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PLATYHELMINTHESP surface of the epidermis, where they expend to

form mucus.
- Mostly small, soft bodied, aquatic worms that do not - Rhabdite most common kind of rhabdoid which
burrow, but instead move over and between rocks, is characterized by a specific, layered
sediment particles, detritus, algae, and in their prey ultrastructure; secreted by epidermal gland cells
- Include free living flatworms (Turbellaria) and parasitic that usually are submerged, except for their
flukes (Trematoda) and tapeworms (Cestoda). slender necks, below the epidermis
- All lack a coelom, hemal system, cuticle, and in the - Slime production for locomotion, cocoon
parasitic taxa, epidermis, and sometimes gut. formation, and predator repellant
- Small body size; being tiny and flat enables them to - Frontal gland anterior aggregation of secretory
live in tight places, including the cavities and tissue cells which is a characteristic of most
spaces of other organisms. turbellarians; suggested functions are roles in
- Lack a circulatory system a hemal system and defense, slime production for locomotion and
coelom are absent and thus are diffusion-limited adhesion (in larvae)
animals. - Bdelloura its glands form an adhesive plate;
- Rely on simple diffusion rather than circulation for lives as a commensal on the book gill of the
internal transport. Atlantic horseshoe crab
- Duo gland organs glandular adhesive organs
TURBELLARIAC used by many interstitial marine species to
Planaria small, brownish, cross-eyed worms that live in adhere to the sand grains; each of which may
freshwater streams under rocks. project from the body surface as a papilla;
Macroturbellaria large, visible Turbellaria centimeter-size composed of two different kinds of gland cells:
range 1. Viscid gland secretes the adhesive
- Largest of all macroturbellarians is a planarian, and cements the animal to the sand
Rimacephalus arecepta, that reaches a length grain
of 60 cm. 2. Releasing gland - secretes the de-
- All are flat and thin; the larger the worm, the more adhesive, the substance that breaks the
pronounced the flattening attachment.
Microturbellaria microscopic animals rarely exceeding a - Anchor cell an epidermal third cell where the
length of a few millimeters, with the smallest being approx. gland necks of both viscid and releasing glands
0.5mm in length pass through, which is specialized to bear the
- May be flat, but commonly they are cylindrical, or strain of attachment.
arched above and flattened below to form a - Macroturbellarians (Polycladida) and
creepsole. ectocommensals on crustaceans
- Many are common members of the interstitial (Temnocephalida) attach to surfaces using a
fauna that occupy and move like snakes in a rock well-developed ventral sucker
pile through the water-filled spaces between sand
grains. Musculature and Locomotion
- they rely primarily on their cilia to glide over
Turbellarians are chiefly aquatic and the great surfaces
majority are marine. - have a well-developed and complex musculature
Most are bottom dwellers, but a few are pelagic that enables them to make a wide variety of
Freshwater species are benthic inhabitants of lakes,
- Musculature consists of a gridlike arrangement
ponds, streams and springs
of outer circular and inner longitudinal fibers
Mostly large tropical species
- Diagonal muscles two sets of muscles that
criss-cross each other between the two layers of
Body Wall
- Covered by a monolayered, ciliated epidermis in
- Have a wide variety of locomotory adaptations
which each ciliated cell bears many cilia
that range from ciliary gliding over surfaces and
- Swirling motion = Turbellaria meaning whirlpool
through water to muscular creeping and
- Beneath the epidermis is a basal lamina or
basement membrane.
- Other body movements: retraction and extension,
- The most common intracellular skeleton is a
peristalsis, twisting, turning, waving and
weblike sheet of actin filaments (a terminal web)
within the epidermis itself which helps the
- In general, small aquatic turbellarians use cilia for
epidermis to bear stresses.
locomotion; large turbellarians use muscular
- Acoelomorpha has a network of
movements of the entire body or along a special
interconnected ciliary rootlets, the fibrous
ized ventral sole.
structures anchoring each cilium in the cell that
- In some species, body wall peristalsis is common
may bear stress.
but not used in locomotion; instead, it may be
- Have a rich glandular epidermis, commonly
important in mixing the contents of the gut
submerged into or below the muscle layers with
only the neck of the gland penetrating the
Nervous System and Sense Organs
epidermis (or gastrodermis); glands may secrete
- In general, and perhaps primitively, it consists of
adhesives, mucus and other substances.
a subepidermal ringlike brain from which one
- Rhabdoids numerous, membrane-bounded,
to several nerve cords, depending on taxon,
rod-shaped secretions that are released to the
extend posteriorly through the body.
