakens the correlation. This data supports the view, that the information
content of the standardTimeWave is somewhat distorted, but not destroyed; and suggests
that the revised TimeWave and its piecewise linear function is able to correct this
distortion, and provides an improved expression of the Novelty process.
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Concluding Remarks
The development of the 384 number data set from the set of First Order of Difference
(FOD) integers has been expressed as a process that is piecewise linear in nature. This
process involves the combination and expansion of straightline segments, which can be
expressed mathematically as a piecewise linear function. The standard development has
been described by McKenna and Meyer in the TimeWave Zero documentation and in
other reports. But this process includes a procedural step called the "half twist", that is not
consistent with the structure of piecewise linear mathematics; and consequently produces
a distortion of the FOD information content. Watkins elaborated on this in some detail, in
his welldocumented expose on the nature of the halftwist, in which he described the
distortions and inconsistencies involved. He then concluded that this distortion would
render the TimeWave meaningless, as a realistic graphical depiction of the Novelty
process as had been described by McKenna. I maintain that this conclusion was
premature, and apparently incorrect.
The revised development of the 384 number data set includes the use of mathematics that
correctly expresses the piecewise linear development process, and therefore produces an
undistorted expansion of the FOD number set. The TimeWave that results from this
expansion process, is then an accurate reflection of the FOD number set, provided the set
can be described or modeled by a piecewise linear function. The piecewise linear function
described here, may only be an approximation to some more complex function that has
yet to be found. In fact, I would argue that this is quite likely for a phenomenon or
process of this nature, which further study may shed some light on. Nonetheless, if the
revised TimeWave is a reasonably accurate reflection of the information content of the
FOD number set, then the standard TimeWave should have a degree of accuracy
proportional to its degree of correlation with the revised TimeWave. As we have seen thus
far, these two TimeWaves show an average correlation of about 70%, so that the standard
wave has an average accuracy of about 70% when compared with the revised wave.
However, we have also seen this correlation as high as 98%, or as low as 6%, with one
case of a mirror image or anticorrelation of 0.94.
This work has served to clarify and formalize the process by which the 384 number
TimeWave data set is generated. This has been done by showing that the process is
describable within the framework of piecewise linear mathematics in general, and vector
mathematics in particular. Each step has been delineated and formalized mathematically,
to give the process clarity and continuity. The formalized and revised data set serves as
the foundation of the TimeWave generated by the TimeWave Zero software, which is
viewed as a graphical depiction of a process described by the ebb and flow of a
phenomenon called Novelty. Novelty is thought to be the basis for the creation and
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conservation of higher ordered states of complex form in nature and the universe.
The results reported here make no final claims as to the validity of the TimeWave as it is
expressed by Novelty Theory, nor does it claim that the current TimeWave is the best
description of the Novelty process. It does show that the proper mathematical treatment of
the FOD number set, produces a TimeWave that appears to be more consistent with
known historical process. This consistency is general, however, and more work needs to
be done to examine the specific reflections or projections that the TimeWave may be
revealing. If Novelty Theory is a valid hypothesis, reflecting a real phenomenon in nature,
then one would expect that it is verifiable in specific ways.
It has also seemed appropriate to examine some of the steps in this wave development
process in terms of their correspondence with elements of philosophy and science. The
flow of Yin and Yang energy reflected in the expression of the forward and reverse
bidirectional waves, for example, finds philosophical correspondence in a natural cycle
of lifedeathrebirth, or in the process of the shamanic journey  immersion, engagement,
and return. Correspondence can also be found in science, in the fields of cosmology,
astronomy, astrophysics, and quantum physics  the life cycles and motion of heavenly
bodies, quarks, and universes; the harmonic and holographic nature of light and wave
mechanics; and the cyclic transformation of matter to energy, and energy to matter. The
reflection of all natural phenomena and processes over the continuum of existence, from
the smallest scales up to the largest scales, must surely include whatever process is
occurring in the IChing as well. The question is, are we are clever and conscious enough
to decipher and express it correctly and appropriately?
Acknowledgements
I would like to thank Terence McKenna, for bringing this intriguing and provocative
notion into the collective, and for the courage and foresight shown, by his willingness to
open himself and his ideas to scrutiny and boundary dissolution. If there is any relevance
or meaning to be found in the TimeWave or Novelty Theory, then it is surely something
that is larger than he, or any of us; and it is also something that is properly in the domain
of all human experience, with each of us a witness, participant, and contributor.
I would also like to express my thanks and appreciation to Mathew Watkins for his work
in exposing the mathematical inconsistencies, vagaries, and procedural errors of the
standard TimeWave data set development, and challenging a theory that may have
become far too sedentary and inbred for its own good. Whatever the final outcome of this
endeavor of Novelty Theory, he has set the enterprise on its proper course of open and
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critical inquiry.
I am also greatly indebted to Peter Meyer for his skill and foresight in creating a TWZ
software package that is flexible, accessible, and friendly to the serious investigator.
Without his DOS version of TimeWave Zero software, this work would have been much
more difficult if not impossible. He has created a software package that makes these
notions realistically testable, in a relatively straightforward manner. This made it possible
for me to examine the effects of the revised data set on the TimeWave itself, as well as
facilitating the examination of the detailed structure of the wave in work to follow.
My thanks also to Dan Levy for his offer to publish this work on his Levity site, as well
as hosting an upcoming TimeWave mathematical annex to Novelty Theory. I want also to
acknowledge Brian Crissey at Blue Water Publishing for his help in integrating the new
process into the TimeWave Zero software packages and documentation.
[return to Foreword] [back]
[John Sheliak] sheliak@dsrt.com
[Terence McKenna] syzygy@ultraconnect.com
[return to Levity] http://www.levity.com/eschaton/
segment_8
file:///H/public/timewave/seg_8.html (14 of 14) [01/22/2002 1:55:53 PM]
'HOLQHDWLRQñý6SHFLILFDWLRQñýDQGý)RUPDOL]DWLRQýRIýWKHý7:=ý'DWDý6HW
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John ShoIInk
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IIomonfs of vocfor mnfhomnfIcs nnd pIocowIso IInonr nnnIvsIs nro usod fo doIInonfo nnd
mnfhomnfIcnIIv formnIIzo onch sfop In fho procoss bv whIch fho TImoWnvo Zoro (TWZ)
384 numbor Jo/o ee/ Is gonornfod. ThIs dovoIopmonf bogIns wIfh fho KIng Won
hoxngrnm soquonco nnd procoods fo fho fInnI 384 numbor dnfn sof, usIng sfnndnrd
mnfhomnfIcnI procoduros nnd opornfIons. Tho procoss Is cInrIfIod nnd sfronmIInod bv fho
InfroducfIon of vocfor nofnfIon nnd opornfIons, whIch nIso prosorvos fho nofIon of wnvo
"dIrocfod" fIow, doscrIbod bv McKonnn.
ThIs 384 numbor dnfn sof sorvos ns fho Inpuf dnfn fIIo for fho TWZ soffwnro, whIch
porforms n "frncfnI" frnnsform on fho Inpuf dnfn In ordor fo produco fho oufpuf
TineWote vIowod on fho compufor scroon ns nn xv grnph of Aotel/x. Tho bnsIs for fhIs
dnfn sof Is fho fIrsf ordor of dIfforonco (IOÐ) of fho KIng Won soquonco, dofInod ns fho
numbor of IInos fhnf chnngo ns ono movos from hoxngrnm fo hoxngrnm, bogInnIng nf
hoxngrnm l nnd procoodIng fo hoxngrnm 64. ThIs fIrsf ordor of dIfforonco (IOÐ) numbor
sof nnd Ifs dorIvnfIvos nro producod bv n sorIos of cIonrIv dofInod mnfhomnfIcnI
opornfIons, whIch nro nII doscrIbod In dofnII.
Onco fhIs retieeJ 384 numbor dnfn sof hns boon cnIcuInfod, If Is usod ns Inpuf fo fho
TWZ soffwnro In ordor fo gonornfo retieeJ TineWotee fhnf mnv bo compnrod wIfh fho
orIgInnI e/onJorJýTineWotee. SovornI ronJon numbor sofs nro nIso gonornfod nnd usod
sImIInrIv fo produco ronJon TineWotee for compnrIson. IourIor frnnsform opornfIons
nro porformod on onch of fho 384 numbor dnfn sofs, In ordor fo oxnmIno wnvo noIso nnd
InformnfIon confonf. CorroInfIon Is usod fo doformIno fho dogroo of Infordopondonco
bofwoon fho fwo Jo/o sofs, nnd bofwoon fho dnfn nnd ronJon numbor sofe.
Tho rosuIfs of fho mnfhomnfIcnI formnIIznfIon nnd subsoquonf compnrIson nnnIvsIs show
fhnf fho retieeJ dnfn sof producos n TineWote fhnf npponrs fo rofIocf hIsforIcnI procoss
wIfh gronfor nccurncv fhnn fho e/onJorJ TineWote. ThIs dIfforonco Is IIkoIv duo fo fho
fncf fhnf fho e/onJorJ dnfn sof producos n dIsforfod TineWote, ns fho rosuIf of Imboddod
mnfhomnfIcnI orrors fhnf Incronso fho noIso IovoI In fho wnvo. CompnrIsons of fho
e/onJorJ nnd retieeJ Jo/o ee/e nnd TineWotee, show n gonornIIv hIgh dogroo of
corroInfIon, InforrIng fhnf fho e/onJorJ uote rofnIns much of fho InformnfIon confonf of
fho rovIsod wnvo, dospIfo Ifs dIsforfIon. ThIs TineWote InformnfIon confonf, or fho wnvo
sIgnnIfonoIso rnfIo (s/n), Is Improvod bv usIng fho rovIsod dnfn sof, whIch sorvos fo
corrocf fho noIso dIsforfIon Infroducod bv fho sfnndnrd wnvo.
[questions & comments] [dowload pdf documents]
2
,QWURGXFWLRQ
TineWote Zero
l
(TWZ) Is n mnfhomnfIcnI nnd grnphIcnI oxprossIon of fho Aotel/x T/eorx
ndvnncod bv Toronco McKonnn, nnd ImpIomonfod bv compufor soffwnro cnIIod Tine
Surfer© for MncInfosh, nnd Tine 1xplorer© for ÐOS opornfIng svsfoms. If Is bnsod on n
spocIfIc mnfhomnfIcnI roInfIonshIp oxhIbIfod bv fho KIng Won soquonco of fho IChIng
I.o. fho numbor of IInos fhnf chnngo ns ono movos from ono hoxngrnm fo fho noxf,
bogInnIng nf hoxngrnm l nnd procoodIng fo hoxngrnm 64. ThIs numbor sof, cnIIod fho
IIrsf Ordor of ÐIfforonco (IOÐ), wns fIrsf oxprossod nnd oxpnndod bv McKonnn
2
nnd
ofhors, Info fho TImoWnvo fhnf Is producod bv fho TWZ soffwnro. Tho phIIosophIcnI
nnfuro nnd fhoorofIcnI bnsIs of fho TImoWnvo, hnvo boon roporfod oxfonsIvoIv oIsowhoro
l
nnd wIII nof bo dIscussod In dofnII horo. Howovor, fho gonornI fhrusf of ÞovoIfv T/eorx,
Is fhnf InformnfIon nbouf somo fundnmonfnI nnfurnI procoss Is oncodod In fho IChIng In
gonornI, nnd fho IOÐ numbor sof In pnrfIcuInr. ThIs procoss Is fhoughf fo oxpross IfsoIf
In nnfuro nnd fho cosmos, ns fho ongoIng cronfIon nnd consorvnfIon of IncronsIngIv
hIghor ordorod sfnfos of compIox form. Tho TineWote Is fhon vIowod ns oxprossIng fhIs
procoss ns n kInd of frncfnI mnp of fompornI rosonnnco In nnfuro, or ns nn oxprossIon of
fho obb nnd fIow of nn orgnnIzIng prIncIpIo cnIIod Aotel/x.
Tho convorsIon of fhIs IOÐ numbor sof Info fho TImoWnvo (vIowod on fho TWZ
compufor scroon ns n grnph of fho ÞovoIfv procoss), InvoIvos fho porformnnco of n sorIos
of mnfhomnfIcnI procoduros nnd opornfIons on fhIs numbor sof. Tho TImoWnvo Is
ncfunIIv producod In fwo dIsfIncf nnd mnfhomnfIcnIIv dIfforonf phnsos. Tho fIrsf phnso
IncIudos fho cronfIon of n sImpIo bIdIrocfIonnI wnvo usIng fho IOÐ numbor sof. ThIs
wnvo Is fhon oxpnndod Info IInonr, frIgrnmnfIc, nnd hoxngrnmnfIc bIdIrocfIonnI wnvos
fhnf nro subsoquonfIv combInod fo form fho /riletel conplex uote, or 384 numbor dnfn
sof. Tho socond phnso Is porformod bv fho TWZ soffwnro IfsoIf, whIch IncIudos nn
oxpnnsIon, or ¨frncfnI frnnsform¨ of fho 384 numbor dnfn sof (Inpuf fIIo fo TWZ) fo
produco fho TImoWnvo vIowod on fho compufor scroon. Ihnso I usos fho mnfhomnfIcs of
pIocowIso IInonr nnnIvsIs fo gonornfo fho 384 numbor dnfn sof from fho IOÐ numbor sof,
whorons Ihnso II usos InfInIfo sorIos oxpnnsIons, fhnf nro sIIghfIv moro compIox, fo
convorf fho Ihnso I dnfn sof Info fho fInnI TImoWnvo. Tho formnIIznfIon nnd compnrIson
work doscrIbod In fhIs roporf Is concornod onIv wIfh fho Ihnso I mnfhomnfIcs.
!nfII roconfIv, fho dofnIIs of fho gonosIs nnd dovoIopmonf of ÞovoIfv Thoorv nnd fho
TImoWnvo, nIfhough nvnIInbIo fo nII wIfh fho wIII nnd onorgv fo oxnmIno fhom, hnvo
romnInod InrgoIv ouf of sIghf nnd ouf of mInd for mosf. Tho prImnrv focus hns boon on
fho rosuIfs of fhnf dovoIopmonf I.o. fho rofIocfIvo nnd nppnronfIv projocfIvo
chnrncforIsfIcs of ÞovoIfv Thoorv ns oxprossod bv fho TImoWnvo, nnd grnphod bv fho
TWZ soffwnro. Thnf Is, unfII Mnfhow WnfkIns, n IrIfIsh mnfhomnfIcInn procoodod fo
doconsfrucf fho wnvo gonornfIng procoss nnd oxnmIno fhoso dofnIIs moro cIosoIv. Tho
rosuIfs of hIs InvosfIgnfIon woro roporfod In n pnpor onfIfIod Aufopsv for n MnfhomnfIcnI
HnIIucInnfIon
ê
ñýIInkod fo fho McKonnn wobsIfo Hvporboron ns fho WnfkIns ObjocfIon.
Thoro woro sovornI fhIngs fhnf WnfkIns found objocfIonnbIo In hIs scnfhIng crIfIquo of
Aotel/x T/eorx nnd TWZ, buf fhoro wns onIv ono sIgnIfIcnnf fIndIng fhnf ho
3
subsfnnfInfod In hIs roporf. Ho showod fhnf ono of fho opornfIonnI sfops usod In fho
producfIon of fho 384 numbor dnfn sof, fho noforIous ¨hnIf fwIsf¨, wns nof
mnfhomnfIcnIIv consIsfonf wIfh fho sfnndnrd IInonr nnnIvsIs fhnf Is ImpIIod bv fho
documonfnfIon In //e 1ntieiIle LonJecope nnd fho Tine 1xplorer soffwnro mnnunI. Ho
poInfod ouf fho fncf fhnf fho fwo numbor sofs producod bv fIrsf fho IncIusIon, fhon fho
oxcIusIon of fho hnIf fwIsf wouId bo dIfforonf sofs rosuIfIng In dIfforonf TineWotee.
Howovor, ho dIdn`f qunnfIfv fhIs dIfforonco In numbor sofs, nor show whnf fho rosuIfIng
Impncf of fho fInnI TImoWnvo wouId bo. Ho fhon concIudod fhnf wIfhouf somo
mIrncuIous jusfIfIcnfIon for fho ¨hnIf fwIsf¨, hIs fIndIngs wouId provo fnfnI fo TineWote
Zero nnd Aotel/x T/eorx. ThIs cInIm soomod somowhnf spocuInfIvo nnd ovorsfnfod fo
mo, sInco ho hndn`f ncfunIIv shown whnf fho Impncf of hIs fIndIngs on fho TineWote
IfsoIf wouId bo. ÞonofhoIoss, If wns nn Imporfnnf fIndIng, so I docIdod fo InvosfIgnfo fho
mnffor for mvsoIf In ordor fo nssoss fho ncfunI Impncf on fho TineWote nnd fho
corrospondIng dnmngo fo Aotel/x T/eorx. ThIs monnf, of courso, fhnf I wouId hnvo fo
Immorso mvsoIf In fho dofnIIs of fho TWZ mnfhomnfIcnI dovoIopmonf.
IocomIng fnmIIInr wIfh fho dofnIIs of fho mnfhomnfIcnI dovoIopmonf of TWZ provod fo
bo moro of n chnIIongo fhnn oxpocfod, pnrfInIIv bocnuso fho nvnIInbIo documonfnfIon
Inckod fho nocossnrv doscrIpfIvo dofnII fo fnIfhfuIIv roconsfrucf fho procoss of TImoWnvo
gonornfIon. AddIfIonnIIv, somo of fho mnfhomnfIcnI opornfIons woro doscrIbod wIfh
unconvonfIonnI Inngungo fhnf wns somowhnf confusIng, mnkIng If moro dIffIcuIf fo
undorsfnnd whnf wns ncfunIIv boIng dono. So In ordor fo cInrIfv fhIs procoss of wnvo
gonornfIon, I procoodod fo doIInonfo nnd mnfhomnfIcnIIv formnIIzo onch of fho sfops In
fho procoss fhnf fnkos ono from fho KIng Won hoxngrnm soquonco fo fho fInnI 384
numbor dnfn sof  Ihnso I of fho TImoWnvo gonornfIng procoss. I foIf fhnf If wns
Imporfnnf ns woII, fhnf fhIs formnIIznfIon bo dono In n wnv fhnf couId bo cIonrIv
vIsunIIzod, In ordor fo gIvo ono n monfnI pIcfuro of whnf mIghf ncfunIIv bo hnpponIng ns
ono procoods fhrough fho dovoIopmonf procoss. I foIf fhnf If shouId bo moro fhnn moroIv
n corrocf, buf nrcnno, mnfhomnfIcnI formuInfIon.
An Imporfnnf fonfuro of fho sfnndnrd dovoIopmonf procoss, cIonrIv shown In nII fho
TineWote Zero documonfnfIon, Is fhnf fho procoss Is oxprossod bv pIocowIso IInonr
mnfhomnfIcs monnIng sImpIv fhnf fho fInnI 384 numbor dnfn sof Is fho rosuIf of fho
oxpnnsIon nnd combInnfIon of sfrnIghf IIno sogmonfs. Thoso IInonr sogmonfs nro
boundod bv Infogors fhnf nro dorIvod from fho IOÐ numbor sof, nIfhough fho ncfunI
IncIusIon of fho IIno sogmonfs osfnbIIshos nonInfogor vnIuos In fho sof. Anofhor
Imporfnnf nnd woIIdocumonfod fonfuro of fho procoss, Is fho gonornfIon of fho sImpIo bI
dIrocfIonnI wnvo from fho IOÐ numbor sof. ThIs bIdIrocfIonnI wnvo consIsfs of n
forwnrd nnd rovorso fIowIng wnvo pnIr, nnd If Is fho fundnmonfnI wnvoform or buIIdIng
bIock of fho TineWote gonornfIng procoss. Thoso fwo fonfuros, n pIocowIso IInonr nnfuro
nnd wnvo dIrocfod fIow, cIonrIv Iond fhomsoIvos fo oxprossIon fhrough fho prIncIpIos of
vocfor mnfhomnfIcs. Vocfor nofnfIon nnd opornfIons woro consoquonfIv choson ns
npproprInfo fooIs for fhIs modoIIng procoss.
If shouId bo nofod horo, fhnf fhoro Is nofhIng unIquo or oxcopfIonnI nbouf fho uso of
vocfor mnfhomnfIcs. If Is onIv ono of sovornI nppronchos fhnf couId hnvo boon usod; buf
If Is ono fhnf cIonrIv oxprossos fho nofIon of wnvo dIrocfod fIow, nnd ono fhnf nIso hns fho
cnpncIfv fo gonornfo sfrnIghfIIno sogmonfs. Tho fncf Is fhnf onIv n fow of fho bnsIc
4
fonfuros of vocfors nro usod horo vocfor nddIfIon nnd subfrncfIon, nnd fho vocfor
pnrnmofrIc oqunfIon of fho sfrnIghf IIno. Howovor, fho gonornfIon of sfrnIghfIIno
sogmonfs usIng vocfors, convorfs fho dIscrofo funcfIon (Infogor vnIuos onIv) roprosonfod
bv fho IOÐ numbor sof, Info n confInuous funcfIon In fho domnIn boundod bv fho IOÐ
Infogors. ThIs Is Imporfnnf If fho wnvo Is fo bo woII dofInod ovor fho onfIro rnngo of Ifs
oxprossIon (I.o. fho IncIusIon of frncfIonnI vnIuos).
ThIs work Is fho formnIIznfIon of fho procoduros nIrondv osfnbIIshod wIfh fho sfnndnrd
wnvo dovoIopmonf, bv McKonnn, buf ono fhnf romovos InconsIsfoncIos nnd mnkos fho
procoss moro cohoronf nnd InfoIIIgIbIo. If doos nof, In nnv wnv, mnko fundnmonfnI
chnngos In fho dovoIopmonf procoss, nor doos If modIfv fho undorIvIng fhoorv.
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Tho procoss bv whIch fho 384 numbor dnfn sof Is gonornfod bogIns wIfh fho KIng Won
soquonco of IChIng hoxngrnms (n IIsfIng of whIch npponrs In fho Tine 1xplorer©
mnnunI, pp. 5859), whIch Is boIIovod fo bo fho onrIIosf nrrnngomonf of hoxngrnms.
McKonnn choso fo oxnmIno
4
fho numbor of IInos fhnf chnngo (vIn fo vnng, nnd vnng fo
vIn) ns ono movos from hoxngrnm fo hoxngrnm, bogInnIng nf hoxngrnm l nnd procoodIng
fo hoxngrnm 64, nnd ho cnIIod fhIs qunnfIfv fho Iire/ OrJer of Difference (IOÐ). Tho
IOÐ numbor sof fhnf Is gonornfod ns ono movos from hoxngrnm l fo hoxngrnm 64
confnIns 63 oIomonfs; n 64
fh
oIomonf Is doformInod bv rocordIng fho IOÐ ns ono movos
from hoxngrnm 64 ¨wrnppIng¨ bnck fo hoxngrnm l, fhus osfnbIIshIng n cIosod svsfom
wIfh porIodIc wnvoform. ThIs IOÐ numbor sof cnn bo compufod mnfhomnfIcnIIv bv
fronfIng onch hoxngrnm ns n bInnrv numbor ns roporfod bv Movor
5
, buf In fhIs cnso I
sImpIv rocordod onch numbor mnnunIIv In Del/oGrop/®
6
nnd 1xcel®
?
sprondshoofs.
Tho IOÐ numbor sof, whIch I wIII now cnII fho Sinple IoruorJ Wote
S
, Is grnphod In IIg.
l wIfh sfrnIghf IIno sogmonfs connocfIng fho IndIvIdunI IOÐ dnfn poInfs. Tho xnxIs of
fhIs grnph shows fho hoxngrnm frnnsIfIon numbor, whoro frnnsIfIon n Is dofInod ns fho
frnnsIfIon from hoxngrnm n fo hoxngrnm n+1; frnnsIfIon n=0 Is sImpIv nn xnxIs wrnp of
frnnsIfIon 64, nnd Is fhus dofInod ns fho frnnsIfIon from hoxngrnm 64 fo hoxngrnm l.
Tho IncIusIon of fho zoro frnnsIfIon dnfn poInf Is n wnv of grnphIcnIIv IIIusfrnfIng fho
¨wrnpnround¨ nnfuro of fhIs numbor sof, or possIbIv n wnv of mnppIng nn nppnronf 3
dImomsIonnI cvIIndrIcnI surfnco onfo n 2dImonsIonnI pInno. Ior cInrIfv, Iof us dofIno
fhIs fonfuro of fho IOÐ numbor sof:
ÐofInIfIon l:
Tho coIIocfIon of sImpIo forwnrd wnvo x, x Infogor pnIrs, or IOÐ numbor sof
X
n
, Y
n
], form n cIosod Ioop such fhnf fho fInnI vnIuo 64, Y(64)] "wrnps" fo nn
InIfInI vnIuo 0, Y(0)]; Whoro Y(64) = Y(0), nnd fho wnvoform Is porIodIc.
