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Thermal Bridges Analysis with MIRAGE

A thermal bridge is a portion of the envelope where the thermal resistance,

elsewhere uniform, varies significantly

with different thermal conductivity, for example a steel pillar

into a wooden prefabricated wall

changes in the building envelope.

When building components differ from the flat form, the

direction changes of the surfaces forming in the building

envelope, locally reduced thickness of the surfaces forming or

corners and edges in the building envelope

for example at wall-roof junctions, wall-floor junctions

There are two ways thermal bridges appear in buildings, either in linear or in

punctual form

building component

(window sill details, balconies, wall-roof junction, wall

anchorage)

The heat loss from a linear thermal bridge is called the linear

thermal transmittance coefficient, the -value.

the components and on the quality of structure junctions and it

Linear thermal bridge through wall-anchorage

is connected to the U-value.

at the foundation slab and its thermal analysis

Knowing -value you can calculate the total heat loss through

thermal bridge connections between building components.

There are two ways thermal bridges appear in buildings,

either in linear or in punctual form

envelope is penetrated by metal parts like screws or dowels.

component and causing this way point thermal bridge.

exterior wall can cause punctual thermal bridges.

structure creating a point thermal bridge

CLT=cross laminated timber ( es: X-lam)

THERMAL BRIDGES - Definition according to the standard

UNI EN ISO 10211:2008

A Thermal bridge is a part of the building envelope where, the overwhise uniform thermal

resistance, is significantly changed by

full or partial penetration of the building envelope by materials with different thermal

conductivity,

a change in thickness of the fabric,

a difference between internal and external areas, such as occurs on wall/floor/ceiling

junctions.

5

THERMAL BRIDGES - Definition according to the standard

UNI EN ISO 10211:2008

Introduction

Thermal bridges, which in general occur at any junction between building components or where the

building structure changes composition, have two consequences compared with those of the unbridged

structure:

Although similar calculation procedures are used, the procedures are not identical for the calculation of

heat flows and of surface temperatures.

A thermal bridge usually gives rise to three-dimensional or two-dimensional heat flows, which can be

precisely determined using detailed numerical calculation methods as described in this International

Standard.

flows provide results of adequate accuracy, especially when the constructional element is uniform in

one direction.

6

THERMAL BRIDGES - Definition according to the standard

UNI EN ISO 10211:2008

Scope

This International Standard sets out the specifications for a three-dimensional and a two-dimensional

geometrical model of a thermal bridge for the numerical calculation of:

heat flows, in order to assess the overall heat loss from a building or part of it;

minimum surface temperatures, in order to assess the risk of surface condensation.

These specifications include the geometrical boundaries and subdivisions of the model, the thermal

boundary conditions, and the thermal values and relationships to be used.

all physical properties are independent of temperature;

there are no heat sources within the building element.

This International Standard can also be used for the derivation of linear and point thermal

transmittances and of surface temperature factors.

7

Definitions according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211

part of the building envelope where the otherwise uniform thermal resistance is significantly changed by full or

partial penetration of the building envelope by materials with a different thermal conductivity, and/or a change

in thickness of the fabric, and/or a difference between internal and external areas, such as occur at

wall/floor/ceiling junctions

thermal bridge with a uniform cross-section along one of the three orthogonal axes

localized thermal bridge whose influence can be represented by a point thermal transmittance

Definitions according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211

showing construction planes

Key

Cx construction planes perpendicular to the x-axis

Cy construction planes perpendicular to the y-axis

Cz construction planes perpendicular to the z-axis

-planes that separate flanking elements from central

element are encircled.

