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European Pupils

Magazine
Mihai-Adrian Sopronyi
Politehnica University, Bucharest, Romania
robertcristian.paduretu@gmail.com

Plasma Converter System Sistem de conversie prin plasma


Energy from Waste Energie din deseuri
Plasma Converter Convertorul cu plasma
Over the last 20 years, In ultimii 20 de ani, polua-
[Fig. 1]
environmental pollution has re mediului nu mai este
been not only the result of doar rezultatul unor cauze
natural causes such as vol- naturale, cum ar fi eruptiile
canic eruptions, but mostly volcanic, dar majoritatea
derived from human activi- provin din deseuri nocive
ties noxious wastes. ale activitatii umane.
They are of two types of Exista doua tipuri de
pollutants: biodegradable - Plasma poluanti: biodegradabili -
which can be degraded by care poate fi degradati de
biological factors, but can become a problem as factori biologici, dar si acestia devin o problema
gathering solutions faster than the decay; capacity doarece se aduna mai repede decat se descompun;
speed; non-degradable non-degradabili -
- which cannot be de- [Fig. 2] care nu pot fi
graded by natural fac- degradati de factori
tors or their degrada- naturali sau procesul
tion process covers a de degradare se
very long time. desfasoara pe o
Plasma Conver- perioda indelungata
sion System, trans- de timp.
forms (doesn’t burn) Sistemul de
any waste, liquid, solid conversie cu plasma,
or gas into a gas called transforma (nu arde)
Plasma Converted orice tip de deseu,
Gas (PCG). The sys- lichid,solid sau gaz,
tem follows all Euro- intr-un gaz numit
pean standards on pol- Plasma Converted
lution and in terms of Gas (PCG).
maintenance the costs Sistemul respecta
are much lower than toate normele
any presently existing Europene privind
technology of waste poluarea si in
incineration. termeni de
The fourth state of intretinere, costurile
matter, Plasma, is a sunt mult mai mici
gas which has been fata de orice tip de
Basic elements of a plasma converter
ionized so that the gas Elementele de baza ale convertorului cu plasma tehnologie existena
is actually a power care arde deseuri.
driver. Plasma, a patra forma a materiei, este un gaz
Plasma converter runs in a continuous arc that care a fost ionizat, pentru ca gazul sa fie o sursa de
generates luminescent energy that can produce energie. Plasma se descarcă în convertor printr-
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Magazine
Plasma Converter System
temperatures up to 16648.8 °C. When this energy un arc continuu luminişcent care generează energii
waste is subject to intense thermal energy inside the ce pot produce temperaturi de pană la 16648,8 °C.
converter, excitation at the molecular level is so high Când deşeurile sunt supuse acestei energii
that the material dissociates into elementary compo- intense din interiorul convertorului, excitaţia la nivel
nents, into atoms, which is the effect of pyrolysis. molecular este atât de mare incat produce
The converter is an extremely robust system, temperaturi de pană la 16648,8 °C.
computerized, easy to use operating at normal pres- Când deşeurile.
sures, very safe and quiet. It is very important to Convertorul de plasma este un sistem extrem de
know that the waste is not incinerated but decom- robust, computerizat integral, usor de folosit care
posed, and dissociated at the molecular level (fig.3) operează la presiuni atmosferice normale, foarte
The converter is an extremely robust system, sigur si fără zgomot. Este foarte important de ştiut
computerized, easy to use operating at normal pres- că nu este vorba despre incinerare ci de
sures, very safe and quiet. It is very important to descompunere si disociere, la nivel molecular.(fig.3)
know that the waste is not incinerated but decom- Sistemul de bază al unui convertor cu plasmă
posed, and dissociated at the molecular level (fig.3) este format din:
The basic system of a plasma converter are:  alimentarea cu deşeuri (pre-tratament),
 input of waste (Pre-treatment)  cilindrul în care se produce piroliza,
 cylinder where the pyrolysis occurs  sistemul de filtrare (Syngas),
(Plasma furnace)  staţia de control computerizată,
 filtration system (Syngas)  alimentarea cu energie (producerea de
 computer control station, energie)(fig.2).
 power supply (energy production) (fig.2).
Disociere moleculara
Molecular Dissociation Disocierea moleculara nu este ceva asemanator
Molecular dissociation is beyond vaporization. cu vaporizarea, ci seamana mai mult cu
Being something as disintegration. dezintegrarea.
When a substance undergoes molecular Cand o substanta este supusa disocierii
dissociation, it does not merely change moleculara, nu isi schimba doar starea ci se
state; it disintegrates. At that point, it is no dezintegreaza.
longer it; component atoms and decimated In acest moment, nu mai este ‘o
molecules are all that remain. substanta`, tot ce a ramas fiind atomi
Molecules break down in a process componenti si molecule decimate.
called molecular dissociation. When mole- Moleculele se descompun intr-un
cules are exposed to intense energy process numit disociere moleculara. Cand
(plasma torch), the molecular bonds hold- moleculele sunt supuse la energii intense