- When several pairs of longitudinal nerves issue - Fixed parenchymal cells another common cell
from the brain, usually they are equidistant from of the parenchyma
each other and impart radial symmetry on the o a large, branched cell that makes gap
nervous system. junctions with other parenchymal cells,
- Longitudinal nerve cords join a nerve net as well as epidermal and gastrodermal
located internally to the body wall musculature cells.
- Submuscular net in turn, joins two other, more o Link together all tissue layers of the
peripheral nets one between the epidermis and body.
musculature and another within the epidermis. - Gap junctions intercellular channels for low
- The nervous system as a whole is diffuse, resistance transport of metabolites, and their
netlike, and reminiscent of that of cnidarians or presence indicates that the network of cells
hemichordates linked by them are physiologically coupled.
- Nerve net is a logical arrangement for - Some planarians have parenchymal pigment
innervating the sheetlike, two dimensional body cells and chromatophores
wall musculature; a specialized nerve net may be o Chromatophore enable the animal to
associated with the muscular pharynx and midgut lighten and darken when the pigment in
of some turbellarians the cell is concentrated or dispersed
- Many turbellarians have abandoned the ringlike Controlled by the brain, for the
brain and multiple nerve cords in favor of a posterior half of a bisected dark
concentrated bilateral brain and two worm does not lighten until it
ventrolateral, longitudinal nerve cords has regenerated a brain.
- In all turbellarians, the nervous system is - Hemoglobin-containing parenchymal cells
relatively primitive in its lack of ganglia, except (one interstitial acoel Paratomella rubra and
in the brain, but typical sensory, motor and some rhabdocoels) impart a red color to the body
interneurons are present and probably function as an oxygen store fro use
- Pigment cup ocelli are common in most when the animal wanders into oxygen-poor
turbellarians; the usual is two, but two or three layers of the sand.
pairs is uncommon.
- Eyes may occur in clusters over the brain, in Digestive System and Nutrition
tentacles, or distributed uniformly around the - the digestive cavity, or gut, of turbellarians is
body margin; function largely in orienting to light typically a blind sac and the mouth is used for
o Most turbellarians are negatively both ingestion and egestion.
phototactic o The wall of the gut is single layered and
- Statocysts most conspicuous of the composed of phagocytic and gland cells
turbellarian sensory organs; - Anus or multiple anuses occur only in some
o only in catenulids, acoelomorphs and very long worms and in some turbellarians with
seriates; highly branched guts
o unpaired among Turbellarians and - the gut of acoel turbellarians lacks a lumen
located medially near the brain; altogether and is usually a syncytium enclosed by
o each consist of a capsule that encloses a common cell membrane.
a fluid filled cavity and a central o The taxon name Acoela refers to this
concretion called a statolith; lack of a gut cavity
nemertodermatids have two - The shape of the gut is in part related to the size
statoliths of the worm
o presumed to be gravity receptors - Microturbellarian gut is typically a simple,
o lack sensory cilia; statolith makes unbranched sac or blind ended tube
contact with the unspecialized wall of - Flat macroturbellarians usually have a gut with
the capsule lateral branches (ceca) that extend to the margin
of the body
Parenchyma - Ceca branches that provide a large area for
- the connective tissue compartment between the digestion and absorption; also transport nutrients
body wall musculature nd gut to all parts of the body and thus function as a
- parenchyma of most macroturbellarians is gastrovascular system
composed of cells in a fibrous extracellular matrix - Mouth located on the midvetral surface, but
- Hemocoel may play in internal transport and may be situated anteriorly, posteriorly, or
serve as a hydrostatic skeleton anywhere along the midventral line
- Epidermal replacement cells migrate from the - Acoela lacks a pharynx (zero pharynx)
parenchyma to the body surface and replace any o Mouth opens directly into the cytoplasm
damaged or destroyed epidermal cells of the digestive syncytium
o Situated immediately below the body - Simple pharynx pharynx described as a
wall and each contains a cluster of simple ciliated tube
centrioles (which later become the o Turbellarians with zero or simple
ciliary basal bodies) pharynx tend to feed on unicellular
- Neoblasts a population of totipotent cells of algae, and perhaps on bacteria and
many turbellarians which are important in wound protozoans
healing and regeneration. o Food is swallowed as a whole
o may also give rise to the epidermal
replacement cells
- Plicate pharynx folded pharynx of polyclads, - Nutrients are transported intracellulary from
triclads, and proseriates, which are chiefly gastrodermal to fixed parenchymal cells via gap
macroturbellarians with branched intestines. junctions
o a long muscular tube that, when - Convective circulation may occur in the fluid
retracted, has a fold in its wall and is filled hemocoel of freshwater catenulids
enclosed in a sheathlike cavity.
