You are on page 1of 23

www.kitszone.

com
Full Wave
&
Half Wave
Rectifier
Copyright 2014 Kitszone.com

www.kitszone.com
Copyright notice

Thank you for downloading this eBook. This book remains the
copyrighted property of the author, and may not be redistributed to others
for commercial or non-commercial purposes. If you enjoyed this book,
please encourage your friends to download their own copy from their
favorite authorized retailer. Thank you for your support.

www.kitszone.com
Table Of Contents
Rectifier
Half Wave Rectifier
Mathematical Analysis
DC value of current
RMS value of current
Efficiency
Ripple factor
Peak Inverse Voltage

Full Wave Rectifier


Mathematical Analysis
DC value of current
RMS value of current
Efficiency
Ripple factor
Peak Inverse Voltage

www.kitszone.com
Rectifier:
Rectification is the process of converting AC to DC. The circuit which is
used for this purpose is known as rectifier. Rectifiers are of two types:
1. Half wave rectifier
2. Full wave rectifier
In a half wave rectifier, DC is available at its output terminals during one
half cycle of the AC input, whereas in a full wave rectifier DC is obtained
during both half cycles of the AC input.

Half wave rectifier using diode:


Assemble the half wave rectifier circuit using P-N junction diode as shown
in image(1). Terminal A in the secondary is connected to the P section of
the diode and the other end N is connected to B terminal through load RL .

Image(1)

Image(2)

www.kitszone.com
The AC is supplied across the primary of a transformer.
During one half of the cycle, A is positive with respect to B. This
makes the P-N junction diode to conduct as it is forward biased and
the current flows through the load RL as shown in the image(2).
During the next half cycle the point A is negative with respect to B.
In this state, the diode does not conducts because it is reverse biased
and hence no current passes through RL.
Thus current passes through the RL only during positive cycles.
Hence this circuit is known as half wave rectifier.

Image(3)

www.kitszone.com
Mathematical Analysis:

Let V i=V p sin t(1) be the input voltage to the rectifier, where Vp
is the peak input voltage. While the diode is conducting, let id be the
current flowing through the circuit and Vd be the voltage across the diode.

Let us consider the ohmic resistance of the secondary of transformer as


negligible and applying Kirchoff's voltage law to the closed circuit, we
have:

www.kitszone.com
Vi = Vd + id RL

= id Rf + id RL

where Rf is the forward resistance of the diode.

Vi=i d (R f +R L )(2)

Comparing (1) and (2), we get:

V p sin t=i d (R f +R L )

i d =I m sin ( t)

Vp
where I m = is the peak current.
R f +R L

If the resistance of the diode is negligible compared to R L , then

V
I m=
RL

For a half wave rectifier, we have

{
I d = I m sin t for 0 < t <
0 for < t < 2 }
DC value of current(Idc):
From the image(3), it is seen that the output current is not steady but
contains fluctuations despite of being a DC current. The average value of
this fluctuating DC current can be calculated as follows:

www.kitszone.com
2
1
I dc = I d ( t)
2 0 d

[ ]
2
1
= i d d ( t)+ i d d ( t)
2 0


1
= id d ( t)
2 0
[ id=0 in the range to 2]

= ( )
1
2 0
I m sin t d ( t)

Im
= [cos ( t) ]0
2

Im
I dc=

RMS value of output current(Irms):

www.kitszone.com

2
1
I rms=
2 0
2
id d ( t)


2
1 2 2
= [ id d ( t)+ i d d ( t)]
2 0



1
=
2 0
id2 d ( t)



1
=
2 0
2 2
I m sin t d ( t)

[ id=0 in the range to 2]


=

I 2m t sin2 t
2 2
[
4
]
0


2
I
= m
2 2

=
4
I 2m

Im
I rms =
2

I rms >I dc

www.kitszone.com
Efficiency of a half wave rectifier():

