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com

Full Wave

&

Half Wave

Rectifier

Copyright 2014 Kitszone.com

www.kitszone.com

Copyright notice

Thank you for downloading this eBook. This book remains the

copyrighted property of the author, and may not be redistributed to others

for commercial or non-commercial purposes. If you enjoyed this book,

please encourage your friends to download their own copy from their

favorite authorized retailer. Thank you for your support.

www.kitszone.com

Table Of Contents

Rectifier

Half Wave Rectifier

Mathematical Analysis

DC value of current

RMS value of current

Efficiency

Ripple factor

Peak Inverse Voltage

Mathematical Analysis

DC value of current

RMS value of current

Efficiency

Ripple factor

Peak Inverse Voltage

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Rectifier:

Rectification is the process of converting AC to DC. The circuit which is

used for this purpose is known as rectifier. Rectifiers are of two types:

1. Half wave rectifier

2. Full wave rectifier

In a half wave rectifier, DC is available at its output terminals during one

half cycle of the AC input, whereas in a full wave rectifier DC is obtained

during both half cycles of the AC input.

Assemble the half wave rectifier circuit using P-N junction diode as shown

in image(1). Terminal A in the secondary is connected to the P section of

the diode and the other end N is connected to B terminal through load RL .

Image(1)

Image(2)

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The AC is supplied across the primary of a transformer.

During one half of the cycle, A is positive with respect to B. This

makes the P-N junction diode to conduct as it is forward biased and

the current flows through the load RL as shown in the image(2).

During the next half cycle the point A is negative with respect to B.

In this state, the diode does not conducts because it is reverse biased

and hence no current passes through RL.

Thus current passes through the RL only during positive cycles.

Hence this circuit is known as half wave rectifier.

Image(3)

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Mathematical Analysis:

Let V i=V p sin t(1) be the input voltage to the rectifier, where Vp

is the peak input voltage. While the diode is conducting, let id be the

current flowing through the circuit and Vd be the voltage across the diode.

negligible and applying Kirchoff's voltage law to the closed circuit, we

have:

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Vi = Vd + id RL

= id Rf + id RL

Vi=i d (R f +R L )(2)

V p sin t=i d (R f +R L )

i d =I m sin ( t)

Vp

where I m = is the peak current.

R f +R L

V

I m=

RL

{

I d = I m sin t for 0 < t <

0 for < t < 2 }

DC value of current(Idc):

From the image(3), it is seen that the output current is not steady but

contains fluctuations despite of being a DC current. The average value of

this fluctuating DC current can be calculated as follows:

www.kitszone.com

2

1

I dc = I d ( t)

2 0 d

[ ]

2

1

= i d d ( t)+ i d d ( t)

2 0

1

= id d ( t)

2 0

[ id=0 in the range to 2]

= ( )

1

2 0

I m sin t d ( t)

Im

= [cos ( t) ]0

2

Im

I dc=

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2

1

I rms=

2 0

2

id d ( t)

2

1 2 2

= [ id d ( t)+ i d d ( t)]

2 0

1

=

2 0

id2 d ( t)

1

=

2 0

2 2

I m sin t d ( t)

=

I 2m t sin2 t

2 2

[

4

]

0

2

I

= m

2 2

=

4

I 2m

Im

I rms =

2

I rms >I dc

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Efficiency of a half wave rectifier():

Output DC power

= x 100%

Input AC power

1 2

Input AC power Piac = (instantaneous power)d ( t)

2 0

2

1

Piac = e x i d d ( t)

2 0

2

1

= i d (R f +R L ) x i d d ( t )

2 0

R f +R L 2 2

=

2 0 d

i d ( t)

2

=(R f +R L ) I rms

2

(R +R L )I m

Piac = f

4

2

Output DC power Podc=I dc R L

2

Im R L

Podc= 2

Podc

Rectifier efficiency = x 100%

Piac

2

Im R L 4

= 2 x 2 x 100%

(R f +R L )I m

www.kitszone.com

40.6 R L

= %

R f +R L

If Rf = RL, = 20.3%

Ripple factor(r):

At the output of half wave rectifier, periodically varying components are

still present even though we have achieved a unidirectional current. Filters

are used in the rectifier to reduce the varying components. A measure of

the varying component is given by the ripple factor as follows:

' '

I E

r= rms = rms

I dc E dc

where I'rms and E'rms represent the RMS value of ripple current and voltage

respectively.

2

1

'

I =

rms

2

i 'd2 ( t)

0

2

1

=

2

(id Idc )2 d ( t)

0

2

1

=

2

(id22id Idc +I 2dc )d ( t )

0

Using equations

2 2

1

I dc = I d d ( t) & I rms= 1 i 2d d ( t )

2 0 2 0

www.kitszone.com

we have,

= (I rms I dc )

2 2

'

I

r= rms

I dc

2 2

(I rms I dc )

= 2

I dc

(

2

=

I rms

I dc )

1

(

2

=

I m /2

I m / ) 1

( )

2

r= 1

2

r=1.21

The above calculation shows that the RMS value of the ripple exceeds that

of the DC potential of the output. This shows that the half wave rectifier

without a filter is relatively a poor device for converting AC into DC.