Definitions according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211

3.1.7 two-dimensional geometrical model 2-D geometrical model

geometrical model, deduced from building plans, such that for one of the orthogonal axes the cross-section

perpendicular to that axis does not change within the boundaries of the model

part of a 2-D geometrical model which, when considered in isolation, consists of plane, parallel material layers

part of a 2-D geometrical model which is not a 2-D flanking element

planes in the 3-D or 2-D geometrical model which separate different materials, and/or the geometrical model

from the remainder of the construction, and/or the flanking elements from the central element

construction planes that are boundaries to the 3-D or 2-D geometrical model by separating the model from the

remainder of the construction

planes which, in addition to the construction planes, divide the geometrical model into a number of cells

Definitions according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211

difference between internal surface temperature and external temperature, divided by the difference between

internal temperature and external temperature, calculated with a surface resistance Rsi at the internal surface

external air temperature, assuming that the air temperature and the radiant temperature seen by the surface

are equal

operative temperature, taken for the purposes of this International Standard as the arithmetic mean value of

internal air temperature and mean radiant temperature of all surfaces surrounding the internal environment

Definitions according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211

heat flow rate per temperature difference between two environments which are thermally connected by the

construction under consideration

heat flow rate in the steady state divided by length and by the temperature difference between the

environments on either side of a thermal bridge

NOTE The linear thermal transmittance is a quantity describing the influence of a linear thermal bridge on the total

heat flow.

heat flow rate in the steady state divided by the temperature difference between the environments on either

side of a thermal bridge

NOTE The point thermal transmittance is a quantity describing the influence of a point thermal bridge on the total

heat flow.

Definitions according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211

Definitions according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211

THERMAL BRIDGES Modeling according to the standard

UNI EN ISO 10211:2008

The temperature distribution within, and the heat flow through, a construction can be calculated if the

boundary conditions and constructional details are known.

For this purpose, the geometrical model is divided into a number of adjacent material cells, each with a

homogeneous thermal conductivity.

Instructions are given for the determination of the values of thermal conductivity and boundary

conditions.

The temperature distribution is determined either by means of an iterative calculation or by a direct solution

technique, after which the temperature distribution within the material cells is determined by interpolation.

The results of the calculations can be used to determine linear thermal transmittances, point thermal

transmittances and internal surface temperatures.

THERMAL BRIDGES Modeling according to the standard

UNI EN ISO 10211:2008

Cut-off planes for a geometrical model for calculation of total heat flow and/or surface temperatures

It is not usually feasible to model a complete building using a single geometrical model. In most cases, the

building may be partitioned into several parts (including the subsoil, where appropriate) by using cut-off

planes.

This partitioning shall be performed in such a way that all differences are avoided in the results of

calculation between the partitioned building and the building when treated as a whole.

This partitioning into several geometrical models is achieved by choosing suitable cut-off planes.

THERMAL BRIDGES Modeling according to the standard

UNI EN ISO 10211:2008

Cut-off planes for a 3-D geometrical model for calculation of total heat flow and/or surface

Temperatures

The geometrical model includes the central element(s), the flanking elements and, where appropriate, the

subsoil. The geometrical model is delimited by cut-off planes.

at a symmetry plane if this is less than dmin from the central element (see Figure 5);

at least dmin from the central element if there is no nearer symmetry plane (see Figure 6);

in the ground, in accordance with 5.2.4,

where dmin is the greater of 1 m and three times the thickness of the flanking element concerned.

A geometrical model can contain more than one thermal bridge. In such cases, cut-off planes need to be

situated at least dmin from each thermal bridge, or need to be at a symmetry plane (see Figure 6).

THERMAL BRIDGES Modeling according to the standard

UNI EN ISO 10211:2008

THERMAL BRIDGES Modeling according to the standard

UNI EN ISO 10211:2008

Build-up the geometrical model for 3D-2D calculation cut off planes

THERMAL BRIDGES Modeling according to the standard

UNI EN ISO 10211:2008

THERMAL BRIDGES Modeling according to the standard

UNI EN ISO 10211:2008

The design values of thermal conductivities of building materials and products should either be calculated in

accordance with ISO 10456, or taken from tabulated values such as in ISO 10456.

The thermal conductivity of soil can be taken as 2,0 W/(mK).

NOTE Other values for the thermal conductivity of the soil can be used if information on the local soil condition is available (see ISO 13370).

