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Energy and Buildings

Laboratory lesson n.1


Thermal Bridges Analysis with MIRAGE

Samantha Graci, PhD samantha.graci@gmail.com


A thermal bridge is a portion of the envelope where the thermal resistance,
elsewhere uniform, varies significantly

There are two basic kinds of thermal bridges:

Material related thermal bridges : the presence of materials


with different thermal conductivity, for example a steel pillar
into a wooden prefabricated wall

Geometrical thermal bridges: formed because of geometrical


changes in the building envelope.
When building components differ from the flat form, the
direction changes of the surfaces forming in the building
envelope, locally reduced thickness of the surfaces forming or
corners and edges in the building envelope
for example at wall-roof junctions, wall-floor junctions
There are two ways thermal bridges appear in buildings, either in linear or in
punctual form

Linear thermal bridges

Linear thermal bridges emerge at joints over the length of the


building component
(window sill details, balconies, wall-roof junction, wall
anchorage)

The heat loss from a linear thermal bridge is called the linear
thermal transmittance coefficient, the -value.

The magnitude of -value depends on different dimensions of


the components and on the quality of structure junctions and it
Linear thermal bridge through wall-anchorage
is connected to the U-value.
at the foundation slab and its thermal analysis
Knowing -value you can calculate the total heat loss through
thermal bridge connections between building components.
There are two ways thermal bridges appear in buildings,
either in linear or in punctual form

Point thermal bridges

Point thermal bridges emerge if for example a building


envelope is penetrated by metal parts like screws or dowels.

Figure is showing exterior wall, which is penetrated by steel


component and causing this way point thermal bridge.

Also columns or overhanging beams which penetrate the


exterior wall can cause punctual thermal bridges.

Steel component penetrating insulation and CLT


structure creating a point thermal bridge
CLT=cross laminated timber ( es: X-lam)
THERMAL BRIDGES - Definition according to the standard
UNI EN ISO 10211:2008

A Thermal bridge is a part of the building envelope where, the overwhise uniform thermal
resistance, is significantly changed by
full or partial penetration of the building envelope by materials with different thermal
conductivity,
a change in thickness of the fabric,
a difference between internal and external areas, such as occurs on wall/floor/ceiling
junctions.

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THERMAL BRIDGES - Definition according to the standard
UNI EN ISO 10211:2008
Introduction

Thermal bridges, which in general occur at any junction between building components or where the
building structure changes composition, have two consequences compared with those of the unbridged
structure:

a) a change in heat flow rate

b) a change in internal surface temperature.

Although similar calculation procedures are used, the procedures are not identical for the calculation of
heat flows and of surface temperatures.
A thermal bridge usually gives rise to three-dimensional or two-dimensional heat flows, which can be
precisely determined using detailed numerical calculation methods as described in this International
Standard.

In many applications, numerical calculations based on a two-dimensional representation of the heat


flows provide results of adequate accuracy, especially when the constructional element is uniform in
one direction.
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THERMAL BRIDGES - Definition according to the standard
UNI EN ISO 10211:2008
Scope

This International Standard sets out the specifications for a three-dimensional and a two-dimensional
geometrical model of a thermal bridge for the numerical calculation of:
heat flows, in order to assess the overall heat loss from a building or part of it;
minimum surface temperatures, in order to assess the risk of surface condensation.

These specifications include the geometrical boundaries and subdivisions of the model, the thermal
boundary conditions, and the thermal values and relationships to be used.

This International Standard is based upon the following assumptions:


all physical properties are independent of temperature;
there are no heat sources within the building element.

This International Standard can also be used for the derivation of linear and point thermal
transmittances and of surface temperature factors.

