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509

Review of passive heat transfer augmentation


techniques

A Dewan1 , P Mahanta1, K Sumithra Raju1 and P Suresh Kumar2


1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, India
2
Department of Ocean Engineering and Naval Architecture, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India

Abstract: Heat transfer augmentation techniques (passive, active or a combination of passive and active
methods) are commonly used in areas such as process industries, heating and cooling in evaporators, thermal
power plants, air-conditioning equipment, refrigerators, radiators for space vehicles, automobiles, etc. Passive
techniques, where inserts are used in the flow passage to augment the heat transfer rate, are advantageous com-
pared with active techniques, because the insert manufacturing process is simple and these techniques can be
easily employed in an existing heat exchanger. In design of compact heat exchangers, passive techniques of
heat transfer augmentation can play an important role if a proper passive insert configuration can be selected
according to the heat exchanger working condition (both flow and heat transfer conditions). In the past decade,
several studies on the passive techniques of heat transfer augmentation have been reported. The present paper
is a review on progress with the passive augmentation techniques in the recent past and will be useful to
designers implementing passive augmentation techniques in heat exchange. Twisted tapes, wire coils, ribs,
fins, dimples, etc., are the most commonly used passive heat transfer augmentation tools. In the present
paper, emphasis is given to works dealing with twisted tapes and wire coils because, according to recent
studies, these are known to be economic heat transfer augmentation tools. The former insert is found to be
suitable in a laminar flow regime and the latter is suitable for turbulent flow. The thermohydraulic behaviour
of an insert mainly depends on the flow conditions (laminar or turbulent) apart from the insert configurations.
The present review is organized in five different sections: twisted tape in laminar flow; twisted tape in turbulent
flow; wire coil in laminar flow; wire coil in turbulent flow; other inserts such as ribs, fins, dimples, etc.

Keywords: heat transfer augmentation, thermohydraulic performance, twisted tape, wire coil

NOTATION Re Reynolds number


SW swirl parameter
di internal diameter of the tube (m) S spacing between two twisted tapes
do outer diameter of the tube (m) t insert thickness (m)
f friction factor with an insert TT twisted tape
f0 friction factor without any insert y twist ratio
h convective heat transfer coefficient
H pitch length (m) a molecular diffusivity of heat
H1, H2, H3, H4 different pitch lengths in n molecular diffusivity of momentum
descending order f correction factor
k thermal conductivity
n exponent
Nu Nusselt number with an insert
Nu0 Nusselt number without any insert 1 INTRODUCTION
Pr fluid Prandtl number
Heat exchangers have several industrial and engineering
applications. The design procedure of heat exchangers is
The MS was received on 30 March 2004 and was accepted after revision for quite complicated, as it needs exact analysis of heat transfer
publication on 19 May 2004

rate and pressure drop estimations apart from issues such as
Corresponding author: Institute of Fluid Mechanics (LSTM), Friedrich-
Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremburg, Cauerstrasse 4, D-91058 long-term performance and the economic aspect of the equip-
Erlangen, Germany. ment. The major challenge in designing a heat exchanger is
A04804 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part A: J. Power and Energy
510 A DEWAN, P MAHANTA, K SUMITHRA RAJU AND P SURESH KUMAR

to make the equipment compact and achieve a high heat ment ratio is defined as
transfer rate using minimum pumping power.
Techniques for heat transfer augmentation are relevant to (Nu=Nu0 )
several engineering applications. In recent years, the high (f =f0 )1=3
cost of energy and material has resulted in an increased
effort aimed at producing more efficient heat exchange where Nu, f, Nu0 and f0 are the Nusselt numbers and friction
equipment. Furthermore, sometimes there is a need for factors for a duct configuration with and without inserts
miniaturization of a heat exchanger in specific applications, respectively. The friction factor is a measure of head loss
such as space application, through an augmentation of or pumping power.
heat transfer. For example, a heat exchanger for an ocean
thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plant requires a heat
2.3 Nusselt number
transfer surface area of the order of 10 000 m2/MW. There-
fore, an increase in the efficiency of the heat exchanger The Nusselt number is a measure of the convective heat
through an augmentation technique may result in a consider- transfer occurring at the surface and is defined as hd/k,
able saving in the material cost. where h is the convective heat transfer coefficient, d is the
Furthermore, as a heat exchanger becomes older, the diameter of the tube and k is the thermal conductivity.
resistance to heat transfer increases owing to fouling or scal-
ing. These problems are more common for heat exchangers
used in marine applications and in chemical industries. In 2.4 Prandtl number
some specific applications, such as heat exchangers dealing The Prandtl number is defined as the ratio of the molecular
with fluids of low thermal conductivity (gases and oils) and diffusivity of momentum to the molecular diffusivity of
desalination plants, there is a need to increase the heat trans- heat, n=a.
fer rate. The heat transfer rate can be improved by introdu-
cing a disturbance in the fluid flow (breaking the viscous and
thermal boundary layers), but in the process pumping power 2.5 Pitch
may increase significantly and ultimately the pumping cost Pitch is defined as the distance between two points that are
becomes high. Therefore, to achieve a desired heat transfer on the same plane, measured parallel to the axis of a twisted
rate in an existing heat exchanger at an economic pumping tape.
power, several techniques have been proposed in recent
years and are discussed in the following sections.
2.6 Twist ratio, y
The twist ratio is defined as the ratio of pitch to inside dia-
2 IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS meter of the tube y H/di, where H is the twist pitch length
and d is the inside diameter of the tube.
In this section a few important terms commonly used in heat
transfer augmentation work are defined. 3 HEAT TRANSFER AUGMENTATION

In general, some kind of inserts are placed in the flow pas-


2.1 Thermohydraulic performance sage to augment the heat transfer rate, and this reduces the
hydraulic diameter of the flow passage. Heat transfer
For a particular Reynolds number, the thermohydraulic per- enhancement in a tube flow by inserts such as twisted
formance of an insert is said to be good if the heat transfer tapes, wire coils, ribs and dimples is mainly due to flow
coefficient increases significantly with a minimum increase blockage, partitioning of the flow and secondary flow.
in friction factor. Thermohydraulic performance estimation Flow blockage increases the pressure drop and leads to
is generally used to compare the performance of different increased viscous effects because of a reduced free flow
inserts such as twisted tape, wire coil, etc., under a particular area. Blockage also increases the flow velocity and in some
fluid flow condition. situations leads to a significant secondary flow. Secondary
flow further provides a better thermal contact between the
surface and the fluid because secondary flow creates swirl
and the resulting mixing of fluid improves the temperature
2.2 Overall enhancement ratio
gradient, which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer
The overall enhancement ratio is defined as the ratio of the coefficient.
heat transfer enhancement ratio to the friction factor ratio. Twisted tape generates a spiral flow along the tube length.
This parameter is also used to compare different passive A wire coil insert in a tube flow consists of a helical coiled
techniques and enables a comparison of two different spring which functions as a non-integral roughness. Figure 1
methods for the same pressure drop. The overall enhance- shows three typical configurations of twisted tape with 1808
Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part A: J. Power and Energy A04804 # IMechE 2004
REVIEW OF PASSIVE HEAT TRANSFER AUGMENTATION TECHNIQUES 511