It is defined as the maximum voltage applied across the diode when the

www.kitszone.com

diode is reverse biased. In the case of half wave rectifier, the maximum

voltage across the diode when it is not conducting is equal to Vp, the peak

input voltage.

www.kitszone.com

Full wave rectifier using diode:

Assemble the full wave rectifier circuit using P-N junction diode as shown

in image(1).

Image(1)

During one half of the cycle, A is positive with respect to C. This

makes the P-N junction diode to conduct as it is forward biased and

the current flows through the load RL as shown in the image(2).

During the next half cycle the point A is negative with respect to C.

In this state, the diode D2 conducts current passes through RL.

Thus we get a DC current for both the half of the input cycle. Here,

since both the halves of the input wave are rectified, it is called the

full wave rectifier.

www.kitszone.com

Image(2)

Image(3)

Mathematical Analysis:

is the peak input voltage. While the diode is conducting, let id be the

www.kitszone.com

current flowing through the circuit and Vd be the voltage across the diode.

negligible and applying Kirchoff's voltage law to the closed circuit, we

have:

Vi = Vd + id RL

= id Rf + id RL

Vi=i d (R f +R L )(2)

V p sin t=i d (R f +R L )

i d =I m sin ( t)

Vp

where I m = is the peak current.

R f +R L

V

I m=

RL

{

I d = I m sin t for 0 < t <

0 for < t < 2 }

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DC value of current(Idc):

From the image(3), it is seen that the output current is not steady but

contains fluctuations despite of being a DC current. The average value of

this fluctuating DC current can be calculated as follows:

2

1

I dc = I d ( t)

2 0 d

[ ]

2

1

= i d d ( t)+ i d d ( t)

2 0

] [ ]

2

= ( )[

1

2 0

I sin t d ( t) +

[I m sin t d ( t)]

Im

=

2

[ [ cos( t) ] 0+ [ cos( t )] ]

2

Im

= [ 2+2 ]

2

2I m

I dc=

www.kitszone.com

RMS value of output current(Irms):

2

1

I rms =

2 0

2

i d d ( t)

[ ]

2

1

=

2

i 2

d d ( t)+ i 2d d ( t)

0

[ ]

2

1

=

2

I 2

m sin t d ( t )+ I 2m sin 2 t d ( t)

2

[( ]

2 2

I

= m

2

0

1cos2 t

2 )

d ( t )+

1cos2 t

2 (

d ( t ) )

[

2 2

I m t sin2 t

=

2 2

4 ] [ 0

+

t sin2 t

2

4 ]

[

2

=

Im

2 2

+

2

2

2 ( )]

Im

I rms =

2

www.kitszone.com

Output DC power

= x 100%

Input AC power

2

1

Input AC power Piac = (instantaneous voltage x current x d ( t))

2 0

2

1

P iac= e x id d ( t)

2 0

2

1

= id (R f +R L ) x id d ( t)

2 0

R f +R L 2 2

=

2 0 d

i d ( t)

2

=(R f +R L )I rms

2

(R f +R L )I m

P iac=

2

2

Output DC power Podc=I dc R L

2

4I m R L

P odc= 2

Podc

Rectifier efficiency = x 100%

Piac

2

4Im R L 2

= 2

x 2 x 100%

(R f +R L )I m

www.kitszone.com

800 R L

= 2 %

(R f +R L )

81.2 R L

=

(R f +R L )

81.2

=

1+ f

R

RL ( ) %

From the value of , we can confirm that the efficiency of full wave

rectifier is double to that of a half wave rectifier.

Ripple factor(r):

' '

I E

r= rms = rms

I dc E dc

where I'rms and E'rms represent the RMS value of ripple current and voltage

respectively.

2

1

'

I =

rms

2 0

'2

i d ( t)

2

1 2

=

2 0

(id Idc ) d ( t)

2

1

=

2 0

(i2d 2id I dc+I 2dc )d ( t)

www.kitszone.com

Using equations

2 2

1

I dc = I d d ( t) & I rms= 1 i 2d d ( t )

2 0 2 0

we have,

= (I rms I dc )

2 2

'

I

r= rms

I dc

2 2

(I rms I dc )

= 2

Idc

(

2

=

I rms

I dc)1

(

2

=

Im / 2

2I m / ) 1

r= 1.11 1

2

r=0.48

Peak Inverse Voltage:

It is defined as the maximum voltage applied across the diode when the

diode is reverse biased. In a full wave rectifier, the peak inverse voltage

across the diode D1 can be found out to be the maximum voltage across

D1 when D1 des not conduct and D2 conducts. In a center tapped

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transformer when the point A is at the maximum negative voltage E0, the

point C is at the maximum positive voltage E0 with respect to the center

tap. The voltage drop across D2 is almost zero while in conduction so that

the point D is at a maximum positive voltage E0. Therefore PD between A

and D across D1 is 2E0, Likewise, the peak inverse voltage across D2 will

also be 2E0. Therefore in a full wave rectifier, the diodes will be subjected

to a reverse voltage twice larger than that of the peak input voltage. In

designing a full wave rectifier with two diodes, care should be taken to see

that the selected diode must withstand this reverse voltage without any

break down.

Thank you!

www.kitszone.com

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