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Definitions according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211

3.1.1 thermal bridge


part of the building envelope where the otherwise uniform thermal resistance is significantly changed by full or
partial penetration of the building envelope by materials with a different thermal conductivity, and/or a change
in thickness of the fabric, and/or a difference between internal and external areas, such as occur at
wall/floor/ceiling junctions

3.1.2 linear thermal bridge


thermal bridge with a uniform cross-section along one of the three orthogonal axes

3.1.3 point thermal bridge


localized thermal bridge whose influence can be represented by a point thermal transmittance
Definitions according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211

Figure 3 Example of a 3-D geometrical model


showing construction planes

Key
Cx construction planes perpendicular to the x-axis
Cy construction planes perpendicular to the y-axis
Cz construction planes perpendicular to the z-axis

NOTE -Cut-off planes are indicated with enlarged arrows;


-planes that separate flanking elements from central
element are encircled.
Definitions according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211
3.1.7 two-dimensional geometrical model 2-D geometrical model
geometrical model, deduced from building plans, such that for one of the orthogonal axes the cross-section
perpendicular to that axis does not change within the boundaries of the model

3.1.8 two-dimensional flanking element 2-D flanking element


part of a 2-D geometrical model which, when considered in isolation, consists of plane, parallel material layers

3.1.9 two-dimensional central element 2-D central element


part of a 2-D geometrical model which is not a 2-D flanking element

3.1.10 construction planes


planes in the 3-D or 2-D geometrical model which separate different materials, and/or the geometrical model
from the remainder of the construction, and/or the flanking elements from the central element

3.1.11 cut-off planes


construction planes that are boundaries to the 3-D or 2-D geometrical model by separating the model from the
remainder of the construction

3.1.12 auxiliary planes


planes which, in addition to the construction planes, divide the geometrical model into a number of cells
Definitions according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211

3.1.14 temperature factor at the internal surface


difference between internal surface temperature and external temperature, divided by the difference between
internal temperature and external temperature, calculated with a surface resistance Rsi at the internal surface

3.1.16 external boundary temperature


external air temperature, assuming that the air temperature and the radiant temperature seen by the surface
are equal

3.1.17 internal boundary temperature


operative temperature, taken for the purposes of this International Standard as the arithmetic mean value of
internal air temperature and mean radiant temperature of all surfaces surrounding the internal environment
Definitions according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211

3.1.18 thermal coupling coefficient


heat flow rate per temperature difference between two environments which are thermally connected by the
construction under consideration

3.1.19 linear thermal transmittance


heat flow rate in the steady state divided by length and by the temperature difference between the
environments on either side of a thermal bridge
NOTE The linear thermal transmittance is a quantity describing the influence of a linear thermal bridge on the total
heat flow.

3.1.20 point thermal transmittance


heat flow rate in the steady state divided by the temperature difference between the environments on either
side of a thermal bridge
NOTE The point thermal transmittance is a quantity describing the influence of a point thermal bridge on the total
heat flow.
Definitions according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211
Definitions according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211
THERMAL BRIDGES Modeling according to the standard
UNI EN ISO 10211:2008

Thermal bridge modeling

The temperature distribution within, and the heat flow through, a construction can be calculated if the
boundary conditions and constructional details are known.
For this purpose, the geometrical model is divided into a number of adjacent material cells, each with a
homogeneous thermal conductivity.
Instructions are given for the determination of the values of thermal conductivity and boundary
conditions.

The temperature distribution is determined either by means of an iterative calculation or by a direct solution
technique, after which the temperature distribution within the material cells is determined by interpolation.

The results of the calculations can be used to determine linear thermal transmittances, point thermal
transmittances and internal surface temperatures.
THERMAL BRIDGES Modeling according to the standard
UNI EN ISO 10211:2008

Cut-off planes for a geometrical model for calculation of total heat flow and/or surface temperatures

It is not usually feasible to model a complete building using a single geometrical model. In most cases, the
building may be partitioned into several parts (including the subsoil, where appropriate) by using cut-off
planes.

This partitioning shall be performed in such a way that all differences are avoided in the results of
calculation between the partitioned building and the building when treated as a whole.

This partitioning into several geometrical models is achieved by choosing suitable cut-off planes.
THERMAL BRIDGES Modeling according to the standard
UNI EN ISO 10211:2008

Cut-off planes for a 3-D geometrical model for calculation of total heat flow and/or surface
Temperatures

The geometrical model includes the central element(s), the flanking elements and, where appropriate, the
subsoil. The geometrical model is delimited by cut-off planes.