Fig. 1 Example of (a) full-length twisted tape, (b) regularly spaced twisted tape and (c) smoothly varying
(gradually decreasing) pitch full-length twisted tape

twisted pitch, and Fig. 2 shows a typical configuration of a Thus, a wire coil insert is not effective in a laminar flow
wire coil. In a turbulent flow, the dominant thermal resist- because it cannot mix the bulk flow well, and the reverse
ance is limited to a thin viscous sublayer. The wire coil is true for a twisted tape insert. Hence, twisted tapes are gen-
insert is more effective in a turbulent flow compared with erally preferred in laminar flow.
a twisted tape, because wire coil mixes the flow in the Performance and cost are the two major factors that play
viscous sublayer near the wall quite effectively, whereas a an important role in the selection of any passive technique
twisted tape cannot properly mix the flow in the viscous sub- for the augmentation of heat transfer. Generally, twisted
layer. For a laminar flow, the dominant thermal resistance is tape and wire coil inserts are more widely applied and
limited to a thicker region compared with a turbulent flow. have been preferred in the recent past to other methods,
probably because techniques such as the extended surface
insert suffer from a relatively high cost and a mesh insert
suffers from a high pressure drop and fouling problems.

3.1 Laminar and turbulent flow through a


circular tube
For fully developed laminar flow in a circular tube without
any insert, the Nusselt number has a constant value under
Fig. 2 Example of wire coil insert the condition of constant wall temperature, Nu 3.657, and
A04804 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part A: J. Power and Energy
512 A DEWAN, P MAHANTA, K SUMITHRA RAJU AND P SURESH KUMAR

the friction factor for this flow is given as f 16/Re. For 5.1 Twisted tape in laminar flow
fully developed turbulent flow in a smooth circular tube,
A summary of important investigations of twisted tape in a
the Nusselt number can be predicted by the Dittus Boelter
laminar flow is presented in Table 1. Twisted tape increases
correlation, Nu 0.023Re 0.8Pr 0.4, and the friction factor
the heat transfer coefficient at a cost of rise in pressure drop.
can be obtained by the relation f 0.079Re 20.25
Several researchers have studied various configurations of
twisted tape, such as full-length twisted tape, short-length
4 CLASSIFICATION OF AUGMENTATION twisted tape, full-length twisted tape with varying pitch
TECHNIQUES and regularly spaced twisted tape. This section discusses
which configuration of twisted tape is suitable for laminar
Generally, heat transfer augmentation techniques are classi- flow.
fied in three broad categories: Whitham [2] studied heat transfer enhancement by means
of a twisted tape insert way back at the end of the nineteenth
(a) active method, century. Date and Singham [3] numerically investigated
(b) passive method, heat transfer enhancement in laminar, viscous liquid flows
(c) compound method. in a tube with a uniform heat flux boundary condition.
The active and passive methods are described with exam- They idealized the flow conditions by assuming zero tape
ples in the following subsections. A compound method is thickness, but the twist and fin effects of the twisted tape
a hybrid method in which both active and passive methods were included in their analysis.
are used in combination. The compound method involves Saha et al. [4, 5, 12] reported experimental data on a
complex design and hence has limited applications. twisted tape generated laminar swirl flow friction factor
and Nusselt number for a large Prandtl number
(205 , Pr , 518) and observed that, on the basis of a con-
4.1 Active method stant pumping power, short-length twisted tape is a good
choice because in this case swirl generated by the twisted
This method involves some external power input for the
enhancement of heat transfer and has not shown much tape decays slowly downstream which increases the heat
transfer coefficient with minimum pressure drop, as com-
potential owing to complexity in design. Furthermore,
pared with a full-length twisted tape. Regularly spaced
external power is not easy to provide in several applications.
twisted tape decreases the friction factor and reduces the
Some examples of active methods are induced pulsation by
heat transfer coefficient because the spacing of the twisted
cams and reciprocating plungers, the use of a magnetic field
tape disturbs the swirl flow. Hong and Bergles [6] reported
to disturb the seeded light particles in a flowing stream, etc.
heat transfer enhancement in laminar, viscous liquid flows
in a tube with uniform heat flux boundary conditions, but
4.2 Passive method their correlation has limited applicability as it is valid for
a high Prandtl number (approximately 730). The circumfer-
This method does not need any external power input and the ential temperature profile for swirl flow is related to tape
additional power needed to enhance the heat transfer is orientation. Tariq et al. [7] found that in a laminar flow
taken from the available power in the system, which ulti- the introduction of turbulent promoters, such as an intern-
mately leads to a fluid pressure drop. The heat exchanger ally threaded tube, is not efficient compared with a twisted
industry has been striving for improved thermal contact tape insert on the basis of the overall efficiency.
(enhanced heat transfer coefficient) and reduced pumping Depending upon the flowrate and tape geometry, the
power in order to improve the thermohydraulic efficiency enhancement in heat transfer is due to the tube partitioning
of heat exchangers. A good heat exchanger design should and flow blockage, the large flow path and secondary fluid
have an efficient thermodynamic performance, i.e. mini- circulation. Manglik and Bergles [8] considered all these
mum generation of entropy or minimum destruction of effects and developed laminar flow correlations for the fric-
available work (exergy) in a system incorporating a heat tion factor and Nusselt number, including the swirl par-
exchanger. It is almost impossible to stop exergy loss com- ameter, which defines the interaction between viscous,
pletely, but it can be minimized through an efficient design. convective inertia and centrifugal forces. These correlations
pertain to the constant wall temperature case for fully devel-
5 REVIEW oped flow, based on both previous data and their own exper-
imental data. The heat transfer correlation as proposed by
them is
An extensive literature review of all types of heat transfer aug-
mentation technique with external inserts up to 1985 has been  0:14
9 0:391 3:385 0:2
m
discussed by Bergles [1]. In the following subsections, litera- Nu 4:1626:413  10 (SWPr )  m
w
ture involving recent work on passive heat transfer augmenta-
tion techniques by employing twisted tapes, wire coils, where SW is the swirl parameter and is defined as
p
dimples, ribs and fins as an insert has been reviewed. SW Re= y. Based on the same data, a correlation for
Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part A: J. Power and Energy A04804 # IMechE 2004
REVIEW OF PASSIVE HEAT TRANSFER AUGMENTATION TECHNIQUES 513

Table 1 Summary of important investigations of twisted tape in laminar flow


Configuration of Type of
Authors Fluid twisted tape investigation Observations Comments