For the calculation of heat flow rates, surface resistances shall be in accordance with ISO 6946, depending on

the direction of heat flow. However, the value of Rsi corresponding to horizontal heat flow may be used for all

surfaces when

a) the direction of heat flow is uncertain or is liable to vary, or

b) a whole building is being modelled in a single calculation.

For the calculation of internal surface temperatures for the purposes of evaluating condensation risk, surface

resistances shall be in accordance with ISO 13788.

THERMAL BRIDGES Modeling according to the standard

UNI EN ISO 10211:2008

Table 3 gives the boundary temperatures which shall be used.

THERMAL BRIDGES Calculation Method according to the standard UNI

EN ISO 10211:2008

7.1 Solution technique

The geometrical model is divided into a number of cells, each with a characteristic point (called a node). By

applying the laws of energy conservation (div q = 0) and Fourier (q = - grad ) and taking into account the

boundary conditions, a system of equations is obtained which is a function of the temperatures at the nodes.

The solution of this system, either by a direct solution technique or by an iterative method, provides the node

temperatures from which the temperature field can be determined. From the temperature distribution, the heat

flows can be calculated by applying Fouriers law.

Heat flows between material cells and adjacent environment

The density of heat flow rate, q, perpendicular to the interface between a material cell and the adjacent

environment shall satisfy

where

is the internal or external reference temperature;

s is the temperature at the internal or external surface;

Rs is the internal or external surface resistance.

UNI EN ISO 10211

H T ( i e )

HT = heat exchange coefficient

i = indoor temperature

e = outdoor temperature

H T H D H g HU

Hg ground themal coupling coefficient according to UNI EN ISO 13370

HU themal losses coefficient versus not heated rooms according to UNI EN ISO 13789

HD direct themal coupling coefficient [W/K]

24

UNI EN ISO 10211

H D U i Ai k lk j

Ai Area of application of the transmittance Ui [W/(m2K)]

k linear thermal transmittance of k-th linear thermal bridge [W/(m K)]

lk lenght to which k applies [m]

j punctual thermal transmittance of j-th punctual termal bridge[W/K]

Linear thermal transmittance : heat flux in steady state conditions divided by the lenght

and the temperature difference between the environments separated by the thermal bridge

Thermal coupling coefficient L2D/L3D: heat flux divided by the difference of temperature

between the environments separated by the analyzed building component

25

2D calculation : coupling coefficient L2D heat flux l linear thermal

transmittance

The heat flow rate per metre length, l, of the linear thermal bridge from the internal environment,

designated by the subscript i, to the external environment, designated by the subscript e, is given by

where L2D is the thermal coupling coefficient obtained from a 2-D calculation of the component separating

the two environments being considered.

2D calculation : coupling coefficient L2D heat flux l linear thermal

transmittance

10.3 Determination of the linear thermal transmittance

The linear thermal transmittance considered of the linear thermal bridge separating the two environments

being, , is given by

where

Uj is the thermal transmittance of the 1-D component j separating the two environments being considered;

lj is the length within the 2-D geometrical model over which the value Uj applies;

Nj is the number of 1-D components.

When determining the linear thermal transmittance, it is necessary to state which dimensions

(e.g. internal or external) are being used, because for several types of thermal bridges,

the value of the linear thermal transmittance depends on this choice.

2D calculation : coupling coefficient L2D heat flux l linear thermal

transmittance

10.3 Determination of the linear thermal transmittance

The linear thermal transmittance considered of the linear thermal bridge separating the two environments

being, , is given by

Thermal bridge calculations according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211

Analysis information

12.1 Input data

The report of the calculation shall contain the following information:

a) description of structure:

building plans including dimensions and materials;

for a completed building, any known alterations to the construction and/or physical measurements

other relevant remarks;

2-D or 3-D geometrical model with dimensions;

input data showing the location of the construction planes and any auxiliary planes, together with the thermal

conductivities of the various materials;

the applied boundary temperatures;

a calculation of the boundary temperature in an adjacent area, when appropriate;

the surface resistances and the areas to which they apply;

Thermal bridge calculations according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211

Analysis information

12.2.1 General

The following calculation results shall be reported as values that are independent of the boundary

temperatures:

thermal coupling coefficient L3D or L2D between adjacent rooms involved in heat transfer through the

building components;

if appropriate, the linear thermal transmittance, , of the linear thermal bridge, stating whether internal or

external dimensions were used;

temperature factor, fRsi, for the points of lowest surface temperatures in each room involved (including the

location of these points); if more than two boundary temperatures are used, the temperature weighting factors

shall be reported.