Tho xnxIs vnIuos shown In IIg. l nro fho ncfunI IOÐ frnnsIfIon vnIuos, Infogors fhnf
wouId normnIIv bo shown ns poInfs nIong fho frnnsIfIon nxIs. In IIg. l, howovor, fhoso
poInfs nro connocfod bv sfrnIghf IIno sogmonfs, whIch osfnbIIshos fho pIocowIso IInonr
5
nnfuro of fhIs numbor sof, gonornfIng nonInfogor vnIuos nnd cronfIng n gonornI func/ion
fhnf Is dofInod nf ovorv poInf In Ifs domnIn (nII possIbIo x vnIuos In fho domnIn
0 384 ≤ ≤ x ). ConornfIng fhIs funcfIon roquIros fho nccopfnnco of n gonornI prIncIpIo,
whIch wIII now bo dofInod for cInrIfv:
ÐofInIfIon 2:
Tho coIIocfIon of IOÐ numbors Is n sof of Infogors fhnf osfnbIIsh fho boundnrv
condIfIons for n pIocowIso IInonr func/ion, whIch Is dofInod for nII x In fho domnIn
of fho IOÐ sof nnd Ifs oxpnnsIons. Tho domnIn of x Is dofInod: 0 384 ≤ ≤ x
ThIs IOÐ func/ion Is vIowod ns hnvIng n forwnrd fIowIng, or +x dIrocfod nnfuro, nnd If Is
fho bnsIc or sImpIosf numbor sof In fho TImoWnvo dovoIopmonf procoss. Thus If Is cnIIod
fho sImpIo forwnrd fIowIng wnvo, or jusf fho Sinple IoruorJ Wote.
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(2) Tho SImpIo !ovorso Wnvo
In ordor fo cInrIfv fho procoss of sImpIo bIdIrocfIonnI wnvo gonornfIon, nnd fho
producfIon of fho Sinple Ieteree Wote, Iof us fIrsf dofIno nnofhor gonornI prIncIpIo:
ÐofInIfIon 3:
Tho SImpIo Iorwnrd Wnvo (fho IOÐ func/ion) hns n !ovorso Wnvo pnrfnor, nnd
fho fwo nro nIIgnod wIfh ono nnofhor such fhnf cIosuros (nodos) occur nf oIfhor ond
of fho proporIv suporImposod wnvo pnIr. Tho propor suporImposIfIon producos
forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvo cIosuro nf fho Indox l, nnd nf IndIcos 62, 63, nnd 64
ondpoInfs.
ThIs Is nn Imporfnnf sfnfomonf, for wIfhouf If fhoro Is noIfhor ronson nor unnmbIguous
pnfh for fho consfrucfIon of fho bIdIrocfIonnI wnvo funcfIon, nor Is fho propor form of
6
wnvo cIosuro obvIous. Onco fhIs prIncIpIo hns boon osfnbIIshod, howovor, If Is fhon
possIbIo fo procood wIfh n sfopbvsfop procoss of rovorso wnvo, nnd bIdIrocfIonnI wnvo
gonornfIon. IIguros 2n2f IIIusfrnfo fhIs procoss of gonornfIng fho Sinple Ieteree Wote,
foIIowod bv n cIosuro wIfh fho Sinple IoruorJ Wote fo form fho Sinple BiJirec/ionol
Wote. IIg. 2n shows Sfop l In fho procoss of Sinple Ieteree Wote gonornfIon n l80°
rofnfIon of fho SImpIo Iorwnrd Wnvo nbouf fho x, x nxos orIgIn (0,0).
ThIs rofnfIon opornfIon cnn bo vIsunIIzod bv obsorvIng fhnf fho Sinple IoruorJ Wote,
shown In qundrnnf I (uppor rIghf hnnd cornor of IIg. 2n) Is fIxod roInfIvo fo fho x, x nxos
(rod IInos). Tho nxos nro fhon spun counforcIockwIso l80° nround fhoIr orIgIn
(InforsocfIon poInf), cnrrvIng fho wnvo wIfh fhom. Tho mnfhomnfIcnI formuIns for fhIs
rofnfIon nro oxprossod ns:
′ = + x x y cos sin θ θ l]
′ = − + y x y sin cos θ θ 2]
Whoro: ′ x Is fho rofnfod x vnIuo
′ y Is fho rofnfod y vnIuo
θ Is fho nngIo of rofnfIon In dogroos
WIfh l80° ns fho rofnfIon nngIo, fhoso oqunfIons roduco fo:
′ = − + = − x x x 0 3]
′ = − − = − y y y 0 4]
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7
IqunfIon 3] nnd 4] show fhnf fhIs l80° rofnfIon opornfIon rosuIfs In n sImpIo sIgn
chnngo of fho orIgInnI forwnrd wnvo x, x pnIr dnfn sof. Tho rofnfIon pIncos fho
dovoIopIng rovorso wnvo In qundrnnf III of fho grnph, shown ns fho soIId bIuo IInopIof.
Tho doffod bIuo IInopIof shows fho posIfIon of fho pnronf Sinple IoruorJ Wote.
Sfop 2 of fho rovorso wnvo gonornfIon procoss Is shown In IIg. 2b, nnd InvoIvos fho
frnnsInfIon of fho rofnfod forwnrd wnvo In fho +x dIrocfIon. ThIs opornfIon Is oxprossod
bv fho foIIowIng frnnsInfIon oqunfIon:
x x h = ′ + 5]
Whoro: x Is fho frnnsInfod vnIuo of ′ x of oqunfIon 3]
h Is fho mngnIfudo of fho frnnsInfIon In fho +x dIrocfIon
SInco fhIs frnnsInfIon musf xnIIgn fho ondpoInfs of fho forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvos, fho
mngnIfudo of fho frnnsInfIon, h , Is +64. ThIs posIfIons fho dovoIopIng rovorso wnvo In
qundrnnf IV ns shown In IIg. 2b.
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IIg. 2c shows Sfop 3 of fho rovorso wnvo gonornfIon procoss, nnd Is dofInod ns fho +y
frnnsInfIon of fho xfrnnsInfod wnvo of IIg. 2b. ThIs frnnsInfIon Is porformod so fhnf fho
forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvos wIII bo In posIfIon fo nchIovo cIosuro nf fho Indox l nnd
IndIcos 62, 63, 64 ondpoInfs ns spocIfIod bv dofInIfIon 3, onco fho noxf nnd fInnI sfop Is
porformod. Tho frnnsInfIon oqunfIon for fhIs sfop of fho procoss Is oxpross ns foIIows:
8
y y k = ′ + 6]
Whoro: y Is fho frnnsInfod vnIuo of ′ y ns oxprossod In oqunfIon 4]
k Is fho mngnIfudo of fho frnnsInfIon roquIrod fo posIfIon fho
rovorso wnvo for propor cIosuro wIfh fho forwnrd wnvo
In fhIs cnso fho y posIfIonIng for propor wnvo cIosuro roquIros n k vnIuo of +9. IIg. 2c
shows fho rovorso wnvo posIfIon fhnf rosuIfs from fhIs frnnsInfIon, nnd nIso shows fhnf
fho forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvos nro offsof, nnd hnvo nof vof nchIovod ondpoInf cIosuro.
Tho noxf nnd fInnI sfop Is porformod usIng n dIfforonf fvpo of mnfhomnfIcnI opornfIon
cnIIod fho ¨shIff¨, whIch cnn bo undorsfood bv usIng fho foIIowIng nnnIoguo:
Tnko 65 mnrbIos nnd pInco fhom In fho sIofs of n rouIoffo whooI fhnf hns boon
¨unroIIod¨, so fhnf fho sIofs nro In n sfrnIghf IIno rnfhor fhnf n cIrcIo. Tho sIofs nro
numborod from 0 fo 64, nnd onch mnrbIo Is pIncod confIguousIv In Ifs dosIgnnfod
sIof. Þow romovo mnrbIo #0 from Ifs sIof, nnd shIff mnrbIo #l fo Ifs pInco, fhon
confInuo fho procoss up fho IIno unfII nII fho romnInIng mnrbIos hnvo boon shIffod
down ono sIof. Þow pInco fho mnrbIo from sIof #0 Info sIof numbor 64 nnd vou
hnvo n l shIffod mnrbIo frnIn. ThIs Is fho fvpo of shIff fhnf Is nocossnrv fo
nchIovo forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvo cIosuro nf fho Indox l nnd Indox 64 ondpoInfs,
shown In fho noxf fIguro, bv usIng IIno sogmonfs Insfond of mnrbIos.
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ThIs fInnI sfop, fho l x shIff, Is shown In IIg 2d, whoro fho doffod bIuo IInopIof Is fho
proshIffod rovorso wnvo posIfIon, nnd fho soIId bIuo IInopIof Is fho l xshIffod rovorso
wnvo posIfIon. Tho Inrgor pIof nf fho fop shows fho shIff opornfIon for fho ovornII wnvo
9
pnIr, whorons fho fwo smnIIor pIofs nf fho boffom of IIg. 2d nro mngnIfIcnfIons showIng
fho cIosuro procoss nf fho bogInnIng nnd ond socfIons of fho wnvo pnIr. Tho mnfhomnfIcs
for fhIs opornfIon cnn bo oxprossod ns n fwo sfop procoss ns foIIows:
Ior 0 64 ≤ ≤ x f x f x
s
( ) ( ) = +1 ?]
Whoro f ( ) 65 Is dofInod: f f ( ) ( ) 65 0 = 8]
such fhnf: f x
s
( ) Is fho x vnIuo of fho l xshIffod wnvo nf x
nnd: f x ( ) +1 Is fho x vnIuo of fho proshIffod rovorso wnvo nf x+l
Thoro nro fwo fonfuros of IIg. 2d fhnf shouId bo nofod horo. IIrsf nofIco fhnf In fho
smnII grnphs nf fho boffom, cIosuro bofwoon fho forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvos occurs nf
four frnnsIfIon nxIs poInfs (oxcIudIng zoro). Thoso poInfs nro x = l, x = 62, x = 63, nnd x =
64, so fhnf wnvo cIosuro occurs nf ono InIfInI poInf (x = l) nnd fhroo formInnI poInfs.
IoInf zoro Is oxcIudod sInco If Is sImpIv n ¨wrnp¨, or dupIIcnfo, of poInf 64 nnd wIII
ovonfunIIv bo dIscnrdod. SocondIv, fho fwo smnIIor grnphs nf fho boffom of IIg. 2d show
fho procoss of ondpoInf shIff, or frnnsforrIng fho ¨mnrbIo/IIno sogmonf¨ fhnf wns InIfInIIv
In sIof 0 Info fho vncnfod ond sIof 64. Tho groon nrrow IIno runs from IIno sogmonf l In
fho grnph nf fho Ioff, fo IIno sogmonf 64 In fho grnph nf fho rIghf, nnd shows fhnf
sogmonf l Is boIng frnnsforrod fo sogmonf 64 ns fho l xshIff Is porformod. Tho fIguro
shows fhnf fhIs Is nof n sImpIo frnnsInfIon opornfIon ns In fho provIous fwo sfops, buf n
dofInIfo shIff much IIko fho opornfIon of n shIff rogIsfor In dIgIfnI oIocfronIcs. Þofo fhnf
If n sImpIo x frnnsInfIon woro porformod, IIno sogmonf l wouId bo frnnsInfod Info fho
nognfIvo x domnIn fo fho Ioff of fho xnxIs, nnd fhoro wouId bo no IIno sogmonf 64.
WIfh fho porformnnco of fho l xshIff opornfIon, fho producfIon of fho Sinple Bi
Jirec/ionol Wote Is now compIofo. Wo hnvo fhus cronfod n forwnrd nnd rovorso fIowIng
wnvoform, whIch Is cIosod nf oIfhor ond, somofhIng IIko nodos on n sfnndIng wnvo.
AIfhough fhIs Is fho corrocf procodurnI procoss for gonornfIng fho rovorso wnvo from fho
forwnrd wnvo, nnd for producIng ondpoInf cIosuro, fho roInfIonshIp bofwoon forwnrd nnd
rovorso wnvos cnn bo oxprossod sImpIv bv fho foIIowIng oqunfIons:
Ior 0 64 ≤ ≤ x f x f x
r
( ) ( ) = − − 9 63 9]
Whoro f ( ) −1 Is dofInod: f f ( ) ( ) − = 1 64 l0]
nnd whoro: f x
r
( ) Is fho x vnIuo of fho rovorso wnvo nf x
f x ( ) 63 − Is fho x vnIuo of fho forwnrd wnvo nf (63 x)
10
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IqunfIons 9] nnd l0] nro good oxnmpIos of mnfhomnfIcs fhnf do fho job, buf fnII fo gIvo
ono n vIsunI Imngo or sonso of whnf Is ronIIv goIng on In fho procoss. ThIs fvpo of mnfh Is
ncfunIIv quIfo usofuI, nonofhoIoss, for compufor gonornfIon of fho rovorso wnvo numbor
sof.
Wo hnvo fhus cronfod n sImpIo bIdIrocfIonnI wnvoform, hnvIng fho proporfIos of dIrocfod
fIow nnd ondpoInf cIosuro, nnd whIch cnn bo chnrncforIzod ns n pIocowIso IInonr funcfIon
n funcfIon wo hnvo vof fo dofIno ovor Ifs nonInfogor domnIn. Thnf wIII bo our noxf
sfop In fho formnIIzod dovoIopmonf of fho TineWote Jo/o ee/.
9HFWRUý([SUHVVLRQýRIýWKHý3LHFHZLVHý/LQHDUý)XQFWLRQ
Tho Sinple BiJirec/ionol Wote, ns doscrIbod fhus fnr, Is fundnmonfnIIv n coIIocfIon of
11
x, x] Infogor dnfn poInfs, fhnf nro gonornfod bv fho IOÐ numbor sof nnd fho
porformnnco of sovornI subsoquonf mnfhomnfIcnI opornfIons. Iv connocfIng fhoso poInfs
wIfh sfrnIghf IIno sogmonfs wo nro InforrIng fhnf somo pIocowIso IInonr procoss Is
rosponsIbIo for fIIIIng In fho gnps bofwoon Infogors, cronfIng n confInuous funcfIon ovor
fho domnIn dofInod bv fhoso ondpoInf Infogors. Howovor, wo hnvo vof fo dofIno such n
funcfIon mnfhomnfIcnIIv  n nocossnrv procoss If wo nro fo corrocfIv oxpnnd fho Sinple
BiJirec/ionol Wote Info fho TriLetel Conplex Wote, or 384 numbor dnfn sof.
IIg. 3 shows fho Sinple BiJirec/ionol Wote In Ifs fInnI form. Tho forwnrd nnd rovorso
wnvos nro proporIv suporImposod wIfh fho corrocf ondpoInf cIosuro, nnd fho dnfn sof
Infogors nro connocfod wIfh sfrnIghfIIno sogmonfs. Þofo fhnf fho prImnrv cIosuros occur
nf frnnsIfIon Indox l nnd Indox 62, wIfh socondnrv cIosuros nnd Indox 63 nnd 64. A
prImnrv ondpoInf cIosuro, In fhIs confoxf, Is sImpIv fho fIrsf ondpoInf cIosuro poInf ns
soon from ui//in fho bIdIrocfIonnI wnvo onvoIopo (nron oncIosod bv fho doubIo
wnvoform), whorons n socondnrv ondpoInf cIosuro poInf wouId bo nII subsoquonf poInfs of
cIosuro. Tho nofIon of prImnrv nnd socondnrv wnvo cIosuro Is Infroducod horo bocnuso If
wIII bo usod Infor whon fho /rigrono/ic nnd /exogrono/ic wnvos nro gonornfod nnd fhon
Indoxod wIfh fho IInonr wnvo.
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AIfhough IIg. 3 shows fho proporIv suporImposod forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvos, fhoro Is
nofhIng In fho grnph fhnf provIdos fhIs sonso of dIrocfod fIow, oxcopf fho wnvo InboIIng.
IIg. 4 Infroducos, for fho fIrsf fImo, vocfor roprosonfnfIon of fho forwnrd nnd rovorso
wnvo sogmonfs, provIdIng n vIsunI Imngo of wnvo dIrocfod fIow. ThIs grnph shows fho
forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvos ongngod n confInuousIv fIowIng procoss forwnrd wnvo fIows
Info fho rovorso wnvo, nnd fho rovorso wnvo fIows bnck Info fho forwnrd wnvo. ThIs
dvnnmIc nnd confInuous cvcIo Is nkIn fo fho fIow from YIn fo Ynng, Ynng fo YIn,
oxprossod In fho woIIknown YInYnng svmboI. If Is nIso sImIInr fo n procoss fhnf Is
doscrIbod In qunnfum fhoorv, ns fho fIow of mnffor fo onorgv, onorgv fo mnffor, In n
12
confInuous nnd novorondIng cvcIo. IIg. 4 cnn bo fhon vIowod ns n confInuousIv fIowIng
counforcIockwIso Ioop nIwnvs In mofIon, nnd nIwnvs chnngIng. So how Is fhIs procoss
fo bo oxprossod mnfhomnfIcnIIv so fhnf fhoso prIncIpIos nro prosorvod, nnd so fhov mIghf
bo oxpnndod Info n form of hIghor ordorod oxprossIon¨ ThIs Is whoro fho prIncIpIos of
vocfor mnfhomnfIcs cnn sorvo fho procoss woII.
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Tho grnph In IIg. 5 shows fho gonornIIzod form of forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvo IInonr
oIomonfs, oxprossod ns vocfors
&
F
1( ) i
for fho forwnrd wnvo sogmonf, nnd for fho
rovorso wnvo sogmonf. Tho subscrIpf l In fhIs vocfor nofnfIon sIgnIfIos fhnf fhIs vocfor Is
n fIrsf ordor oIomonf (I.o. n lineor wnvo oIomonf ns opposod fo n /rigrono/ic or
/exogrono/ic oIomonf), nnd fho subscrIpf sIgnIfIos fhnf fhIs sogmonf Is fho i//
oIomonf of fho forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvo IIno sogmonf sof. Tho vocfors í$, í%, í&, nnd
í' nro consfrucfIon vocfors for nnd , whorons vocfors í3 nnd í4ýnro vnrInbIo, or
pnrnmofrIc vocfors fhnf mnp fho IInos nIong whIch nnd IIo.
In fhIs grnph, fho xnxIs vnIuos corrospond fo fho IOÐ frnnsIfIons, wIfh or boIng
fho i// IOÐ frnnsIfIon, nnd or boIng fho i// +l frnnsIfIon, nnd fogofhor
fhov dofIno fho domnIn of fho IInonr bIdIrocfIonnI wnvo oIomonfs. Tho xnxIs vnIuos In
IIg. 5 corrospond fo fho mngnIfudo of fho forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvos, wIfh nnd
boIng fho i// Infogor vnIuos (nf x = i) of fho forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvos rospocfIvoIv. Tho
vnIuos nnd nro fho i// +l Infogor vnIuos (nf x = i+1) of fho forwnrd nnd
rovorso wnvos rospocfIvoIv. Thoso x vnIuos dofIno fho rnngo of fho Sinple BiJirec/ionol
Wote, from fho forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvo vnIuos: . Tho subscrIpf i Is Imporfnnf
13
horo bocnuso If osfnbIIshos fho boundnrv condIfIons (x domnIn) wIfhIn whIch onch IIno
sogmonf oxprossos IfsoIf. ThIs subscrIpf Is nssocInfod wIfh fho lineor uote, nnd Is n
funcfIon of fho Indopondonf vnrInbIo x. !of us dofIno X = {x} ns fho sof of nII posIfIvo ronI
numbors In fho domnIn of fho TWZ Jo/o ee/, nnd fho subscrIpf i ns n funcfIon
of x:
ll]
Whoro Inf() IndIcnfos fho nrgumonf x Is roundod down fo Ifs Infogor vnIuo.
Tho vocfor nofnfIon vIow of IIg. 5, cnn bo vIowod ns nn nbsfrncfIon for mofIon or fIow.
WIfh fhIs nofnfIon wo Ionvo fho ronIm of cInssIcnI goomofrv, or sfnfIcs, nnd onfor fho
ronIm of kInomnfIcs fho pnfh of n movIng poInf. Whon skofchIng n IIno or n curvo wIfh
poncII, for oxnmpIo, fho poInf of fho poncII occupIos n unIquo posIfIon on fho IIno or curvo
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nf nnv gIvon Insfnnf of fImo. Thon ns wo movo our hnnd, fho posIfIon of fho poncII poInf
chnngos In fImo nnd frncos fho IIno or curvo. ThIs Is ossonfInIIv how vocfor mnfhomnfIcs
sorvos fho foundnfIon nnd spIrIf of fho 384 numbor dnfn sof dovoIopmonf. SImIInrIv, fho
Sinple BiJirec/ionol Wote doscrIbos fho pnfh of n movIng poInf, n counforcIockwIso
14
fIow of somo onfIfv, bo If mnffor, onorgv, phofon, grnvIfon, notel/on, or eec/o/on. In fhIs
dvnnmIc or kInomnfIcs procoss, wo wIII mnko uso of fho nofIon of fho porone/er.
Tho porone/er hns boon doscrIbod bv Andorson
9
ns on inJepenJen/ torioIle u/ic/ eertee
/o Je/ernine //e coorJino/ee of o poin/ or JeecriIe i/e no/ion. ThIs Is fho nofIon fhnf wIII
bo usod horo, fo osfnbIIsh fho vocfor pnrnmofrIc oqunfIon of fho sfrnIghf IIno In n pInno.
AgnIn, nccordIng fo Andorson
9
fho porone/ric forn /elle ue u/ere //e poin/ goee, u/en i/
ge/e //ere oe uell oe //e curte olong u/ic/ i/ /rotele. Ioforo fhIs pnrnmoforIznfIon Is
bogun, howovor, vocfors nnd musf fIrsf bo dofInod mnfhomnfIcnIIv.
(l) Iorwnrd Wnvo Vocfor IqunfIons
!oforrIng fo IIg. 5, fho forwnrd wnvo vocfor , for fho i// frnnsIfIon oIomonf cnn bo
oxprossod ns dIrocfod IIno sogmonf $%:
l2]
nnd fho vocfor í%ýIs oxprossod: l3]
!onrrnngIng oqunfIon l3]: l4]
SubsfIfufIng sfnndnrd form: l5]
WhIch roducos fo: l6]
(2) !ovorso Wnvo Vocfor IqunfIons
Tho rovorso wnvo vocfor , for fho i// frnnsIfIon oIomonf cnn bo oxprossod ns dIrocfod
IIno sogmonf &':
l?]
nnd fho vocfor í'ýIs oxprossod: l8]
!onrrnngIng oqunfIon l8]: l9]
SubsfIfufIng sfnndnrd form: 20]
WhIch roducos fo: 2l]
WIfh fho dorIvnfIon of oqunfIon l6] nnd 2l], wo hnvo now dofInod fho gonornIIzod
forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvo vocfors mnfhomnfIcnIIv. Thoso vocfor dofInIfIons wIII bo usod
15
fo formuInfo fho vocfor pnrnmofrIc oqunfIons of fho gonornIIzod IIno sogmonf, fho bnsIs
for fho Sinple BiJirec/ionol Wote nnd fho wnvo oxpnnsIons fhnf foIIow.
(3) Tho !Inonr IIdIrocfIonnI Wnvo
Tho Sinple BiJirec/ionol Wote Is nII fhnf wo hnvo fhus fnr dofInod or doscrIbod; buf fhIs
wnvo forms fho bnsIs for fho Lineor, Trigrono/ic, nnd Hexogrono/ic wnvos whIch nro nII
producfs of fho oxpnnsIon of fhIs bnsIc buIIdIng bIock. Tho fIrsf sfop In fho procoss of
wnvo oxpnnsIon nnd combInnfIon fhnf ovonfunIIv Ionds fo fho 384 numbor dnfn sof Is fho
gonornfIon of fho Lineor BiJirec/ionol Wote. ThIs wnvo Is producod from fho Sinple Bi
Jirec/ionol Wote (SBW) bv sImpIo concnfonnfIon I.o. InsorfIng fIvo copIos of fho SBW
ondfoond wIfh fho orIgInnI, nnd producIng sIx SBW cvcIos. AccordIng fo McKonnn, fho
Lineor Wote Is nn oxprossIon of fho sIx IInos fhnf dofIno onch IChIng hoxngrnm  Tho
SBW fhon roprosonfs ono IIno of fho hoxngrnm, nnd fhoro nro sIx SBW connocfod ondfo
ond fo form fho Lineor BiJirec/ionol Wote (LBW). IIg. 6 Is n grnph of fhIs oxpnndod
SBW, or Lineor BiJirec/ionol Wote (LBW), nnd shows fho concnfonnfIon procoss fhnf
oxpnnds fho SBW (64 vnIuos, oxcIudIng zoro) Info fho LBW (384 vnIuos, oxcIudIng zoro).
AIfhough fhIs grnph doos nof show fho vocfor sfrucfuro of IIg. 4 (fo nvoId crowdIng fho
grnph), If Is ImpIIod horo. Tho LBW fhoroforo oxprossos fho snmo procoss of dIrocfod fIow
ns doos fho SBW, n counforcIockwIso fIow of somo poInf onfIfv nIong fho pnfh frncod bv
fho forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvos In IIg. 6.
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Tho concnfonnfIon procoss fhnf producos fho LBW cnn bo oxprossod mnfhomnfIcnIIv ns
foIIows:
Ior: 22]
16
nnd for: 23]
Whoro: (pronouncod IIn of i) Is fho vnIuo of fho forwnrd or rovorso IInonr wnvo nf
frnnsIfIon poInf i or nf ; nnd Is fho vnIuo of fho forwnrd or rovorso
IInonr wnvo nf , whoro Is fho romnIndor whon i Is dIvIdod bv 64.