Output DC power
= x 100%
Input AC power

1 2
Input AC power Piac = (instantaneous power)d ( t)
2 0
2
1
Piac = e x i d d ( t)
2 0

2
1
= i d (R f +R L ) x i d d ( t )
2 0

R f +R L 2 2
=
2 0 d
i d ( t)
2
=(R f +R L ) I rms

2
(R +R L )I m
Piac = f
4
2
Output DC power Podc=I dc R L

2
Im R L
Podc= 2

Podc
Rectifier efficiency = x 100%
Piac

2
Im R L 4
= 2 x 2 x 100%
(R f +R L )I m

www.kitszone.com
40.6 R L
= %
R f +R L

If Rf << RL, = 40.6%


If Rf = RL, = 20.3%

Ripple factor(r):
At the output of half wave rectifier, periodically varying components are
still present even though we have achieved a unidirectional current. Filters
are used in the rectifier to reduce the varying components. A measure of
the varying component is given by the ripple factor as follows:

' '
I E
r= rms = rms
I dc E dc

where I'rms and E'rms represent the RMS value of ripple current and voltage
respectively.

Instantaneous value of ripple current I' = id Idc


2
1
'
I =
rms
2
i 'd2 ( t)
0


2
1
=
2
(id Idc )2 d ( t)
0


2
1
=
2
(id22id Idc +I 2dc )d ( t )
0

Using equations


2 2
1
I dc = I d d ( t) & I rms= 1 i 2d d ( t )
2 0 2 0

www.kitszone.com
we have,

I 'rms= (I 2rms 2I2dc +I 2dc )

= (I rms I dc )
2 2

Ripple factor is given by


'
I
r= rms
I dc


2 2
(I rms I dc )
= 2
I dc

(
2

=
I rms
I dc )
1

(
2

=
I m /2
I m / ) 1

( )
2

r= 1
2

r=1.21

The above calculation shows that the RMS value of the ripple exceeds that
of the DC potential of the output. This shows that the half wave rectifier
without a filter is relatively a poor device for converting AC into DC.

Peak Inverse Voltage:


It is defined as the maximum voltage applied across the diode when the

www.kitszone.com
diode is reverse biased. In the case of half wave rectifier, the maximum
voltage across the diode when it is not conducting is equal to Vp, the peak
input voltage.

www.kitszone.com
Full wave rectifier using diode:
Assemble the full wave rectifier circuit using P-N junction diode as shown
in image(1).

Image(1)

The AC is supplied across the primary of a transformer.


During one half of the cycle, A is positive with respect to C. This
makes the P-N junction diode to conduct as it is forward biased and
the current flows through the load RL as shown in the image(2).
During the next half cycle the point A is negative with respect to C.
In this state, the diode D2 conducts current passes through RL.
Thus we get a DC current for both the half of the input cycle. Here,
since both the halves of the input wave are rectified, it is called the
full wave rectifier.

www.kitszone.com
Image(2)

Image(3)

Mathematical Analysis:

Let V i= V p sin t(1) be the input voltage to the rectifier, where Vp


is the peak input voltage. While the diode is conducting, let id be the

www.kitszone.com
current flowing through the circuit and Vd be the voltage across the diode.

Let us consider the ohmic resistance of the secondary of transformer as


negligible and applying Kirchoff's voltage law to the closed circuit, we
have:

Vi = Vd + id RL

= id Rf + id RL

where Rf is the forward resistance of the diode.