Cut-off planes shall be positioned as follows:


at a symmetry plane if this is less than dmin from the central element (see Figure 5);
at least dmin from the central element if there is no nearer symmetry plane (see Figure 6);
in the ground, in accordance with 5.2.4,

where dmin is the greater of 1 m and three times the thickness of the flanking element concerned.

A geometrical model can contain more than one thermal bridge. In such cases, cut-off planes need to be
situated at least dmin from each thermal bridge, or need to be at a symmetry plane (see Figure 6).
THERMAL BRIDGES Modeling according to the standard
UNI EN ISO 10211:2008
THERMAL BRIDGES Modeling according to the standard
UNI EN ISO 10211:2008
Build-up the geometrical model for 3D-2D calculation cut off planes
THERMAL BRIDGES Modeling according to the standard
UNI EN ISO 10211:2008
THERMAL BRIDGES Modeling according to the standard
UNI EN ISO 10211:2008

6.2 Thermal conductivities of materials


The design values of thermal conductivities of building materials and products should either be calculated in
accordance with ISO 10456, or taken from tabulated values such as in ISO 10456.
The thermal conductivity of soil can be taken as 2,0 W/(mK).

NOTE Other values for the thermal conductivity of the soil can be used if information on the local soil condition is available (see ISO 13370).

6.3 Surface resistances


For the calculation of heat flow rates, surface resistances shall be in accordance with ISO 6946, depending on
the direction of heat flow. However, the value of Rsi corresponding to horizontal heat flow may be used for all
surfaces when
a) the direction of heat flow is uncertain or is liable to vary, or
b) a whole building is being modelled in a single calculation.
For the calculation of internal surface temperatures for the purposes of evaluating condensation risk, surface
resistances shall be in accordance with ISO 13788.
THERMAL BRIDGES Modeling according to the standard
UNI EN ISO 10211:2008

6.4 Boundary temperatures


Table 3 gives the boundary temperatures which shall be used.
THERMAL BRIDGES Calculation Method according to the standard UNI
EN ISO 10211:2008
7.1 Solution technique
The geometrical model is divided into a number of cells, each with a characteristic point (called a node). By
applying the laws of energy conservation (div q = 0) and Fourier (q = - grad ) and taking into account the
boundary conditions, a system of equations is obtained which is a function of the temperatures at the nodes.

The solution of this system, either by a direct solution technique or by an iterative method, provides the node
temperatures from which the temperature field can be determined. From the temperature distribution, the heat
flows can be calculated by applying Fouriers law.

7.2 Calculation rules


Heat flows between material cells and adjacent environment
The density of heat flow rate, q, perpendicular to the interface between a material cell and the adjacent
environment shall satisfy

where
is the internal or external reference temperature;
s is the temperature at the internal or external surface;
Rs is the internal or external surface resistance.
UNI EN ISO 10211

Thermal heat flux between the internal and external environment:

H T ( i e )
HT = heat exchange coefficient
i = indoor temperature
e = outdoor temperature

H T H D H g HU
Hg ground themal coupling coefficient according to UNI EN ISO 13370
HU themal losses coefficient versus not heated rooms according to UNI EN ISO 13789
HD direct themal coupling coefficient [W/K]
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UNI EN ISO 10211
H D U i Ai k lk j

Ui thermal transmittance of the i-th building envelope component


Ai Area of application of the transmittance Ui [W/(m2K)]
k linear thermal transmittance of k-th linear thermal bridge [W/(m K)]
lk lenght to which k applies [m]
j punctual thermal transmittance of j-th punctual termal bridge[W/K]

Linear thermal transmittance : heat flux in steady state conditions divided by the lenght
and the temperature difference between the environments separated by the thermal bridge

Thermal coupling coefficient L2D/L3D: heat flux divided by the difference of temperature
between the environments separated by the analyzed building component
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2D calculation : coupling coefficient L2D heat flux l linear thermal
transmittance