o May project backward (common Excretion
freshwater planarians) or it may be - Turbellarians eliminate nitrogen from protein
attached to the cavity posteriorly and metabolism in the form of ammonia, which
extend forward diffuses across the body surface; release excess
o Associated wih predatory species water and other waste metabolites using
- Bulbous pharynx (Rhabdocoels) a muscular protonephridia that bear multiciliated terminal
sucking bulb separated from the parenchyma by cells
a septum - Acoelomorphs lach nephridia unlike all other
o the separation isolates the pumping turbellarians
action of the pharynx from the damping
effect of the inertial parenchyma Reproduction
o can be protruded from the mouth
o occurs in predators and the parasitic Regeneration
flukes - the regenerative ability of planarians is
o one trait that predisposed free living extraordinary, matched only by cnidarians such
flatworms to parasitism as Hydra
- Turbellarians are largely carnivorous and prey - Blastema dome-shaped mass of neoblasts that
on various invertebrates that are small enough to forms beneath the epidermis
be captured as well as on the dead bodies of o Undifferentiated cells of blastema
animals that sink to the bottom may arise from differentiated cells, such
- Common prey: protozoa, rotifers, insect larvae, as muscle cells, by a process of
small crustaceans, snails and small annelid dedifferentiation reversion of the cell
worms to its totipotent, embryonic,
- Stylochus frontalis feeds on living oysters and undifferentiated state or from a
is nicknamed the oyster leech permanent pool of totipotent,
- Stylochus triparitus prey on barnacles undifferentiated neoblast cells similar to
- Pseudoceros crozieri feeds on the colonial sponge archeocytes or cnidarian
tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinate interstitial cells.
- Many capture prey by wrapping themselves - Heads regenerate faster on slices from the
around it, entangle it in slime, or pinning it to the anterior end of the worm than on those from the
substratum by means of their adhesive organs. posterior end.
- Food is swallowed in whole or in pieces o A head will regenerate of the end having
- Endopeptidases proteolytic enzymes that aid the higher concentration
the penetration of the pharynx and the ingestion - Janus heads two headed monsters; after the
of the body tissues of the prey; produced by Roman god of doors, who is depicted as a head
pharyngeal glands that open onto the tip of the with two opposite faces.
pharynx o Results from loss of polarity - a head is
- Digestion is first extracellular regenerated at both ends
- Hydrolysis of the the ingested food is initiated by
pharyngeal enzymes and additional enzymes Clonal Reproduction
(endopeptidases) are supplied by gland cells of - Reproduce clonally by means of transverse, or
the gut. rarely, longitudinal fission and by budding
- Commensals include species that live in the o Large freshwater planarians, divide into
mantle cavity of molluscs and on the gills of two pieces and then regenerate missing
crustaceans parts after separation
- Parasitic species inhabit the guts and body - Paratomy process in which the parents body
cavities of molluscs, crustaceans and differentiates into a chain of zooids before fission
echinoderms as well as the skin of fishes. separates them into new individuals
o Turbellarians that lack a digestive tract o a form of reproduction that resembles
and absorb host nutrients across the strobilation in scyphomedusae
naked body wall - Architomy process in which differentitation (or
- Fecampiidae (species of Rhabdocoel family) regeneration) occurs after fission
endoparasitic in the hemocoel of crustaceans - Budding occurs primarily in acoels, such as
Convolutriba, which buds offspring from any lobe
Internal transport of its trilobed posterior end.