1 Saha and Dutta Water with (a) Short length Experimental in a (1) Friction and Nu low for Friction factor and
[4] (205 , Pr , 518) (b) Full length circular tube short length tape Nusselt number
(c) Smoothly varying (2) Short length tape requires increase with
pitch small pumping power insertion of any
(d) Regularly Spaced (3) Multiple twist and single passive augmentation
twist has no difference on technique
thermohydraulic
performance Of several passive
(4) Uniform pitch techniques studied in
(Fig. 1a) performs better last decade, it was
than gradually decreasing observed that twisted
pitch tape is effective in
laminar flow
2 Bergles and Water (3 , Pr , 7) Full-length twisted Experiment in (1) Nu is function of twist
Hong [6] (83 , Re , 2460) tape circular tube ratio, Re and Pr Further, twisted tape has
Ethylene Glycol (2) Friction is affected by been used as full-
(84 , Pr , 192) tape twist only at high Re length twisted tape,
(13 , Re , 390) (3) Nu is 9 times that of half-length twisted
empty tube tape and varying-
pitch twisted tape
3 Tariq et al. [7] Air (1300 , Re , 104) No insert Experiment in (1) Efficiency lower for
internally threaded threaded tube than It was observed that
tube twisted tape, but better short-length twisted
than some fluted tape is better than full-
geometries length one on basis of
(2) Good promoter of thermohydraulic
turbulence performance
(3) Heat transfer coefficient
in internally threaded Thermohydraulic
performance for
tube approximately 20
square tube with
per cent higher than that
in smooth tube twisted tape is better
than that of twisted
4 Saha and Bhunia Servotherm medium oil Twisted tape Experiment in (1) Heat transfer tape in circular tube
[5] (205 , Pr , 512, (twist ratio circular tube characteristics depend on
Uniform pitch twisted
45 , Re , 840) 2.5 4 Y 4 10) twist ratio, Re and Pr
(2) Uniform pitch performs tape (Fig. 1a)
(Fig. 1a) better than performs better than
gradually decreasing gradually varying
pitch (Fig. 1c) pitch twisted tape
(Fig. 1c)
5 Manglik and Water (3.5 , Pr , 6.5) Three different twist Experiment in (1) Proposed correlation for Pinching of twisted tape
Bergles [8] and ethylene glycol ratios: 3, 4.5 and 6 isothermal tube friction and Nusselt gives better results
(68 , Pr , 100) number compared with
(2) Physical description of connected thin rod
enhancement
mechanisms
6 Ray and Date [9] Water Full-length twisted Numerical work for (1) Proposed correlations for
(100 , Re , 3000, tape with width square duct friction and Nu
Pr 4 500) equal to side of (2) Higher hydrothermal
duct performance for square
duct than circular one
(3) Local Nusselt number
peaks at cross-sections
where tape aligned with
diagonal of duct
7 Lokanath and Water (3 , Pr , 6.5 Twisted tape Experiment in plate (1) Large value of overall
Misal [10] and lube oil (Pr 418) heat exchanger heat transfer coefficient
and shell and tube produced in water-to-
heat exchanger water mode with oil-to-
water mode
8 Shah and Water No insert Experiment in heat (1) Irreversibility minimum
Skiepko [11] exchanger for energy conversion
process thermal system
and for heat exchanger
irreversibility should be
intermediate

(Table continued )

A04804 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part A: J. Power and Energy
514 A DEWAN, P MAHANTA, K SUMITHRA RAJU AND P SURESH KUMAR

Table 1 Continued
Configuration of Type of
Authors Fluid twisted tape investigation Observations Comments

9 Saha et al. [12] Fluids with Twisted tape Experiment in (1) Pinching of twisted tape
205 4 Pr 4 518 (regularly spaced) circular tube gives better results than
connecting thin rod for
thermohydraulic
performance
(2) Reducing tape width
gives poor results; larger
than zero phase angle not
effective
10 Al-Fahed and Oil Twisted tape with Experiment in single (1) For low twist ratio
Chakroun twist ratios 3.6, shell and tube heat resulting low pressure
[13] 5.4, 7.1 and exchanger drop, tight fit will
microfin increase more heat
transfer
(2) For high twist it is
different
(3) Microfins are not used for
laminar
11 Liao and Xin (1) Water Segmented twisted Experiment in tube (1) In a tube with three-
[14] (2) Ethylene glycol, tape and three- flow dimensional extended
(3) Turbine oil dimensional surfaces and twisted tape
5.5 , Pr , 590 extended surfaces increases average Stanton
80 , Re , 50000 number up to 5.8 times
compared with empty
smooth tube
12 Ujhidy et al. Water Twisted tape Experiment in (1) Explained flow structure
[15] channel (2) Proved existence of
secondary flow in tubes
with helical static
elements.
13 Suresh Kumar Water Twisted tape Experiment in (1) Observed relatively large
et al. [16, 17] large-diameter values of friction factor
annulus (2) Measured heat transfer in
annulus with different
configurations of twisted
tapes
14 Wang and Water Twisted tape Experiment in (1) Both inserts effective in
Sunden (0 , Re , 2000) circular tube flow enhancing heat transfer in
[18] (0.7 , Pr , 30) laminar region compared
with turbulent flow
(2) Twisted tape has poor
overall efficiency if
pressure drop is
considered
15 Saha and Water Twisted tape Experiment in (1) Larger number of turns
Chakraborty (145 , Re , 1480) (regularly spaced) circular tube flow may yield improved
[19] (4.5 , Pr , 5.5) (1.92 , Y , 5.0) thermohydraulic
performance compared
with single turn
16 Lokanath [20] Water Full-length and Experimental in (1) On unit pressure drop
(240 , Re , 2300) half-length horizontal tube basis and on unit
(2.6 , Pr , 5.4) twisted tapes pumping power basis,
half-length twisted tape is
more effective than
full-length twisted tape

the friction factor was developed by Manglik and Bergles where, di and t are the tube inner diameter and the thickness
[8] and is given as of the twisted tape respectively. Date and Ray [9] derived a
correlation for the friction factor and Nusselt number for a
 2 square duct from the predicted data. They compared the cor-
p 2  2t=di relation for the friction factor with experimental data and the
(fRd )sw 15:767 (1 106 SW2:55 )1=6
p  4t=di agreement was found to be within +10 per cent.
Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part A: J. Power and Energy A04804 # IMechE 2004
REVIEW OF PASSIVE HEAT TRANSFER AUGMENTATION TECHNIQUES 515