10.1 Two boundary temperatures


The heat flow rate per metre length, l, of the linear thermal bridge from the internal environment,
designated by the subscript i, to the external environment, designated by the subscript e, is given by

where L2D is the thermal coupling coefficient obtained from a 2-D calculation of the component separating
the two environments being considered.
2D calculation : coupling coefficient L2D heat flux l linear thermal
transmittance
10.3 Determination of the linear thermal transmittance
The linear thermal transmittance considered of the linear thermal bridge separating the two environments
being, , is given by

where
Uj is the thermal transmittance of the 1-D component j separating the two environments being considered;
lj is the length within the 2-D geometrical model over which the value Uj applies;
Nj is the number of 1-D components.
When determining the linear thermal transmittance, it is necessary to state which dimensions
(e.g. internal or external) are being used, because for several types of thermal bridges,
the value of the linear thermal transmittance depends on this choice.
2D calculation : coupling coefficient L2D heat flux l linear thermal
transmittance
10.3 Determination of the linear thermal transmittance
The linear thermal transmittance considered of the linear thermal bridge separating the two environments
being, , is given by
Thermal bridge calculations according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211
Analysis information
12.1 Input data
The report of the calculation shall contain the following information:

a) description of structure:
building plans including dimensions and materials;
for a completed building, any known alterations to the construction and/or physical measurements
other relevant remarks;

b) description of the geometrical model:


2-D or 3-D geometrical model with dimensions;
input data showing the location of the construction planes and any auxiliary planes, together with the thermal
conductivities of the various materials;
the applied boundary temperatures;
a calculation of the boundary temperature in an adjacent area, when appropriate;
the surface resistances and the areas to which they apply;
Thermal bridge calculations according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211
Analysis information

12.2 Output data

12.2.1 General

The following calculation results shall be reported as values that are independent of the boundary
temperatures:
thermal coupling coefficient L3D or L2D between adjacent rooms involved in heat transfer through the
building components;
if appropriate, the linear thermal transmittance, , of the linear thermal bridge, stating whether internal or
external dimensions were used;
temperature factor, fRsi, for the points of lowest surface temperatures in each room involved (including the
location of these points); if more than two boundary temperatures are used, the temperature weighting factors
shall be reported.
Thermal bridge calculations according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211
Analysis information
11.2 Determination of the temperature at the internal surface from 2-D calculations

11.2.1 Two boundary temperatures

When there are only two environments involved, the surface temperatures can be expressed in a
dimensionless form in accordance with Equation (29):

where
f Rsi (x,y) is the temperature factor for the internal surface at point (x,y);
si (x,y) is the temperature for the internal surface at point (x,y);
i is the internal temperature;
e is the external temperature.
The temperature factor shall be calculated with an error of less than 0,005.
Mirage exercitation

1. CAD model of the Thermal bridge, accordingto the cut-off section


on the UNI EN ISO 10211

2. Material informations about thermal and phisical features

3. Boundary conditions used in the analysis


Example 01 external wall/ceiling junction Example 02 Insulation layer rock wool panel

1.29 m

1.135 m

3.00 m

1.29 m
Nomenclature of building layers - translation italian to english

intonaco interno internal plaster


mattone semipieno brick
intonaco esterno external plaster
rivestimento interno gres internal covering, gres tiles

massetto calcestruzzo ordinario ordinary concrete

solaio interpiano: malta di cemento, calcestruzzo intermidiate floor celing block:


armato, soletta (blocchi laterizio predales e cement mortar, reinforced concrete, predales ceiling
travetti in calcestruzzo) 2+4+24 cm block and concrete beams

pannelli lana di roccia rock wool panels


rivestimento piastrelle external covering, tiles
Materials informations
Materials informations According to the standard UNI/TR 11552: 2014
Thermal Thermal
Thermal Thermal Thermal
Layers Thickness conductivity Density capacity
conductivity resistance capacity
MIRAGE input MIRAGE input
(m) (W/mK) (m2K/W) (W/mK) J/kgK kg/m3 MJ/m3K
internal plaster 0.015 0.700 0.700 1000 1400 1.4
brick 0.3 0.890 0.337 1000 1000 1
external plaster 0.15 0.900 0.900 1000 1800 1.8