Tho Lineor BiJirec/ionol Wote (LBW) wIII now bo oxprossod mnfhomnfIcnIIv, nnd
oxpnndod Info fho Trigrono/ic BiJirec/ionol Wote (TBW), nnd Hexogrono/ic Bi
Jirec/ionol Wote (HBW), usIng mnfhomnfIcs dorIvod from fho vocfor pnrnmofrIc oqunfIon
of fho sfrnIghf IIno.
9HFWRUý3DUDPHWULFý(TXDWLRQVýRIýWKHý)RUZDUGýDQGý5HYHUVHý/LQHý6HJPHQWV
(l) Tho !Inonr Iorwnrd Wnvo Vocfor
Tho porone/er Is Infroducod bv dofInIng fho sfrnIghf IIno In forms of n poInf , n
vocfor , nnd n pnrnmofor /. !ofor fo IIg. 5 nnd Iocnfo fho vocfors í$ñý$%ñýnndýí3. Wo
hnvo nIrondv dofInod vocfor $%ýIn oqunfIon l2] ns fho forwnrd wnvo vocfor (Iqn
l6]), whIch osfnbIIshos n dIrocfIon for our IIno sogmonf. Vocfor í$ Is In sfnndnrd
posIfIon (fnII posIfIonod nf fho coordInnfo svsfom orIgIn), so fhnf If Is dofInod bv fho
posIfIon of Ifs hond nf poInf . Vocfor í3 Is fho vnrInbIo or movIng vocfor nnd,
IIko fho movIng poncII poInf, Ifs hond frncos fho pnfh of fho sfrnIghf IIno fhnf wo nro
Inforosfod In. !of us ronnmo vocfor í3 ns fho IInonr forwnrd wnvo vocfor , nnd sInco If
Is In sfnndnrd posIfIon (fnII nf fho orIgIn so fhnf If Is dofInod bv fho coordInnfos of Ifs
hond), If Is doscrIbod mnfhomnfIcnIIv bv fho foIIowIng oxprossIon:
24]
In whIch nro fho vnrInbIo coordInnfos of fho vocfor hond. ThIs vocfor cnn nIso bo
oxprossod ns fho sum of vocfors í$ýnnd fho forwnrd wnvo vocfor ns foIIows:
25]
Vocfor í$ýIn sfnndnrd posIfIon Is oxprossod ns
nnd from oqunfIon l6]
17
so fhnf oqunfIon 25] cnn now bo oxprossod ns:
26]
wIfh fho pnrnmofor W hnvIng n rnngo: ovor fho x domnIn
IqunfIon 26] cnn now bo soIvod for x nnd vI, fho gonornI coordInnfos of fho vocfor , fo
doformIno fho porone/ric eouo/ion of //e line doscrIbIng fho mofIon of fho forwnrd wnvo.
SoIvIng for x nnd v
I
vIoIds fho foIIowIng porone/ric eouo/ione of fho IIno:
2?]
28]
SoIvIng 2?] nnd 28] for fho pnrnmofor f wo gof:
29]
Thoso oxprossIons for fho x nnd v vnrInbIos In oqunfIon 29], nro fho e/onJorJ forn of //e
line eouo/ion, nnd show fhnf fho porone/er f bohnvos ns nn in/erpolo/ion opero/or for fho
x nnd v coordInnfos of fho forwnrd wnvo IIno sogmonf. !onrrnngIng forms for fho
vnrInbIos In oqunfIon 29] Ionds fo fho elope xin/ercep/ forn of fho sfrnIghfIIno oqunfIon,
whIch Is n convonIonf form of oxprossIon for fho IIno sogmonf of Inforosf In fhIs
dovoIopmonf. Tho elope xin/ercep/ form of fho IIno Is doformInod bv soIvIng 29] for fho
vnrInbIo , whIch rosuIfs In fho oxprossIon:
30]
ÐofIno: nnd , so fhnf 29] bocomos:
>êì@
whIch Is fho elope xin/ercep/ form of fho forwnrd IInonr wnvo IIno sogmonf, whoro fho
sIopo Is , nnd fho Inforcopf Is . IqunfIon 3l] Is fho
vocfordorIvod oxprossIon fhnf Is usod fo gonornfo fho IInonr forwnrd wnvo ovor fho
domnIn . ThIs forwnrd wnvo vocfor gonornfIon procoss Is now roponfod for
fho rovorso wnvo vocfor.
18
(2) Tho !Inonr !ovorso Wnvo Vocfor
Tho procoss for gonornfIng fho tec/or porone/ric eouo/ione for fho rovorso wnvo sogmonf
Is fho snmo ns for fho forwnrd sogmonf, buf wIfh n vocfor fhnf hns fho opposIfo sonso
(opposIfo fIow) of fho forwnrd wnvo vocfor. AgnIn, rofor fo IIg. 5 nnd fInd vocfors í&, &',
nnd í4ïýýVocfor &' hns nIrondv boon dofInod In oqunfIon l?] ns fho rovorso wnvo vocfor,
. Vocfor í4, IIko vocfor í3, Is fho movIng vnrInbIo vocfor (fnII Is fIxod, buf hond
movos nnd frncos fho IIno of Inforosf) whIch wIII frnco fho pnfh of our rovorso wnvo IIno
sogmonf. Wo now ronnmo í4 ns fho rovorso wnvogonornfIng vocfor nnd sInco If Is In
sfnndnrd posIfIon If cnn bo oxprossod ns:
32]
In whIch nro fho vnrInbIo coordInnfos for fho hond of . IxprossIng ns fho
sum of í& nnd fho pnrnmofor scnIod , wo hnvo:
33]
SubsfIfufIng for í& nnd wo hnvo:
34]
SoIvIng for x nnd v
!
vIoIds fho foIIowIng porone/ric eouo/ione of fho IIno:
35]
36]
SoIvIng for fho pnrnmofor f wo gof:
3?]
fhon soIvIng for v! gIvos us fho elope xin/ercep/ form of fho IInonr rovorso IIno sogmonf:
38]
19
ÐofIno: nnd , so fhnf 38] Is oxprossod In
fho sIopo xin/ercep/ forn of fho IInonr rovorso wnvo IIno sogmonf. ÞofIco nIso fhnf
∆ ∆ x x
r(i) f(i)
= − , nn IdonfIfv fhnf wIII bo oxpIoIfod Infor. Ior fho elope xin/ercep/ forn
of 38] wo subsfIfufo fho doIfn ( ) oxprossIons nnd coIIocf forms:
>êä@
IqunfIons 3l] nnd 39] consfIfufo fho Jefining expreeeione for fho IInonr forwnrd nnd
rovorso wnvos rospocfIvoIv, nnd oqunfIon ll] provIdos fho corrocf vnIuo for fho subscrIpf
i In oqunfIon 39]. Thoso oqunfIons cnn bo oIfhor oxpnndod Info fho frIgrnmnfIc nnd
hoxngrnmnfIc bIdIrocfIonnI wnvos (TBW nnd HBW) dIrocfIv, whIch nro fhon combInod fo
form compIox wnvos; or fhov cnn bo fIrsf combInod Info n IInonr compIox wnvo, fhon
oxpnndod Info fho frIgrnmnfIc nnd hoxngrnmnfIc compIox wnvos. IIfhor of fhoso fwo
procoduros wIII Iond fo fho snmo fInnI 384 numbor dnfn sof, buf fho Inffor Is n moro
sfronmIInod procoss fhnf oIImInnfos sovornI opornfIonnI sfops. Tho compIox wnvo Is
dofInod horo, ns nnv wnvo fhnf Is n IInonr combInnfIon of ono or moro bIdIrocfIonnI
wnvos, nnd Is nof oxprossod In bIdIrocfIonnI form. So now Iof us confInuo wIfh fho
procoss of wnvo combInnfIon, bogInnIng wIfh fho IInonr bIdIrocfIonnI (forwnrd nnd
rovorso) wnvo.
(3) Tho !Inonr CompIox Wnvo
Ioforo bogInnIng fho mnfhomnfIcnI dovoIopmonf of fho IInonr compIox wnvo, Iof us fIrsf
osfnbIIsh fho procoduro for forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvo combInnfIon.
ÐofInIfIon 4:
In ordor fo produco forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvo ondpoInf (nodo) cIosuro nf zoro (0) vnIuo,
fho forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvos musf bo subfrncfod from ono nnofhor fo vIoId zoro vnIuod
ondpoInfs for fho combInod sImpIo wnvo. In ordor fo mnxImIzo fho numbor of posIfIvo
vnIuos for fho rosuIfnnf combInod wnvo, fho forwnrd wnvo Is subfrncfod from fho rovorso
wnvo.
Tho IInonr compIox wnvo Is fhoroforo producod bv subfrncfIng oqunfIon 3l] (fho forwnrd
wnvo IIno sogmonf), from oqunfIon 39] (fho rovorso wnvo IIno sogmonf). Tho combInod
or compIox IInonr wnvo Is fhorobv oxprossod ns:
40]
!opIncIng fho oxprossIon wIfh fho rIghf hnnd sIdos of oqunfIon 39] nnd
3l], wo gof:
20
y
C1
r(i)
r(i)
r(i 1)
r(i)
r(i)
(i 1)
f(i)
f(i)
f(i)
f(i)
f(i)
i
(x)
y
x
x y
y
x
x
y
x
x y
y
x
x = + − − − −
á
!
"
$
#
#
á
!
"
$
#
#
%
&
K
'
K
(
)
K
*
K
á
!
"
$
#
#
á
!
"
$
#
#
%
&
K
'
K
(
)
K
*
K
+ +
∆
∆
∆
∆
∆
∆
∆
∆
4l]
nnd combInIng IIko forms nnd ronrrnngIng oqunfIon 4l] gIvos us:
y x
C1
r(i)
r(i)
f(i)
f(i)
r(i 1) f(i)
r(i)
r(i)
(i 1)
f(i)
f(i)
i
(x)
y
x
y
x
x y y
y
x
y
x
x = − + − − +
á
!
"
$
#
#
%
&
K
'
K
(
)
K
*
K
á
!
"
$
#
#
á
!
"
$
#
#
%
&
K
'
K
(
)
K
*
K
+ +
∆
∆
∆
∆
∆
∆
∆
∆
42]
!sIng fho IdonfIfv shown provIousIv, ∆ ∆ x x
r(i) f(i)
= − , oqunfIon 42] Is roducod fo fho
Jefining eouo/ion for fho IInonr compIox wnvo:
y
C1
(x)
y y
x
(x) y y
y x y x
x
r(i) f(i)
f(i)
r(i 1) f(i)
r(i) (i 1) f(i) i
f(i)
= −
+
∗ + − +
+
á
!
"
$
#
#
%
&
K
'
K
(
)
K
*
K
á
!
"
$
#
á
!
"
$
#
#
%
&
K
'
K
(
)
K
*
K
+
+
∆ ∆
∆
∆ ∆
∆
>éê@
Whoro v
Cl
(x) Is fho lineor conplex uote func/ion nnd fho doIfn (∆) funcfIons dofInod ns:
∆y (y y )
r(i) r(i) r(i 1)
= −
+
,
WhIch Is fho chnngo In fho IInonr rovorso wnvo dopondonf vnrInbIo xr ovor fho x domnIn
of x x x
i (i 1)
≤ ≤
+
∆y (y y )
f(i) f(i 1) f(i)
= −
+
,
WhIch Is fho chnngo In fho IInonr forwnrd wnvo dopondonf vnrInbIo xf ovor fho x domnIn
of x x x
i (i 1)
≤ ≤
+
∆x (x x )
f(i) (i 1) i
= −
+
,
WhIch Is fho chnngo In fho Indopondonf vnrInbIo x ovor fho domnIn of fho IInonr compIox
wnvo IIno sogmonf, x x x
i (i 1)
≤ ≤
+
i x = int( )
As dofInod In oqunfIon ll]
SubsfIfufIng fho domnIn ondpoInfs, x
I
nnd x
(I+l)
for fho xvnrInbIo, oqunfIon 43] roducos
fo:
@x x
i
= y
C1
(x) y y
r(i) f(i)
= − 44]
@x x
(i 1)
=
+
y
C1
(x) y y
r(i 1) f(i 1)
= −
+ +
45]
21
WhIch confIrms whnf wo obsorvo nf fho IInonr wnvo IIno sogmonf ondpoInfs, nnd
vnIIdnfos oqunfIon 43]
([SDQVLRQýRIýWKHý/LQHDUý&RPSOH[ý:DYHýõ/&:ô
AccordIng fo McKonnn
l0
fho TrIgrnmnfIc wnvo Is nn oxprossIon of fho frIgrnm pnIr fhnf
form onch IChIng hoxngrnm. SInco onch hoxngrnm hns n pnIr of frIgrnms, n Trigrono/ic
Wote pnIr Is consfrucfod such fhnf fho fwo frIgrnmnfIc wnvos nro pIncod ondfoond
(concnfonnfod), nnd hnvo fho domnIn (xnxIs rnngo) of sIx sImpIo wnvo cvcIos. Tho
Trigrono/ic wnvo Is nIso vIowod ns hnvIng n vnIuo of fhroo fImos fho IInonr wnvo, sInco n
frIgrnm consIsfs of fhroo IInos (frIgrnm = 3 x l IInos). SImIInrIv, fho Hexogrono/ic wnvo
Is vIowod ns nn oxprossIon of fho unIfv of onch hoxngrnm, nnd Is consfrucfod so fhnf n
sIngIo hoxngrnmnfIc wnvo occupIos fho domnIn of sIx sImpIo wnvos cvcIos (sIx IInos fo n
hoxngrnm), or fwo frIgrnmnfIc wnvo cvcIos (fwo frIgrnms fo n hoxngrnm). AddIfIonnIIv,
sInco fho hoxngrnm confnIns sIx IInos, fho hoxngrnmnfIc wnvo Is soon ns sIx fImos ns
Inrgo ns fho sImpIo wnvo (hoxngrnm = 6 x l IInos, nnd hoxngrnmnfIc wnvo = 6 x l sImpIo
wnvos).
ThIs TriLetel Conplex Wote Is doscrIbod ns hnvIng fho snmo fhroo nosfod IovoIs of
oxprossIon ns oxhIbIfod bv nn IChIng hoxngrnm. Tho fop IovoI Is fho Hexogrono/ic
Wote, or hoxngrnm ns n whoIo, whIch confnIns fho fwo Iowor IovoIs, fwo Trigrono/ic
Wotee nnd sIx Sinple Wote cvcIos. Tho mId IovoI of oxprossIon Is fho Trigrono/ic Wote,
whIch confnIns fho sIx Sinple Wote cvcIos boIow nnd Is confnInod bv fho ono
hoxngrnmnfIc cvcIo nbovo. Tho boffom IovoI of oxprossIon Is fho lineor uote, hnvIng sIx
sImpIo wnvo cvcIos fhnf nro confnInod wIfhIn fwo frIgrnmnfIc wnvo cvcIos nnd ono
hoxngrnmnfIc wnvo cvcIo.
If wo woro fo Iook nf fho compIox wnvo ns nnnIogous fo somo phvsIcnI wnvo, bo If
oIocfromngnofIc or ncousfIc, fhon fhIs frIIovoI wnvo sfrucfuro couId bo vIowod ns
hnrmonIc In nnfuro. Tho hoxngrnmnfIc wnvo wouId fhon corrospond fo fho wnvo
fundnmonfnI or l
sf
hnrmonIc, fho frIgrnmnfIc wnvo wouId corrospond fo fho socond
hnrmonIc (2x fho fundnmonfnI froquoncv), nnd fho IInonr wnvo wouId corrospond fo fho
sIxfh hnrmonIc (6x fho fundnmonfnI froquoncv). In fho cnso of fho TriLetel Conplex
Wote, howovor, fho hnrmonIc wnvos nro nof onIv froquoncv muIfIpIos, fhov nro nIso
nmpIIfudo muIfIpIos of fho fundnmonfnI, or hoxngrnmnfIc wnvo. AIfhough fhIs nofIon of
wnvo hnrmonIcs mnv onIv bo nn InforosfIng porspocfIvo nf fhIs poInf, If mnv bo usofuI
whon oxnmInIng fho wnvo fonfuros of fhoso numbor sofs usIng IourIor nnnIvsIs.
7KHý([SDQVLRQý3URFHVVý([SUHVVHGý*UDSKLFDOO\
CrnphIcnIIv sponkIng fho Trigrono/ic Conplex Wote Is sImpIv n 3x mngnIfIcnfIon of fho
IInonr compIox wnvo, I.o. fho mngnIfIcnfIon of fho fIrsf fwo of Ifs sImpIo wnvo cvcIos. ThIs
3x mngnIfIcnfIon monns fhnf fho IInonr compIox wnvo sogmonfs nro oxpnndod bv n fncfor
of fhroo, In bofh fho x nnd x dIrocfIons. SImIInrIv, fho Hexogrono/ic Conplex Wote Is n
6x mngnIfIcnfIon of fho IInonr compIox wnvo, I.o. fho mngnIfIcnfIon of fho fIrsf of fho
22
sImpIo wnvo cvcIos. IIguro ? Is n grnphIcnI roprosonfnfIon of fhIs procoss, nnd shows fho
3x nnd 6x mngnIfIcnfIon ovor fho fIrsf 64 frnnsIfIon Indox vnIuos (64 of 384). Tho grnph
shows ono compIofo lineor cvcIo, onofhIrd of n /rigrono/ic wnvo cvcIo, nnd onosIxfh of n
/exogrono/ic wnvo cvcIo.
Ono sIgnIfIcnnf fonfuro fo nofIco In IIg. ?, Is fhnf //e lineor, /rigrono/ic, nnd
/exogrono/ic wnvos nro offsof from ono nnofhor fho fIrsf ponk of onch wnvo IovoI Is nof
nIIgnod wIfh Ifs noIghbor. ÞofIco nIso, fhnf fhIs fIrsf ponk nf onch wnvo IovoI (IInonr, frI,
nnd hox) occurs nf fho prImnrv cIosuro poInf (I.o. fho fIrsf cIosuro poInf ns obsorvod from
wIfhIn fho onvoIopo of fho IInonr, frI, nnd hox bIdIrocfIonnI wnvos). Ior fho lineor wnvo
fhIs cIosuro occurs nf Indox l, for fho /rigrono/ic wnvo If Is nf Indox 3, nnd for fho
/exogrono/ic wnvo If occurs nf Indox 6. ThIs Is oxncfIv fho dofInIng l36 rnfIo for
lineor, /rigrono/ic, nnd /exogrono/ic wnvos, whIch fhIs grnph IIIusfrnfos woII.
Anofhor fonfuro fo nofIco nbouf IIg. ? Is fhnf fhIs wnvo offsof Is duo fo fho fncf fhnf
lineor wnvo sogmonf l Is IncIudod In fho lineor wnvo numbor sof. !omombor fhnf fhIs
fIrsf sogmonf (from Indox 0 fo Indox l) Is n rosuIf of fho ¨wrnppIng¨ fonfuro of fho sImpIo
)LJXUHýæ
IIdIrocfIonnI wnvo frnnsIfIon 64 Is wrnppod (copIod) fo frnnsIfIon zoro for fho sImpIo
wnvo, or frnnsIfIon 384 Is wrnppod fo zoro for fho onfIro IInonr bIdIrocfIonnI wnvo.
Thoroforo, frnnsIfIon numbor 0 Is nof fho sfnrfIng poInf of fho wnvo, buf frnnsIfIon l Is.
ÞonofhoIoss, Iof us mnfhomnfIcnIIv oxpross fho IInonr forwnrd wnvo oxpnnsIon, shown In
IIg. ?, ns foIIows:
46]
23
Or bv ronrrnngIng forms In 46]:
4?]
!IkowIso for fho IInonr rovorso wnvo:
48]
nnd ronrrnngIng: 49]
ThIs snmo sof of oqunfIons, 46] fhrough 49] cnn bo usod fo oxpnnd fho IInonr wnvo Info
fho hoxngrnmnfIc wnvo shown In IIg. ?, bv ropIncIng nII numbor 3`s bv 6`s. Howovor,
sInco fho ncfunI sfnrfIng poInf for fhIs wnvo sof Is nf frnnsIfIon l nnd nof frnnsIfIon 0,
fho propor oxpnnsIon wIII Iook ns shown In IIg. 8. In fhIs fIguro, nIIgnmonf bofwoon
IInonr, frIgrnmnfIc, nnd hoxngrnmnfIc wnvos occurs nf frnnsIfIon Indox l; nIso n poInf of
prImnrv cIosuro.
)LJXUHýå
IIg. 8 nIso shows fhIs oxpnnsIon In forms of fho lineor, /ri, nnd /ex bIdIrocfIonnI wnvos,
In whIch fho IInonr bIdIrocfIonnI wnvo Is oxpnndod Info fho /rigrono/ic, nnd
/exogrono/ic bIdIrocfIonnI wnvos. Howovor, fhoso bIdIrocfIonnI wnvos nro ovonfunIIv
combInod fo form fho compIox wnvo svsfom, ns doscrIbod bv oqunfIon 43] for fho IInonr
wnvo cnso. SInco nII fhroo bIdIrocfIonnI wnvos nro fo bo oxprossod ns compIox wnvos,
24
sovornI opornfIonnI sfops cnn bo omIffod nnd fho procoss sfronmIInod, bv oxpnndIng fho
IInonr compIox wnvo dIrocfIv. ConsoquonfIv, wo wIII foIIow n mnfhomnfIcnI procoss fhnf
oxpnnds fho IInonr compIox wnvo, doscrIbod bv oqunfIon 43], Info fho frI nnd hox
compIox wnvos. In fho Inforosf of mnInfnInIng vIsunI cInrIfv of fhIs procoss, howovor,
nnd of romnInIng fruo fo fho nofIon of n dIrocfod fIowIng wnvo cvcIo nf nII fhroo IovoIs of
oxprossIon, wo show fho oxpnndod wnvo svsfom ns bIdIrocfIonnI In nnfuro.
IIg. 9 shows fho propor oxpnnsIon of fho IInonr bIdIrocfIonnI wnvo Info fho frIgrnmnfIc
nnd hoxngrnmnfIc bIdIrocfIonnI wnvos, wIfh wnvo IndoxIng nf frnnsIfIon l. ThIs grnph
shows fho onfIro 384 numbor wnvo domnIn, In whIch n sIngIo /exogrono/ic wnvo cvcIo
confnIns fwo /rigrono/ic wnvo cvcIos nnd sIx IInonr wnvo cvcIos. ThIs nofIon of nII fhroo
IovoIs of wnvo oxprossIon boIng confnInod, or nosfod In ono IovoI Is fho ncfunI fhoorofIcnI
bnsIs for fho /riletel uote combInnfIon fhnf producos n sIngIo TriLetel Conplex Wote
//e Jo/o ee/.
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IIg. l0 shows fho snmo frIIovoI bIdIrocfIonnI wnvo sof ns IIg. 9, buf wIfh fho nvorngo
vnIuo of fho IInonr nnd /rigrono/ic bIdIrocfIonnI wnvos nIIgnod wIfh fho nvorngo vnIuo
of fho /exogrono/ic wnvo. Thoso fwo fIguros nro mnfhomnfIcnIIv oquIvnIonf for fhIs
dovoIopmonf, ns wo shnII soo.
IIg. l0 Is IncIudod horo bocnuso If Is fho form of fho TriLetel BiJirec/ionol Wote fhnf
npponrs In fho TWZ documonfnfIon, nnd If Is obvIous fhnf If Iooks dIfforonf fhnn IIg. 9.
Tho IInonr nnd frIgrnmnfIc bIdIrocfIonnI wnvos In IIg. l0 hnvo fhoIr nvorngo vnIuos
nIIgnod fo fho hoxngrnmnfIc wnvo nvorngo vnIuo, so fhnf fhov movo nbouf n common IIno
fho hoxngrnmnfIc nvorngo. ThIs grnph mnv Iook dIfforonf fhnn IIg. 9, buf fho fncf Is
fhnf fhov nro IdonfIcnI mnfhomnfIcnIIv. Tho ronson Is fhnf, In ordor fo produco fho
25
combInod compIox wnvo, fho forwnrd wnvo Is subfrncfod from fho rovorso wnvo, ns
shown In oqunfIons 40] fhrough 43]. SInco fho forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvos romnIn
)LJXUHýìí
cIosod, or connocfod nf fhoIr ondpoInfs, If doosn`f mnffor whoro nIong fho vnxIs fhov nro
shIffod fho rosuIfIng dIfforonco Is fho snmo. ConsoquonfIv, IIg. 9 Is oquIvnIonf fo IIg.
l0, nnd fho grnphs npponrIng In fho TWZ documonfnfIon.
So Iof us now bogIn wIfh fho mnfhomnfIcnI oxpnnsIon of fho Lineor Conplex Wote, of
oqunfIon 43], Info fho Trigrono/ic nnd Hexogrono/ic Conplex Wotee, nnd fhon fInnIIv
Info fho TriLetel Conplex Wote fho 384 numbor Jo/o ee/.