- diffusion distance for gas transport is short and o The opposing ciliary movement of
oxygen is absorbed across the general body wall parent and bud causes the bud to break
- the gut of large turbellarians is a gastrovascular free.
transport system similar to that of cnidarians and - Clonal rep. may be controlled by day length and
ctenophores. temperature.
- Parthenogenesis also an important
reproductive strategy in most Catenulida
- Dugesia dorotocephala common planarian o Penis, which bears stylets, is pushed
that undergoes fission only at night through the body wall of the copulating
partner, depositing sperm into the
Sexual Reproduction and Development parenchyma
- All are hermaphrodites except for a few - Acoels lack oviducts and release their eggs
specialized parasitic species, reproducing by way through the mouth or by temporary rupture of the
of copulation and internal fertilization body wall.
- They produce relatively few eggs, which are - Summer eggs type of egg produced by
never recklessly spawned freshwater turbellarian which are enclosed in a
- Except in acoels and others, the gonads are thin egg capsule and hatch in a relatively short
saccate and enclosed in an epithelium and period
thereby separated from the surrounding - Resting eggs have a thicker and more
parenchyma resistant capsule; usually produced in the fall,
- Male part of the system, transporting sperm out, remain dormant during the winter, resist freezing
consists of paired testicles, each of which leads and dying, and hatch in the spring with the rise in
into a sperm duct, a seminal vesicle (a storage water temperature.
sac for its own sperm) and a penis (copulatory - Mesoderm originates, as mesenchyme, from
organ) both ectoderm and endoderm
o Penis may be armed with a stylet and o Migrates into the region between two
often receives secretions from a primary germ layers and later gives rise
prostate gland. to the musculature, parenchyma and
- Female part through which sperm move in from germ cells
the partner, is specialized as a gonophore - Goettes larvae (only in some polyclads)
(vagina), copulatory bursa, and seminal uniformly ciliated, planktotrophic larvae with four
receptacle the latter two for short and long term arms
storage of the partners sperm. - Muellers larvae - (only in some polyclads)
o Also produces eggs and transports them uniformly ciliated, planktotrophic larvae with eight
out from paired ovaries via an oviduct to arms
the gonophore. - The arms are used in locomotion and feeding,
- Some turbellarians have more than two testes or like the prototroch of trochophore larvae
ovaries. - Neophoran turbellarians lack a free swimming
- Uterus another female accessory reproductive larva, development is direct, and the young
organ; used as a temporary storage sac for ripe worms emerge from the capsule in a few weeks.
o May be a blind sac (rhabdocoels) or it Diversity of Turbellaria (free-living flatworms)
may be merely a dilated part of the - Is a paraphyletic taxon characterized solely by
oviduct (polyclads) plesiomorphic traits such as ciliated epidermis,
o Most, however, lack uteri because only compact body, or free living (non-parasitic)
a few eggs are laid at a time lifestyle
- Homocellular ovary produces eggs in which - Homocellular ovaries and entolecithal eggs typify
yolk is an integral part of each eggs cytoplasm the primitive taxa of Turbellaria, such as
(entolecithal eggs), similar to the eggs of most Catenulida, Acoelomorpha, Macrostomorpha and
other animals. Polycladida, which previously were united in the
- Heterocellular ovary of the derived Neophora (= paraphyletic Archoophora (= primitive egg
new egg bearers) divided into two specialized bearers)
region. - The remaining flatworms including the parasitic
o Germarium (ovary proper) for the taxa, share the apomorphy of heterocellular
production of eggs gonads and ectolecithal eggs and are Neophora
o Vitellarium (yolk gland) for the (= new egg bearers)
production of yolk-filled cells called
vitellocytes Phylogeny of Turbellaria
- Germovitellarium united germarium and Planula Theory (L. von Graff) states that the turbellarians
vitellarium and cnidarians arose from a common ancestor; the planuloid,
- Ectolecithal egg encapsulated egg and which resembled a cnidarian planula larva.