internal covering, gres tiles 0.1 1.470 1.470 1000 1700 1.7

floor slab, ordinary concrete 0.1 1.060 1.060 1000 1700 1.7
intermidiate floor celing block
(cement mortar, reinforced concrete, 0.3 0.370 0.811 1000 1170 1.17
predales ceiling block and concrete
beams)2+4+24
rock wool panels 0.1 0.040 0.040 1000 30 0.03
external covering tiles 0.1 1.470 1.470 1000 1700 1.7
standard UNI/TR 11552: 2014

cement mortar
Reinforced concrete
brick blocks and concrete joists
standard UNI/TR 11552: 2014

Thermal resistance
of brick walls
Boundary conditions
SURFACE RESISTANCE Calculations according to the standard UNI EN ISO 6946: 2008

INTERNAL Rsi = 1 / (hc,i + hr,i) 0.13 m2K/W


7.64 W/m2K
Where:
hc = convective heat exchange coefficient
hr = radiant heat exchange coefficient

hc,i (W/m2K) 2.5 horizontal heat flux p.13 ISO 6946:2007


hr,i (W/m2K) = *hr0 5.14 p.12 ISO 6946:2007
hr0 = 4*5.67*10^-8*(273.15+20)^3 5.71
0.9
T (C) 20

Where:
= emissivity of the surface material, adimentional
hr0 = radiative heat transfer coefficient of the ideal black body
Boundary conditions
SURFACE RESISTANCE Calculations according to the standard UNI EN ISO 6946: 2008
EXTERNAL Rse = 1 / (hc,e + hr,e) 0.04 m2K/W
24.63 W/m2K
Where:
hc = convective heat exchange coefficient
hr = radiant heat exchange coefficient

20 = 4+4*v_wind p.13 ISO 6946:2007


hc,e (W/m2K)
v_wind 4
hr,e (W/m2K) = *hr0
4.63 p.12 ISO 6946:2007
hr0 = 4*5.67*10^-8*(273.15+10)^3 5.15
0.9
T (C) 10

Where:
= emissivity of the surcface material, adimentional
hr0 = radiant heat exchange coefficient of the ideal black body
Boundary conditions

BOUNDARY TEMPERATURE according to UNI EN ISO 10211:2008


Internal boundary temperature 20C
External boundary temperature 0C

internal boundary temperature


operative temperature, taken for the purposes of this International Standard as the arithmetic mean value
of internal air temperature and mean radiant temperature of all surfaces surrounding the internal
environment

external boundary temperature


external air temperature, assuming that the air temperature and the radiant temperature seen by the
external surface are equal
Example 01 - external wall/ceiling junction Example 02 Insulation layer rock wool panel
Example 01 - calculations
Thermal Thermal
Thermal Thermal Thermal
Layers Thickness conductivity Density capacity
conductivity resistance capacity
MIRAGE input MIRAGE input
(m) (W/mK) (m2K/W) (W/mK) J/kgK kg/m3 MJ/m3K
internal plaster 0.015 0.700 0.700 1000 1400 1.4
brick 0.3 0.890 0.337 1000 1000 1
external plaster 0.15 0.900 0.900 1000 1800 1.8

Internal Temperature 20 C
External temperature 0 C
R_layers ( dj/j ) 0.928 m2K/W = 0.015/0.700 + 0.890 + 0.015/0.900
Rse 0.041 m2K/W
Rsi 0.131 m2K/W

Rtot Rsi+( dj/j ) + Rse 1.100 m2K/W = 0.041 + 0.928+ 0.131


U-value 1/Rtot 0.909 W/m2K = 1/1.100
internal lenght Li 2.580 m
external Lenght Le 3.000 m
total internal Lenght Lio 3.000 m
Example 01 calculations of thermal coupling coefficient and linear thermal transmittance

l = Ht (Ti-Te) 66.800 W/m


L2D = l/(Ti-Te) = 66.800/(20 - 0) 3.340 W/mK
internal = L2D Ui*Lj = 3.34 0.909*1.29 - 0.909*1.29 0.995 W/mK
external = L2D Ui*Lj = 3.34 0.909*1.50 - 0.909*1.50 0.612 W/mK
= L2D Ui*Lj = 3.34 0.909*1.29 - 0.909*1.29
tot internal 0.612 W/mK
0.909*0.42