7KHý0DWKHPDWLFVýRIýWKHý7ULJUDPDWLFýDQGý+H[DJUDPDWLFý&RPSOH[ý:DYHV
(l) Tho TrIgrnmnfIc CompIox Wnvo
CIoso InspocfIon of IIgs 8 nnd 9 rovonIs fho roInfIonshIp bofwoon fho funcfIons
doscrIbIng fho IInonr, frIgrnmnfIc, nnd hoxngrnmnfIc wnvos. Tho roInfIonshIp bofwoon
IInonr nnd frIgrnmnfIc forwnrd wnvos Is shown In IIgs 8 nnd 9, nnd Is oxprossod
mnfhomnfIcnIIv ns foIIows:
y y
F3 F1
(3x 2) 3 (x) − = 50]
Whoro fho qunnfIfv wIfhIn fho pnronfhosos Is fho nrgumonf for v( ), nnd nof n
muIfIpIIor. !onrrnngIng forms In 50] wo gof:
26
y y
F3 F1
(x) 3 ( )
x 2
3
=
+
5l]
Whoro y (x)
F3
Is fho vnIuo of fho /rigrono/ic foruorJ uote nf x, nnd 3
2
3
y
F1
( )
x+
Is fhroo
fImos fho vnIuo of fho lineor foruorJ uote nf ( )
x+ 2
3
. !IkowIso, fho /rigrono/ic reteree
uote Is oxprossod In forms of fho IInonr rovorso wnvo bv fho oqunfIon:
y (3x 2) 3y (x)
R3 R1
− = 52]
nnd bv ronrrnngIng forms wo gof:
y y
R3 R1
(x) 3
x 2
3
( ) =
+
53]
Tho frIgrnmnfIc compIox wnvo Is dofInod In fho snmo mnnnor ns fho IInonr compIox
wnvo, wIfh fho frI forwnrd wnvo subfrncfod from fho frI rovorso wnvo ns In oqunfIon 40]
nnd oxprossod In frIgrnmnfIc forms bv:
y (x) y (x) y (x)
C3 R3 F3
= − 54]
!sIng 50], 52], nnd 54] wo cnn oxpross fho frIgrnmnfIc compIox wnvo In forms of fho
IInonr compIox wnvo ns foIIows:
y y y y
R3 F3 R1 F1
(3x 2) (3x 2) 3 (x) 3 (x) − − − = − 55]
or oquIvnIonfIv: y y y
C3 R1 F1
( ) 3 3 (x) (x) 3 2 x − = − 56]
IncforIng fho rIghf sIdo of 56} gIvos: y {y y
C3 R1 F1
( ) 3 (x) (x)} 3 2 x − = − 5?]
SubsfIfufIng fho oxprossIon for fho IInonr compIox wnvo on fho rIghf hnnd sIdo of
oqunfIon 40], Info 5?]:
y
C3
(3x 2) lin(x) 3[ ] − = 58]
fhon ronrrnngIng 58] wo gof: y x
C3
( ) lin
x
3[ ] ( )
2
3
=
+
59]
IqunfIon 59] shows fhnf fho vnIuo of fho /rigrono/ic conplex uote nf x, Is oqunI fo
fhroo fImos fho vnIuo of fho lineor conplex uote nf x 2 3 + 1 6 . !opIncIng fho xform
form In fho lin(x) oxprossIon of oqunfIon 43] wIfh fho oxprossIon x+ 2 3 1 6 , fhon
subsfIfufIng Info 59] gIvos us fho dofInIng oqunfIon of fho /rigrono/ic conplex uote ns
foIIows:
27
y (x) y y
C3
3
y y
x
y x y x
x
r(i) f(i)
f(i)
r(i) (i 1) f(i) i
f(i)
x 2
3
( )
r(i 1) f(i)
= − − + +
+ +
á
!
"
$
#
#
á
!
"
$
#
á
!
"
$
#
#
%
&
K
'
K
(
)
K
*
K
∗
+
+
+
∆ ∆
∆
∆ ∆
∆
>çí@
In fhIs oxprossIon fho subscrIpf i Is oxprossod ns n funcfIon of x, usIng fho procoss
sImIInr fo fhnf whIch producod oqunfIon ll]. In fhIs cnso, sInco fho x form hns bocomo
x+ 2 3 1 6 , fho oxprossIon dofInIng fho boundIng subscrIpf i fhon bocomos:
i x j = + = int 2 3 1 6 < A
6l]
Whoro subscrIpf i Is ronnmod ns j fo dIsfInguIsh If from fho IInonr wnvo oxprossIon
subscrIpf shown In fho provIous IInonr wnvo oqunfIons. IqunfIon 6l] dofInos subscrIpf j
ns fho roundod down Infogor vnIuo of fho funcfIon x + 2 3 1 6 , fhus osfnbIIshIng fho
boundnrv condIfIons for fho frIgrnmnfIc IIno sogmonf mnppod bv fhIs funcfIon.
IqunfIon 60] oxprossos fho Trigrono/ic Conplex Wote (TCW) ns nn oxpnnsIon of fho
Lineor Conplex Wote (LCW) dIrocfIv. Howovor, fho snmo rosuIf wouId bo obfnInod If fho
IInonr forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvos hnd boon oxpnndod Info fho frIgrnmnfIc forwnrd nnd
rovorso wnvos, nnd fhoso rosuIfs combInod fo for fho /rigrono/ic conplex uote. ThIs
dIrocf nppronch cIonrIv oIImInnfos fwo vorv dofnIIod mnfhomnfIcnI sfops. Tho snmo
sorIos of sfops wIII now bo usod fo fInd fho oxprossIon for fho /exogrono/ic conplex
uote.
(2) Tho HoxngrnmnfIc CompIox Wnvo
As for fho frIgrnmnfIc wnvo, InspocfIon of IIgs. 8 nnd 9 rovonIs fhnf fho roInfIonshIp
bofwoon fho IInonr forwnrd wnvo nnd fho hoxngrnmnfIc forwnrd wnvo cnn bo oxprossod:
y y
F F1
( x ) (x)
6
6 5 6 − = 62]
!onrrnngIng forms for fhIs funcfIon wo gof:
y (x) y
F F1
( )
x
6
6
5
6
=
+
63]
Whoro y (x)
F6
Is fho vnIuo of fho hoxngrnmnfIc forwnrd wnvo nf x, nnd 6 5 6 y
F1
x+ 1 6 < A
Is
sIx fImos fho vnIuo of fho IInonr forwnrd wnvo nf x+ 5 6 1 6 < A
. !IkowIso, fho hoxngrnmnfIc
rovorso wnvo Is oxprossod In forms of fho IInonr rovorso wnvo bv fho oqunfIon:
y y
R R1
( x ) (x)
6
6 5 6 − = 64]
nnd bv ronrrnngIng forms wo gof:
y y
R R1
(x)
x
( )
6
6
5
6
=
+
65]
28
Tho /exogrono/ic conplex uote Is dofInod In fho snmo mnnnor ns fho lineor nnd
/rigrono/ic conplex uotee, wIfh fho hox forwnrd wnvo subfrncfod from fho hox rovorso
wnvo ns In oqunfIon 40] nnd 54], nnd oxprossod In hoxngrnmnfIc forms bv:
y y y
C R F
(x) (x) (x)
6 6 6
= − 66]
!sIng 62], 64], nnd 66] wo cnn oxpross fho /exogrono/ic conplex uote In forms of fho
lineor conplex uote ns foIIows:
y y y y
R F R1 F1
( x ) ( x ) (x) (x)
6 6
6 5 6 5 6 6 − − − = − 6?]
or oquIvnIonfIv: y y y
C R1 F1
( ) (x) (x)
6
6 5 6 6 x − = − 68]
IncforIng fho rIghf sIdo of 68] gIvos: y {y y
C R1 F1
( ) (x) (x)}
6
6 5 6 x − = − 69]
SubsfIfufIng fho oxprossIon for fho IInonr compIox wnvo on fho rIghf hnnd sIdo of
oqunfIon 40], Info 69]:
y { }
C
( x ) lin(x)
6
6 5 6 − = ?0]
fhon ronrrnngIng ?0] wo gof: y x
C
( ) lin
x
{ ( )}
6
6
5
6
=
+
?l]
IqunfIon ?l] shows fhnf fho vnIuo of fho /exogrono/ic conplex uote nf x, Is oqunI fo sIx
fImos fho vnIuo of fho lineor conplex uote nf x+ 5 6 1 6 < A
. !opIncIng fho xform form In
fho y (x)
C1
oxprossIon of oqunfIon 43] wIfh fho oxprossIon x+ 5 6 1 6 < A
, fhon subsfIfufIng
Info ?l] gIvos us fho dofInIng oqunfIon of fho /exogrono/ic conplex uote ns foIIows:
y (x)
C
y y
x
y x y x
x
r(i) f(i)
f(i)
r(i) (i 1) f(i) i
f(i)
x
( ) y y
r(i 1) f(i) 6
6
5
6
= − + +
+ +
á
!
"
$
#
#
á
!
"
$
#
á
!
"
$
#
#
%
&
K
'
K
(
)
K
*
K
∗
+
+
+
−
∆ ∆
∆
∆ ∆
∆
>æë@
In fhIs oxprossIon fho subscrIpf i Is oxprossod ns n funcfIon of x, usIng fho procoss
sImIInr fo fhnf whIch producod oqunfIons ll] nnd 6l]. In fhIs cnso, sInco fho x form hns
bocomo x + 5 6 1 6 , fho oxprossIon dofInIng fho boundIng subscrIpf i fhon bocomos:
i x k = + = int 5 6 1 6 < A
?3]
Whoro subscrIpf i Is ronnmod ns / fo dIsfInguIsh If from fho IInonr nnd frIgrnmnfIc wnvo
oxprossIon subscrIpfs shown In fho dofInIng wnvo oqunfIons. IqunfIon ?3] dofInos
subscrIpf / ns fho roundod down Infogor vnIuo of fho funcfIon x + 5 6 1 6 , fhus osfnbIIshIng
fho boundnrv condIfIons for fho /exogrono/ic IIno sogmonf mnppod bv fhIs funcfIon.
29
As wIfh fho Trigrono/ic Conplex Wote (TCW) oxprossod In 60], oqunfIon ?2] oxprossos
fho Hexogrono/ic Conplex Wote (HCW) ns nn oxpnnsIon of fho Lineor Conplex Wote
(LCW) dIrocfIv. SImIInrIv, fho snmo rosuIf wouId bo obfnInod If fho IInonr forwnrd nnd
rovorso wnvos hnd boon oxpnndod Info fho hoxngrnmnfIc forwnrd nnd rovorso wnvos, nnd
fhoso rosuIfs combInod fo form fho /exogrono/ic conplex uote. WIfh fho lineor 43],
/rigrono/ic 60], nnd /exogrono/ic ?2] conplex uotee now dofInod mnfhomnfIcnIIv nnd
oxprossod grnphIcnIIv, wo nro now In n posIfIon fo combIno fhom fo form fho TriLetel
Conplex Wote, or 384 numbor ¨Jo/o ee/¨.
(3) Tho CombInod TrI!ovoI CompIox Wnvo
Þow fhnf fho fhroo IovoIs of TineWote oxprossIon hnvo boon doscrIbod nnd dofInod
mnfhomnfIcnIIv, wo nro now In n posIfIon fo Infogrnfo fhoso fhroo IovoIs Info n sIngIo
unIfnrv svsfom of oxprossIon. Tho TriLetel Conplex Wote Is soon ns nn Infogrnfod
whoIo, nnd nnnIogous fo fho IChIng hoxngrnm fhnf funcfIons ns n hoIIsfIc onfIfv, buf
confnIns fho IndIvIdunI oxprossIon of hoxngrnm, frIgrnm, nnd IIno (vIn or vnng). In ordor
fo osfnbIIsh fhIs frIIovoI oxprossIon mnfhomnfIcnIIv, wo combIno fho compIox wnvos of
fho IInonr, frIgrnmnfIc, nnd hoxngrnmnfIc IovoIs of oxprossIon. Tho gonornI oqunfIon
oxprossIng fho summnfIon of fho fhroo wnvo IovoIs Is wrIffon ns foIIows:
y (x) lin(x) tri(x) hex(x)
T
= + + ?4]
SubsfIfufIons In ?4] for IIn(x), frI(x), nnd hox(x) from oqunfIon 43], 60], nnd ?2] gIvo
us:
y (x) y (x) y (x) y (x)
T C1 C3 C6
= + + ?5]
nnd furfhor subsfIfufIons from 43], 60], nnd ?2] gIvo us fho dofInIng oxprossIon for fho
TriLetel Conplex Wote:
y (x)
T
y y
x
x
y x y x
x
r(i) f(i)
f(i)
r(i) (i 1) f(i) i
f(i)
(y y )
r(i 1) f(i)
= −
+ +
á
!
"
$
#
#
á
!
"
$
#
#
%
&
K
'
K
(
)
K
*
K
∗ + +
+
+
− +⋅⋅⋅
∆ ∆
∆
∆ ∆
∆
+ − + +
+
+
+
á
!
"
$
#
#
á
!
"
$
#
á
!
"
$
#
#
+
%
&
K
'
K
(
)
K
*
K
∗
+
− +⋅⋅⋅ 3 y y
y y
x
x 2
3
y x y x
x
r(j) f(j)
f(j)
r(j) (j 1) f(j) j
f(j)
( )
r(j 1) f(j)
∆ ∆
∆
∆ ∆
∆
+ − + +
+
+
+
á
!
"
$
#
#
á
!
"
$
#
á
!
"
$
#
#
%
&
K
'
K
(
)
K
*
K
∗
+
+
− 6 y y
y y
x
x 5
6
y x y x
x
r(k) f(k)
f(k)
r(k) k
r(k 1) f(k)
(k 1) f(k)
f(k)
( )
∆ ∆
∆
∆ ∆
∆
>æç@
30
IqunfIon ?6] Is fho dofInIng oqunfIon for fho TriLetel Conplex Wote. ThIs oxprossIon
fnkos ono from fho IndIvIdunI oIomonfs of fho lineor conplex uote, up fo fho /rigrono/ic
nnd /exogrono/ic conplex uotee, nnd fInnIIv fo fho /riletel conplex uote. ÞofIco fhnf
fho subscrIpfs j for fho frIgrnmnfIc socfIon, nnd / for fho hoxngrnmnfIc socfIon of
oqunfIon ?6] hnvo ropIncod fho subscrIpf i In oqunfIons 60] nnd ?2], ns fhov hnvo boon
dofInod In oqunfIons 6l] nnd ?3]. Wo now hnvo n compIofo nnd woIIdofInod funcfIon
for our TriLetel Conplex Wote, or Jo/o ee/.
IqunfIon ?6] producos n frIIovoI wnvo numbor sof fhnf confnIns somo nognfIvo vnIuos.
Tho 384 numbor Jo/o ee/, on fho ofhor hnnd, Is fho sof of posIfIvo ronI numbors In fho
domnIn 0 384 ≤ ≤ x . ThIs monns fhnf pnrf of fho ¨rnw¨ dnfn sof producod bv oqunfIon
?6] IIos oufsIdo fho xvnIuo domnIn fhnf Is fhoughf fo bo fho propor oxprossIon of fhIs
wnvoform. Ono procoduro fhnf Is wIdoIv usod for convorfIng nognfIvo vnIuos of somo
nrbIfrnrv wnvoform, Info posIfIvo vnIuos, Is fho uso of fho nbsoIufo vnIuo opornfor. If ono
vIows fhIs /riletel conplex uote ns somo kInd of InformnfIon cnrrvIng sIgnnI, IIko nn
nmpIIfudo moduInfod rndIo wnvo, for oxnmpIo, fhon n vnIId procoduro for procossIng such
n sIgnnI Is fho nppIIcnfIon of fho nbsoIufo vnIuo opornfor. In fho rf sIgnnI procossIng
cnso, fho rocoIvod moduInfodcnrrIor wnvoform Is pnssod fhrough nbsoIufo vnIuo cIrcuIfrv
(rocfIfIor) so fhnf fho nognfIvo vnIuos of fho wnvo nro convorfod fo posIfIvo vnIuos. ThIs
ncfunIIv Improvos fho sIgnnI fo noIso rnfIo of fho cnrrIor onvoIopo, whIch Is fho
InformnfIon cnrrvIng moduInfIon sIgnnI. ThIs ¨rocfIfIod¨ sIgnnI Is fhon procossod bv n
dofocfor cIrcuIf fhnf oxfrncfs fho InformnfIon cnrrvIng moduInfIon wnvo from fho cnrrIor
wnvo. AIfhough fho frIIovoI wnvo nnd fho rndIo wnvo nro nof sfrIcfIv nnnIogous, fhov
npponr sImIInr onough fo mnko n pInusIbIo nrgumonf for fho nppIIcnfIon of fho nbsoIufo
vnIuo opornfor horo. ThIs opornfIon Is oxprossod ns:
y y
DW T
ABS = ??]
Whoro: y
DW
Is fho Do/o Wote fhnf Is grnphod In IIg. ll, nnd dofInod ns fho nbsoIufo
vnIuo of fho TriLetel Conplex Wote ns oxprossod In oqunfIon ?3]. ThIs numbor sof Is
usod ns Inpuf dnfn for fho TineWote Zero soffwnro, whIch porforms nn InfInIfo sorIos
oxpnnsIon fhnf Movor cnIIs n froc/ol /roneforn
ll
, fo gonornfo fho TImoWnvo vIowod on
fho compufor scroon.
6WDQGDUGýDQGý5HYLVHGý'DWDý6HWý&RPSDULVRQV
WIfh oqunfIon ?3] nnd ?4], nnd fho grnph In IIg. ll, wo hnvo compIofod fhIs formnIIzod
dovoIopmonf of fho TWZ Jo/o ee/. Wo nro now In n posIfIon fo compnro fhoso rosuIfs
wIfh fhoso of fho sfnndnrd dovoIopmonf roporfod bv McKonnn nnd Movor In //e 1ntieiIle
LonJecope nnd fho Tine1xplorer mnnunI, ns woII ns nddross fho Issuos rnIsod bv fho
Wo//ine OIjec/ion.
IIg. l2 Is n grnph of bofh fho e/onJorJ nnd retieeJ Jo/o ee/e, nnd If shows somo
romnrknbIo sImIInrIfIos ns woII ns sIgnIfIcnnf dIfforoncos. Ono InforosfIng fonfuro of fhIs
grnph, Is fho nnfuro of onch wnvo nf Ifs rospocfIvo ondpoInfs. !ocnII fhnf fho vnIuo of fho
31
wnvo nf x = 0 wIII bo dIscnrdod bocnuso If Is n dupIIcnfo or ¨wrnp¨ of fho vnIuo nf x = 3S4.
ThIs wIII nof offocf fho roInfIvo vnIuos of fho fwo wnvos nf x = 3S4, bocnuso fhov nro bofh
zorovnIuod nf fhIs ondpoInf. Howovor, fho vnIuo of onch wnvo nf x = 1 Is nof fho snmo,
wIfh fho e/onJorJ uote hnvIng n vnIuo of l0 whIIo fho retieeJ uote vnIuo Is zoro.
)LJXUHýìì
Whv doos fhIs mnffor, vou mnv nsk, sInco fhoro nro mnnv obvIous dIfforoncos bofwoon
fho fwo wnvos whnf Is fho sIgnIfIcnnco of fhIs dIfforonco¨ Ior fho e/onJorJ uote, If hns
boon nrguod fhnf fho zoro vnIuo nf fho ond of fho wnvoform ImpIIos somo kInd of
sInguInrIfv nf fho ond of fho procoss or nf fho ond of fImo. ThIs retieeJ uote Is
ImpIvIng, howovor, fhnf fhoro mnv bo sInguInrIfIos nf Io// onds of fho confInuum. ThIs Is
AIso nn nrgumonf for n cloeeJ svsfom fhnf mnv bo undorgoIng somo kInd of cvcIIc
ronownI procoss porhnps onch cvcIo oxprossIng ovor hIghor ordorod sfnfos of compIox
form, or Aotel/x.
Thoro nro concopfs omorgIng from fho fIoId of qunnfum cosmoIogv fhnf mnv doscrIbo nn
nnnIogous cvcIIc procoss. ThIs Is fhoorv In whIch unIvorsos nro fronfod IIko qunnfum
pnrfIcIos fhnf InhnbIf n Inrgor, or hIghor dImonsIonnI domnIn cnIIod n nul/iteree. MIchIo
Knku
l2
, n fhoorofIcnI phvsIcIsf nnd cofoundor of sfrIng fIoId fhoorv, hns doscrIbod n
procoss whoro unIvorsos omorgo from fho zoropoInf, or vncuum fIoId, go fhrough nn
ovoIufIonnrv procoss, fhon porhnps rofurn fo fho zoropoInf fIoId nf fho ond of fho cvcIo.
ThIs cvcIo mnv fhon roponf IfsoIf, possIbIv wIfh Incronsod compIoxIfv nnd Aotel/x. So
couId fhIs bo sImIInr fo fho procoss fhnf fho TineWote nnd Aotel/x T/eorx nffompf fo
rovonI¨ Iorhnps furfhor InvosfIgnfIon Info fho nnfuro of fho TImoWnvo wIII shod somo
IIghf on fhoso quosfIons.
32
)LJXUHýìë
Anofhor sIgnIfIcnnf fonfuro of IIg. l2 Is fho nppnronf ngroomonf of fho fwo wnvos In fho
Iowor froquoncv domnIn. Iroquoncv confonf of nnv wnvoform oxprossos IfsoIf ns
vnrInfIons In fho rnfo of chnngo of Ifs vnIuo ns fho wnvo propngnfos In somo ronIm, fhnf
couId bo oIfhor n spnco or fImo domnIn, or bofh. So fho sIopo of n wnvoform nf nnv gIvon
poInf, or Ifs gonornI shnpo, cnn rovonI froquoncv confonf (fho mngnIfudo nnd rnfo of
spocIfIc undorIvIng procossos). IxnmInnfIon of fho wnvo pnIr In IIg. l2 shows fhnf fhoro
Is n common Iowor froquoncv procoss occurrIng for onch wnvoform. Tho hIghor froquoncv
procossos npponr ns roInfIvoIv shorfor durnfIon ponks rIdIng upon fho sIowor procoss.
Tho Iowosf froquoncv procoss occurrIng In fhoso wnvoforms cnn bo soon bv drnwIng nn
ImngInnrv IIno bofwoon fho hIghosf of nII fho ponks ns ono movos ovor fho domnIn of fho
wnvoforms. SIIghfIv hIghor froquoncv compononfs cnn bo soon bv drnwIng fhnf
ImngInnrv IIno ovor fho ponks nnd vnIIovs upon whIch fho shnrposf nnd shorfosf
durnfIon ponks rIdo. Tho grnphs do dIffor In fho hIghor froquoncv domnIn ns cnn bo soon
bv fho sfoopor sIopos of fho Inrgosf e/onJorJ uote frnnsIfIons. ThIs couId vorv woII bo
duo fo hIgh froquoncv noIso prosonf In fho e/onJorJ dnfn sof bocnuso of fho Imboddod
mnfhomnfIcnI orrors.
Tho Iow froquoncv, or Iong durnfIon procossos, nro fhoso fhnf mnv occur on fho scnIo of
mIIIonnIn or ovon bIIIIons of vonrs, whorons fho hIghor froquoncv procossos mnv occur on
fho scnIo of n humnn IIfofImo. CouId If bo fhnf fho Iowosf froquoncv procoss Is fho
sIgnnfuro of somo cronfIvo prIncIpIo nf work, bo If sfrnngo nffrncfor, zoropoInf fIoId, or
eec/o/on. CouId fhIs cronfIvo onorgv, bo porfurbIng fho fnbrIc of spncofImo In such n
wnv ns fo frIggor fho cronfIon nnd consorvnfIon of hIghor ordorod sfnfos somofhIng IIko
fho grnvIfnfIonnI onorgv of n pnssIng nonrbv sfnr frIggorIng fho formnfIon of n comofs
from fho Orf cIoud¨ Is fhIs Iowosf froquoncv procoss fhon n kInd of ground sfnfo, upon
whIch nII hIghor froquoncv procossos oxpross fhomsoIvos¨ Iorhnps In fImo fhoso
quosfIons wIII bo nnswornbIo, nIfhough corfnInIv nof fodnv.
33
An obvIous fonfuro of IIg. l2 fhnf cIonrIv shows In fhIs grnph, Is fho dIfforonco In fho
nvorngo wnvo vnIuo bofwoon sfnndnrd nnd rovIsod wnvos. Tho nvorngo wnvo vnIuo for
fho sfnndnrd wnvo Is somowhnf gronfor fhnn fho nvorngo vnIuo of fho rovIsod wnvo. ThIs
dIfforonco In nvorngo wnvo vnIuo npponrs fo bo fho rosuIf of dIfforoncos In fho hIghor
froquoncv compononfs of fho wnvo pnIr, porhnps duo fo noIso In fho sfnndnrd wnvo fhnf
Is producod bv fho mnfhomnfIcnI orrors fhnf nro prosonf. Thoso hIgh froquoncv
compononfs of fho sfnndnrd wnvo show up ns fho sfoop ponks fhnf rIso woII nbovo fho
ponks In fho rovIsod wnvo. In fho IourIor nnnIvsIs fhnf foIIows, fhoso Inrgo ponks npponr
ns hIgh froquoncv noIso fhnf ndds rnndomnoss fo fho wnvo. Tho Impncf of fhIs dIfforonco
on fho fInnI TImoWnvo, Is fo shIff fho nvorngo IovoI of novoIfv upwnrd (Iowor vnIuos)
from fhnf oxprossod bv fho sfnndnrd wnvo. In ofhor words, fho rovIsod wnvo oxprossos n
procoss wIfh somowhnf hIghor IovoIs of novoIfv, fhnn doos fho sfnndnrd wnvo. SInco
Aotel/x Isn`f n cnIIbrnfod procoss, If`s nof possIbIo fo doformIno whnf fho moro
¨ronsonnbIo¨ IovoI of Aotel/x wouId bo. AII fhnf cnn bo oxprossod fhon, Is roInfIvo
ÞovoIfv.