vitellocytes - The planula ancestor would have had an
- Egg refers to the female reproductive cell outerepidermal epithelium, an ineer gastrodermal
(oocyte or ovum) epithelium and connective tissue
- egg encapsulated ovum (or zygote or - Flatworm gut and parenchyma correspond to the
embryo) plus the vitellocytes coelenterate coelenteron and mesoglea
- All parasitic platyhelminths have heterocellular Coelomate Theory turbellarians are not primitive bilaterians,
ovaries and produce the large number of but have evolved from a coelomate ancestor by anatomical
offspring necessary to locate their hosts simplification
- The sperm of most turbellarians are biflagellate - Believed that reduction in body size could have
- Sperm transfer in turbellarians is by copulation been the crucial factor in transformation
and is usually reciprocal
- Hypodermic impregnation occurs in some *Another possibility is that the Turbellaria evolved from a
acoels, macrostomids, rhabdocoels and coelomate ancestor not by reduction, but by pedomorphosis
from an early developmental stage of such coelomate ancestor o has a digestive tract , suckers and a
before differentiation of the coelom tail
o leaves the snail host and swims in
NEODERMATA search of a second intermediate host
- Parasitic flatworms or encysts as a metacercaria on
- Inherited the sucking bulbous pharynx from free
aquatic vegetation or an inanimate
living turbellarian ancestors
- Neodermis (or tegument) a new, non ciliated, object in the water, awaiting
syncytial layer that partially or completely ingestion by the definitive host
replaces the the cellular epidermis - In the definitive host, sites of infection include
o Encloses the body in a syncytium, which the hemal system, gut and other endodermal
extends via its cytons deep into the organs: intestine, liver, bile ducts, pancreatic
parenchyma ducts and lungs.
o enable the organism to better regulate
what enters and leaves its body , Form and Function
restricting some substances and - Typically dorsoventrally flattened, but some
accelerating transports of others. are fleshy and thickened, others long and
o May also enable the parasite to cope
thread like
with the different osmotic challenges
encountered during its life cycle, which - Oral sucker surround the mouth and
may include a freshwater aquatic phase many, but not all, have a midventral or
and one or more hosts. posterior ventral sucker (acetabulum)
- Cytons neoblast cell bodies, each containing a o The suckers are important organs
nucleus, remain below the basal lamina in the that prevent dislodgement and aid in
parenchyma feeding (oral sucker)
- Syncytium where any substance crossing the - Covered by a neodermis overlying
body wall pass through intracellularly consecutive layers of circular, longitudinal
and diagonal muscle
TrematodaC o Neodermis plays a vital role in the
- Include two subtaxa of closely related physiology of digeneans
parasitic flatworms o Provides protection, especially
o Digenea a large economically and against the hosts enzymes in gut-
medically important taxon inhabiting species.
o Aspidogastrea a small taxon of no o Nitrogenous waste diffuse to the
medical or economic importance exterior through it (protonephridia
are also used) and it is the site of
DigeneasC gas exchange
General Biology and Life Cycle o Together with the gut, it absorbs
- Digeneans, known as flukes, are common glucose and some amino acids
endoparasites of all major vertebrae taxa - Mouth is surrounded by powerful muscular
- Life cycle includes two or more hosts and at oral sucker used for attachment and to aid
least two infective stages, which accounts for transport of food into the mouth; has a
the Digenea (= two generations) bulbous pharynx
- First intermediate host typically a - Digeneans are facultative anaerobes and
gastropod mollusk (snail) both blood and liver flukes derive most of
- Second intermediate host usually an their energy from glycolysis
arthropod or fish - Nephridia excrete water and waste
- Final or definitive host a vertebrate metabolites, such as unwated iron from
- Life cycle: Zygote Miracidium larva hemoglobin in blood feeding flukes.