ing them together become excited and break (torta de plasma) legaturile care tin
apart. Leftovers are the elemental compo- [Fig. 3] moleculele intre ele devin excitate si se rup.
nents of the molecules. Hazardous sub- Ceea ce ramane sunt elementele componete
stances like cyanide, for example, end up ale moleculelor. Din substante periculoase
with atoms of carbon and nitrogen. (fig.3) precum cianura, de exemplu, ramai cu
Organic compounds are volatilized and atomi de carbon si nitrogen. (fig.3).
transformed into a synthetic gas (syngas), if Compusii organici sunt volatilizati si
properly cleaned. can be used as fuel transformati intr-un gaz sintetic (syngas)
source. care daca este curatat cum trebuie
Inorganic compounds are melted Molecular dissociation poate fi folosit ca o sursa de
Disociere moleculara
down and converted into a glassy- combustibil.
like substance (vitrified), that can contain metal Compusi anorganici sunt topiti si convertiti intr-
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Plasma Converter System
among other inorganic matter (slag). o substanta precum sticla (vitrificata) care contine
An important part of the plasma converter sys- metal pe langa alte substante anorganice (zgura).
tem is the treatment of gas being composed of six Un pas important al sistemului de conversie cu
stages (fig.4, 5): plasma este tratarea compusului gazos in
 Cyclone separator for the removal of parti- urmatoarele etape tehnologice (fig.4,5):
cles at high temperatures: in the initial step  Separatorul Cyclon la temperaturi mari
for gas treatment gas is cooled to about pentru indepărtarea particulelor: pasul
1000 °C to 650 °C by direct injection of iniţial pentru tratarea gazului este racirea
water with a conventional spray system. gazului de la aproximativ 1000 °C pana la
Cyclone removes particles which are then 650 °C prin injecţia directă a apei cu un
collected and returned to the plasma cylin- sistem de pulverizare conventional.
der. Ciclonul indeparteaza particulele solide
 Quench (cooling gas with the recovery of care sunt adunate si returnate in cilindrul
heat) - gas is sprayed through a dryer to cu plasma
quickly reduce its temperature from 650 °C  Quench (racirea gazului cu recuperarea
to 120 °C. The importance of this reduc- căldurii): gazul este pulverizat printr-un
tion in temperature is not to form dioxides uscător pentru a-şi reduce rapid
temperatura de la 650 °C
[Fig. 4] la 120 °C.
Cartuşul de colectare
pentru eliminarea
particulelor: după ce a
trecut de Quench, gazul
este suflat în cartuşul
pulsator care adună
praful cu un sistem de
încălzire a gazului
pentru a preveni
condensarea. Aceasta
unitate este capabila sa
Plasma convertor functional units trimita inapoi particule
Unitatile functionale ale Convertorului de Plasma
solidificare pentru a fi
and furans. reprocesate in cilindrul de plasma
 Thimble collection to remove particles:  Reducerea catalitică selectivă pentru a
after passing the quench gas is breathed in înlătura NOx (NO monoxidul de azot,
pulse cartridge dust collecting a gas heater NO2 bioxidul de azot)-SCR (Reducere
to prevent condensation. The unit is able to Catalitica Selectiva): după iesirea din
blow back solid collected particles to be colectorul de praf, gazul este reîncălzit la
reprocessed in plasma cylinder. aproximativ 310 °C pentru a fi filtrat
 Selective catalytic reduction to remove catalitic de NOx unde hidrogenul prezent
NOx (NO, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen în gaz reacţionează cu NOx pentru a forma
dioxide NO2)-SCR (Selective Catalytic nitrogen atmosferic si apă.
Reduction). After exit from the dust, the  Coloana de curăţare pentru a inlătura
gas is reheated to about 310 °C passing acizii si metalele volatile (mercur, arsenic,
through catalytic filters, where present hy- seleniu) dupa iesirea din reducerea
drogen gas reacts with NOx to form atmos- catalitica selectiva. Apa reziduală de cele
pheric nitrogen and water. mai multe ori nu necesită alte filtrări şi
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Plasma Converter System
 Cleaning column - to remove acids and tratări înainte de a se scurge la canalul de
volatile metals (mercury, arsenic, sele- colectare. Aproape 75% din metalul topit
nium) after leaving the selective catalytic are se recicleza dupa ce a fost filtrat de
reduction. Waste water does not require sistem.
further filtering and treatment before it Principalul produs al Convertorului cu Plasma
runs to the collecting canal, except when este PCG- Plasma Converted Gas; este un gaz sin-
heavy metals are being processed. Ap- tetic ce poate fi folosit ca resursă chimică pentru a
proximately 75% of melted metal has to produce polimeri si alte produse chimice. Mai poate
come back after being filtered by the sys- fi folosit ca şi combustibil curat pentru a produce:
tem. Finally, an air turbine located at the electricitate pentru sistemele de incălzire şi răcire,
exit pulls gas treatment system (PCG) of apă potabilă curată şi pentru a alimenta pile de com-
the entire system and keeps the slight bustie astfel scăzând consumul de combustibili fosi-
negative pressure in the cylinder of li. Gazul, după fabricare, poate fi îmbuteliat sau
plasma. transportat prin conducte, în funcţie de necesităţi.

