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Unsteady Airfoil in 2-D Supersonic flow:

The supersonic flow regime is the simplest as the fluid ahead of the body remains
undisturbed and that behind the body does not influence the pressure distribution
on the body.

Take a body moving with velocity, U , through a fluid where M U a 1.

At any point in the fluid disturbed by the passage of the body, disturbances will
propagate to the right with velocity, a and to the left, a with respect to the
fluid. The corresponding propagation velocities as seen with respect to the body
or airfoil will be

U a and U a where U a

Note these are both positive, hence the fluid ahead of the airfoil is never disturbed;
also, disturbance behind the airfoil never reach the body.

All the unsteady aerodynamic theories are developed with the assumption that the
airfoil is executing a steady harmonic motion with some frequency .

In this case, flow is steady but airfoil is executing unsteady motion (steady
harmonic motion). For a simple harmonic motion,

x,z, t x,z eit

z a x,z, t z a x,z eit
w a x,z, t w a x,z eit
p x,z, t p x,z eit
and
it
e w a eit wa
z z

The body boundary condition is

z z
z a U a w a
z 0 t x
sin ce our area of int erest is only airfoil
The linearized potential flow equations are exactly same for the subsonic and
supersonic flows,
2
2 '1
U ' 0
a 2 t x

2
1
2x,z ' U ' 0
a 2 t x

2
2 2
1
U 0
x 2 z2 a 2 t x

The linearized potential flow equation for supersonic flow becomes,

2 1 2
2 2
2
2U U 0
x 2 z2 a 2 t 2 t x x 2

2 1 2
2 2 2
2
2U U 0
x 2 z2 a 2 t 2 tx x 2

2 2 1 2
2U 2 U 2 2
0
2 2 2 2 2 tx 2 2
x z a t a a x

2 2 1 2
2M 2 2
2
M 0
x 2 z2 a 2 t 2 a tx x 2

2
M 1
2

x 2 z2 a 2 t 2

2
2M 2
a tx
1 2
0

For an airfoil with simple harmonic motion, the linearized potential equation
becomes

x, z, t x, z eit

M 1 x2 z2 a2 t2 2aM i
2 2 2 2 2
x
0

Since , x , etc., are zero for x 0 . This suggest the possibility of using a
Laplace Transform with respect to x, i.e.,

p, z L e px dx
0

W p, z L w a w a e px dx
0
Taking transform of z w a gives

d
W
dz z 0

Laplace Transform for first-order derivative:

L f ' t sF s f 0 , where F s L f t

Laplace Transform for second-order derivative:

L f " t s2L f t sf 0 f ' 0

L p p 0 p
x

2 2
L 2 p p 0 0 p2
x x

Taking the Laplace Transform of the entire unsteady equation, gives

d 2
2
2
dz
Where

2
2

2M
M 1 p
2
ip 2
a
2
a

By taking M 2 1 as common, we get

2

M 1 p
2 2

iM
2
2

a M 1
2

2
a
M2 1

The equation is in the quadratic form.

The solution to d 2 dz 2 2 is

Aez Bez

z Aez

z Bez

z z
z a U a w a
z 0 t x

Taking transform of z w a gives

d
W
dz z 0

For the upper surface z Bez , from the above transform

d
Bez B z 0 W
dz z 0

W
B

d
Aez A z 0 W
dz z 0

W
A

Hence the solution becomes,

W z
z,p e for z 0

W z
e for z 0

Since we are not interested in finding the solution at every point on flow field or
at every point of z, the solution on the airfoil at z = 0 plane becomes,

W z W
z,p e for z 0
z 0
W z W
e for z 0
z 0

Let F s and G s denote the Laplace transforms of f t and g t , respectively.

L f t g t F s G s
Laplace of two functions will give the product of Laplace transform of each
individual function.

Then the product H s F s G s is the Laplace transform of the convolution

of f t and g t , and is denoted by h t f g t , and has the integral
representation
t
h t f t g t f g t d
0

f t L1 F s and g t = L1 G s

t
L 1
F s G s f g t d
0

The solution is a product of two functions i.e.