Ono fInnI fonfuro of IIg. l2 fhnf roquIros somo dIscussIon, Is fho corroInfIon numbor nf
fho fop of fho grnph. In ordor fo doformIno nnd qunnfIfv fho dogroo of Infordopondonco,
or InforroInfodnoss of fho sfnndnrd nnd rovIsod wnvoforms, n mnfhomnfIcnI opornfIon
cnIIod correlo/ion wns porformod wIfh fhoso fwo numbor sofs. Tho numbor nf fho fop of
fho grnph Is fho rosuIf of fhnf nnnIvsIs n vnIuo of 0.564. A corroInfIon of l.0 wouId
monn fhnf fho wnvoforms nro IdonfIcnI, whorons n corroInfIon of zoro wouId IndIcnfo no
funcfIonnI roInfIonshIp bofwoon fho fwo. AddIfIonnIIv, n corroInfIon of l wouId IndIcnfo
fhnf fho wnvoforms woro mIrror Imngos of ono nnofhor n ponk rofIocfod bv n frough ofc.
In fhIs cnso n corroInfIon of 0.564 IndIcnfos fhnf fhoso fwo wnvoforms show n sIgnIfIcnnf
IovoI of Infordopondonco, nIfhough fnr from IdonfIcnI. ThIs IovoI of corroInfIon couId bo
consIdorod IIkoIv for fwo numbor sofs fhnf shnro n common orIgIn, ns woII ns shnrIng
mnnv of fho snmo dovoIopmonfnI procoduros.
'DWDý:DYHýDQGý5DQGRPý1XPEHUý6HWý&RPSDULVRQV
Ono mofhod for nssossIng fho InformnfIon cnrrvIng pofonfInI of fho Do/o Wote, nnd
convIncIng onosoIf fhnf If Is nof n rnndom procoss, Is fo compnro If wIfh n dnfn sof fhnf
hns boon rnndomIv gonornfod. SovornI such ronJon uote sofs woro consoquonfIv
producod fo bo compnrod wIfh fho rovIsod nnd sfnndnrd Do/o Wote numbor sofs dIrocfIv,
nnd fo nIso uso ns Inpuf fo fho TWZ soffwnro fo gonornfo rnndom soodod TImoWnvos.
IIg. l3 Is n grnph of fho rovIsod Do/o Wote wIfh n rnndom wnvo sof ovorInv, nnd If
cIonrIv shows fhnf fhoso numbor sofs bonr IIffIo rosombInnco fo ono nnofhor. CorroInfIon
nnnIvsIs of fho fwo sofs shows n corroInfIon of 0.03, or ossonfInIIv uncorroInfod ns ono
wouId oxpocf for nnv rnndom numbor sof. IIg. l3 nIso npponrs fo show fhnf fho rovIsod
Do/o Wote Is n vorv dIfforonf fvpo of numbor sof from fho rnndom wnvo sof, nnd If
npponrs fo showIng somo kInd of InformnfIon cnrrvIng procoss. Is fhIs In fncf fho cnso, or
doos If jusf npponr fhnf wnv¨
IxnmInnfIon of fho pouer epec/ro for fho Jo/o nnd ronJon uotee shown In IIgs. l2 nnd
l3 cnn rovonI somofhIng nbouf fho nnfuro of fhoso fhroo wnvoforms nnd fhoIr
34
roInfIonshIp. Tho convorsIon of fImo, or spnco domnIn wnvoforms Info froquoncv domnIn
wnvoforms (froquoncv spocfrum or powor spocfrum) Is porformod usIng n mnfhomnfIcnI
opornfIon cnIIod n IourIor frnnsform. WIfh fhIs mofhod, n froquoncv spocfrum cnn bo
producod, whIch cnn foII us how much powor Is confnInod In onch of fho froquoncv
compononfs (hnrmonIcs) of n gIvon wnvoform, nnd fhorobv provIdIng fho froquoncv
dIsfrIbufIon of fho wnvo powor. ThIs dIsfrIbufIon wouId fvpIcnIIv bo dIfforonf for
InformnfIon cnrrvIng wnvoforms fhnn for rnndom, or noIso sIgnnIs. Tho rnndom, or noIso
sIgnnI spocfrum Is fvpIcnIIv fInf ovor fho sIgnnI bnndwIdfh, nnd offon dIsfInguIshnbIo
from nn InformnfIon cnrrvIng sIgnnI spocfrum fhnf oxhIbIfs 1 f (f = froquoncv) bohnvIor.
)LJXUHýìê
IourIor frnnsform opornfIons woro porformod on fho dnfn sofs shown In IIgs. l2 nnd l3,
wIfh fho rosuIfs shown In IIg. l4. Tho fop grnph of IIg. l4 IncIudos pIofs for fho
e/onJorJ nnd retieeJ Do/o Wote powor spocfrn, whIIo fho boffom grnph dIspInvs fho
IonJon Wote powor spocfrum. Tho coIorod IInos drnwn fhrough onch of fho spocfrn nro
pouer func/ion curvofIfs, fhnf show fho froquoncv roIIoff chnrncforIsfIcs of onch wnvo.
ÞofIco fhnf fho fwo powor spocfrn In fho fop grnph oxhIbIf froquoncv roIIoff (powor IovoI
docronsos wIfh IncronsIng froquoncv), whorons fho Iowor grnph powor spocfrum oxhIbIfs
n fInf froquoncv rosponso (powor IovoI Is froquoncv Indopondonf). ThIs froquoncv roIIoff
Is chnrncforIsfIc of InformnfIon cnrrvIng sIgnnIs, whorons fho fInf rosponso Is
chnrncforIsfIc of noIso or rnndom sIgnnIs.
Tho retieeJ Jo/o uote spocfrum, shown In fho fop grnph In groon, Is oxhIbIfIng fho
nonrIv porfocf 1 f froquoncv rosponso fhnf Is fvpIcnI for nn InformnfIon cnrrvIng
wnvoform. On fho ofhor hnnd, fho e/onJorJ Jo/o uote powor spocfrum shown In bIuo,
oxhIbIfs froquoncv roIIoff, buf wIfh n fInffor rosponso fhnf Is nof 1 f . In fncf, fho fInffor
35
)LJXUHýìé
froquoncv rosponso of fho e/onJorJ Jo/o uote Is fho IIkoIv rosuIf of hIgh froquoncv noIso
fhnf Incronsos fho powor nf fho fnII ond of fho spocfrum nnd provonfs n sfoopor roIIoff.
ThIs Is somofhIng fhnf shouId bo oxpocfod from fho dIsforfod e/onJorJ Jo/o uote wIfh
Imboddod mnfhomnfIcnI orrors, whIch wouId fond fo ndd rnndomnoss fo fho wnvo. Tho
sIgnnfuro of such rnndomnoss cnn bo soon In fho IonJon Wote powor spocfrum, shown
In fho Iowor grnph In rod. ThIs pIof shows fho fvpIcnIIv fInf froquoncv rosponso of n
36
rnndom, or noIso sIgnnI wIfh no InformnfIon confonf. AppnronfIv, fho grnphs In IIg. l4
nro showIng fhnf fho sfnndnrd nnd rovIsod dnfn uotee nro dofInIfo InformnfIon cnrrvIng
wnvoforms, buf fhnf fho dIsforfod e/onJorJ Jo/o uote hns Imboddod hIgh froquoncv
noIso fhnf fInffons Ifs rosponso. ThIs Is ossonfInIIv whnf IIgs. l2 nnd l3 nro showIng ns
woII.
6WDQGDUGñý5HYLVHGñýDQGý5DQGRPý*HQHUDWHGý7LPH:DYHý5HVXOWV
(l) Tho TImoWnvo Zoro Scroon Sof CompnrIsons
Onco fho Do/o Wote, or 384 numbor dnfn sof hns boon gonornfod, If bocomos fho Inpuf
dnfn for fho TineWote Zero soffwnro pnckngo. As monfIonod provIousIv, fho soffwnro
porforms whnf hns boon cnIIod n froc/ol /roneforn, or oxpnnsIon of fho 384 dnfn numbor
sof fo produco fho TineWote vIowod on fho compufor scroon ns n grnph of Aotel/x. In
ordor for fhIs frncfnI oxpnnsIon fo bo porformod proporIv, fho soffwnro roquIros fhnf fho
384 numbor dnfn sof shown In IIg. l0 bo rovorsod, such fhnf dnfn poInf 384 bocomos
dnfn poInf l nnd dnfn poInf 0 Is dIscnrdod (sInco If`s n dupIIcnfo or wrnp of dnfn poInf
384).
)LJXUHýìèD
37
Throo sopnrnfo dnfn sofs woro usod In ordor fo gonornfo fho TineWotee noodod for
compnrIson fho e/onJorJ dnfn sof, fho retieeJ dnfn sof, nnd n ronJon dnfn sof. Tho
rosuIfs of somo of fhoso TineWote compnrIsons wIII bo shown In fho grnphs fhnf foIIow,
bogInnIng wIfh fho dofnuIf TineWote grnphs fhnf nro IncIudod wIfh fho Tine1xplorer
soffwnro ns procompufod wnvoforms.
IIgs. l5n nnd l5b show fho TineWote fhnf Is sforod bv fho soffwnro ns Scroon l, nnd If
covors fho porIod bofwoon l942 nnd 20l2. IIg. l5n shows bofh fho TineWote rosuIfIng
from fho e/onJorJ Jo/o sof on fho Ioff, nnd fhnf for fho retieeJ Jo/o sof on fho rIghf. On
fho ofhor hnnd, IIg. l5b Is fho TineWote gonornfod bv fho ronJon dnfn sof, nnd If
cIonrIv bonrs IIffIo rosombInnco fo fho grnphs of IIg. l5n.
ThIs Is fho TineWote grnph fhnf McKonnn hns cnIIod ¨hIsforv`s frncfnI mounfnIn¨,
bocnuso of Ifs mounfnInIIko shnpo. Thoro nro sovornI fonfuros fo nofIco horo, wIfh fho
fIrsf boIng fhnf fhoso fwo pIofs hnvo romnrknbIv sImIInr shnpos obvIousIv nof IdonfIcnI,
buf fhoro Is cIonrIv n common domInnnf procoss nf work. Anofhor common fonfuro of
sIgnIfIcnnco shown In fhoso fwo grnphs, Is fhnf fho mnjor doconf Info Aotel/x (ponk of fho
mounfnIn) bogIns somofImo In l96?. IInnIIv, ns monfIonod onrIIor, fho TineWote
producod bv fho retieeJ Do/o Wote numbor sof, shows n hIghor nvorngo IovoI of Aotel/x
for fhIs fImo porIod (Iowor vnIuos), fhnn doos fho TineWote producod bv fho e/onJorJ
38
)LJXUHýìèE
Jo/o sof. ThIs Aotel/x dIfforonco Is fho IIkoIv rosuIf of fho e/onJorJ uote dIsforfIon,
cnusod bv fho Imboddod mnfhomnfIcnI orrors fhnf produco sIgnIfIcnnf hIgh froquoncv
noIso In fho wnvo. As shown In IIg. l4, fho hIgh froquoncv compononfs of fho rovIsod
dnfn wnvo nro Iowor fhnn fho sfnndnrd wnvo bv nn ordor of mngnIfudo.
IIg. l6n shows fho sfnndnrd nnd rovIsod TImoWnvo grnphs for Scroon 4 of fho TWZ
dIspInv. AgnIn, fhoso fwo pIofs nro quIfo sImIInr In forms of fhoIr npponrnnco, nnd soom
fo bo showIng ovIdonco of somo common undorIvIng procoss. Tho dIfforoncos mnv bo duo
fo fho fncf fhnf fho sfnndnrd numbor sof producos moro hIgh froquoncv noIso bocnuso of
fho Imboddod orrors In fho numbor sof. Tho corroInfIon bofwoon fhoso fwo grnphs wns
)LJXUHýìçD
found fo bo 0.?3l, nof ns hIgh ns Scroon l, buf sfIII n sIgnIfIcnnf corroInfIon nonofhoIoss.
On fho ofhor hnnd, fho rnndom dnfn sof TImoWnvo shown In IIg. l6b, shows vorv IIffIo
corroInfIon wIfh oIfhor of fho grnphs In IIg. l6n. ThIs Is oxpocfod, sInco rnndom numbor
sofs nro bv dofInIfIon, uncorroInfod wIfh nnv ofhor numbor sof.
A compIofo sof of compnrIsons IIko fhoso shown In IIgs. l5 nnd l6 woro porformod on nII
fho TImoWnvo Zoro scroon sofs (Scroons ll0) wIfh vorv sImIInr rosuIfs. Tho corroInfIon
rosuIfs for fho TWZ Scroon sof compnrIsons rnngod from n Iow of 0.?3 fo n hIgh of 0.98
39
wIfh nn nvorngo corroInfIon of 0.86, showIng fhnf fho sfnndnrd nnd rovIsod TImoWnvos
In fhIs scroon sof woro romnrknbIv sImIInr. ThIs wns nof fho cnso for ofhor TImoWnvos
fhnf woro oxnmInod, whIch wIII bo shown Infor. In ofhor cnsos of TineWote compnrIson,
fho dIfforoncos bofwoon fho sfnndnrd nnd rovIsod wnvos, npponrs fo show fhnf fho
retieeJ TineWote oxprossos n Aotel/x procoss hnvIng boffor nIIgnmonf wIfh known
hIsforIcnI procoss somofhIng ono wouId oxpocf from n moro procIso formnIIznfIon
procoss. Moro nnnIvsIs Is corfnInIv In ordor, buf fho dnfn fhus fnr sooms fo mnko fhnf
cnso.
)LJXUHýìçE
(2) CompnrIsons for Ofhor SIgnIfIcnnf HIsforIcnI IorIods
SovornI ofhor TImoWnvo porIods hnvIng hIsforIcnI sIgnIfIcnnco woro oxnmInod for
compnrIson, buf fho fwo roporfod horo nro fho porIods from l895l925, nnd from l935
l955. Tho fIrsf porIod IncIudos mnjor ndvnncos In phvsIcs nnd fochnoIogv, ns woII ns n
worId wnr; nnd fho socond porIod IncIudos fho dovoIopmonf nnd uso of nucIonr wonpons,
ns woII ns fwo mnjor wnrs. IIg. l? Is n grnph of fho TImoWnvo compnrIson for fho l895
40
l925 porIod, nnd ngnIn fhoso pIofs nro romnrknbIv sImIInr In form. SovornI sIgnIfIcnnf
dnfos nro mnrkod wIfh groon nnd rod nrrows fo sIgnIfv Aotel nnd HoIi/uol phonomonn.
Tho fIrsf poworod fIIghf hnppons nf KIffvhnwk on Ðocombor l?, l903; foIIowod bv
IInsfoIn`s SpocInI Thoorv of !oInfIvIfv (ST!) on Juno 30, l905; ConornI !oInfIvIfv In
l9l5, nnd fho WorId Wnr I porIod of l9l4l9l8. Tho ovonfs fhnf wouId bo consIdorod
novoI (mnnnod fIIghf nnd bronkfhroughs In phvsIcs) nII occur nf ÞovoIfv froughs or
ÞovoIfv dosconfs. Tho HnbIfunI phonomonon (wnr), on fho ofhor hnnd, npponrs fo drIvo
whnf sooms fo bo n vorv novoI porIod, bnck Info hnbIf. Whon bofh novoI nnd hnbIfunI
phonomonon nro occurrIng sImuIfnnoousIv, fhov bofh InfIuonco fho shnpo of fho
TImoWnvo. WWI mnv hnvo drIvon fho wnvo furfhor Info hnbIf fhnn If dId, If If woron`f
for fho sImuIfnnoous occurronco of vorv novoI phonomonn. Ior oxnmpIo, fho work on fho
ConornI Thoorv of !oInfIvIfv occurs In fho mIdsf of WorId Wnr I wIfh Ifs ¨snmo 'O!I¨
hnbIfunI nnfuro. Tho moro novoI procoss of n sIgnIfIcnnf ndvnncomonf In scIonfIfIc
knowIodgo, ncfunIIv npponrs fo suppross whnf wouId bo n mnjor nsconf Info hnbIf, nnd
ncfunIIv drIvIng fho wnvo Info novoIfv froughs.
)LJXUHýìæ
ÞofIco fhnf fho sfnndnrd TImoWnvo on fho Ioff doosn`f show fho rogrossIon Info hnbIf
durIng fho IIrsf WorId Wnr fho rovIsod TImoWnvo cIonrIv doos. ThIs Is ono cnso In
whIch fho rovIsod TImoWnvo npponrs fo provIdo n boffor doscrIpfIon of fho ÞovoIfv
procoss fhnn doos fho sfnndnrd TImoWnvo. Howovor, fhIs Is somofhIng fhnf shouId bo
oxpocfod for n procoss wIfh n moro procIso nnd consIsfonf mnfhomnfIcnI modoI.
41
IIg. l8 shows fho l9l5 fImo porIod, for whIch fho fwo wnvos oxhIbIf n subsfnnfInI
dIsngroomonf. WIfh fho oxcopfIon of n brIof fwomonfh porIod, fho sfnndnrd TImoWnvo
shows n sfondv dosconf Info ÞovoIfv. Tho rovIsod TImoWnvo, howovor, shows moro of
whnf ono mIghf oxpocf for n pInnof ombroIIod In gIobnI confIIcf. AddIfIonnIIv, fho rovIsod
TImoWnvo shows sovornI Insfnncos whoro fho doformInod mnrch Info hnbIf Is oIfhor
sIowod or fompornrIIv rovorsod; nnd wIfh fho pubIIcnfIon of fho gonornI fhoorv In onrIv
l9l6, fho IovoI of ÞovoIfv bocomos foo gronf for fho forcos of hnbIf, nnd fho wnvo pIungos.
ThIs fIguro provIdos n good oxnmpIo of how fho sfnndnrd nnd rovIsod TImoWnvos cnn
oxhIbIf bohnvIornI dIvorgonco, nnd how fhIs dIvorgonco fonds fo nffIrm fho Improvod
nccurncv of fho rovIsod wnvoform. !of us now fnko n Iook nf nnofhor porIod fhnf mosf of
us nro fnmIIInr wIfh fho porIod fhnf IncIudos WorId Wnr II, nucIonr onorgv
dovoIopmonf, nnd fho Koronn Wnr.
)LJXUHýìå
IIguro l9 shows fho sfnndnrd nnd rovIsod TImoWnvo compnrIson grnphs for fho porIod
l935l955, nnd fhoro nro obvIous sImIInrIfIos nnd cIonr dIfforoncos bofwoon fho fwo
wnvos. Iofh grnphs show fhnf WWII bogIns nnd onds durIng sfoop nsconfs Info hnbIf,
buf fhov doscrIbo somowhnf dIvorgIng procossos, for much of fho mIddIo porIod of fho
wnr. Tho rovIsod TImoWnvo shows fhnf n vorv novoI procoss Is nppnronfIv nf work for
much of fho porIod of fho wnr. Tho sfnndnrd TImoWnvo doos show novoI InfIuoncos, buf
If Is noIfhor ns consIsfonf nor drnmnfIc ns for fho rovIsod TImoWnvo. Somo vorv pofonf
novoI procoss sooms fo bo occurrIng durIng much of fho wnr porIod, nnd fhnf procoss mnv
bo supprossIng n mnjor nsconf Info hnbIf fhnf mIghf ofhorwIso bo hnpponIng. CouId fhIs
novoI procoss bo fho dovoIopmonf of nucIonr scIonco nnd fochnoIogv, ovonfunIIv IondIng
42
fo fho producfIon nnd uso of nucIonr wonpons¨ Thnf mnv bo nn offonsIvo nofIon, buf Iof`s
fnko n cIosor Iook nf If.
Tho dovoIopmonf of nucIonr scIonco Is ronIIv nbouf bocomIng moro nwnro nnd
knowIodgonbIo of n procoss fhnf powors fho sun nnd fho sfnrs moro nwnro of jusf how n
vorv poworfuI nspocf of nnfuro works. Whnf ono fhon doos wIfh such knowIodgo Is n
dIfforonf procoss onfIroIv nnd InrgoIv n mnffor of conscIousnoss nnd mnfurIfv. As wo
cnn soo from fho rovIsod TImoWnvo grnph, fho momonf fhnf fhIs knowIodgo Is convorfod
fo wonpons fochnoIogv fho nucIonr oxpIosIon nf TrInIfv SIfo In Þow MoxIco fho wnvo
bogIns n sfoop nsconf Info hnbIf.
Tho uso of fhIs nwosomo powor ngnInsf ofhor humnn boIngs In HIroshImn nnd ÞngnsnkI
occurs shorfIv nffor fho fosf nf TrInIfv SIfo, nnd occurs on n vorv sfoop nscondIng sIopo of
hnbIf. Iorhnps fho procoss of bocomIng moro nwnro of nnfuro, nnd oursoIvos Is vorv
novoI Indood. If Is fho sncrod knowIodgo of fho shnmnn, who rofurns from nn ImmorsIon
Info nn nspocf of nnfuro, wIfh guIdnnco or honIIng for hor or hIs poopIo. Wo soom fo hnvo
Iosf fho sonso of sncrod knowIodgo wIfh Ifs nccompnnvIng rosponsIbIIIfv, somowhoro
nIong fho wnv. Iorhnps If Is fImo fo rognIn fhnf sonso, nnd rocInIm rosponsIbIIIfv for our
knowIng.
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Tho rovIsod TImoWnvo of IIg. l9 nIso shows fho porIod of fho Koronn wnr ns n vorv sfoop
nsconf Info hnbIf, nIfhough somofhIng occurrIng onrIv In l952 dId momonfnrIIv rovorso
fho hnbIfunI frond.
43
&RUUHODWLRQý'DWDýDQGý7LPH:DYHý&RPSDULVRQV
CorroInfIon nnnIvsIs wns porformod for nII fho dnfn sofs compnrod In fhIs roporf, ns woII
ns fho romnInIng oIghf TWZ scroon sofs nof shown horo, nnd soIocfod fImo porIods. ThIs
fvpo of nnnIvsIs nIIows us fo oxnmIno fho roInfIonshIp bofwoon dnfn sofs, nnd osfImnfo
fhoIr dogroo of Infordopondonco I.o. how sImIInr fhoIr InformnfIon confonf Is. Tho
rosuIfs of fhoso nnnIvsos nro shown grnphIcnIIv In IIg. 20, nnd fhov IncIudo fho fon
TineWote scroons IncIudod wIfh fho TWZ soffwnro, nIno soIocfod hIsforIcnI wIndows,
nnd fho 384 numbor dnfn sofs. In nII cnsos shown, fho rovIsod nnd rnndom dnfn sofs nro
boIng corroInfod (compnrod) wIfh fho sfnndnrd dnfn sof. SInco nnv numbor sof corroInfod
wIfh IfsoIf, hns n corroInfIon cooffIcIonf of ono, fho bIuo IIno nf fho fop of fho grnph
roprosonfs fho sfnndnrd dnfn soIfcorroInfIon.
!ocnII fhnf n corroInfIon of l sIgnIfIos numbor sofs fhnf hnvo IdonfIcnI InformnfIon
confonf, n corroInfIon of zoro sIgnIfIos no common InformnfIon confonf, nnd n corroInfIon
of l monns fhnf fho numbor sofs InformnfIon confonf oxhIbIf ¨mIrror Imngo¨ bohnvIor
wnvo ponks fo wnvo vnIIovs ofc. Tho groon IIno In fho grnph shows fho dogroo of
corroInfIon bofwoon fho rovIsod wnvoform nnd fho sfnndnrd wnvoform, for onch of fho
sopnrnfo TImoWnvos fhnf woro oxnmInod. Tho rod IIno shows fho corroInfIon IovoI
bofwoon wnvos gonornfod bv fho rnndom soodod dnfn sofs, nnd fhoso gonornfod bv fho
sfnndnrd dnfn sof. Tho fIrsf poInf of onch IIno, Is fho corroInfIon cooffIcIonf for onch of fho
384 numbor dnfn sofs oxnmInod ronJon, retieeJ, nnd e/onJorJ dnfn sofs.
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44
Tho fIrsf fonfuro fo nofIco nbouf fho retieeJ nnd e/onJorJ dnfn sof corroInfIons shown In
IIg. 20, Is fho fncf fhnf fho rovIsod 384 numbor dnfn sof shows n corroInfIon wIfh fho
sfnndnrd numbor sof of nbouf 60°  n compnrIson fhnf Is shown In IIg. l2. ThIs Is n
sIgnIfIcnnf crossIInkIng of InformnfIon confonf, buf somofhIng fhnf ono mIghf oxpocf for
numbor sofs wIfh n common bnso nnd vorv sImIInr dovoIopmonfnI procoduros. Tho noxf
fonfuro of sIgnIfIcnnco Is fho fncf fhnf fho corroInfIon bofwoon fho retieeJ nnd e/onJorJ
TineWotee, for nII fon TWZ scroon sofs, Is boffor fhnn ?0° nnd ns hIgh ns 98°, showIng
n vorv hIgh IovoI of Infordopondonco. Tho fImo porIods roprosonfod bv fhoso fon
TImoWnvo scroons, rnngos from 4 vonrs fo 36,000 vonrs, whIch Is InboIod on fho grnph.