[Fig. 5]

Plasma conversion process flow chart


Structura organizatorica a procesului de conversie cu plasma
The main product of the plasma converter is Principalele aspecte ale procesului care pot
PCG-Plasma Converted Gas, a synthetic gas that recomanda conversia cu plasma a deseurilor catre
can be used as a chemical resource to produce poly- energie, ca un sistem verde, sunt:
mers and other chemicals (fig.6). It also can be used  deseurile periculoase (solide, lichide, depu-
as fuel to produce clean energy for heating and cool- neri în amestec cu nămol), pot fi procesate
ing systems, clean drinking water and to power fuel ieftin şi sigur, fără a elimina gaze poluante
cells thus reducing fossil fuel consumption. şi reziduri
The gas, after manufacture, can be packed and  sistemul poate genera o remediere a
transported by pipeline, as necessary. terenurilor infestate cu diferite substanţe,
The main aspects of the process (fig.5) that may pentru a deveni locuri propice pentru
recommend waste plasma conversion toward energy constructia de locuinţe
as a green system are:  reducerea volumetrică pentru majoritatea
 hazardous waste (solid, liquid, mixed with deşeurilor solide este de aproximativ 300
mud deposits) can be processed cheaply la 1
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Plasma Converter System
and safely, without polluting gases, thus  tot ce produce PCS este perfect biodegra-
eliminating waste; dabil
 the system can generate a corrective ap-  sistemul este controlat prin calculator,este
proach for areas infested with various uşor de utilizat şi funcţionează la o
agents transforming them as to become presiune atmosferică normală in condiţii de
suitable for housing, the solid waste vol- siguranţă şi fără zgomot.
ume reduction being approximately 300 to 1; În acest sistem este inclus şi filtrul de separare al
 everything that is produced by PCS is per- hidrogenului din PCG, sistemul Plasma Cell,
fectly biodegradable; hidrogen care poate fi folosit la producerea de
 the system is controlled by computer, it is energie electrică (fig.6), cu ajutorul unui generator
easy to use and operates at normal atmos- de maxim 1,5MW care va functiona doar la jumătate
pheric pressure in a safe and quiet environ- din capacitate pentru ai prelungi durata de viată.
ment. Deasemenea, gazul rezultat se poate folosi la
The filter system includes separation of hydro- producerea de Etanol.
gen from PCG, Plasma Cell system, hydrogen can Practic, Convertorul pe baza de Plasma
be used to produce electrical energy (fig.6), Even if transforma deseurile industriale si municipale in
the installed power has a maximum of 1.5 MW gen- Energie Verde, Apa Pura si Electricitate.
erators will operate [Fig. 6]
only at half capacity to
prolong their lifecycle.
Hydrogen can also be
used for fuel cells or
for future plant-based
fuel cell technology.
Also, gas result can be
used to produce etha-
nol.
Practically, Plasma
converter transforms
industrial and munici-
pal waste into Green
Energy, Pure Water
and Electricity.
Plasma converter system outputs
Rezultatele Sistemului de Conversie cu Plasma
Bibliography
Electronics For You (www.efymag.com), February Environmental Energy Resources, Ltd.
2009 www.eer-pgm.com
Circeo, Louis, Ph.d. The Pyrolysis of Municipal Geoplasma LLC Responses to Questionnaire for
Solid Waste as a Source of Renewable Energy Conversion Technology Suppliers. Los Angeles
Using Plasma Arc Technology. Presentation to County Solid Waste Management Committee;
the Renewable Energy Roundtable, Saint Peters-
burg Meeting of Nobel Prize Winners, Russian Iconography
Academy of Sciences. June 16-21, 2003; http://science.howstuffworks.com/plasma-
Circeo, Louis. Plasma Processing of MSW at Fossil converter.htm
Fuel Power Plants. Georgia Tech Research Insti- www.startech.net
tute. http://wapi.isu.edu

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