Lokanath and Misal [10] studied the performance of a Saha and Chakraborty [19] observed laminar flow heat
plate heat exchanger and augmented shell and tube heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in a circular tube
exchanger for different fluids. They found that twisted fitted with regularly spaced twisted tape and concluded
tapes of tighter twists are expected to give higher overall that there is a drastic reduction in the pressure drop, more
heat transfer coefficients in the augmented shell and tube than the corresponding reduction in heat transfer. Thus, it
heat exchanger. Shah and Skiepko [11] investigated the appears that, on the basis of a constant pumping power, a
existence of entropy generation extrema and a relationship large number of turns may yield improved thermohydraulic
between the extrema and the heat exchanger effectiveness. performance compared with a single turn on twisted tape.
Saha et al. [12] found that pinching (placing of a twisted Lokanath [20] represented experimental data on laminar
tape exactly at the centre of the tube) of twisted tape in a flow of water through a horizontal tube under uniform
tube performs better than a twisted tape inserted by a heat flux condition and fitted with half-length twisted tape.
loose fit. They further showed that a non-zero phase He found that, on the basis of unit pressure drop and unit
angle in-between the segmented twisted tape gives poor pumping power, half-length tapes are more effective than
results because the swirl will break easily in-between the full-length tapes.
two segmented twisted tapes. Furthermore, reduction in
the width of the twisted tape is not effective, compared
with a twisted tape of width equal to the inside diameter 5.2 Twisted tape in turbulent flow
of the tube.
AI-Fahed et al. [13] observed that, for a low twist ratio The important investigations of twisted tape in turbulent
(Y 5.4) and high pressure drop, a loose fit is rec- flow are summarized in Table 2. In turbulent flow, the domi-
ommended for design of the heat exchanger, since it is nant thermal resistance is limited to a thin viscous sublayer.
easier to install and to remove for cleaning purposes. The following section discusses the performance of twisted
Other than this twist ratio, a tight-fit twisted tape provides tape inserts in turbulent flow.
better performance than a loose-fit twisted tape. A tube inserted with a twisted tape performs better than a
Liao and Xin [14] reported experimental data on the com- plain tube, and a twisted tape with a tight twist ratio pro-
pound heat transfer enhancement technique and concluded vides an improved heat transfer rate at a cost of increase
that the enhancement of heat transfer in a tube with three- in pressure drop for low Prandtl number fluids. This is
dimensional internal extended surfaces by replacing con- because the thickness of the thermal boundary layer is
tinuous twisted tape with almost segmented twisted tape small for a low Prandtl number fluid and a tighter twist
inserts results in a decrease in the friction factor but with ratio disturbs the entire thermal boundary layer, thereby
a comparatively small decrease in the Stanton number. increasing the heat transfer with increase in the pressure
The Stanton number is defined as the ratio of heat transfer drop, as discussed by Royds [21]. Smithberg and Landis
rate to the enthalpy difference and is a measure of the [22] gave an analytical model of the tape-generated swirl
heat transfer coefficient. mechanism.
Ujhidy et al. [15] have studied laminar flow of water in Because of swirl, the ratio of maximum velocity to mean
coils and tubes containing twisted tapes and helical static velocity is smaller in a tube with a twisted tape compared
elements and proposed a modified Dean number that takes with that in a straight flow (i.e. without a twisted tape).
into account the curvature of the spherical line cut out by This creates a centrifugal force and aids convective heat
the helical element from the tubular housing. The Dean transfer [23 25]. Twisted tape is also effective in high
number is a measure of the magnitude of the secondary Prandtl number fluids because for such fluids it provides
flow. Suresh Kumar et al. [16, 17] investigated the high heat transfer with less pressure drop compared with
thermohydraulic performance of twisted tape inserts in a other inserts [26]. Lopina and Bergles [27] observed that
large hydraulic diameter annulus. the difference between isothermal and heated flow friction
The thermohydraulic performance in laminar flow with a factors for the swirl flow of liquids is substantially less
twisted tape is better than the wire coil for the same helix than the corresponding difference for a plain tube. In turbu-
angle and thickness ratio. This is probably due to the fact lent flow, insertion of a twisted tape increases the heat trans-
that, in laminar flow, the dominant thermal resistance is fer, but the pressure drop also increases significantly
not limited to a thin wall region but extends over the [28, 29]. Short-length twisted tape (25 45 per cent of the
entire cross-section. Thus, a twisted tape insert mixes the tube length) performs better than full-length twisted tape
bulk flow and is probably effective. Considering the overall [30 33]. Date [34] reviewed available friction factor and
enhancement ratio, twisted tape is effective for small Nusselt number correlations for flow in a tube containing
Prandtl number fluids and wire coil is effective for high a twisted tape and pointed out that existing correlations
Prandtl number fluids (Pr . 30), as discussed by Wang deviate from measurements by 30 per cent. Studies of
and Sunden [18] who reported correlations for ethyl Klepper [35] and Kidd Jr [36] suggest that short-length
glycol and polybutene (1000 4 Pr 4 7000). Compared twisted tape is more useful in a gas-cooled nuclear reactor
with the data of Manglik and Bergeles [8], their data are compared with full-length tape. Date [37] formulated and
valid for relatively larger values of the Prandtl number. solved numerically the problem of fully developed, uniform
A04804 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part A: J. Power and Energy
516 A DEWAN, P MAHANTA, K SUMITHRA RAJU AND P SURESH KUMAR

Table 2 Summary of important investigations of twisted tape in turbulent flow


Configuration of Type of
Authors Fluid tape investigation Observations Comments

1 Royds [21] Water (a) Full length Experimental in Tighter twist ratio results in In turbulent flow, short-
(b) Full length circular tube greater heat transfer and length twisted tape is
with tighter pressure drop more effective than full-
twist ratio length twisted tape
(Fig. 1a) based on
2 Smithberg and Water Full length twisted Analytical Proposed mathematical model thermohydraulic
Landis [22] tape for tape generated swirl performance
mechanism
As Prandtl number
3 Cresswell [23] Water Twisted tape Experiment in Ratio of maximum velocity to increases, heat transfer
circular tube mean velocity is smaller in coefficient is enhanced
swirl flow compared with by twisted tape
straight flow
All configurations (Figs 1a
4 Kreith and Water Twisted tape Experiment in Centrifugal force aids to c) of twisted tape lead
Margolis [24] circular tube convection when fluid is to high friction factor,
heated up which is due to fact that
twisted tape disturbs
5 Thorsen and Landis Water Twisted tape Experiment in Centrifugal force aids
[25] circular tube convection when fluid is entire flowfield
heated up and inhibits Overall enhancement ratio
convection when fluid is increases with tighter
cooled twist ratio and decreases
with increase in
6 Gambill and Bundy Water Twisted tape Experiment in Twisted tape also Reynolds number
[26] circular tube important for high Prandtl If pressure drop is not
number important, twisted tape is
good option to use in
7 Lopina and Bergles Water Twisted tape Experiment in Isothermal friction factor for turbulent flow
[27] circular tube swirl flow of liquids is
substantially less than for a
plain tube
8 Colburn and King Water Inserts like baffled Experiment in Short-length twisted tapes
[30] tube and circular tube more effective than
short-length full-length twisted tapes
twisted tape

9 Seigel [28] Water Twisted tape Experiment in In horizontal tube inserted


horizontal tube twisted tape increases
heat transfer coefficient
with increase in pressure
drop
10 Koch [29] Water Twisted tape Experiment in Increase in heat transfer
circular tube coefficient accompanied by
a comparable increase in
pressure drop
11 Seymour [31] Water Twisted tape Experiment in heat Short-length twisted tape
exchanger performs better than
full-length twisted tape
12 Kreith and Sonju Water Twisted tape Experiment in Short-length (2545 per cent
[32] circular tube of tube length) tapes
perform better than
full-length tapes
13 Date [34] Water Twisted tape Experiment in Friction and Nu for flow in tube
circular tube containing tape deviate 30
per cent
14 Klepper [35] Water Short-length tape Experiment in Usefulness of tape in
circular tube gas-cooled nuclear reactor
15 Kidds Jr [36] Nitrogen Short-length tape Tube flow Effectiveness of twisted
tape in gas cooled nuclear
reactor
16 Date [37] Water Twisted tape Numerical Solved numerically problem of
fully developed flow

(Table continued )

Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part A: J. Power and Energy A04804 # IMechE 2004
REVIEW OF PASSIVE HEAT TRANSFER AUGMENTATION TECHNIQUES 517