1
z,p W

Invert the Laplace Transform, using the convolution theorem,

wa L1 1 d
x

x,0
0

We know that,

2

M 1 p
2 2

iM
2
2

a M 2
1
2
a M2 1

1 1 1

M2 1 2 2 1 2

iM
p

a M 2
1

a M 2
1

From Bateman (Tables of Integral Transforms)

1 1
L J 0 x where J 0 Bessel Function
p
2 2

From Shifting Theorem, we know that

F p e px f x dx
0

p a x
F p a e f x dx e px ax f x dx
0 0

F p a e px eax f x dx L e ax f x
0

L1 F p a eax f x

Where L1 F p f x

Thus,

iM
exp x
1 1
L
a M 1

2

x

J0

a M2 1
1 2
M2 1

The final solution will be

iM
x

x,0 1
x

a M 2 1 J x d
wa e
M2 1 0
0 2

a M2 1

At any point of x.
In non-dimensional terms,

x 2kM 2 2b
; x ; 2 where k Reduced Frequency
2b 2b M 1 U
x

x ,0
2b
M2 1
wa

exp i x J0 M x d
0

One can now use Bernoullis equation to compute pressure

p p p u U
t x z 0

We know that

eit

pu can also be written as pu peit because the pressure also subjected to steady
oscillation. So

U 1
pu i U ik
x z 0 b 2 x z 0

2 U 1
p p u pl ik
b 2 x z 0

1

L 2b p u pl dx
0

p u pl x
1

M 4b 2
x0 dx
0

Take Nose-up moment as positive.

X0

2b
Low Frequency Approximation:
Assume that is very small
0 : steady flow

2 M 2 1 p iM

a M 2 1

wa L1 1 d
x

x,0
0

iM
x

x,0
1
x

a M 2 1
wa e d
M 1 0
2

pu i U
x z 0

Substitute x,0 into the pressure expression, we get

pu i U
x z 0

First term inside parentheses can be written as,

iM
x
1 x

2
a M 1
i i
M2 1 0
w a e d

Second Term in the parentheses can be written by using fundamental theorem of
calculus,
iM
x
1
x
a
2
a M 1
x M 2 1
U U w e d
x
0

iMx

e

a M2 1 is independent of d. So take it out of int egration and differentiate it.
iMx iMx

e
2

a M 1

iM a M 2 1

e
x a M2 1

Using Fundamental Theorem of Calculus,
Suppose we have a function,
x
F x f t dt
a

x
dF d
f t dt f x
dt dx

a

iM iMx

x
wa e
2
a M 1
a M 2 1
x
d w a e

0

iM
x
i x

2
a M 1

M2 1 0
w a e d

iM iM

p u
iM 1 a M 2 1 x

a M 2 1

e w a e d

a M 2
1 M 1
2
0
U
iM x iM x

1
e
a M 2
1
w a e

a M 2
1

M 1
2 z 0
iM
x
x
pu w a e
2
a M 1
i M
d 2
2 w a x U

1
0
M 1
2 M 1 M 1
2

w a x U U
pu wa x
M 1
2
M2 1
Similarly,

w a x U U
pl wa x
M 1
2
M2 1
U
p pl p u 2 wa x
M 1
2

2

M 1 p
2 2

iM
2
2

a M 1
2

2
a
M2 1

2
2

M 1 p
2 2 iM 2p iM

2
2

a M 2 1

a M2 1 a 2 M2 1

2
2 2
M p p M 1
2 2
iM

2p M 2 1 iM

2
a M 2 1

a M 1
2

2
M 1
2

2
a M 1
2 2

2ipM 2
M p
2
2
2 2
a a
2
2 i
PM
a

Invert the Laplace Transform, we get

i x

x
1
0 ,x w a e aM
d
0 M

Substitute the disturbed potential into the pressure expression, we get

pu i U
x
z 0

ix x i

i x e aM w a e aM d
i 1
x 1
pu i w a e aM d U
a M M
0
0 M wa x

M

x i x i x
x
1 i 1
i w a e aM
d M w a e aM
d
pu 0 M M 0 M
U wa x

M

pu a wa x

Similarly, lower pressure expression can be written as

pl a wa x

The upper pressure and lower pressure from high frequency approx. are,

pu a w a x
Piston Theory
pl a w a x

Flow velocity on the airfoil can be expressed as,

za z
wa U a
t x z 0
Body Motion

By substituting the flow velocity into pressure expression, we can derive pressure
in terms of body motion (i.e. external force becomes the function of body motion)