Vi=i d (R f +R L )(2)

Comparing (1) and (2), we get:

V p sin t=i d (R f +R L )

i d =I m sin ( t)

Vp
where I m = is the peak current.
R f +R L

If the resistance of the diode is negligible compared to R L , then

V
I m=
RL

From the output current wave form, we can represent,

{
I d = I m sin t for 0 < t <
0 for < t < 2 }

www.kitszone.com
DC value of current(Idc):
From the image(3), it is seen that the output current is not steady but
contains fluctuations despite of being a DC current. The average value of
this fluctuating DC current can be calculated as follows:

2
1
I dc = I d ( t)
2 0 d

[ ]
2
1
= i d d ( t)+ i d d ( t)
2 0

] [ ]
2

= ( )[
1
2 0
I sin t d ( t) +

[I m sin t d ( t)]

Im
=
2
[ [ cos( t) ] 0+ [ cos( t )] ]
2

Im
= [ 2+2 ]
2

2I m
I dc=

www.kitszone.com
RMS value of output current(Irms):


2
1
I rms =
2 0
2
i d d ( t)

[ ]
2
1
=
2
i 2
d d ( t)+ i 2d d ( t)

0

[ ]
2
1
=
2
I 2
m sin t d ( t )+ I 2m sin 2 t d ( t)
2

[( ]
2 2
I
= m
2

0
1cos2 t
2 )
d ( t )+

1cos2 t
2 (
d ( t ) )
[
2 2
I m t sin2 t
=
2 2

4 ] [ 0
+
t sin2 t
2

4 ]

[
2

=
Im
2 2
+
2
2

2 ( )]
Im
I rms =
2

Efficiency of a half wave rectifier():

www.kitszone.com
Output DC power
= x 100%
Input AC power
2
1
Input AC power Piac = (instantaneous voltage x current x d ( t))
2 0

2
1
P iac= e x id d ( t)
2 0

2
1
= id (R f +R L ) x id d ( t)
2 0

R f +R L 2 2
=
2 0 d
i d ( t)
2
=(R f +R L )I rms

2
(R f +R L )I m
P iac=
2
2
Output DC power Podc=I dc R L

2
4I m R L
P odc= 2

Podc
Rectifier efficiency = x 100%
Piac

2
4Im R L 2
= 2
x 2 x 100%
(R f +R L )I m

www.kitszone.com
800 R L
= 2 %
(R f +R L )

81.2 R L
=
(R f +R L )

81.2
=
1+ f
R
RL ( ) %

From the value of , we can confirm that the efficiency of full wave
rectifier is double to that of a half wave rectifier.

Ripple factor(r):

' '
I E
r= rms = rms
I dc E dc

where I'rms and E'rms represent the RMS value of ripple current and voltage
respectively.

Instantaneous value of ripple current I' = id Idc


2
1
'
I =
rms
2 0
'2
i d ( t)


2
1 2
=
2 0
(id Idc ) d ( t)


2
1
=
2 0
(i2d 2id I dc+I 2dc )d ( t)

www.kitszone.com
Using equations


2 2
1
I dc = I d d ( t) & I rms= 1 i 2d d ( t )
2 0 2 0
we have,

I 'rms= (I 2rms 2I2dc +I 2dc )

= (I rms I dc )
2 2

Ripple factor is given by


'
I
r= rms
I dc


2 2
(I rms I dc )
= 2
Idc

(
2

=
I rms
I dc)1

(
2

=
Im / 2
2I m / ) 1

r= 1.11 1
2

r=0.48
Peak Inverse Voltage:
It is defined as the maximum voltage applied across the diode when the
diode is reverse biased. In a full wave rectifier, the peak inverse voltage
across the diode D1 can be found out to be the maximum voltage across
D1 when D1 des not conduct and D2 conducts. In a center tapped

www.kitszone.com
transformer when the point A is at the maximum negative voltage E0, the
point C is at the maximum positive voltage E0 with respect to the center
tap. The voltage drop across D2 is almost zero while in conduction so that
the point D is at a maximum positive voltage E0. Therefore PD between A
and D across D1 is 2E0, Likewise, the peak inverse voltage across D2 will
also be 2E0. Therefore in a full wave rectifier, the diodes will be subjected
to a reverse voltage twice larger than that of the peak input voltage. In
designing a full wave rectifier with two diodes, care should be taken to see
that the selected diode must withstand this reverse voltage without any
break down.

Thank you!

www.kitszone.com