Tho durnfIon of fhoso TImoWnvo porIods mnv hnvo n bonrIng on fho IovoI of corroInfIon,
ns wo shnII soo In n momonf.
IogInnIng wIfh fho porIod l895l925, fho grnph shows moro scnffor In fho corroInfIon
bofwoon sfnndnrd nnd rovIsod dnfn sofs, whIch rnngos from nbouf 98° down fo 8°, wIfh
ono nnfIcorroInfIon of 95°. ÞofIco fhnf fho corroInfIon npponrs worso for vorv shorf
fImo porIods, ono fo fwo monfhs or so. Ono possIbIo oxpInnnfIon Is fhnf fho vorv shorf
fImo porIod TImoWnvos nro gonornfod bv n vorv fow dnfn poInfs In ofhor words n Iow
wnvo snmpIIng froquoncv or rnfo. A smnII, nnd undorsnmpIod Inpuf dnfn sof wouId ndd
n hIghor IovoI of noIso fo fho wnvo sIgnnI, nnd consoquonfIv produco fho hIghor dnfn
scnffor obsorvod. Tho snmpIIng fhoorom, from InformnfIon fhoorv, sfnfos fhnf nIInsIng
(noIso gonornfIon) bogIns fo occur whon fho sIgnnI snmpIIng rnfo bocomos Ioss fhnn fwIco
fho hIghosf froquoncv compononf of fho snmpIod sIgnnI. ThIs Is corfnInIv somofhIng fhnf
mnv bo occurrIng In fho mnfhomnfIcs of TImoWnvo gonornfIon.
AddIfIonnIIv, ns monfIonod provIousIv, fhIs dIfforonco couId bo fho consoquonco of hnvIng
nn Improvod modoI of fho procoss. If Is Imporfnnf fo romombor fhrough nII of fhIs
compnrIson nnnIvsIs, fhnf fho sfnndnrd dnfn sof Is gonornfod bv n procoss wIfh Imboddod
fInws  nof onough fo dosfrov fho InformnfIon confonf of fho wnvo sIgnnIs, buf onough fo
cnuso somo dIsforfIon of fhnf InformnfIon confonf. ThIs corroInfIon nnnIvsIs Is
InforosfIng, prImnrIIv bocnuso If Ionvos fho sfnndnrd TineWote Infncf, moro or Ioss buf
fho Imporfnnf poInf fo romombor Is fhnf ovon wIfh Iow corroInfIon fho retieeJ Jo/o ee/
npponrs fo produco n boffor TineWote.
If Is probnbIo fhnf fho vnrInfIons wo obsorvo In IIg. 20 nro fho rosuIf of Io// fho
dIsforfIon of fho InformnfIon confonf of fho 384 numbor Jo/o ee/, ns n rosuIf of
mnfhomnfIcnI orrors, onJ fho Iow dnfn wnvo snmpIIng rnfo fhnf occurs for shorf durnfIon
TineWotee (nn unoxnmInod buf pInusIbIo fhosIs). If Is nIso Imporfnnf fo poInf ouf horo,
fhnf whon wo do soo sIgnIfIcnnf dIfforoncos In fho TImoWnvos gonornfod bv fho e/onJorJ
nnd retieeJ dnfn sofs, fhoso dIfforoncos hnvo rovonIod n retieeJ TImoWnvo of gronfor
nccurncv. Howovor, If Is Imporfnnf fhnf wo oxnmIno n sIgnIfIcnnf vnrIofv of nddIfIonnI
TImoWnvo porIods, fo gnfhor moro sfnfIsfIcs on fho funcfIonIng of fho rovIsod wnvo; buf
fho dnfn In hnnd so fnr, soom fo bo suggosfIng fhnf fho mnfhomnfIcnI formnIIznfIon of fho
dnfn sof gonornfIng procoss, doos Improvo fho TineWote nccurncv.
Anofhor sIgnIfIcnnf fonfuro of fho rovIsod dnfn corroInfIon pIof In IIg. 20 fhnf shouId bo
monfIonod horo, Is fho fncf fhnf fho corroInfIon cooffIcIonf for fho l9l5 porIod Is nonrIv 
l, sIgnIfvIng nn nnfIcorroInfIon or mIrror Imngo roInfIonshIp bofwoon fho wnvos. ThIs Is
45
fho TImoWnvo compnrIson fhnf Is shown If IIg. l8. If ono woro fo pInco nn ImngInnrv
fwosIdod mIrror bofwoon fho sfnndnrd nnd rovIsod TImoWnvo grnphs, fhon fho
rofIocfIon on oIfhor sIdo of fho mIrror wouId cIosoIv rosombIo fho wnvo fhnf Is on fho
ofhor sIdo honco fho doscrIpfIon of nnfIcorroInfIon ns n mIrror Imngo roInfIonshIp.
AIso nofIco, fhnf n groon doffod IIno mnrks fho nvorngo of nII fho sfnndnrd/rovIsod wnvo
corroInfIons nf nbouf ?0°.
Tho rod IIno of IIg. 20 shows fho corroInfIon of fho rnndom numbor gonornfod wnvos,
wIfh fho sfnndnrd dnfn sof. Iv dofInIfIon, fho rnndom dnfn sofs shouId show IIffIo or no
corroInfIon wIfh oIfhor fho sfnndnrd or rovIsod dnfn sofs, nor wIfh nnv ofhor rnndom
numbor sof. In sovornI cnsos In IIg. 20, fhIs furns ouf fo bo fruo, buf fhoro nro nIso
sovornI cnsos In whIch fho rnndom sof corroInfIon Is nof nonr zoro, ns ono wouId oxpocf.
In gonornI, fho rod IIno pIof of IIg. 20 shows n much Iowor IovoI of corroInfIon wIfh fho
e/onJorJ numbor sof fhnn doos fho retieeJ sof ns oxpocfod. Inch dnfn poInf on fho rod
IIno, howovor, Is ncfunIIv nn nvorngo of oIfhor fwo, or sovon rnndom numbor sof
corroInfIons. In ofhor words, oIfhor fwo or sovon rnndom numbor corroInfIons woro
nvorngod fo produco onch poInf on fho rod IIno grnph. If furns ouf fhnf mosf of fho
sIxfoon corroInfIon poInfs producod bv nvorngIng onIv fwo rnndom sofs, hnvo much moro
scnffor fhnn do fho four poInfs producod bv nvorngIng sovon rnndom sof corroInfIons.
Tho 384 numbor ronJon Jo/o ee/, nnd fho porIods l895l925, l905, nnd l9l5, woro nII
producod bv nvorngIng sovon rnndom sof corroInfIons. Tho vIoIof doffod IIno runnIng
fhrough fho rnndom numbor sof corroInfIons, Is fho nvorngo corroInfIon IovoI for nII fho
rnndom sofs shown, nnd If shows n vorv Iow nvorngo corroInfIon of nbouf 5°.
If Is nIso possIbIo fhnf fho snmo procoss proposod for producIng fho Inrgor corroInfIon
scnffor of fho rovIsod dnfn sof, couId bo nf work for fho rnndom dnfn sofs I.o. shorf
durnfIon fImo porIods wIfh Iow snmpIIng froquoncIos, couId bo cnusIng dnfn scnffor duo
fo noIso. If n smnII numbor of fho 384 Jo/o file poInfs nro usod fo gonornfo n e/or/ perioJ
TineWote, fhon fhoro Is n much hIghor probnbIIIfv of corroInfIon bofwoon fho rnndom
sofs nnd fho TImoWnvo numbor sofs. WIfhouf furfhor InvosfIgnfIon, howovor, fhIs Is n
spocuInfIvo, If pInusIbIo fhosIs.
Tho grnphs of IIg. 20 do show fhnf fho e/onJorJ nnd retieeJ dnfn sofs nnd fhoIr
dorIvnfIvo TineWotee nro romnrknbIv woII corroInfod. In fho rogIons whoro fho
corroInfIon wonkons, or bronks down onfIroIv, fho rovIsod TineWote npponrs fo show n
ÞovoIfv procoss fhnf Is In cIosor ngroomonf wIfh known hIsforIcnI procoss. In nddIfIon,
fho pIofs In IIg. 20 mnv bo rovonIIng n procoss whorobv shorf porIod TineWotee produco
snmpIIng noIso fhnf wonkons fho corroInfIon. ThIs dnfn supporfs fho vIow, fhnf fho
InformnfIon confonf of fho e/onJorJ TineWote Is somowhnf dIsforfod, buf nof dosfrovod;
nnd suggosfs fhnf fho retieeJ TineWote nnd Ifs pieceuiee lineor func/ion Is nbIo fo
corrocf fhIs dIsforfIon, nnd provIdos nn Improvod oxprossIon of fho ÞovoIfv procoss.
&RQFOXGLQJý5HPDUNV
Tho dovoIopmonf of fho 384 numbor Jo/o ee/ from fho sof of Iire/ OrJer of Difference
(IOÐ) Infogors hns boon oxprossod ns n procoss fhnf Is pieceuiee lineor In nnfuro. ThIs
procoss InvoIvos fho combInnfIon nnd oxpnnsIon of sfrnIghfIIno sogmonfs, whIch cnn bo
46
oxprossod mnfhomnfIcnIIv ns n pieceuiee lineor func/ion. Tho e/onJorJ Jetelopnen/ hns
boon doscrIbod bv McKonnn nnd Movor In fho TineWote Zero documonfnfIon nnd In
ofhor roporfs. Iuf fhIs procoss IncIudos n procodurnI sfop cnIIod fho ¨hnIf fwIsf¨, fhnf Is
nof consIsfonf wIfh fho sfrucfuro of pIocowIso IInonr mnfhomnfIcs; nnd consoquonfIv
producos n dIsforfIon of fho IOÐ InformnfIon confonf. WnfkIns oInbornfod on fhIs In
somo dofnII, In hIs woIIdocumonfod oxposo on fho nnfuro of fho /olf /uie/, In whIch ho
doscrIbod fho dIsforfIons nnd InconsIsfoncIos InvoIvod. Ho fhon concIudod fhnf fhIs
dIsforfIon wouId rondor fho TineWote monnIngIoss, ns n ronIIsfIc grnphIcnI dopIcfIon of
fho Aotel/x procoss ns hnd boon doscrIbod bv McKonnn. I mnInfnIn fhnf fhIs concIusIon
wns promnfuro, nnd nppnronfIv Incorrocf.
Tho retieeJ Jetelopnen/ of fho 384 numbor Jo/o ee/ IncIudos fho uso of mnfhomnfIcs fhnf
corrocfIv oxprossos fho pieceuiee lineor dovoIopmonf procoss, nnd fhoroforo producos nn
undIsforfod oxpnnsIon of fho IOÐ numbor sof. Tho TineWote fhnf rosuIfs from fhIs
oxpnnsIon procoss, Is fhon nn nccurnfo rofIocfIon of fho IOÐ numbor sof, provIdod fho sof
cnn bo doscrIbod or modoIod bv n pIocowIso IInonr funcfIon. Tho pieceuiee lineor func/ion
doscrIbod horo, mnv onIv bo nn npproxImnfIon fo somo moro conplex func/ion fhnf hns
vof fo bo found. In fncf, I wouId nrguo fhnf fhIs Is quIfo IIkoIv for n phonomonon or
procoss of fhIs nnfuro, whIch furfhor sfudv mnv shod somo IIghf on. If wo nssumo fhnf
fho retieeJ TineWote Is n ronsonnbIv nccurnfo rofIocfIon of fho InformnfIon confonf of
fho IOÐ numbor sof, fhon fho e/onJorJ TineWote shouId hnvo n dogroo of nccurncv
proporfIonnI fo Ifs dogroo of corroInfIon wIfh fho retieeJ TineWote. As wo hnvo soon
fhus fnr, fhoso fwo TineWotee show nn oteroge correlo/ion of nbouf ?0°, so fhnf fho
e/onJorJ uote hns nn nvorngo nccurncv of nbouf ?0° whon compnrod wIfh fho retieeJ
uote. Howovor, wo hnvo nIso soon fhIs corroInfIon ns hIgh ns 98°, or ns Iow ns 6°, wIfh
ono cnso of n mIrror Imngo or nnfIcorroInfIon of 0.94.
ThIs work hns sorvod fo cInrIfv nnd formnIIzo fho procoss bv whIch fho 384 numbor
TImoWnvo Jo/o ee/ Is gonornfod. ThIs hns boon dono bv showIng fhnf fho procoss Is
doscrIbnbIo wIfhIn fho frnmowork of pIocowIso IInonr mnfhomnfIcs In gonornI, nnd vocfor
mnfhomnfIcs In pnrfIcuInr. Inch sfop hns boon doIInonfod nnd formnIIzod
mnfhomnfIcnIIv, fo gIvo fho procoss cInrIfv nnd confInuIfv. Tho formnIIzod nnd rovIsod
dnfn sof sorvos ns fho foundnfIon of fho TineWote gonornfod bv fho TineWote Zero
soffwnro, whIch Is vIowod ns n grnphIcnI dopIcfIon of n procoss doscrIbod bv fho obb nnd
fIow of n phonomonon cnIIod Aotel/x. Aotel/x Is fhoughf fo bo fho bnsIs for fho cronfIon
nnd consorvnfIon of hIghor ordorod sfnfos of compIox form In nnfuro nnd fho unIvorso.
Tho rosuIfs roporfod horo mnko no fInnI cInIms ns fo fho vnIIdIfv of fho TineWote ns If Is
oxprossod bv Aotel/x T/eorx, nor doos If cInIm fhnf fho curronf TineWote Is fho bosf
doscrIpfIon of fhIs Aotel/x procoss. If doos show fhnf fho propor mnfhomnfIcnI fronfmonf
of fho IOÐ numbor sof, producos n TineWote fhnf npponrs fo bo moro consIsfonf wIfh
known hIsforIcnI procoss. ThIs consIsfoncv Is gonornI, howovor, nnd moro work noods fo
bo dono fo oxnmIno fho spocIfIc rofIocfIons or projocfIons fhnf fho TImoWnvo mnv bo
rovonIIng. If Aotel/x T/eorx Is n vnIId hvpofhosIs, rofIocfIng n ronI phonomonon In
nnfuro, fhon ono wouId oxpocf fhnf If Is vorIfInbIo In spocIfIc wnvs.
If hns nIso soomod npproprInfo fo oxnmIno somo of fho sfops In fhIs wnvo dovoIopmonf
procoss In forms of fhoIr corrospondonco wIfh oIomonfs of phIIosophv nnd scIonco. Tho
47
fIow of YIn nnd Ynng onorgv rofIocfod In fho oxprossIon of fho forwnrd nnd rovorso bI
dIrocfIonnI wnvos, for oxnmpIo, fInds phIIosophIcnI corrospondonco In n nnfurnI cvcIo of
IIfodonfhrobIrfh, or In fho procoss of fho shnmnnIc journov ImmorsIon, ongngomonf,
nnd rofurn. Corrospondonco cnn nIso bo found In scIonco, In fho fIoIds of cosmoIogv,
nsfronomv, nsfrophvsIcs, nnd qunnfum phvsIcs fho IIfo cvcIos nnd mofIon of honvonIv
bodIos, qunrks, nnd unIvorsos; fho hnrmonIc nnd hoIogrnphIc nnfuro of IIghf nnd wnvo
mochnnIcs; nnd fho cvcIIc frnnsformnfIon of mnffor fo onorgv, nnd onorgv fo mnffor. Tho
rofIocfIon of nII nnfurnI phonomonn nnd procossos ovor fho confInuum of oxIsfonco, from
fho smnIIosf scnIos up fo fho Inrgosf scnIos, musf suroIv IncIudo whnfovor procoss Is
occurrIng In fho IChIng ns woII. Tho quosfIon Is, nro wo nro cIovor nnd conscIous onough
fo docIphor nnd oxpross If corrocfIv nnd npproprInfoIv¨
$FNQRZOHGJHPHQWV
I wouId IIko fo fhnnk Terence McKenna, for brIngIng fhIs InfrIguIng nnd provocnfIvo nofIon
Info fho coIIocfIvo, nnd for fho courngo nnd forosIghf shown, bv hIs wIIIIngnoss fo opon
hImsoIf nnd hIs Idons fo scrufInv nnd boundnrv dIssoIufIon. If fhoro Is nnv roIovnnco or
monnIng fo bo found In fho TineWote or Aotel/x T/eorx, fhon If Is suroIv somofhIng fhnf
Is Inrgor fhnn ho, or nnv of us; nnd If Is nIso somofhIng fhnf Is proporIv In fho domnIn of
nII humnn oxporIonco, wIfh onch of us n wIfnoss, pnrfIcIpnnf, nnd confrIbufor.
I wouId nIso IIko fo oxpross mv fhnnks nnd npprocInfIon fo Mathew Watkins for hIs work In
oxposIng fho mnfhomnfIcnI InconsIsfoncIos, vngnrIos, nnd procodurnI orrors of fho
sfnndnrd TineWote Jo/o ee/ dovoIopmonf, nnd chnIIongIng n fhoorv fhnf mnv hnvo
bocomo fnr foo sodonfnrv nnd Inbrod for Ifs own good. Whnfovor fho fInnI oufcomo of fhIs
ondonvor of Aotel/x T/eorx, ho hns sof fho onforprIso on Ifs propor courso of opon nnd
crIfIcnI InquIrv.
I nm nIso gronfIv Indobfod fo Peter Meyer for hIs skIII nnd forosIghf In cronfIng n TWZ
soffwnro pnckngo fhnf Is fIoxIbIo, nccossIbIo, nnd frIondIv fo fho sorIous InvosfIgnfor.
WIfhouf hIs ÐOS vorsIon of TImoWnvo Zoro soffwnro, fhIs work wouId hnvo boon much
moro dIffIcuIf If nof ImpossIbIo. Ho hns cronfod n soffwnro pnckngo fhnf mnkos fhoso
nofIons ronIIsfIcnIIv fosfnbIo, In n roInfIvoIv sfrnIghfforwnrd mnnnor. ThIs mndo If
possIbIo for mo fo oxnmIno fho offocfs of fho rovIsod dnfn sof on fho TImoWnvo IfsoIf, ns
woII ns fncIIIfnfIng fho oxnmInnfIon of fho dofnIIod sfrucfuro of fho wnvo In work fo
foIIow.
Mv fhnnks nIso fo Dan Levy for hIs offor fo pubIIsh fhIs work on hIs !ovIfv sIfo, ns woII ns
hosfIng nn upcomIng TineWote mnfhomnfIcnI nnnox fo Aotel/x T/eorx. I wnnf nIso fo
ncknowIodgo Brian Crissey nf IIuo Wnfor IubIIshIng for hIs hoIp In InfogrnfIng fho now
procoss Info fho TImoWnvo Zoro soffwnro pnckngos nnd documonfnfIon.
1
Computer Software program written by Meyer and others, based on a mathematical relationship exhibited by the I
Ching, formulated and reported by T. McKenna and D. McKenna, the Invisible Landscape, Harper San Francisco, 1993,
p. 121
2
T. McKenna, the Invisible Landscape, p. 140
3
M. Watkins, Autopsy for a Mathematical Hallucination, Terence McKenna’s Hyperborea at www.levity.com
48
4
T. McKenna, Time Explorer Manual, p60, the Invisible Landscape, pp. 140142
5
P. Meyer, http://www.magnet.ch/serendipity/twz/kws.html
6
DeltaPoint, Inc., 22 Lower Ragsdale Dr., Monterey, CA 93940, (408) 6484000
7
Microsoft Corp., One Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 98052
8
McKenna, TimeExplorer Manual, PP. 6063, http://www.levity.com/eschaton/waveexplain.html
9
H.B. Anderson, Analytic Geometry with Vectors, p71, McCutchan Publishing Corp., Berkeley, Ca. 1966
10
T. McKenna, TimeExplorer software manual, pp. 6263
11
P. Meyer, TimeExplorer software manual, pp. 8591
12
M. Kaku, What Happened BEFORE the Big Bang?, Astronomy, May 1996, pp. 3441
[John Sheliak] sheliak@dsrt.com
[Terence McKenna] syzygy@ultraconnect.com
[return to Levity] http://www.levity.com/eschaton/
Filename: MathWave PaperII
Directory: D:\DG4\TWZ Files
Template: C:\Program Files\Microsoft
Office\Templates\NORMAL.DOT
Title: Delineation, Specification, and Formalization of the TWZ
Data Set Generation Process  Philosophical, Procedural, and Mathematical
Subject:
Author: John Sheliak
Keywords:
Comments:
Creation Date: 11/11/97 9:50 PM
Change Number: 2
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McKenna's Timewave
Conventional King Wen Tabulation
000 110 101 011 111 001 010 100
000 1 34 5 26 11 9 14 43
110 25 51 3 27 24 42 21 17
101 6 40 29 4 7 59 64 47
011 33 62 39 52 15 53 56 31
111 12 16 8 23 2 20 35 45
001 44 32 48 18 46 57 50 28
010 13 55 63 22 36 37 30 49
100 10 54 60 41 19 61 38 58
The I Ching is an ancient chinese oracular system wherein
six coins (or similar) ar consulted to obtain an allegedly
mysticallyrelevant maybenotrandom number in the range
0 to 63 inclusive, known as a hexagram.
The (binary) bits of this number (or hexagram) are
conventionally represented as either broken or unbroken
horiontal lines stacked vertically. Hexagrams are often
considered as the combination of two threebit trigrams.
The traditional ordering of the sixty four "hexagrams" is
usually attributed to King Wen circa 1150 BC.
This ordering, essentially one of 64! > 10
89
permutations of
the set Z
64
= {0,1,2,....,63} is the numerical starting point of
Terrance McKenna's TimeWave theory. I will write W(i) for
the i'th element of the cyclic King Wen Ordering, starting
with i=0 and with the understanding that W(i) = W(i
Mod64
) for i > 63 and for i<0.
I will represent a broken yang line with the symbol '1' representing the phallus and an unbroken yin line
by '0' representing the yoni.
W is sufficiently abstruce that most guides to the I Ching include a table such as this one from the
Richard Wilhelm traslation. The bit pattern for the "upper" trigram appears on the top row, and that of
the "lower" trigram i the leftmost column. Like most such books, it ennumerates the hexagrams from 1 to
64 rather than from 0 to 63.
Constructing Lunar from Wen (A new formulation)
McKenna first uses W to generate a sequence of 64 integers in the range 0 to 6 by considering the
unfortunately named First Order Difference of W, which will henceforth be written as D(W). This is the
number of bits (lines) which change as one moves from W(i1) to W(i) and is conventionally refered to as
h(i) in the TimeWave literature, definable using C array notation as:
int h[65]= {
3,6,2,4,4,4,3,2, 4,2,4,6,2,2,4,2, 2,6,3,4,3,2,2,2, 3,4,2,6,2,6,3,2,
3,4,4,4,2,4,6,4, 3,2,4,2,3,4,3,2, 3,4,4,4,1,6,2,2, 3,4,3,2,1,6,3,6,
3 };
with h[64] existing and =h[0] merely for programming convenience.
Tabulated Derivation of D(W)(i)
000
000
 6
111
111
 2
101
110
 4
011
101
 4
101
000
 4
000
101
 3
111
101
 2
101
111
 4
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001
000
 2
000
100
 4
111
000
 6
000
111
 2
000
010
 2
010
000
 4
111
011
 2
110
111
 2
100
110
 6
011
001
 3
111
100
 4
001
111
 3
010
110
 2
011
010
 2
011
111
 2
111
110
 3
000
110
 4
011
000
 2
011
110
 6
100
001
 2
101
101
 6
010
010
 3
100
011
 2
110
001
 3
000
011
 4
110
000
 4
010
111
 4
111
010
 2
001
010
 4
010
100
 6
101
011
 4
110
101
 3
011
100
 2
001
110
 4
100
000
 2
000
001
 3
100
111
 4
111
001
 3
100
101
 2
101
001
 3
100
010
 4
010
001
 4
110
110
 4
011
011
 1
001
011
 6
110
100
 2
110
010
 2
010
011
 3
001
001
 4
100
100
 3
001
101
 2
101
100
 1
001
100
 6
110
011
 3
101
010
 6
010
101
 3
Whether W iself is algorithmically generable is currently unknown. It manifests order of a sophisticated
nature and seems likely to have been carefully chosen.
A basic principle of W is that every second hexagram is either the reflection of its predecessor (when
D(W)=2 or 4 or 6), or (in the case of palindromic bitpatterns) the ones's compliment of its predecessor
(D(W)=6).
Further, the absence of 5 s in D(W)(i) is likely to be either deliberate, or the consequence of another
deliberate criteria. Some research by Pavel Luksha suggests that the sequence is likely to be an
empirically derived approximation to the probabilistic ordering for certain traditional nonuniform
hexagram generation systems.