Temperature profile on internal surface


21.00
20.50
20.00
19.50
19.00
18.50
18.00
17.50
17.00
16.50
16.00
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00
Example 02 - calculations of thermal coupling coefficient and linear thermal transmittance
Thermal Thermal
Thermal Thermal Thermal
Layers Thickness conductivity Density capacity
conductivity resistance capacity
MIRAGE input MIRAGE input
(m) (W/mK) (m2K/W) (W/mK) J/kgK kg/m3 MJ/m3K
internal plaster 0.015 0.700 0.700 1000 1400 1.4
brick 0.3 0.890 0.337 1000 1000 1
external plaster 0.15 0.900 0.900 1000 1800 1.8
Rock wool panels 0.1 0.040 0.040 1000 30 0.03
Internal Temperature 20 C
External temperature 0 C
R_layers ( dj/j ) 3.428 m2K/W = 0.015/0.700 + 0.890 + 0.015/0.900
Rse 0.041 m2K/W
Rsi 0.131 m2K/W

Rtot Rsi+( dj/j ) + Rse 3.600 m2K/W = 0.928+ 0.041+0.131


U-value 1/Rtot 0.278 W/m2K = 1/1.100
internal lenght Li 2.580 m
external Lenght Le 3.000 m
total internal Lenght Lio 3.000 m
Example 02 - calculations of thermal coupling coefficient and linear thermal transmittance

l = Ht (Ti-Te) 17.6 W/m


L2D = l/(Ti-Te) = 17.6/(20 - 0) 0.88 W/mK
internal = L2D Ui*Lj = 0.88 0.278*1.29 - 0.278*1.29 0.163 W/mK
external = L2D Ui*Lj = 0.88 0. 278*1.50 - 0.278*1.50 0.046 W/mK
= L2D Ui*Lj = 0.88 0.278*1.29 - 0.278*1.29
tot internal 0.046 W/mK
0.278*0.42

Temperature profile on internal surface


21.00

20.50

20.00

19.50

19.00
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00
Example 03 - balcony Example 04 Insulation layer rock wool panel

1.29 m

1.135 m

1.29 m

3.00 m
Example 03 - balcony Example 04 Insulation layer rock wool panel
Example 03 - balcony Example 04 Insulation layer rock wool panel

Temperature profile on internal surface Temperature profile on internal surface - up


21.00 21.00
20.50 20.50
20.00 20.00
19.50 19.50
19.00 19.00
18.50 18.50
18.00 18.00
17.50 17.50
17.00 17.00
16.50 16.50
16.00 16.00
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

Temperature profile on internal surface Temperature profile on internal surface - bottom


21.00 21.00
20.50 20.50
20.00 20.00
19.50 19.50
19.00 19.00
18.50 18.50
18.00 18.00
17.50 17.50
17.00 17.00
16.50 16.50
16.00 16.00
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00
Boundary conditions

SURFACE RESISTANCE Calculations according to the standard UNI EN ISO 6946: 2008

INTERNAL Rsi = 1 / (hc,i + hr,i) 0.131 m2K/W


7.642 W/m2K
Where:
hc = convective heat exchange coefficient
hr = radiant heat exchange coefficient

hc,i (W/m2K) 2.5 Orizontal heat flux p.13 ISO 6946:2007


hr,i (W/m2K) = *hr0 5.14 p.12 ISO 6946:2007
hr0 = 4*5.67*10^-8*(273.15+20)^3 5.71
0.9
T (C) 20