Table 2 Continued
Configuration of Type of
Authors Fluid tape investigation Observations Comments

17 Bolla et al. [38] Water Transverse ribs Experiment in Transverse rib performs better
and twisted circular tube than tape
tape with both ribs
and tape
18 Zozulya and Water Twisted tape Experiment in Smooth decrease in pitch of
Shkuratov [39] circular tube twisted tape has significant
influence on heat transfer
19 Huang and Tsou Water Twisted tape Experiment in Studied free swirl flow
[40] circular tube
20 Blackwelder and Water Twisted tape Experiment in Recommended that optimum
Kreith [41] circular tube design of heat exchanger
with tape-induced swirl flow
must consider combination
of continuous and decaying
swirl flow
21 Backshall and Water Twisted tape Experiment in Studied boundary layer
Landies [42] circular tube characteristics of
incompressible
twisted tape generated
swirl flow
22 Watanable et al. Water Twisted tape Experiment in heat Maximum thermal stress
[43] exchanger appears near piping
that connects parts of
cover plate of plate fin
heat exchanger
channels
23 Genis and Water Twisted tape Experiment in Studied thermohydraulic
Rautenbach [44] circular tube characteristics of
high-velocity water flow
in short tubes
24 Budov and Water Twisted tape Experiment in Loss of head due to hydraulic
Zamyatin [45] cylindrical resistance in twisted tape
channel generated swirl flow
25 Beckarmann and Water Twisted tape Flue way of water Hot cross tapes in flue way of
Goldschimd [46] heater water heater play important
role in heat transfer to tube
wall
26 Yamada et al. [47] Water Wall radiation Experiment in shell Made similar observation
and tube heat as above
exchanger
27 Gupte and Date Air Twisted tape Numerical study Semi-empirically evaluated
[48] in annulus friction and heat transfer
data for tape-generated swirl
flow in annulus
28 Filipak [49] Water Twisted tape Experiment in Made experimental study
vertical tube of tape-generated swirl
flow in vertical
section
29 Donevski and Water Twisted tape Experiment in Predicted frictional losses
Kuleshza [50] circular tube coupled with additional
vortex mixing effect
30 Rao [51] Water Twisted tape Experiment in axial Performed experimental study
duct flow on augmentation of heat
transfer in axial ducts of
electrical machines
31 Fomina et al. [52] Water Twisted tape fins Economizer Checked first pilot plant having
economizer with twisted
tape fins

(Table continued )

A04804 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part A: J. Power and Energy
518 A DEWAN, P MAHANTA, K SUMITHRA RAJU AND P SURESH KUMAR

Table 2 Continued
Configuration of Type of
Authors Fluid tape investigation Observations Comments

32 Algifri and Water Twisted tape Experiment in Presented series of solutions to


Bharadwaj [53] (Short length) circular tube governing equations for
short-length twisted tape
generated decaying swirl
flow
33 Algifri et al. [54] Water Twisted tape Experiment in Presented series of solutions to
circular pipe governing equations for
short-length twisted tape
generated decaying swirl
flow
34 Burfoot and Rice Water Twisted tape Experiment in Found that surface roughness
[55] circular pipe of tape insert affects
thermohydraulic
characteristics
35 Kumar and Water Twisted tape Experiment in Obtained theoretically heat
Bharadwaj [56] circular tube transfer and pressure drop
correlations
36 Kumar and Prasad Water Twisted tape Experiment in solar Investigated performance of
[57] water heater tape inserted solar water
heater
37 Fujita and Lopez Water Twisted tape and Experiment in Did not find any evidence of
[58] teflon tape circular tube tape fin effects in heat
transfer characteristics of
snugly fitted stainless steel
tape insert when compared
with Teflon tape insert
38 AI-Fahed and Water Full-length Experiment in There is optimum tape width,
Chakroun [59] twisted tape horizontal depending on twist ratio and
isothermal tube Re, for best thermohydraulic
performance
39 Saha et al. [60] Water Regularly spaced Experimental study On basis of constant heat flux,
tape in circular tube regularly spaced tape does
not perform better than
full-length twisted tape
40 Rao and Sastri [61] Water Twisted tape Experimental study Enhancement of heat transfer
in rotating offsets rise in friction factor
twisted tape due to rotation
41 Sivanshanmugam Water Twisted tape Experiment in Studied thermohydraulic
and Sunduram circular tube characteristics of
[62] tape-generated swirl flow
42 Agarwal and Raja Water Twisted tape Experiment in Studied thermohydraulic
rao [63] circular tube characteristics of
flow tape-generated swirl flow
43 Peterson et al. [64] Water Twisted tape Heat exchanger Experimented with high-
pressure water as test liquid
in turbulent flow with low
heat fluxes and low
wallfluid temperature
differences typical of liquid-
to-liquid heat exchanger
44 Naumov and Water Twisted tape Experimental study Used mathematical model for
Semashko [65] in circular tube adiabatic cross-section to
study pulsed asymmetric
heating of pipe by external
heat flux and calculated
thermophysical parameters
of cooled pipes containing
tapes within collector of
seviated ions in T-15
tokamak injection system

(Table continued )

Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part A: J. Power and Energy A04804 # IMechE 2004
REVIEW OF PASSIVE HEAT TRANSFER AUGMENTATION TECHNIQUES 519

Table 2 Continued
Configuration of Type of
Authors Fluid tape investigation Observations Comments

45 Naumov et al. [66] Water Twisted tape Experimental study Same as above (finite
in circular tube difference method)
46 Naumov et al. [67] Water Twisted tape Experimental study Same as above (finite
in circular tube difference method) with
modification
47 Yokoya et al. [68] Water Twisted tape Experimental study Demonstrated novel use of
tapes in controlling flow in
continuous casting mould
and refining process
48 Klaczak [33] (1300 , Re , 8000) Shor-length Experimental study Found usefulness of short-
twisted tape in circular tube length twisted tapes
49 Hijikata et al. [69] Water Experiment in Radiation between pipe wall
vertical test and tape increase heat
section transfer rate by 50 per cent
50 Chung and Sung Air Transverse Annulus pipe flow Turbulent structure more
[70] curvature (direct numerical effective near outer wall
simulation) compared with inner wall
51 Yang and Hawang Air Porous baffles and Numerical in Porous type baffle is good
[71] (1  104 , solid baffles rectangular for thermohydraulic
Re , 5  104) channel performance, performance
does not depend on
baffle height
52 Manglik and Water Three different Experiment in (1) Proposed correlation for
Bergles [72] (3.5 , Pr , 6.5) twist ratios 3, isothermal tube friction and Nusselt
and ethylene 4.5, 6. number
glycol (2) Physical description of
(68 , Pr , 100) enhancement mechanism