sporocyst redia cercaria - Nervous system is essentially like that of
metacercaria adult turbellarians
- Miracidium a ciliated, swimming larva that - Brain pair of anterior cerebral ganglia from
penetrates the body wall of an aquatic snail. which several longitudinal nerve cords
o it sloughs of an epidermis, which is extend posteriorly
replaced by the neodermis, during or - The fluke body surface has a variety of
after host penetration sensory papillae
- sporocyst - saclike, gutless; where the - Ocelli occur in many miracidia and
miracidium metamorphoses into; contains cercariae
several embryos (germ balls)
- Redia another sporocyst which has a Reproduction
mouth, pharynx, and gut as well as its own - With heterocellular ovary
embryos - Male system consists of two testes and
- Cercaria embryo developed within the accessory reproductive organs
- Sperm ducts, one from each testis, unite various organs and the developmental
anteriorly and may expand into an external stages in the lung and liver
seminal vesicle before entering into the - can result in inflammation, necrosis or
cirrus sac. fibrosis, depending on the degree of infection
- Cirrus sac (or pouch) sac that contains Three great parasitic scourges of humankind:
the internal seminal vesicle, prostate glands - Schistosomiasis
and an eversible, copulatory cirrus, which - Malaria
protrudes into a common genital atrium - Hookworm infections
shared with the female reproductive system Swimmers itch is an irritation produced by the
- Sperm on leaving the testes, are stored in incomplete penetration into human skin by cercariae of
the seminal vesicle blood flukes of birds
- Female reproductive system usually consists
of a single ovary (germarium) and an oviduct AspidogastreasC
that leads into a small sac, called the ootype - Or Aspidobothrea, is a trematode taxon with
(oogenotop), in which a capsule of tanned similarities to other parasitic flatworms, but
proteins is secreted around the fertilized egg more closely related to Digenea
and vitellocytes - Adhesive organ distinguishing trait, which
- Mehliss gland unicellular gland that open is a huge, either a single septate sucker
into the ootype and may secret egg capsule covering the entire ventral surface or a
components, but most are thought to be longitudinal row of suckers
produced by the vitellocytes - the digestive tract contains a single intestinal
- Uterus downstream from the oocyte that cecum
runs anteriorly to the genital atrium and - reproductive system is essentially like that of
gonophore. Digenea, but only has one testis
- Laurers canal a short inconspicuous - chiefly endoparasites in the guts of fish and
canal, perhaps a vestigial vagina, that turtles and in the pericardial and renal
extends from the duct of the seminal cavities of bivalve molluscs.
receptacle to the dorsal surface of the worm,
where it may open at a minute pore. Cercomeromorpha
- The zygote divides into two distinguishable - sister taxon of Trematoda
cells: - have crescent shaped hooks on a posterior
o Somatic cells ultimately appendage, the cercomer, of their ciliated
establishes the body oncosphere or oncomiracidium larvae
o Stem cells eventually establish the
germ line, the cells committed to
sexual(adult) and asexual(sporocyst,
redia) reproduction.
- Polyembryony (= many embryos) the
division of the zygote into two or more MonogeneaC
blastomeres, each developing into a General Biology
complete organism - generally host specific ectoparasites, or
- Parthenogenesis stem cells develop occasionally endoparasites, of aquatic
without fertilization in the stem cell masses vertebrates, especially fishes, but
(gonads) of the sporocyst and redial stages. amphibians and reptiles are also hosts.
- Haptor a large, posterior attachment organ
- Life cycle involving parthenogenesis: that bears hooks and suckers, allowing the
sexual adult (in definitive host) zygote parasite to cling tentaciously to the host.
miracidium larva (in water) - *metamorphosis - Life cycle has no intermediate host
parthenogenetic adult (sporocyst-redia in - One egg gives rise to only one adult worm
intermediate host) cercaria larva (in water) - Clonal reproduction id absent; Monogenea (=
- *metamorphosis encysted juvenile one generation)
(metacercaria) - *excystment sexual adult - The egg develops first into a ciliated,
(in definitive host) hooked oncomiracidium (= hooked
miracidium) that has two pairs of pigment cup
Life cycle examples ocelli
*READ FROM THE BOOK BECAUSE IT REQUIRES - Adult body is composed of a head, trunk and
- The head may have a muscular oral sucker
Schistosomiasis a seriously debilitating disease that around the mouth or a sucker can be absent
can be lethal and adhesive glands (head organs) are
- egg penetration through the intestinal wall used for attachment
and bladder, aberrant lodging of eggs in
- Neodermis is covered with microvilli, which - Scolex a minute, four sided knob having
increase the area of uptake of nutrients suckers or hooks for attachment to the host
across the body wall to supplement uptake gut wall.