McKenna's original derivation of 64 x 6 = 384 Lunar numbers (one for each day in the lunar year) from
W is both bizarre and cryptically expressed. Dr Matthew Watkins derived the following formulation of
McKenna's procedure, expressed here first using substantially similar notation to Watkins':
L(k) = abs(
((1)^trunc((k1) /32))* (h[k1
Mod64
]  h[k2
Mod64
] +h[k
Mod64
]  h[1k
Mod64
])
+ 3*((1)^trunc((k3) /96))* (h[trunc(k/3) 1
Mod64
]  h[trunc(k/3) 2
Mod64
] + h[trunc(k/3)
Mod64
]  h[1trunc(k/3)
Mod64
])
+ 6*((1)^trunc((k6) /192))* (h[trunc(k/6) 1
Mod64
]  h[trunc(k/6) 2
Mod64
] + h[trunc(k/6)
Mod64
]  h[1trunc(k/6)
Mod64
])
)
+ abs(
9h[k
Mod64
]  h[k1
Mod64
] + 3*(9h[trunc(k/3)
Mod64
]  h[trunc(k/3) 1
Mod64
]) + 6*(9
h[trunc(k/6)
Mod64
]  h[trunc(k/6) 1
Mod64
] )
)
Progress can be made by rexpressing this using the operators defined by
R(F)(i) = F(i) "Reflection"
∆(F)(i) = F(i)  F(i1) "Difference"
S(F)(i) = F(i) + F(1i) "Superposition"
T(F)(i) = F(i) + 3F(i/3]) + 6F(i/6]) "Threepling"
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Writing i] in place of trunc(i) , i in place of abs(i) , and D(W)(i) for h[i
Mod64
] we have the alternative
formulation
L(i) = 
((1)
(i1)/32]
) ∆(S(R(D(W))))(i) + 3((1)
(i3] /96)
) ∆(S(R(D(W))))(i/3] ) + 6((1)
(i6)/192]
)
∆(S(R(D(W))))(i/6] )

+  90  T(S(R(D(W))))(i) 
The powers of 1 in this expression stem from a particular step in McKenna's process now refered to as
the (notorious) half twist which McKenna fails to convincingly justify and is now loosing favour amoung
TimeWave adherents in favour of the "refined" untwisted L defined by
L(i) =  T(∆(S(R(D(W)))))(i)  +  90  T(S(R(D(W))))(i) 
By attributing the obvious notational precedence system, we can drop the brackets and represent the 384
points as
L(i) =  T∆SRDW(i)  +  90  TSRDW(i) 
which undoubtedly has a finer aesthetic quality than the "halftwisted" function. I leave it to those
knowledgeable in such matters to point to the doubtlessly profound significance of the number 90.
A short C routine is presented here which calculates the "untwisted" data in accordance with this
formulation. It has been confirmed to generate the expected ""Watkins data set"".
McKenna, however, now apparently endorses a third set of 384 Lunar numbers (known as the Sheliak or
TW1 numbers) generated by
L(x) = F(x) + 3F(1 + (x1)/3) + 6F(1 + (x1)/6) where F(x) is the piecewise linear interpolation of
F(i) = 9  D(W)(1i)  D(W)(i).
Constructing Novelty from Lunar
Having defined L over Z
384
McKenna then extends L to all integers by L(i) = L(i
Mod384
) and thence to
the reals by piecewise linear interpolation. The socalled Novelty function, N said to correlate with
historical events, is defined by
N(x) = ∑
i=∞
+∞
2
6i
L(2
6i
x)
and is bounded since L(x) is nonnegative, bounded above, and equal to zero over the range [0,1].
An arbitary zero date is chosen (eg. the culmination of the Mayan calender) for the ultimate zero point of
N and N is then overlaid over the historical timeline. [ Though McKenne claims to have "rediscovered"
this date by "fitting" the timewave to recorded history.] Since N has fractal properties, distinct portions of
it at distinct scales can resemble eachother and the mathematically illiterate can easily be bamboozled by
correlating curve 'similarities' with subjective historical 'parallels'.
Further information on Time Wave theory may be found here. In my view, Time Wave theory is
misconceived and does not warrant further investigation.
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by Gyrus
A critical view of Linear Apocalyptic Thought, and how Linearity makes a sneak appearance in Timewave
Theory's fractal view of Time...
So many people have asked me in consternation: "Why aren't you doing the last part of Towards
2012?" Well, I've decided to include 'Apocalypse' as a section at the back of this issue for a few
reasons. When I initiated and planned out this project in 1995, I had no idea that it'd become a
tome of these proportions. Those of you with a copy of the first issue will be able to see that I
optimistically set the release date for the last one at April 1997! At the rate it's been going, that's
over 2 years off course. It's been a great project to do, but frankly I don't want to be still doing it
this time next year. Other Things beckon...
That's a mundane reason. Beyond that, my ideas and feelings about the whole '2012 scenario'
have radically changed in the past three years. I'm still influenced by most of the people I absorbed
my postmodern eschatology from — Terence McKenna, William S. Burroughs, Robert Anton
Wilson, Arthur Koestler, Norman O. Brown, Philip K. Dick, Wilhelm Reich — but I simply
wouldn't feel honest and passionate now about doing a whole issue devoted to apocalyptic ideas.
As it is, I'm very happy that's it's ending with 'Paganism', as this is where the larger part of my
heart has been all along.
Naturally, the most common question I've been asked has been: "So what's all this '2012' business
about then?" Sometimes I've actually been stumped! To be honest, it's actually been quite a while
since I was really interested in why this could be such a 'special' date, and I've had to trawl my
memory and summon up enthusiasm to explain it on occasions. Cue expressions of mystification
at why someone who spends all their time doing a mag called Towards 2012 goes "Er..." when
asked what the title means!
When I sat down to write this piece, I was all set to just reel off my reasons for not being really
taken by the '2012 scenario' anymore. Ironically, within days I was more fascinated by McKenna's
theories than I had been in years! So for those of you still baffled by the title, here goes...
a m a z o n ia n t im e & t h e i c h in g
In 1971, Terence McKenna, then a former student radical and wanted hash smuggler, made his
way into the depths of the Amazon jungle with a small group of friends, including his brother
Dennis. They had intended to search for a rare plant psychedelic containing dimethyltryptamine
(DMT), but ended up mostly feasting on Stropharia cubensis, a type of psilocybin mushroom. A
bizarre psychoactive experiment was formulated between the brothers, wherein they attempted to
bond harmine DNA (harmine is another psychedelic compound they used synergetically with the
mushrooms) with their own neural DNA, through the use of vocal techniques(!). This, they
reasoned, would give them access to the collective memory bank of the species, as well as
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manifesting the fabled alchemists' Philosopher's Stone — which they visualized as a UFOlike
hyperdimensional union of spirit and matter. If you want to see what did happen, read McKenna's
excellent True Hallucinations. For now, it's enough to know that McKenna's experiences led him
to spend night after night gazing at the stars pondering the nature of time (it comes to us all), and
this in turn led him to study the ancient Chinese divinatory system, the I Ching, for a few clues
about time from the Orient.
His basic conclusion was that the sequence of hexagrams in the I Ching are ordered in a highly
structured, artificial way — one that codified the nature of time's flow in the world. A hexagram is
a combination of six lines, each being either yin or yang (example to the right). There
are 64 hexagrams in total, in a set sequence. McKenna mapped out the inner structure
of the sequence by calculating how many lines changed from yin to yang, or vice versa,
from hexagram to hexagram. He then filtered this data through a complex series of
tables and graphs, and finished up with a waveform that he called 'Timewave Zero' (figure 1,
below). This is all laid out in detail in The Invisible Landscape.
figure 1.
A s e ct ion of t he
Time wa ve . The boxe d
port ion t o t he right
e nclos e s a s ub s e ct ion
t ha t figure s 3 7 a re
fra ct a l corre la t e s of.
I have to admit that the precise reasoning behind this process eludes me; even more beyond my
comprehension is the mathematical formulation of the theory, put together by Peter Meyer for the
software. I think you have to be pretty wellversed in maths to understand — and hence criticize
— the underpinnings of the Timewave. I asked Terence about the slightly elitist nature of this
situation, and he simply replied: "Go back again and study it carefully, it's quite straightforward."
Either he was being a bit obnoxious, or declining educational standards have affected me more
than I thought!
There are actually several variations of the Timewave. The Timewave Zero software is based
upon the numerical series originally generated by McKenna from the I Ching, as documented in
The Invisible Landscape. When analysing the construction of the original timewave from the I
Ching numbers in 1994 Peter Meyer found a step, named by him "the mysterious halftwist",
which McKenna had not mentioned (and of which, when asked, he said he knew nothing). The
deletion of this step produces a slightly different timewave (named after the mathematician
Matthew Watkins, who also made a study of the timewave which was severely critical of its
foundations).
Proceeding from a quite different perspective, John Sheliak developed an alternative series of
numbers, which gave rise to what McKenna called "Timewave One". McKenna described this as a
"correction" of the original Timewave; however, Peter Meyer regards the Sheliak construction as
unfounded and erroneous. Presumably, in a speculative arena such as this, with no orthodox laws
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to govern the 'correct' way of doing things, we should see alternate versions of the wave as just
that, alternatives. There is yet another alternative set of I Ching numbers that generates what is
known as the "Huang Ti" wave. All work here is based on the Timewave Zero software (called
"Fractal Time" in its final 1999 version), but I don't think the discrepancies between this and other
versions will affect my general criticisms.
The Timewave graph is supposed to depict the ebb and flow of 'novelty' and 'habit' in the
universe. When the timeline climbs up, habit (routine, convention, ruts to get stuck in) increases.
When the line dips down, novelty (creativity, connectedness, weird shit) increases. An inbuilt
feature of the wave is that at a certain point it hits the bottom of the graph — it goes off the scale.
Novelty is maximized, as far as the variables of this system (the universe) go.
With this graph in his hands, McKenna tried mapping it onto the historical record, looking at key
points where things seemed to have really taken off, and matching them to the big dips in the line.
Specifically, he opted for the bombing of Hiroshima as an unarguably 'novel' event. The structure
of his Timewave dictated that extremely novel events unfolded in cycles of 6 x 64 x 64 = 24,576
days (67.29 years). Adding this sum to the date of Hiroshima gave him an enddate in November
2012 CE. It was well after settling on this date that he found out someone else had come to a very
similar conclusion. The calendar of the timeobsessed Mayan culture appears to come to the end
of a 5,125year cycle on 21st December (the winter solstice) of the same year, and McKenna
adjusted the enddate to conform with this venerable tradition.
t h e n o v e lt y o f e n d  t im e s
What will actually happen on 21/12/2012? Many possibilities have been suggested: time travel,
'universal enlightenment', alien landings, the Second Coming... If McKenna's theory is correct, we
won't be able to even conceive of the event until it arrives. An easy way to understand this is to
make a graph with an exponential curve on it — here's one I made earlier:
figure 2.
A s imple gra ph s howing
how in t he Time wa ve ,
nove lt y ( or t he
a cce le ra t ion of e volut ion)
proce e ds a t a n
e xpone nt ia lly incre a s ing
ra t e .
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I've made the vertical axis increase in value as it goes down to correspond to the Timewave.
Novelty in the Timewave graph ebbs and flows, with peaks and troughs, but overall it increases.
This increase is shown in the simplified curve in fig. 2. The increase does not proceed at a steady
rate — it increases faster and faster and faster and faster... until it eventually 'goes vertical',
corresponding to the Timewave line going off the scale.
Now, imagine that the line on this simplified graph is a tube, and you're inside it, hurtling along
like some crazy species trying to escape from the dead weight of the past... How far can you see
ahead? There's always a certain view down the tube before it bends round out of sight. But as you
approach the vertical part — where novelty keeps on increasing despite the flow of time having
'ended' — you never really see around the corner until you're on top of it.
But to truly understand the Timewave, you have to grasp its fractal nature. Look at figure 1. At
the far right of the wave, there are two tiny peaks, huddling against a slightly larger one. If this bit
is magnified and stretched out a bit, you get something like this:
figure 3. The la s t 6 billion ye a rs a s s e e n t hrough t he Time wa ve . Ke y e ve nt s de pict e d he re a re t he forma t ion of Ea rt h
a nd t he ris e of life . The box t o t he right is s hown wit h a n a rrow t o indica t e t ha t t he ne xt gra ph, figure 4, is a
ma gnifica t ion of t his port ion. Da t e s a re s hown in ye a rs be fore pre s e nt .
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The section of the wave in fig. 1 can be seen again (though not in much detail) as the nearlevel
part on the far right. So you can blow up that very last bit again and get the same shape, describing
a much shorter span of time. These descending nests of fractal hierarchies carry on ad infinitum
(or rather, ad 2012). This is the part that really got me into it again. The Timewave gives a shape
to history and, whether it's the 'true' shape or not, playing around with it got me much more
fascinated and excited by the past than I've ever been with a 'flat line' image — time as 'simple
duration' — informing my idea of history's form.
So does the Timewave's description of "the ingression of novelty into the universe" tally with
what we know about the appearance of novel events in the past? Look for yourself.
figure 4. The la s t 94 million ye a rs : t he e me rge nce of huma ns . Da t e s a re s hown in ye a rs be fore pre s e nt .
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figure 5. The la s t 1. 5 million ye a rs : t he de ve lopme nt of huma n cult ure . Da t e s a re s hown in ye a rs be fore pre s e nt .
figure 6. The la s t 23 t hous a nd ye a rs : a gricult ure , me t a llurgy, writ ing, civilis a t ion a nd t he ge ne s is of world re ligions
figure 7. The la s t 360 ye a rs : t he Indus t ria l Re volut ion, t e le communica t ions , a t omic e ne rgy a nd s pa ce t ra ve l
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These snippets of 'key events' in history are naturally a bit selective; and because the unfolding of
evolution on Earth has proceeded at an everaccelerating rate, it is natural that in each snapshot of
the wave, many significant events are bunched up on that last little plateau. But some very
interesting correspondences emerge.
According to Timewave theory, each section of the wave resonates with every other section that
has an identical structure. So the development of the first tools among prehominid apes, and the
emergence of our ancestor Homo habilis (figure 4) resonate with the first recorded deliberate
deposition in a human burial, and the 'Human Revolution' — which saw Homo sapiens spreading
across the globe and developing art (figure 5). Likewise, the first appearance of Homo sapiens and
the first recorded humanbuilt structure (fig. 5)resonate with the rise of dynastic Egypt and the
flowering of European megalithic culture (figure 6).
Perhaps most significantly, the first glimmerings of human
intervention in nature for food production, i.e. the start of
the Agricultural Revolution (fig. 6), occupies the same
'novelty trough' as the Industrial Revolution in figure 7.
c r it ic is m t im e !
These are just a few examples of the Timewave's 'successes', and there are many more — just
pore over the graphs for a while, and maybe grab a few of those dusty history books off your
shelves. But does it trip up at all? McKenna's said that if it fails once, it fails utterly; so let's check
it out.
In his own work he's highlighted the trough starting at 14,000 BCE (fig. 6) as showing the
'Magdelanian Revolution', the explosion of cave art in the late Palaeolithic. Yet some paintings at
Lascaux date back to 17,000 BCE, and this date, along with the invention of Mesolithic tools,
appears near the peak of a steep climb into habit. Perhaps these acted as catalysts for the
impending plunge into novelty?
Well, this brings up what I feel to be a major glitch in Timewave theory, which I came across
while searching for historical correspondences. Look at the last large peak of habit in fig. 6. On
the tape that comes with the Timewave software, McKenna says that Homer's epic poetry
appeared here as a trigger for the steep descent into novelty — classical Greek civilization, a
prime catalyst for the modern world. A similar type of event may be seen in fig. 7, where the
invention of the telephone in 1876 seems to plunge us into an increase of novelty, which only
abates twice before the full bloom of global telecommunications in the late 20th century.
Isn't this having it both ways? When a novel event appears at the bottom of a trough — like cattle
domestication in 6000 BCE — that's fine, novelty's high at that point. But when one appears on a
'habit peak' — Bell and the phone, Homer and his epics, or the appearance of Mesolithic tools —
that's fine too. It's a 'trigger' for the next descent into weirdness. You can't lose!
By the way, it's important to note that 'novelty' doesn't necessarily imply 'good'. The first atomic
bomb being detonated in 1945 was pretty novel, but not so great. So novelty maximization in 2012
could end up being something like the sun exploding!
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Given that the wave is derived from the protoTaoist I Ching, I also find it strange that the
Timewave has a definite end built into it. To my understanding, Taoism, before it developed into a
fullblown formal religion, was profoundly antieschatological — not at all bothered about 'final
destiny' or 'a singularity at the end of time'. It's deeply concerned with change, yes; but the
'maximization of novelty' points to something more than just 'the next step'. It hints at something
'final' and 'complete' — notions that don't seem to fit well into the Taoist sense of flow.
McKenna's pretty consistent these days in his cheerleading for the Eschaton, but such was not the
case when he was laying the foundation for his philosophy. In the Invisible Landscape, he and his
brother write:
As moderns and necessarily skeptics, we have assumed that although the hypothesis
points toward an eventual involution of the temporal manifold, a concrescence, there
is little likelihood of such an event occurring in the immediate present.
Some pages later we find them saying: "The nearness of a major concresence to our own time is a
selfevident fact..."!
We also find a potentially refreshing selfcritical line being taken:
The question of the moment of this true rupture of plane is difficult; it seems most
millenarian speculations decode as giving critical importance to the age in which
they were composed.
But nothing is ever made of this. Obviously, for this point is probably the best objection to
apocalyptic thinking there is. The End is always just around the corner, from where you're
standing — making it a pretty subjective affair, not 'universal' at all.
As it stands, the Timewave's predictions for the runup to 2012 are staggering. Comparing our
own age in fig. 7 to the other graphs, we can see that the start of the 90s resonates with the
emergence of life onto land 400 million years ago, and the hominids' debut 4 million years ago.
And we've just entered a 5 year period that resonates directly with the Human Revolution (fig. 5),
when seafaring and art first crystallized. Furthermore, McKenna states that, due to the
acceleration of novelty's ingression, about half of the total evolution of our 72plusbillionyear
old universe will occur in the last 0.3 seconds before 6.00am on 21/12/2012! If we take the
formation of the cosmos, the rise of life, or the discovery of language as examples of key 'barriers'
that universal evolution passes through, McKenna's calculations tell us that thirteen such barriers
will be passed in the last 0.0075 seconds!!
This theory is staggering, unimaginable, and inspiring in a way that's intense but very hard to
grasp (until you smoke DMT I suppose). It's also amazingly 'Westcentred' (never mind
humancentred). Postindustrial cultures appear to be going through an everintensifying series of
changes that could point to a major transformation in the next 15 or so years. But what about
'undeveloped' cultures, and those whose religious/calendrical systems have nothing special on the
cards for the near future? Were the hidden forces that dish out the inspiration for sacred calendars
having a laugh when they gave these people 'wrong' timescales? "Look at those dorks, they don't
know what's gonna hit them!" And what about the (admittedly very few) indigenous tribes still
relatively untouched by the 'progress' of the last 10,000 years?
McKenna's answer to this at his presentation of the Timewave at the ICA, London, in 1996 was
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that "history isn't politically correct" — i.e. it's untouched by our liberal concern for humans who
haven't been caught up in its vortex. Well, neoNazis aren't PC either. What makes History — as
in the evolution of technology since the Agricultural Revolution — worth going along with unto
its final conclusion?
History is an angel
Being blown backwards
Into the future
History is a pile of debris
And the angel wants to go back
And fix things
To repair things that have been broken
But there's a storm blowing from paradise
And the storm keeps blowing the angel backwards
Into the future
And this storm
This storm is called Progress
• Laurie Anderson, 'The Dream Before'
t im e & t a n t r a
You may have noticed that all the people I listed at the start as inspirations for my eschatological
leanings were men. Is eschatology a gender issue? It's not really discussed, is it? I'd be interested
to find out about any exceptions, but as far as I can see, all the cultures and religions that are big
on apocalyptics are pretty patriarchal.
The idea of a point at the end of history, or the universe — McKenna's "concrescence of novelty"
— is the flipside of everything exploding out from a singularity at the beginning. The Omega
Point and the Big Bang are like bookends of unification at either end of the flow of time. They can
also be seen as Vast Ejaculations (now there's an album title). Douglas Rushkoff first pointed out
to me the masculine sexuality underlying apocalyptic ideas. And as I created that 'simplified curve'
graph in fig. 2, I noticed the sexual innuendo in the idea of human knowledge 'going vertical'
(fnarr, fnarr). The Big Bang isn't really that far from Egyptian creation myths where gods bring
things forth by beating off. And the Timewave is breakneck rush towards a crescendo of
connectedness and barrierdissolution — a Cosmic Climax.
This all sounds great, but I also wonder: where's the female orgasm? What about continuous
waves of fullbody, nonlinear ecstasy, with no focal point and no singular 'explosion'? Not that all
women experience this, or that it's exclusive to women. (Then again, ejaculation isn't strictly
exclusive to men, but let's not complicate our metaphors more than necessary!) Such experiences
of waveorgasm are the focus of most sexual mysticism, for both sexes. There's no Point to this
ecstasy, but it ain't 'pointless'! Does it have no place in eschatology? Would the concepts of the
Omega Point, the Apocalypse, Judgement Day, Timewave Zero, etc. even exist if this experience
was more common than the "sneeze in the genitals", as Alan Watts has called the average male
orgasm? Well, there's only one way to find out!
Are we yearning for a quick and catastrophic explosion to relieve the tension — the tension of
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information overload, the tension of tightly measured time, the tension of too much undigested
history? Dare we step back for a moment amidst this frantic rush towards the Climax, and
question the assumptions behind linear masculine eschatology — even as we approach the
Deadline? As Mogg Morgan says,
If you feel yourself approaching the point of 'no return', maybe ask your partner to
pause, and make any adjustments necessary to prevent ejaculation or climax . . . . As
the urge for ejaculation or release subsides, you may feel the warm sexual glow
spreading throughout your whole pelvic region, opening out other energy centres
sometimes called chakras. A strange thing happens: you become like an erotic
landscape, a sea of sensation. Try to regard the time you have spent in this 'build up'
to ejaculation as part of the orgasm. Viewed this way, perhaps you can see that an
orgasm, for both men and women, is actually a lot more intense than those few
moments of ejaculation or climax.
(from 'The Erotic Landscape' in Towards 2012 part IV)
The aim of sexual mysticism and magick isn't always the total
inhibition of coming — it's more to do with intensifying the orgasmic
trance through diffusing the 'explosion' of coming throughout the
body, and relaxing more fully into every nuance of psychophysical
sensation that arises. A key part of it is perhaps one of the great Keys
to Magick — avoiding Lust of Result, a.k.a. attachment, goaloriented
consciousness, striving, or 'pushing the river'. Paradox time again.
Orgasmic trance is more intense if you don't try to intensify it, or even
try to reach orgasm at all. This is the heart of Taoist philosophy: wu
wei, 'not pushing'.
McKenna's well aware of all this, but here I'm trying to address the
general way that our goaloriented culture reacts to impending
megaevents. There's also the issue of whether McKenna's right in his
assumption that the creators of the I Ching believed in some sort of
grand concrescence at the end of time. He argues in The Invisible Landscape that the I Ching
originated with protoTaoist shamans in Neolithic China, and functioned as a lunar calendar
system as well as a divinatory device. His arguments here are convincing, as is his insistence on
the importance of fractalbased models and resonance to the developers of this oracular artefact.
Not quite so convincing is the idea that the shamans who gave birth to Taoism would have put a
Full Stop or an Exclamation Mark at the end of their universe, and carefully knitted it into the
structure of their sacred symbol system. A Comma, maybe — or a Question Mark?
This isn't to say I think that there definitely is not a stupendous hyperdimensional object hovering
14 years ahead of us, inexorably drawing all matter and consciousness into its pulsating heart of
light. When I decided to make this 'Apocalypse' bit a mere section at the back of this issue, I
jokingly told a friend that I had 'Cancelled the Apocalypse'. He told McKenna this when he met
him, and the reply was, "That's a bit presumptuous!" And that it is. Well, I haven't really cancelled
it. I've merely tried to stop pushing the river.
Let It Flow...
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b o o k s u s e d
The Invisible Landscape: Mind, Hallucinogens and the I Ching by Terence & Dennis
McKenna
q
Timewave Zero software & documentation by Terence McKenna & Peter Meyer q
Synesthesia by Terence McKenna & Tim Ely q
True Hallucinations by Terence McKenna q
The Archaic Revival by Terence McKenna q
Tao te Ching by Lao Tzu q
The Book of Life edited by Stephen Jay Gould q
Timewalkers: The Prehistory of Global Colonization by Clive Gamble q
Encyclopaedia of Dates and Events by L.C. Pascoe & B.A. Phythian q
The Cassell Atlas of World History ( I highly re comme nd t his , e s pe cia lly t he At las of t he Ancie nt World
s e ct ion, cove ring 4, 000, 000 t o 500 BCE, which is , like a ll t he ot he r s ub s e ct ions , publis he d in a s e pa ra t e ,
a fforda ble e dit ion. )
q
The Way of Zen by Alan Watts q
Blood Relations: Menstruation and the Origins of Culture by Chris Knight q
The Prehistory of Sex by Timothy Taylor q
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THE HOW AND WHY OF THE MAYAN END DATE IN 2012 A.D.
by John Major Jenkins
¾ May 23rd, 1994
Originally published in the DecJan '95 issue of Mountain Astrologer.
Why did the ancient Mayan or preMaya choose December 21st, 2012 A.D., as the end of their Long
Count calendar? This article will cover some recent research. Scholars have known for decades that the
13baktun cycle of the Mayan "Long Count" system of timekeeping was set to end precisely on a winter
solstice, and that this system was put in place some 2300 years ago. This amazing fact  that ancient
Mesoameri can skywatchers were able to pinpoint a winter solstice far off into the future  has not been
dealt with by Mayanists. And why did they choose the year 2012? One immediately gets the impression
that there is a very strange mystery to be confronted here. I will be building upon a clue to this mystery
reported by epigrapher Linda Schele in Maya Cosmos (1994). This article is the natural culmination of
the research relating to the Mayan Long Count and the precession of the equinoxes that I explored in my
recent book Tzolkin: Visionary Perspectives and Calendar Studies (Borderlands Science and Research
Foundation, 1994).