property flow in a tube containing a twisted tape. He Gupte and Date [48] evaluated semi-empirically the heat
compared existing experimental data with his own numeri- transfer coefficient and friction factor for twisted tape gen-
cal prediction. Bolla et al. [38] observed that in the turbulent erated swirl flow in an annulus. Twisted tape generated
flow region a transverse rib performs better than a twisted swirl flow in a vertical test section (contrary to the usual
tape insert in a duct flow. Zozulya and Shkuratov [39] practice of a horizontal test section) was experimentally
found that a smooth decrease in pitch of a twisted tape studied by Filipak [49]. Donevski and Kulesza [50] pre-
results in an improved heat transfer rate. Huang and Tsou dicted frictional losses from the combined effects of axial
[40] studied free swirl flow in a pipe. and tangential boundary layer flow coupled with an
Blackwelder and Kreith [41] recommended that an opti- additional vortex mixing effect. Rao [51] performed an
mum design of heat exchanger with twisted tape induced experimental study of augmentation of heat transfer in the
swirl flow should consist of continuous and decaying swirl axial ducts of electrical machines. Fomina et al. [52] veri-
flow. Backshall and Landies [42] studied the boundary fied the first pilot plant having an economizer with twisted
layer characteristics of twisted tape generated incompressi- tape fins.
ble swirl flow. Watanable et al. [43] observed that the maxi- Algifri and Bharadwaj [53] and Algifri et al. [54] pre-
mum thermal stress appears near the piping connecting parts sented a series of solutions to governing equations for
of the cover plate of the plate fin heat exchanger channels. short-length twisted tape generated decaying swirl. Burfoot
Genis and Rautenbach [44] studied the thermohydraulic and Rice [55] found that the surface roughness of a tape
characteristics of a high-velocity water flow in short tubes insert affects the thermohydraulic characteristics. Kumar
with twisted tape inserts. Budov et al. [45] predicted a and Bharadwaj [56] obtained theoretically the heat transfer
loss of head owing to hydraulic resistance in a twisted and pressure drop correlations using the Kreith and Sonju
tape generated swirl flow. Beckermann and Goldschmid [32] solution for the velocity vector, which decays along
[46] and Yamada et al. [47] observed that, in addition to the axis of the tube. Kumar and Prasad [57] investigated
convection, radiative heat transfer from the relatively hot experimentally the performance of a tape-inserted solar
(1260 8C) cross-twisted tape in the flue-way of a water water heater. Fujita and Lopez [58], in an experimental
heater plays an important role in the heat transfer to the investigation, found no evidence of tape fin effects in the
tube wall and this phenomenon cannot be neglected. heat transfer characteristics of a snugly fitted stainless
A04804 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part A: J. Power and Energy
520 A DEWAN, P MAHANTA, K SUMITHRA RAJU AND P SURESH KUMAR

steel tape insert when compared with a Teflon tape insert. centric annulus, and they observed that the thermal structure
AI-Fahed et al. [59] observed that there is an optimum is more effective near the outer wall than near the inner wall.
tape width, depending on the twist ratio and Reynolds Yang and Hwang [71] observed that a porous type of baffle
number, for the best thermohydraulic characteristics. is good for thermohydraulic performance and there is an
Saha et al. [60] have shown that, for a constant heat flux optimum height of the baffle. Manglik and Bergles [72]
boundary condition, regularly spaced twisted tape elements developed correlations for both turbulent flow and laminar
do not perform better than full-length twisted tape because flow. For an isothermal friction factor, the correlation
the swirl breaks down in-between the spacing of a regularly describes most available data for laminar, transitional and
twisted tape. Rao and Sastri [61], while working with a turbulent flows within 10 per cent. However, a family of
rotating tube with a twisted tape insert, observed that the curves is needed to develop correlation for the Nusselt
enhancement of heat transfer offsets the rise in the friction number on account of the non-unique nature of laminar
factor owing to rotation. Sivashanmugam and Sundaram turbulent transition. Their correlations are as follows
[62] and Agarwal and Rao [63] studied the thermohydraulic
 1:75  
characteristics of tape-generated swirl flow. Peterson et al. 0:079 p p 2  2t=di 1:25
[64] experimented with high-pressure (8 16 MPa) water f
Re0:25 p  4t=di p  4t=di
as the test liquid in turbulent flow with low heat fluxes  
and low wall fluid temperature differences typical of a 2:752
 1 1:29
liquid liquid heat exchanger. y
Naumov et al. [65, 66] used a mathematical model for an  0:8  
adiabatic cross-section to study the pulsed asymmetric heat- p p 2  2t=di 0:2
Nu 0:023Re0:8 Pr 0:4 f
ing of pipes by an external heat flux and calculated the ther- p  4t=di p  4t=di
mophysical parameters of cooled pipes containing twisted
tapes within the collector of deviated ions in the T-15 toka- where f is the fluid property variation for liquids and is
mak injection system. Yokoya et al. [68] demonstrated a given as f (m=mw )n , where n 0.18 for heating and
novel use of twisted tapes in controlling the flow in a con- n 0.3 for cooling, m is the dynamic viscosity and mw
tinuous casting mould and refining process. Hijikata et al. denotes the dynamic viscosity at the wall temperature.
[69], while carrying out experiments in a vertical test sec-
tion, observed that the radiation between the pipe wall and
5.3 Wire coil in laminar flow
the twisted tape increases the heat transfer rate by about
50 per cent. Chung and Sung [70] performed a direct The important investigations of wire coil in a laminar flow
numerical simulation for turbulent heat transfer in a con- are shown in Table 3. Inaba and Ozaki [73] showed that

Table 3 Summary of important investigations of wire coils in laminar flow

Configuration Type of
Authors Fluid of wire coil investigation Observations Comments

1 Inaba and Ozaki Water Wire coil Experiment in High heat transfer and low Performance of wire coil
[73] circular pipe flow pressure loss obtained by (Fig. 2) in laminar flow
leading edge effect near tube depends on Prandtl number.
inlet and turbulent flow If Pr 0.7, performance is
downstream of wire coil not good based on overall
enhancement ratio. Overall
2 Ujhidy et al. [15] Water Wire coil Experiment in Explained flow structure enhancement ratio increases
channel flow (helical static element with Prandtl number
produces secondary flow)
3 Wang and Sunden Water Wire coil Experiment in Both inserts are effective in
[18] circular tube enhancing heat transfer rate
in region other than
turbulent flow and tape has
poor overall efficiency if
pressure drop is considered
4 Inaba and Haruki Water Wire coil Experiment in Effect of wire coils on pipe
[74] circular pipe friction and heat transfer
coefficients elucidated under
various values of flow
velocity, wire coil diameter,
pitch and length
5 Oliver and Shoji Non-Newtonian fluid Wire coil Experiment in round Heat transfer enhancement by
[75] 30 , Pr , 9020 tube factor of 4
, Re , 2000

Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part A: J. Power and Energy A04804 # IMechE 2004
REVIEW OF PASSIVE HEAT TRANSFER AUGMENTATION TECHNIQUES 521

the turbulent flow induced by a wire coil enhances heat developed correlations for the friction factor and heat trans-
transfer even downstream of the wire coil. They developed fer coefficient that are widely applied. By incorporating the
empirical relations for the Nusselt number as a function of roughness type and Prandtl number, their heat transfer data
the Prandtl number. The pressure drop was found to be pro- from the correlation were in good agreement with the corre-
portional to the length of the wire coil. They observed a high lation of Petukov and Popov [77]. Rahai and Wong [78] pre-
heat transfer coefficient and a small pressure loss owing to dicted that wire coil with a large pitch spacing increases the
the leading edge effect near the tube inlet and turbulent mixing, turbulent kinetic energy and half-width but
flow downstream of the wire coil. Ujhidy et al. [15] found decreases the maximum mean velocity. Kim et al. [79]
that the helical static element produces secondary flow. observed that the slug rise velocity and void fraction in a
Wang and Sunden [18] found that a wire coil insert performs vertical round tube is higher for a wire coil insert than a
effectively in enhancing the heat transfer in the turbulent smooth tube and studied the flow pattern.
flow region, whereas tape has a poor overall efficiency. Sams [80] found that a vortex flow can be created through
Inaba and Haruki [74] investigated heat transfer enhance- the wire coil. Novozhilov and Migai [81] have proposed
ment of flowing water in a tube with flow drag reduction heat transfer correlations for a tube with wire coil in turbu-
additives by inserting wire coils. They found that a lent flow. Kumar and Judd [82] proposed correlations
reduction in the flow resistance resulted in a reduced heat for heat transfer. They concluded that the range of wire
transfer coefficient in the tube. Oliver and Shoji [75] per- diameter they tested (e/d 0.1,0.13,0.15, where e/s the rib
formed experiments in a tube by inserting wire coils in a height and d is the inside diameter) had a negligible effect
tube using a non-Newtonian fluid and found that heat trans- on the rate of heat transfer. Their correlation underpredicts
fer is enhanced by a factor of 4 and the relative pressure by nearly 50 per cent. Rahai et al. [83] studied the effects
drop caused by the wire coil is by factor of 5. of a wire coil insert with p/D 1 (where p is the pitch spa-
cing and D is the inside diameter) on the mixing enhance-
ment of a turbulent jet from a Bunsen burner. Their results
show a significant increase in the mixing process in the near
5.4 Wire coil in turbulent flow
discharge region of the jet. Furthermore, they studied the
The important investigations of wire coil in a turbulent flow effect of various coil pitch spacings on the mixing process.
are shown in Table 4. Ravigururajan and Bergles [76] have Arici and Asan [84] studied the enhancement of turbulent

Table 4 Summary of important investigations of wire coils in turbulent flow


Configuration Type of
Authors Fluid of wire coil investigation Observations Comments

1 Ravigururajan and Water Wire coil Experimental study Developed correlations for Wire coil (Fig. 2) in turbulent
Bergles [76] friction and heat transfer flow performs better than
any other insert
2 Rahai and Wong Air Coil insert Experiment in round Coil with large pitch spacing Increase in pitch length of
[78] tube increases mixing, turbulent wire coil increases overall
kinetic energy and half- enhancement ratio.
width but reduces maximum However, overall
mean velocity enhancement ratio
decreases with increase in
3 Kim et al. [79] Gas and liquid Wire coils Experiment in Flow pattern, slug rise velocity Reynolds number from
vertical round tube and void fraction are higher 5000 to 45 000
for wire coil insert than
smooth tube
4 Sams [80] Air Wire coil Experiment in tube Vortex flow can be created
through coiled wire.
Developed correlation for
friction factor and Nusselt
number
5 Novozhilov and Air Wire coil Experiment in tube Proposed correlations for heat
Migai [81] transfer
6 Kumar and Judd Water 4 , Pr , 5 Wire coil Experiment in tube Proposed correlations for heat
[82] transfer. Correlations
underpredicts by 50 per cent
7 Rahai et al. [83] Air Wire coil Experiment in round Investigated effect of various
tube coil spacings on mixing
process
8 Arici and Asn [84] Water Wire coil Experiment in tube Increase in pitch of wire coil
flow increases heat transfer

A04804 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part A: J. Power and Energy
522 A DEWAN, P MAHANTA, K SUMITHRA RAJU AND P SURESH KUMAR

flow by means of a wire coil insert. They found that an geometric factors of the ribs such as the height, pitch,
increase in the pitch of the wire coil at a constant Reynolds angle of attack, orientation, shape and arrangement. They
number decreases the heat transfer for the wall-attached found that 458 angled ribs show the highest thermal per-
wire coil inserts. In the case of displaced wire coils, an formance compared with 908, V-shaped and discrete ribs
opposite phenomenon was observed where an increase in when the friction loss is considered. Fann et al. [94]
the pitch resulted in an increased heat transfer. showed that the stagnant vortices behind the 908 transverse
ribs result in a rise in the fluid temperature in the recirculat-
ing zone and the wall temperature near the rib location, and
5.5 Other techniques local heat transfer improvement occurs near the reattaching
point between the ribs. Chen et al. [95] studied heat transfer
There are several other techniques to enhance the heat trans- enhancement in tubes using six different dimple depth tubes.
fer, such as ribs, dimples, additives, fins, etc., and these are They found that the enhancement of the heat transfer coeffi-
summarized in Table 5. Chang [85] proposed an empirical cient is 1.25 2.37 times that of a smooth tube, and the tube
correlation for the spatial time averaged heat transfer for with the largest ratios of dimple depth to tube inside diam-
combined effects of reciprocation and rib-induced flow eter, dimple depth to pitch and dimple depth to dimple
and also investigated the heat transfer mechanism in a reci- diameter is good for heat transfer on the tube side on the
procating square duct fitted with 458 crossed ribs on two basis of a constant Reynolds number or pumping power.
opposite walls. It was observed that a ribbed wall increases Mochizuki et al. [96] observed that these surface ribs
the heat transfer by 260 300 per cent compared with a enhance the turbulent fluctuations and could considerably
smooth wall, and the pulsating force and convective modify the near-wall flow structures by creating secondary
inertia affect the local heat transfer. Mahmood and Lingrani flows and vortices. They penetrate the sublayers of flow to
[86] reported experimental data and flow visualization in cause periodic redevelopment of the boundary layers. The
a dimpled channel and found that the vortex periodically overall rib effects on heat transfer are improved heat trans-
shed from the dimples becomes stronger as the non- mission and modified spatial distributions. They further
dimensional channel height H/D ratio (H channel height, showed that the force field established in the ribbed duct
D dimple print diameter) decreases, and such behaviour flow, such as the centrifugal force in the bend, could
leads to local Nusselt number augmentation at these same modify the rib-induced flows. Chang et al. [97] observed
locations. Leung et al. [87] investigated the possibility of that, in a duct fitted with transverse ribs, the flow cells
enhancing the forced convection from a turbulent flow in behind the 908 ribs are no longer stagnant but periodically
a triangular duct by imposing artificial roughness on its shed when the duct reciprocates. The typical zigzag
internal surface. A significantly higher heat transfer ensues streamwise heat transfer variation along the ribbed wall in
by transverse ribs uniformly fixed along its axial length, a stationary system yields a large wavy pattern in the reci-
and for maximum heat transfer performance the optimum procating duct. Okajima et al. [98] showed that interaction
size of the rib is 6.35 mm and the optimum roughness is of the oscillating mainstream with angled rib flow triggers
3 mm. Kumar et al. [88] carried out an experimental inves- a double pair of dynamic counter-rotating vortical cells,
tigation to augment the heat transfer rate by enhancing the with one attached on the angled rib and the other shed
heat transfer coefficient during the condensation of pure away from the rib. According to Mahmood et al. [99], the
steam and R-134a over horizontal finned tubes. Spines use of such dimples produces augmented surface heat
were found to be more effective in the bottom side of the cir- transfer levels compared with smooth surfaces because of
cular integral tube. Liu et al. [89] developed a neural net- reattachment of the shear layer forming across the top of
work to evaluate and predict boiling heat transfer each dimple and because of the vortex structures and vorti-
enhancement using additives. Their model can select the cal fluid shed from each individual dimple indentation
additives for particular working fluid. Golriz and Grace which then advects over the flat surface just downstream.
[90] experimentally show that the addition of an angled Afanasyev et al. [100] studied different surfaces shaped
deflector to the fin region of circular membrane water by a system of spherical cavities in a turbulent flow and
wall heat exchanger surfaces in circulating fluidized beds found that such shaping of the heating surface has no
can lead to a significant increase in the local heat transfer. appreciable effect on the hydrodynamics of flow but results
Karwa et al. [91] studied experimentally the flow of air in in considerable (up to 30 40 per cent) heat transfer
rectangular ducts of various aspect ratios with repeated enhancement.
transverse rib roughness. They found that the highest fric-
tion factor and heat transfer coefficient occur for 158 cham-
fered ribs. The presence of ribs doubles the friction by 6 OBSERVATIONS
comparison with that of a smooth tube. Kulankara and
Herold [92] found that the surface tension of lithium bro-
6.1 Twisted tape in laminar flow
mide is affected by surfactants.
Taslim et al. [93] observed that the effectiveness of A twisted tape insert mixes the bulk flow well and therefore
surface ribs in heat transfer augmentation depends on performs better in a laminar flow than any other insert,
Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part A: J. Power and Energy A04804 # IMechE 2004
REVIEW OF PASSIVE HEAT TRANSFER AUGMENTATION TECHNIQUES 523