Thermal bridge calculations according to the standard UNI EN ISO 10211

Analysis information

11.2 Determination of the temperature at the internal surface from 2-D calculations

When there are only two environments involved, the surface temperatures can be expressed in a

dimensionless form in accordance with Equation (29):

where

f Rsi (x,y) is the temperature factor for the internal surface at point (x,y);

si (x,y) is the temperature for the internal surface at point (x,y);

i is the internal temperature;

e is the external temperature.

The temperature factor shall be calculated with an error of less than 0,005.

Mirage exercitation

on the UNI EN ISO 10211

Example 01 external wall/ceiling junction Example 02 Insulation layer rock wool panel

1.29 m

1.135 m

3.00 m

1.29 m

Nomenclature of building layers - translation italian to english

mattone semipieno brick

intonaco esterno external plaster

rivestimento interno gres internal covering, gres tiles

armato, soletta (blocchi laterizio predales e cement mortar, reinforced concrete, predales ceiling

travetti in calcestruzzo) 2+4+24 cm block and concrete beams

rivestimento piastrelle external covering, tiles

Materials informations

Materials informations According to the standard UNI/TR 11552: 2014

Thermal Thermal

Thermal Thermal Thermal

Layers Thickness conductivity Density capacity

conductivity resistance capacity

MIRAGE input MIRAGE input

(m) (W/mK) (m2K/W) (W/mK) J/kgK kg/m3 MJ/m3K

internal plaster 0.015 0.700 0.700 1000 1400 1.4

brick 0.3 0.890 0.337 1000 1000 1

external plaster 0.15 0.900 0.900 1000 1800 1.8

internal covering, gres tiles 0.1 1.470 1.470 1000 1700 1.7

floor slab, ordinary concrete 0.1 1.060 1.060 1000 1700 1.7

intermidiate floor celing block

(cement mortar, reinforced concrete, 0.3 0.370 0.811 1000 1170 1.17

predales ceiling block and concrete

beams)2+4+24

rock wool panels 0.1 0.040 0.040 1000 30 0.03

external covering tiles 0.1 1.470 1.470 1000 1700 1.7

standard UNI/TR 11552: 2014

cement mortar

Reinforced concrete

brick blocks and concrete joists

standard UNI/TR 11552: 2014

Thermal resistance

of brick walls

Boundary conditions

SURFACE RESISTANCE Calculations according to the standard UNI EN ISO 6946: 2008

7.64 W/m2K

Where:

hc = convective heat exchange coefficient

hr = radiant heat exchange coefficient

hr,i (W/m2K) = *hr0 5.14 p.12 ISO 6946:2007

hr0 = 4*5.67*10^-8*(273.15+20)^3 5.71

0.9

T (C) 20

Where:

= emissivity of the surface material, adimentional

hr0 = radiative heat transfer coefficient of the ideal black body

Boundary conditions

SURFACE RESISTANCE Calculations according to the standard UNI EN ISO 6946: 2008

EXTERNAL Rse = 1 / (hc,e + hr,e) 0.04 m2K/W

24.63 W/m2K

Where:

hc = convective heat exchange coefficient

hr = radiant heat exchange coefficient

hc,e (W/m2K)

v_wind 4

hr,e (W/m2K) = *hr0

4.63 p.12 ISO 6946:2007

hr0 = 4*5.67*10^-8*(273.15+10)^3 5.15

0.9

T (C) 10

Where:

= emissivity of the surcface material, adimentional

hr0 = radiant heat exchange coefficient of the ideal black body

Boundary conditions

Internal boundary temperature 20C

External boundary temperature 0C

operative temperature, taken for the purposes of this International Standard as the arithmetic mean value

of internal air temperature and mean radiant temperature of all surfaces surrounding the internal

environment

external air temperature, assuming that the air temperature and the radiant temperature seen by the

external surface are equal

Example 01 - external wall/ceiling junction Example 02 Insulation layer rock wool panel

Example 01 - calculations

Thermal Thermal

Thermal Thermal Thermal

Layers Thickness conductivity Density capacity

conductivity resistance capacity

MIRAGE input MIRAGE input

(m) (W/mK) (m2K/W) (W/mK) J/kgK kg/m3 MJ/m3K

internal plaster 0.015 0.700 0.700 1000 1400 1.4

brick 0.3 0.890 0.337 1000 1000 1

external plaster 0.15 0.900 0.900 1000 1800 1.8

Internal Temperature 20 C

External temperature 0 C

R_layers ( dj/j ) 0.928 m2K/W = 0.015/0.700 + 0.890 + 0.015/0.900

Rse 0.041 m2K/W

Rsi 0.131 m2K/W

U-value 1/Rtot 0.909 W/m2K = 1/1.100

internal lenght Li 2.580 m

external Lenght Le 3.000 m

total internal Lenght Lio 3.000 m

Example 01 calculations of thermal coupling coefficient and linear thermal transmittance

L2D = l/(Ti-Te) = 66.800/(20 - 0) 3.340 W/mK

internal = L2D Ui*Lj = 3.34 0.909*1.29 - 0.909*1.29 0.995 W/mK

external = L2D Ui*Lj = 3.34 0.909*1.50 - 0.909*1.50 0.612 W/mK

= L2D Ui*Lj = 3.34 0.909*1.29 - 0.909*1.29

tot internal 0.612 W/mK

0.909*0.42

21.00

20.50

20.00

19.50

19.00

18.50

18.00

17.50

17.00

16.50

16.00

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

Example 02 - calculations of thermal coupling coefficient and linear thermal transmittance

Thermal Thermal

Thermal Thermal Thermal

Layers Thickness conductivity Density capacity

conductivity resistance capacity

MIRAGE input MIRAGE input

(m) (W/mK) (m2K/W) (W/mK) J/kgK kg/m3 MJ/m3K

internal plaster 0.015 0.700 0.700 1000 1400 1.4

brick 0.3 0.890 0.337 1000 1000 1

external plaster 0.15 0.900 0.900 1000 1800 1.8

Rock wool panels 0.1 0.040 0.040 1000 30 0.03

Internal Temperature 20 C

External temperature 0 C

R_layers ( dj/j ) 3.428 m2K/W = 0.015/0.700 + 0.890 + 0.015/0.900

Rse 0.041 m2K/W

Rsi 0.131 m2K/W

U-value 1/Rtot 0.278 W/m2K = 1/1.100

internal lenght Li 2.580 m

external Lenght Le 3.000 m

total internal Lenght Lio 3.000 m

Example 02 - calculations of thermal coupling coefficient and linear thermal transmittance

L2D = l/(Ti-Te) = 17.6/(20 - 0) 0.88 W/mK

internal = L2D Ui*Lj = 0.88 0.278*1.29 - 0.278*1.29 0.163 W/mK

external = L2D Ui*Lj = 0.88 0. 278*1.50 - 0.278*1.50 0.046 W/mK

= L2D Ui*Lj = 0.88 0.278*1.29 - 0.278*1.29

tot internal 0.046 W/mK

0.278*0.42

21.00

20.50

20.00

19.50

19.00

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

Example 03 - balcony Example 04 Insulation layer rock wool panel

1.29 m

1.135 m

1.29 m

3.00 m

Example 03 - balcony Example 04 Insulation layer rock wool panel

Example 03 - balcony Example 04 Insulation layer rock wool panel

21.00 21.00

20.50 20.50

20.00 20.00

19.50 19.50

19.00 19.00

18.50 18.50

18.00 18.00

17.50 17.50

17.00 17.00

16.50 16.50

16.00 16.00

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

21.00 21.00

20.50 20.50

20.00 20.00

19.50 19.50

19.00 19.00

18.50 18.50

18.00 18.00

17.50 17.50

17.00 17.00

16.50 16.50

16.00 16.00

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

Boundary conditions

SURFACE RESISTANCE Calculations according to the standard UNI EN ISO 6946: 2008

7.642 W/m2K

Where:

hc = convective heat exchange coefficient

hr = radiant heat exchange coefficient

hr,i (W/m2K) = *hr0 5.14 p.12 ISO 6946:2007

hr0 = 4*5.67*10^-8*(273.15+20)^3 5.71

0.9

T (C) 20

Where:

= emissivity of the surcface material, adimentional

hr0 = radiant heat exchange coefficient of the ideal black body

Boundary conditions

SURFACE RESISTANCE Calculations according to the standard UNI EN ISO 6946: 2008

EXTERNAL Rse = 1 / (hc,e + hr,e) 0.041 m2K/W

24.634 W/m2K

Where:

hc = convective heat exchange coefficient

hr = radiant heat exchange coefficient

hc,e (W/m2K)

v_wind 4

hr,e (W/m2K) = *hr0

4.63 p.12 ISO 6946:2007

hr0 = 4*5.67*10^-8*(273.15+10)^3 5.15

0.9

T (C) 10

Where:

= emissivity of the surcface material, adimentional

hr0 = radiant heat exchange coefficient of the ideal black body

Boundary conditions

Internal boundary temperature 20C

External boundary temperature 0C

Example 03 - calculations

Thermal

Thermal Thermal Thermal Thermal capacity

Layers Thickness conductivity Density

conductivity resistance capacity MIRAGE input

MIRAGE input

(m) (W/mK) (m2K/W) (W/mK) J/kgK kg/m3 MJ/m3K

internal plaster 0.015 0.700 0.700 1000 1400 1.4

brick 0.3 0.890 0.337 1000 1000 1

external plaster 0.15 0.900 0.900 1000 1800 1.8

Internal Temperature 20 C

External temperature 0 C

R_layers ( dj/j ) 0.928 m2K/W = 0.015/0.700 + 0.890 + 0.015/0.900

Rse 0.041 m2K/W

Rsi 0.131 m2K/W

U-value 1/Rtot 0.909 W/m2K = 1/1.100

internal lenght Li 2.580 m

external Lenght Le 3.000 m

total internal Lenght Lio 3.000 m

Example 03 - calculations

external = L2D Ui*Lj = 3.232 0.909*1.50 - 0.909*1.50 0.505 W/mK

= L2D Ui*Lj = 3.232 0.909*1.29 - 0.909*1.29

tot internal 0.505 W/mK

0.909*0.42

Example 04 - calculations

Thermal

Thermal

Thermal Thermal Thermal capacity

Layers Thickness conductivity Density

conductivity resistance capacity MIRAGE

MIRAGE input

input

(m) (W/mK) (m2K/W) (W/mK) J/kgK kg/m3 MJ/m3K

internal plaster 0.015 0.700 0.700 1000 1400 1.4

brick 0.3 0.890 0.337 1000 1000 1

external plaster 0.15 0.900 0.900 1000 1800 1.8

rock wool panels 0.1 0.040 0.040 1000 30 0.03

Internal Temperature 20 C

External temperature 0 C

R_layers ( dj/j ) 3.428 m2K/W = 0.015/0.700 + 0.890 + 0.015/0.900

Rse 0.041 m2K/W

Rsi 0.131 m2K/W

U-value 1/Rtot 0.278 W/m2K = 1/1.100

internal lenght Li 2.580 m

external Lenght Le 3.000 m

total internal Lenght Lio 3.000 m

Example 04 - calculations

external = L2D Ui*Lj = 1.358 0.278*1.50 - 0.278*1.50 0.524 W/mK

= L2D Ui*Lj = 1.358 0.278*1.29 - 0.278*1.29

tot internal 0.524 W/mK

0.278*0.42

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