through the gut o it is a more complex structure
- Pharynx of some monogeneans secrete a o main attachment organs may be leaf
potease that digests the hosts skin, allowing like or ruffled, and there may be
the parasite to ingest blood and cellular deris. terminal accessory suckers in place
- Have inconspicuous protonephridia that of or in addition to hooks
consist of scattered terminal cells and their - Neck short region behind the scolex that
collecting tubules produces each proglottid by mitotic growth
- Monogenean ectoparasites have aerobic followed by a transverse constriction
metabolism. - Tapeworm neodermis plays a vital role in
the active uptake of host carbohydrates and
Reproduction amino acids.
- Male reproductive system only has one o also important in evading the hosts
circular or oval testis, but a few species have immune response
two or more. - Microtriches specialized microvilli with
- The sperm duct usually leads to into the base dense, spiny tips
of the copulatory organ, which is a protrusible - Anaerobic metabolism predominates
penislike structure that may be armed with - Tapeworm musculature consists of the
hooks typical body wall circular and longitudinal
- Sperm generally are stored in a seminal layers
receptacle situated near the ovary and - The nervous system, protonephridial system,
oviduct and longitudinal musculature extend
- Single heterocellular ovary with its paired but uninterrupted through the chain of proglottids
extensive vitellaria in close proximity to the - Ring commissures connect the
gut ceca longitudinal cords in each proglottid
- Cross and self fertilization among - Protonephridial terminal cells and tubules in
hermaphroditic monogeneans the parenchyma drain into four longitudinal
collecting canals, two of which are
Life cycle examples dorsolateral and two ventrolateral
- Datylogyrus common ectoparaites on the
gills of various freshwater species Reproduction
o Cause high moratlity in young fish - Strobilation the continuous, serial
from secondary infection, smothering formation of proglottids from the growth zone
by excess mucus production or loss in the neck
of blood o Enables one worm to produce an
- Polystoma integerrimum found in the enormous number of eggs over a
bladders of Old World Frogs and toads and is long period of time
an example of a remarkable synchronization - Tapeworm reproductive anatomy is similar to
of the parasites life cycle with that of the that of the Monogenea
amphibian host
Life cycle examples
CestodaC - Tapeworms are gut endoparasites of all
- All are endoparasites of the gut of major vertebrate taxa
vertebrates - Life cycles rarely include one host and
- Gut is absent and the neodermis is hughly usually two or more, typically arthropods and
specialized for nutrient uptake from the host vertebrates
- Basic life cycle: zygote oncosphere larva
Form and Function (ingested by intermediate or definitive host) -
- Cestodes are the tapeworms *metamorphosis extraintestinal juvenile
- The ribbon like adult body is divided into: (metacestode) intestinal adult (in definitive
o Scolex - which is adapted for host)
attachment to the host - Oncosphere (coracidium) ciliated, free
o Neck narrow growth zone with swimming developed egg, being three pairs
stem cells of small hooks, as in typical of eucestodes
o Strobila segmented trunk which o Ingested by a copepod crustacean
constitutes most of the worms body. - Procercoid developed oncosphere in the
- Proglottid trunk segments hemocoel, but it retains the oncospheres
- Tapeworms are generally long. hooks but shifts them posteriorly to the newly
formed cercomer
- Metacestode juvenile that transformed
from procercoid in the striated muscles of
o also known as plerocercoid
- Taenia saginata cosmopolitan beef
tapeworm; lives in the intestine of humans
- Cysticercus metacestode that developed
from oncosphere
o an oval worm that has its scolex
retracted and inverted, like a
nemertean proboscis, into the body
- Taenia solium pork tapeworm; parasite of
humans but the intermediate host is a pig
and the cysticercus is obtained from
inadequately cooked pork
- Taenia pisiformis occurs in cats and dogs,
with rabbits as the intermediate hosts
- Severe infection of the adult tapeworm may
cause diarrhea, weight loss and adverse
reaction to the worms toxic wastes.
- Hydatids cysticerci of Echinococcus