Table 5 Summary of important investigations of ribs and some other inserts in a flow
Configuration Type of
Authors Fluid of insert investigation Observations Comments

1 Chang [85] Air Ribs (458) Experiment in (1) Ribbed wall increases heat There are some other
600 , Re , 10 000 reciprocating transfer by 260300 per techniques (other than
duct cent compared with twisted tape and wire
smooth wall coil) such as ribs,
(2) Pulsating force and dimples, additives and
convective inertia affects deflectors used for
local heat transfer enhancement of heat
transfer
2 Mahmood and Air Dimples Experimental study (1) Vortex periodically shed
Ligrani [86] 600 Re , 11 000 in channel as H/D ratio decreases. Ribs having 458 angle show
At same location, heat good thermal
enhancement takes place performance
3 Leung et al. [87] Air Ribs Triangular duct (1) Enhancement of forced Performance of dimple
4000 , Re , 15 000 convection by ribs is better basis of ratio of channel
than that by roughness of height to dimple print has
wall been studied in literature
(2) Optimum size of rib and, as ratio of channel
6.35 mm, roughness 3 mm height to dimple print
decreases, shedding of
4 Kumar et al. [88] Steam Fins Horizontal finned (1) Fins enhance heat transfer vortex becomes stronger
tube during condensation of and this leads to
pure steam augmentation in heat
(2) Spines found to be transfer
more effective in bottom
side of circular integral
tube
5 Liu et al. [89] Water Additives Neural network (1) Developed neural network
study is developed for boiling
heat transfer enhancement
due to additives
(2) This model can select
additives for particular
working fluid
6 Golriz and Grace Water Deflectors Experiment in (1) Addition of angled
[90] circulating deflector improves heat
fluidized bed transfer
7 Kulankara and Water and lithium Additive Experiment in (1) Surface tension of lithium
Herolld [92] bromide circular tube bromide is affected by
surfactants
(2) Additive in vapour has
stronger effect on surface
tension than in liquid
8 Taslim et al. [93] Air Ribs Experiment in (1) 458 angled rib shows the
channel highest thermal
performance
9 Fann et al. [94] Air Ribs Experiment in (1) Local heat transfer rates on
serpentine ribbed surface develops at
passage locations where fluid is
relatively cool
10 Chen et al. [95] Water Dimples Experiment in tube (1) Best dimpled tube is with
large ratio of depth to tube
inside diameter, ratio of
dimple depth to pitch and
ratio of dimple depth to
dimple diameter for
better heat transfer on tube
side
11 Mochizuki et al. Air Ribs Experiment in tube (1) External force field
[96] established in ribbed
duct flow, such as
centrifugal force in
bend

(Table continued )

A04804 # IMechE 2004 Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 218 Part A: J. Power and Energy
524 A DEWAN, P MAHANTA, K SUMITHRA RAJU AND P SURESH KUMAR

Table 5 Continued
Configuration Type of
Authors Fluid of insert investigation Observations Comments

12 Chang et al. [97] Air Ribs Experiment in (1) External force field
reciprocating established in ribbed duct
duct flow, such as rotating or
reciprocating force
13 Okajima et al. [98] Air Ribs Experiment on flat (1) Detailed growth and
plate shedding process of
vortices depends on
oscillating frequency
of mainstream
14 Mohmood et al. Air Dimples Experiment in (2) Friction factor and
[99] dimpled channel pressure drop usually not
increased appreciably,
because no form drag
is produced by objects
protruding into flow
15 Afanasyev et al. Air Spherical Experiment on flat (1) Surface shaped by
[100] cavities plate spherical cavities enhances
heat transfer up to 3040
per cent

because in a laminar flow the thermal resistance is not lim- number, the thickness of the thermal boundary layer is
ited to a thin region. However, twisted tape performance small compared with the hydrodynamic boundary layer
also depends on the fluid properties such as the Prandtl and the wire coil breaks this boundary layer easily. There-
number. If the Prandtl number is high, say Pr . 30, the fore, both heat transfer and pressure drop are large.
twisted tape will not provide good thermohydraulic per-
formance compared with other inserts such as wire coil.
6.4 Wire coil in turbulent flow
On the basis of a constant pumping power, short-length
twisted tape is better than full-length twisted tape. In the Wire coil enhances the heat transfer in turbulent flow effi-
design of a compact heat exchanger for laminar flow, ciently. It performs better in turbulent flow than in laminar
twisted tape can be used effectively to enhance the heat flow. The thermohydraulic performance of wire coil is good
transfer. compared with twisted tape in turbulent flow.

6.2 Twisted tape in turbulent flow 6.5 Other passive techniques

Twisted tape in turbulent flow is effective up to a certain There are several passive techniques other than twisted tape
Reynolds number range but not over a wide Reynolds and wire coil to enhance the heat transfer in a flow, such as
number range. Compared with wire coil, twisted tape is ribs, fins, dimples, etc. These techniques are generally more
not effective in turbulent flow because it blocks the flow efficient in turbulent flow than in laminar flow.
and therefore the pressure drop is large. Hence, the thermo-
hydraulic performance of a twisted tape is not good com-
pared with wire coil in turbulent flow. Therefore, it may
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