The Mayan Long Count
Just some basics to get us started. The Maya were adept skywatchers. Their Classic Period is thought to
have lasted from 200 A.D. to 900 A.D., but recent archeological findings are pushing back the dawn of
Mayan civilization in Mesoamerica. Large ruin sites indicating high culture with distinctly Mayan
antecedents are being found in the jungles of Guatemala dating back to before the common era. And even
before this, the Olmec civilization flourished and developed the sacred count of 260 days known as the
tzolkin. The early Maya adopted two different time keeping systems, the "Short Count" and the Long
Count. The Short Count derives from combining the tzolkin cycle with the solar year and the Venus
cycle of 584 days. In this way, "short" periods of 13, 52 and 104 years are generated. Unfortunately, we
won't have occasion to dwell on the properties of the socalled Short Count system here. The Long Count
system is somewhat more abstract, yet is also related to certain astronomical cycles. It is based upon
nested cycles of days multiplied at each level by that key Mayan number, twenty:
Number of Days / Term
1 / Kin (day)
20 / Uinal
360 / Tun
7200 / Katun
144000 / Baktun
Notice that the only exception to multiplying by twenty is at the tun level, where the uinal period is
instead multiplied by 18 to make the 360day tun. The Maya employed this counting system to track an
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unbroken sequence of days from the time it was inaugurated. The Mayan scholar Munro Edmonson
believes that the Long Count was put in place around 355 B.C. This may be so, but the oldest Long
Count date as yet found corresponds to 32 B.C. We find Long Count dates in the archeological record
beginning with the baktun place value and separated by dots. For example: 6.19.19.0.0 equals 6 baktuns,
19 katuns, 19 tuns, 0 uinals and 0 days. Each baktun has 144000 days, each katun has 7200 days, and so
on. If we add up all the values we find that 6.19.19.0.0 indicates a total of 1007640 days have elapsed
since the Zero Date of 0.0.0.0.0. The much discussed 13baktun cycle is completed 1872000 days (13
baktuns) after 0.0.0.0.0. This period of time is the so called Mayan "Great Cycle" of the Long Count and
equals 5125.36 years.
But how are we to relate this to a time frame we can understand? How does this Long Count relate to
our Gregorian calendar? This problem of correlating Mayan time with "western" time has occupied
Mayan scholars since the beginning. The standard question to answer became: what does 0.0.0.0.0 (the
Long Count "beginning" point) equal in the Gregorian calendar? When this question is answered,
archeological inscriptions can be put into their proper historical context and the end date of the 13baktun
cycle can be calculated. After years of considering data from varied fields such as astronomy,
ethnography, archeology and iconography, J. Eric S. Thompson determined that 0.0.0.0.0 correponded to
the Julian date 584283, which equals August 11th, 3114 B.C. in our Gregorian calendar. This means that
the end date of 13.0.0.0.0, some 5125 years later, is December 21st, 2012 A.D.1
The relationship between the Long Count and Short Count has always been internally consistent (both
were tracked alongside each other in an unbroken sequence since their conception). Now it is very
interesting to note that an aspect of the "Short Count", namely, the sacred tzolkin count of 260 days, is
still being followed in the highlands of Guatemala. As the Mayan scholar Munro Edmonson shows in
The Book of the Year, this last surviving flicker of a calendar tradition some 3000 years old supports the
Thompson correlation of 584283. Edmonson also states that the Long Count was begun by the Maya or
preMaya around 355 B.C., but there is reason to believe that the Long Count system was being perfected
for at least 200 years prior to that date.
The point of interest for these early astronomers seems to have been the projected end date in 2012 A.D.,
rather than the beginning date in 3114 B.C. Having determined the end date in 2012 (for reasons we will
come to shortly), and calling it 13.0.0.0.0, they thus proclaimed themselves to be living in the 6th baktun
of the Great Cycle. The later Maya certainly attributed much mythological significance to the beginning
date, relating it to the birth of their deities, but it now seems certain that the placement of the Long Count
hinges upon its calculated end point. Why did early Mesoamerican skywatchers pick a date some 2300
years into the future and, in fact, how did they pinpoint an accurate winter solstice? With all these
considerations one begins to suspect that, for some reason, the ancient New World astronomers were
tracking precession.
The Precession
The precession of the equinoxes, also known as the Platonic Year, is caused by the slow wobbling of the
earth's polar axis. Right now this axis roughly points to Polaris, the "Pole Star," but this changes slowly
over long periods of time. The earth's wobble causes the position of the seasonal quarters to slowly
precess against the background of stars. For example, right now, the winter solstice position is in the
constellation of Sagittarius. But 2000 years ago it was in Capricorn. Since then, it has precessed
backward almost one full sign. It is generally thought that the Greek astronomer Hipparchus was the first
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to discover precession around 128 B.C. Yet scholarship indicates that more ancient Old World cultures
such as the Egyptians (see Schwaller de Lubicz's book Sacred Science) and Babylonians also knew about
the precession.
I have concluded that even cultures with simple horizon astronomy and oral records passed down for a
hundred years or so, would notice the slow shifting of the heavens. For example, imagine that you lived
in an environment suited for accurately demarcated horizon astronomy. Even if this wasn't the case, you
might erect monoliths to sight the horizon position of, most likely, the dawning winter solstice sun. This
position in relation to background stars could be accurately preserved in oral verse or wisdom teachings,
to be passed down for centuries. Since precession will change this position at the rate of 1 degree every
72 years, within the relatively short time of 100 years or so, a noticeable change will have occurred. The
point of this is simple. To early cultures attuned to the subtle movements of the sky, precession would
not have been hard to notice.2
The Maya are not generally credited with knowing about the precession of the equinoxes. But
considering everything else we know about the amazing sophistication of Mesoamerican astronomy, can
we realistically continue to deny them this? Many of the as yet undeciphered hieroglyphs may ultimately
describe precessional myths. Furthermore, as I show in my book Tzolkin: Visionary Perspectives and
Calendar Studies, the Long Count is perfectly suited for predicting future seasonal quarters, indefinitely,
and precession is automatically accounted for. Some of the most incredible aspects of Mayan
cosmoconception are just now being discovered. As was the case with the state of Egyptology in the
1870's, we still have a lot to learn. In addition, Mayanists like Gordon Brotherston (The Book of the
Fourth World) consider precessional knowledge among Mesoamerican cultures to be more than likely.
The Sacred Tree
We are still trying to answer these questions: What is so important about the winter solstice of 2012 and,
exactly how were calculations made so accurately, considering that precession should make them
exceedingly difficult?
If we make a standard horoscope chart for December 21st, 2012 A.D., nothing very unusual appears. In
this way I was led astray in my search until Linda Schele provided a clue in the recent book Maya
Cosmos. Probably the most exciting breakthrough in this book is her identification of the astronomical
meaning of the Mayan Sacred Tree. Drawing from an impressive amount of iconographic evidence, and
generously sharing the process by which she arrived at her discovery, the Sacred Tree is found to be none
other than the crossing point of the ecliptic with the band of the Milky Way. Indeed, the Milky Way
seems to have played an important role in Mayan imagery. For example, an incised bone from 8th
century Tikal depicts a long sinking canoe containing various deities. This is a picture of the night sky
and the canoe is the Milky Way, sinking below the horizon as the night progresses, and carrying with it
deities representing the nearby constellations. The incredible Mayan site of Palenque is filled with Sacred
Tree motifs and references to astronomical events. In their book Forest of Kings, Schele and Freidel
suggested that the Sacred Tree referred to the ecliptic. Apparently that was only part of the picture, for
the Sacred Tree that Pacal ascends in death is more than just the ecliptic, it is the sacred doorway to the
underworld. The crossing point of Milky Way and ecliptic is this doorway and represents the sacred
source and origin. In the following diagram of the well known sarcophagus carving, notice that the Milky
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Way tree serves as an extension of Pacal's umbilicus. The umbilicus is a human being's entrance into life,
and entrance into death as well:
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Diagram 1: Pacal and the Sacred Tree.
We may also remember at this point that the tzolkin calendar is said to spring from the Sacred Tree. The
Sacred Tree is, in fact, at the center of the entire corpus of Mayan Creation Myths. We should definitely
explore the nature of this astronomical feature.
The first question that came up for me was as follows. Since Lord (Ahau) Pacal is, by way of divine
kingship, equated with the sun, and he is portrayed "entering" the Sacred Tree on his famous sarcophagus
lid, on what day does the sun come around to conjunct the crossing point of ecliptic and Milky Way?
This would be an important date. In the predawn skies of this date, the Milky Way would be seen to arch
overhead from the region of Polaris (Heart of Sky) and would point right at where the sun rises. This
(and the corollary date 6 months later) is the only date when the Sun/Lord could jump from the ecliptic
track and travel the Milky Way up and around the vault of heaven to the region of Polaris, there to enter
the "Heart of Sky." It should be mentioned that 1300 years ago, during the zenith of Palenque's glory,
Polaris was much less an exact "Pole Star" than it is now. Schele demonstrates that it wasn't a Pole Star
that the Maya mythologized in this regard, it was the unmarked polar "dark region" symbolizing death
and the underworld around which everything was observed to revolve. Life revolves around death  a
characteristically Mayan belief. The dates on which the sun conjuncts the "Sacred Tree" are thus very
important. These dates will change with precession. Schele doesn't pursue this line of reasoning,
however, and doesn't even mention that these dates might be significant. If we go back to 755 A.D., we
find that the sun conjuncts the Sacred Tree on December 3rd. I should point out here that the Milky Way
is a wide band, and perhaps a 10day range of dates should be considered.
To start with, however, I use the exact center of the Milky Way band that one finds on star charts,
known as the "Galactic Equator" (not to be confused with Galactic Center). Where the Galactic Equator
crosses the ecliptic in Sagittarius just happens to be where the dark rift in the Milky Way begins. This is
a dark bifurcation in the Milky Way caused by interstellar dust clouds. To observers on earth, it appears
as a dark road which begins near the ecliptic and stretches along the Milky Way up towards Polaris. The
Maya today are quite aware of this feature; the Quich» Maya call it xibalba be (the "road to Xibalba")
and the Chorti Maya call it the "camino de Santiago". In Dennis Tedlock's translation of the Popol Vuh,
we find that the ancient Maya called it the "Black Road". The Hero Twins Hunahpu and Xbalanque must
journey down this road to battle the Lords of Xibalba. (Tedlock 334, 358). Furthermore, what Schele has
identified as the Sacred Tree was known to the ancient Quich» simply as "Crossroads."
This celestial feature was not marginal in ancient Mayan thought and is still rec ognized even today. In
terms of how this feature was mythologized, it seems that when a planet, the sun, or the moon entered the
dark cleft of the Milky Way in Sagittarius (which happens to be the exact center of the Milky Way, the
Galactic Equator), entrance to the underworld road was possible, which could then take the journeyer up
to the Heart of Sky. Shamanic vision rites were probably involved in this scenario. In the Yucatan,
underground caves were ritual places used by shaman to journey to the underworld. Schele explains that
"Mayan mythology identifies the Road to Xibalba as going through a cave" (Forest of Kings, 209). Here
we have a metaphorical reference to the "dark rift" in the Milky Way by way of its terrestrial counterpart,
a syncretism between earth and sky which is characteristic of Mayan thinking. Above all, what is
becoming apparent from the corpus of Mayan Creation Myths is that creation seems to have taken place
at a celestial crossroads  the crossing point of ecliptic and Milky Way.
To clarify this ever growing picture, we should stop here and plot out some charts. In addition to the
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detailed star maps from Norton's 2000.0 Star Atlas which allowed me to pinpoint the crossing point of
Galactic Equator and ecliptic, I use EZCosmos to plot these positions3. What I found answers the
question of why the Maya chose the winter solstice of 2012, a problem seemingly avoided by
astronomers and Mayanists alike. While it is true that the sun conjuncts the Sacred Tree on December 3rd
in the year 755 A.D., over the centuries precession has caused the conjunction date to approach the
winter solstice. So, how close are we to perfect conjunction today? Exactly when might we expect the
winter solstice sun to conjunct the crossing point of Galactic Equator and ecliptic  the Mayan Sacred
Tree? Any astronomer will tell you that, presently, the Milky Way crosses the ecliptic through the
constellation of Sagittarius and this area is rich in nebulae and high density objects. In fact, where the
Milky Way crosses the ecliptic in Sagittarius also happens to be the direction of the Galactic Center.4
The Charts
So the quest returns to identifying why December 21st, 2012 A.D. might represent some kind of
astronomical anomoly. I'll get right to the heart of the matter. Let's look at a few charts.
Chart 1.
Here is a full view of the sky at noon on December 21st, 2012 A.D. The band of the Milky Way can be
seen stretching from the lower right to the upper left. The more or less vertical dotted line indicates the
Galactic Equator. The planets can be seen tracing a roughly horizontal path through the chart, indicating
the ecliptic. The sun, quite strikingly, is dead center in the Sacred Tree. Let's look closer.
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Chart 2.
The field is now reduced from a horizontohorizon view to a field of 30 degrees. Part of the
constellation of Sagittarius can be seen in the lower left portion of the chart. The planet in the
middletoupper left portion of the chart is Pluto, which rarely travels directly along the ecliptic. The
center square near the sun is placed on the Trifid Nebula (M20). According to the star chart I used, this
nebula is very close to the crossing point of Galactic Equator and ecliptic. However, a small star (4 Sgr)
is even closer; it sits right on the Galactic Equator and its declination is only 00 .08' below the ecliptic.
Let's look closer at these features.
Chart 3.
The field is now reduced to a 5degree span, what astrology considers to be within conjunction. The dot
to the lower right of the sun is the star 4 Sgr. Amazingly, the Sun is right on target. We couldn't have
hoped for a closer conjunction. 1 day before or after will remove the sun a noticeable distance from the
crossing point. December 21st, 2012 (13.0.0.0.0 in the Long Count) therefore represents an extremely
close conjunction of the winter solstice sun with the crossing point of Galactic Equator and the ecliptic,
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what the ancient Maya recognized as the Sacred Tree. It is critical to understand that the winter solstice
sun rarely conjuncts the Sacred Tree. In fact, this is an event that has been coming to resonance very
slowly over thousands and thousands of years. What this might mean astrologically, how this might
effect the "energy weather" on earth, must be treated as a separate topic.
But I should at least mention in passing that this celestial convergence appears to parallel the accelerating
pace of human civilization. It should be noted that because precession is a very slow process, similar
astronomical alignments will be evident on the winter solstice dates within perhaps 5 years on either side
of 2012. However, the accuracy of the conjunction of 2012 is quite astounding, beyond anything deemed
calculable by the ancient Maya, and serves well to represent the perfect midpoint of the process.
Let's go back to the dawn of the Long Count and try to reconstruct what may have been happening.
Why: Winter Solstice Sun Conjuncts The Sacred Tree in 2012 A.D.
First, the tzolkin count originated among the Olmec at least as early as 679 B.C. (see Edmonson's Book
of the Year). We may suspect that astronomical observations were being made from at least that point.
The tzolkin count has been followed unbroken since at least that time, up to the present day,
demonstrating the high premium placed by the Maya upon continuity of tradition. In this way, star
records, horizon positions of the winter solstice sun, and other pertinent observations could also have
been accurately preserved. As suggested above, precession can be noticed by way of even simple horizon
astronomy in as little time as 100 to 150 years. (Hipparchus, the alleged "discoverer" of precession
among the Greeks, compared his own observations with data collected only 170 years before his time.)
Following Edmonson, the Long Count system may have appeared as early as 355 B.C. Part of the reason
for implementing the Long Count system, as I will show, was probably to calculate future winter solstice
dates.
We must assume that even at this early point in Mesoamerican history, the crossing point of ecliptic and
Milky Way was understood as the "Sacred Tree". Since the Sacred Tree concept is intrinsically tied into
the oldest Mayan Creation Myths, this is not improbable. At the very least, the "dark rift" was already a
recognized feature. Early skywatchers of this era (355 B.C.) would then observe the sun to conjunct the
dark ridge in the Milky Way on or around November 18th.5 This would be easily observed in the
predawn sky as described above: the Milky Way points to the rising sun on this date.
Over a relatively short period of time, as an awareness of precession was emerging, this date was seen to
slowly approach winter solstice, a critical date in its own right in early Mayan cosmoconception. At this
point, precession and the rate of precession was calculated, the Long Count was perfected and
inaugurated, and the appropriate winter solstice date in 2012 A.D. was found via the Long Count in the
following way.
How: Long Count and Seasonal Quarters
Long Count katun beginnings will conjunct sequential seasonal quarters every 1.7.0.0.0 days (194400
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days). This is an easily tracked Long Count interval. Starting with the katun beginning of 650 B.C.:
Long Count Which Quarter? Year
6.5.0.0.0 Fall 650 B.C.
7.12.0.0.0 Winter 118 B.C.
8.19.0.0.0 Spring 416 A.D.
10.6.0.0.0 Summer 948 A.D.
11.13.0.0.0 Fall 1480 A.D.
13.0.0.0.0 Winter 2012 A.D.
Note that the last date is not only a katun beginning, but a baktun beginning as well. It is, indeed, the end
date of 2012.6
The Long Count may have been officially inaugurated on a specific date in 355 B.C., as Edmonson
suggests, but it must have been formulated, tried, tested, and proven before this date. This may well have
taken centuries, and the process no doubt paralleled (and was perhaps instigated by) the discovery of
precession. The Long Count system automatically accounts for precession in its ability to calculate future
seasonal quarters  a property which shouldn't be underestimated.
Summary
This has been my attempt to fill a vacuum in Mayan Studies, an answer to the why and how of the end
date of the 13baktun cycle of the Mayan Long Count. The solution requires a shift in how we think
about the astronomy of the Long Count end date. The strange fact that it occurs on a winter solstice
immediately points us to possible astronomical reasons, but they are not obvious. We also shouldn't
forget the often mentioned fact that the 13baktun cycle of some 5125 years is roughly 1/5th of a
precessional cycle. This in itself should have been suggestive of a deeper mystery very early on. Only
with the recent identification of the astronomical nature of the Sacred Tree has the puzzle revealed its
fullness. And once again we are amazed at the sophistication and vision of the ancient New World
astronomers, the decendants of whom still count the days and watch the skies in the remote outbacks of
Guatemala.
This essay is not contrived upon sketchy evidence. It basically rests upon two facts:
1) the well known end date of the 13baktun cycle of the Mayan Long Count, which is December 21st,
2012 A.D. and
2) the astronomical situation on that day. Based upon these two facts alone, the creators of the Long
Count knew about and calculated the rate of precession over 2300 years ago. I can conceive of no other
conclusion. To explain this away as "coincidence" would only obscure the issue.
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For early Mesoamerican skywatchers, the slow approach of the winter solstice sun to the Sacred Tree
was seen as a critical process, the culmination of which was surely worthy of being called 13.0.0.0.0, the
end of a World Age. The channel would then be open through the winter solstice doorway, up the Sacred
Tree, the Xibalba be , to the center of the churning heavens, the Heart of Sky.
Notes:
1Linda Schele and David Freidel, unlike most Mayanists, continue to support the work of Floyd
Lounsbury in promoting the 584285 correlation. This is 2 days off from the Thompson correlation that I
use. The decisive factor in supporting the Thompson correlation of 584283 is the fact that it corresponds
with the tzolkin count still followed in the highlands of Guatemala. To account for this discrepency in his
correlation, Lounsbury claims that the count was shifted back two days sometime before the conquest
(not likely), thus explaining its present placement. This means that either correlation will give the
December 21st end date. Nevertheless, Schele and Freidel still report that the end date is December 23rd,
2012 rather than Dec. 21st, an unfortunate faux pas understandable only because they aren't particularly
interested in the specifics of the correlation debate. For a detailed discussion of this topic, refer to my
book Tzolkin: Visionary Perspectives and Calendar Studies.
2Case in point is the mysterious existence of myths obviously describing precession in the ancient verses
of the Kalevala, the Finnish National Epic. These myths were relayed from the earliest times by way of
singers. Many of these stories are thoroughly magical and are filled with sky lore. The Finnish language
is not of Indo European origin and up until the late 19th century peasants in Finland and northwestern
Russia had little contact with Europe. Indeed, their heritage suggests more contact with Central Asia than
Europe. Some of the Kalevala stories describe a sacred Mill called the Sampo (derived from sanskrit
Skambha = pillar or pole) with a "many ciphered cover". This spinning Mill is a metaphor for a Golden
Age of plenty and the starry sky spinning around the Pole Star (known as the Nail of the North), which in
the Far North is almost straight over head. The Mill at some point is disturbed, its pillar being pulled out
of its peg, and a new one  a new "age"  must be constructed. This becomes the chore of Ilmarinen, the
primeval smith. In this legend, ancient knowledge of precession among unsophisticated "peasants" who
were nonetheless astute skywatchers, was preserved via oral tradition almost down to modern times.
3EZCosmos is a graphic software package that can accurately plot and animate the positions of planets,
stars, nebula and so on, for 14,000 years. It is well suited to this research because it accounts for
precession in its positional calculations. It also happens to be the software that Linda Schele used to
discover the astronomical meaning of the Mayan Sacred Tree.
4 Here we briefly converge with the ideas of Terence McKenna. In the book he co authored with his
brother Dennis (Invisible Landscape, Seabury Press 1975 and Harper San Francisco, 1993), Terence
suggests that the position of winter solstice sun within 3 degrees of the Galactic Center in the year 2012
A.D. (a "onceinaprecessional cycle" event) may provide the eschatological end point for his theory of
time known as Timewave Zero. His end date was chosen for historical reasons and was, apparently, only
later discovered to correspond with the Mayan end date. The McKennas point out that this unusual
astronomical situation has been noted by other writers, namely, Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von
Dechend in Hamlet's Mill (1969). As ACS Publication's The American Ephemeris for the 21st Century
shows, in the year 2012 the Galactic Center is at 27 Sagittarius (within 3 of winter solstice). Thus
McKenna demonstrates that on winter solstice of 2012, Galactic Center will be rising heliacally just
before dawn, in a way reminiscent of how the Maya observed Venus's last morningstar appearance.
Why 2012?
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5This basically follows the "1 degree every 72 years" rule of precession. In this way, back in 3114 B.C.
the sun conjuncted the Sacred Tree on Oct 10th, which is 72 degrees, or 1/5th of the ecliptic from the
winter solstice. The Fall Equinox sun conjuncted the Sacred Tree about 6400 years ago (1/4th of a
precessional cycle). Ancient cultures in Mesopotamia may have recognized this alignment, and called it a
Golden Age. The fall from this state of alignment may be responsible for the original Fall from Paradise
myth, which filtered out to the Judaic tradition.
6The Long Count has other strange astronomical properties. For instance, the 13 katun cycle of 256
years was known to the Yucatec Maya as a prophecy cycle. We see it used in the Books of Chilam
Balam. The astronomical reference here is to conjunction cycles of Uranus and Pluto, two of which equal
256 years. From another angle, 3 katuns equal exactly 37 synodical cycles of Venus.
Sources:
Brotherston, Gordon. The Book of the Fourth World. Cambridge University Press. 1992.
Edmonson, Munro. The Book of the Year. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah. 1988.
EZCosmos. Astrosoft, Inc. DeSoto, Texas. 1990.
Jenkins, John Major. Tzolkin: Visionary Perspectives and Calendar Studies. Borderlands Science and
Research Foundation. Garberville, CA. 1994.
Mayan Calendrics. Dolphin Software. 48 Shattuck Square #147, Berkeley, CA. 94704. 1989 &1993.
Meeus, Jean. Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets. Willmann Bell Publishers. Richmond,
VA. 1983.
Michelsen, Neil F. The American Ephemeris for the 21st Century. ACS Publications. San Diego, CA.
1982, 1988.
Ridpath, Ian (ed.). Norton's 2000.0: Star Atlas and Reference Handbook. Longman Group UK Limited.
1989.
Schele, Linda and Freidel, David. A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient Maya. William
Morrow and Company, Inc. New York. 1990.
Schele, Linda; Freidel, David; Parker, Joy. Maya Cosmos: Three Thousand Years on the Shaman's Path.
William Morrow and Company, Inc. New York. 1993.
Tedlock, Dennis. The Popol Vuh: The Definitive Edition of the Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life and
the Glories of Gods and Kings. Simon & Schuster. New York.
1985
Author's Biographical Information:
John Major Jenkins (March 4th, 1964, 9:19 p.m., Chicago) is a student of Mayan time. On several trips
to Central America in the late 80's, he worked and lived with the Quich» and Tzutujil Maya in
Guatemala. Observations gathered on these trips were published in Chicago area newspapers. Since then
he has devoted his time to studying Mayan cosmoconception and the mathematical and philosophical
properties of the sacred calendar. More thought provoking ideas can be found in his recent book Tzolkin:
Why 2012?
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Visionary Perspectives and Calendar Studies (Borderlands Science and Research Foundation, 1994).
Additional information on the Mayan end date alignment is available by writing the author at Four Ahau
Press: P.O. Box 3; Boulder, CO 80306.
Why 2012?
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