Where:
= emissivity of the surcface material, adimentional
hr0 = radiant heat exchange coefficient of the ideal black body
Boundary conditions
SURFACE RESISTANCE Calculations according to the standard UNI EN ISO 6946: 2008
EXTERNAL Rse = 1 / (hc,e + hr,e) 0.041 m2K/W
24.634 W/m2K
Where:
hc = convective heat exchange coefficient
hr = radiant heat exchange coefficient

20 = 4+4*v_wind p.13 ISO 6946:2007


hc,e (W/m2K)
v_wind 4
hr,e (W/m2K) = *hr0
4.63 p.12 ISO 6946:2007
hr0 = 4*5.67*10^-8*(273.15+10)^3 5.15
0.9
T (C) 10

Where:
= emissivity of the surcface material, adimentional
hr0 = radiant heat exchange coefficient of the ideal black body
Boundary conditions

BOUNDARY TEMPERATURE according to UNI EN ISO 10211:2008


Internal boundary temperature 20C
External boundary temperature 0C
Example 03 - calculations
Thermal
Thermal Thermal Thermal Thermal capacity
Layers Thickness conductivity Density
conductivity resistance capacity MIRAGE input
MIRAGE input
(m) (W/mK) (m2K/W) (W/mK) J/kgK kg/m3 MJ/m3K
internal plaster 0.015 0.700 0.700 1000 1400 1.4
brick 0.3 0.890 0.337 1000 1000 1
external plaster 0.15 0.900 0.900 1000 1800 1.8
Internal Temperature 20 C
External temperature 0 C
R_layers ( dj/j ) 0.928 m2K/W = 0.015/0.700 + 0.890 + 0.015/0.900
Rse 0.041 m2K/W
Rsi 0.131 m2K/W

Rtot Rsi+( dj/j ) + Rse 1.100 m2K/W = 0.928+ 0.041+0.131


U-value 1/Rtot 0.909 W/m2K = 1/1.100
internal lenght Li 2.580 m
external Lenght Le 3.000 m
total internal Lenght Lio 3.000 m
Example 03 - calculations

l = Ht (Ti-Te) 66.800 W/m

L2D = l/(Ti-Te) = 64.6400/(20 - 0) 3.232 W/mK

internal = L2D Ui*Lj = 3.232 0.909*1.29 - 0.909*1.29 0.887 W/mK


external = L2D Ui*Lj = 3.232 0.909*1.50 - 0.909*1.50 0.505 W/mK
= L2D Ui*Lj = 3.232 0.909*1.29 - 0.909*1.29
tot internal 0.505 W/mK
0.909*0.42
Example 04 - calculations
Thermal
Thermal
Thermal Thermal Thermal capacity
Layers Thickness conductivity Density
conductivity resistance capacity MIRAGE
MIRAGE input
input
(m) (W/mK) (m2K/W) (W/mK) J/kgK kg/m3 MJ/m3K
internal plaster 0.015 0.700 0.700 1000 1400 1.4
brick 0.3 0.890 0.337 1000 1000 1
external plaster 0.15 0.900 0.900 1000 1800 1.8
rock wool panels 0.1 0.040 0.040 1000 30 0.03
Internal Temperature 20 C
External temperature 0 C
R_layers ( dj/j ) 3.428 m2K/W = 0.015/0.700 + 0.890 + 0.015/0.900
Rse 0.041 m2K/W
Rsi 0.131 m2K/W

Rtot Rsi+( dj/j ) + Rse 3.600 m2K/W = 0.928+ 0.041+0.131


U-value 1/Rtot 0.278 W/m2K = 1/1.100
internal lenght Li 2.580 m
external Lenght Le 3.000 m
total internal Lenght Lio 3.000 m
Example 04 - calculations

l = Ht (Ti-Te) 27.155 W/m

L2D = l/(Ti-Te) = 27.155/(20 - 0) 1.358 W/mK

internal = L2D Ui*Lj = 1.358 0.278*1.29 - 0.278*1.29 0.641 W/mK


external = L2D Ui*Lj = 1.358 0.278*1.50 - 0.278*1.50 0.524 W/mK
= L2D Ui*Lj = 1.358 0.278*1.29 - 0.278*1.29
tot internal 0.524 W/mK
0.278*0.42