You are on page 1of 63

Difference between course based

learning and research

Prof. Shreepad Karmalkar


Department of Electrical Engineering
IIT Madras

1
Learning Outcomes of the Entire
Introduction to Research Course

2
Learning Outcomes of the Entire
Introduction to Research Course

At the end of this course, you should be able to explain

3
Learning Outcomes of the Entire
Introduction to Research Course

At the end of this course, you should be able to explain

the difference between course based learning and research

4
Learning Outcomes of the Entire
Introduction to Research Course

At the end of this course, you should be able to explain

the difference between course based learning and research

the mindset, skills and methodology required for research


and how to develop these

5
Learning Outcomes of the Entire
Introduction to Research Course

At the end of this course, you should be able to explain

the difference between course based learning and research

the mindset, skills and methodology required for research


and how to develop these

centrality of truthfulness and originality in research

6
Difference between course based
learning and research

7
What is Research ?
Research is the work done to find a question and its answer,
and publish these findings

8
What is Research ?
Research is the work done to find a question and its answer,
and publish these findings

9
What is Research ?
Research is the work done to find a question and its answer,
and publish these findings, it being necessary that the

10
What is Research ?
Research is the work done to find a question and its answer,
and publish these findings, it being necessary that the
question be relevant and significant

11
What is Research ?
Research is the work done to find a question and its answer,
and publish these findings, it being necessary that the
question be relevant and significant
answer be original and useful

12
What is Research ?
Research is the work done to find a question and its answer,
and publish these findings, it being necessary that the
question be relevant and significant
answer be original and useful
work demonstrate above-average skills in
surveying literature
thinking

communication
management

13
What is Research ?
Research is the work done to find a question and its answer,
and publish these findings, it being necessary that the
question be relevant and significant
answer be original and useful
work demonstrate above-average skills in
surveying literature
thinking

communication
management

follow a sound methodology, e.g. scientific method


14
What is Research ?
Research is the work done to find a question and its answer,
and publish these findings, it being necessary that the
question be relevant and significant
answer be original and useful
work demonstrate above-average skills in
surveying literature
thinking

communication
management

follow a sound methodology, e.g. scientific method


publication pass a peer review 15
What is Research ?
Research is the work done to find a question and its answer,
and publish these findings, it being necessary that the
question be relevant and significant
answer be original and useful
work demonstrate above-average skills in
surveying literature(searching, collecting, reading, noting)
thinking

communication
management

follow a sound methodology, e.g. scientific method


publication pass a peer review 16
What is Research ?
Research is the work done to find a question and its answer,
and publish these findings, it being necessary that the
question be relevant and significant
answer be original and useful
work demonstrate above-average skills in
surveying literature(searching, collecting, reading, noting)
thinking (logical and analogical reasoning, analyzing, imagining,
designing, interpreting, reorganizing, comparing, evaluating..
communication
management

follow a sound methodology, e.g. scientific method


publication pass a peer review 17
What is Research ?
Research is the work done to find a question and its answer,
and publish these findings, it being necessary that the
question be relevant and significant
answer be original and useful
work demonstrate above-average skills in
surveying literature(searching, collecting, reading, noting)
thinking (logical and analogical reasoning, analyzing, imagining,
designing, interpreting, reorganizing, comparing, evaluating..
communication (oral, written)
management

follow a sound methodology, e.g. scientific method


publication pass a peer review 18
What is Research ?
Research is the work done to find a question and its answer,
and publish these findings, it being necessary that the
question be relevant and significant
answer be original and useful
work demonstrate above-average skills in
surveying literature(searching, collecting, reading, noting)
thinking (logical and analogical reasoning, analyzing, imagining,
designing, interpreting, reorganizing, comparing, evaluating..
communication (oral, written)
management (inter-personal relations, time, stress, resources)

follow a sound methodology, e.g. scientific method


publication pass a peer review 19
What is Research ?
Research is the work done to find a question and its answer,
and publish these findings, it being necessary that the
question be relevant and significant
answer be original and useful
work demonstrate above-average skills in
surveying literature(searching, collecting, reading, noting)
thinking (logical and analogical reasoning, analyzing, imagining,
designing, interpreting, reorganizing, comparing, evaluating..
communication (oral, written)
management (inter-personal relations, time, stress, resources)

follow a sound methodology, e.g. scientific method


[observation, explanation (hypo-
publication pass a peer review thesis and theory), verification]
What is Research ?

Get selected for PhD/MS Formulate hypothesis


/ Research question

Meet Guide / Advisor +


Fellow students + Staff Verify-1 Publish - 1

Choose research topic Verify-2, .. Publish 2, ..

Start with question(s) Write thesis

Survey, think, Defend thesis


discuss, present

Congrats Dr !
What Research is Not

22
What Research is Not
Research is not merely collection of information/data or
description of a topic

23
What Research is Not
Research is not merely collection of information/data or
description of a topic, but rather,
- a new explanation, analysis or interpretation,
- a new position that you wish to argue about or defend.
What Research is Not
Research is not merely collection of information/data or
description of a topic, but rather,
- a new explanation, analysis or interpretation,
- a new position that you wish to argue about or defend.

25
What Research is Not
Research is not merely collection of information/data or
description of a topic, but rather,
- a new explanation, analysis or interpretation,
- a new position that you wish to argue about or defend.

Data lena hamara kam hai, interpretation


guide sahab karte hain, aap unse puchhiye

26
What Research is Not
Research is not merely collection of information/data or
description of a topic, but rather,
- a new explanation, analysis or interpretation,
- a new position that you wish to argue about or defend.

Data lena hamara kam hai, interpretation


guide sahab karte hain, aap unse puchhiye
(My job is data collection. Interpretation is
done by my guide; hence, kindly ask him)
27
What Research is Not
Research is not merely collection of information/data or
description of a topic, but rather,
- a new explanation, analysis or interpretation,
- a new position that you wish to argue about or defend.

Research is not assistantship under a guide, but a process


of becoming an independent thinker

Data lena hamara kam hai, interpretation


guide sahab karte hain, aap unse puchhiye
(My job is data collection. Interpretation is
done by my guide; hence, kindly ask him)
28
Difference between Course based learning
and Research based learning

Objectives of degrees

Procedure

Evaluation criteria

29
Objectives of degrees

30
Objectives of degrees

Bachelors: General education

31
Objectives of degrees

Bachelors: General education

Masters: Possession of advanced knowledge

32
Objectives of degrees

Bachelors: General education

Masters: Possession of advanced knowledge

Doctorate (PhD): License to teach and guide others


to become professionals

33
Objectives of degrees

Bachelors: General education

Masters: Possession of advanced knowledge

Doctorate (PhD): License to teach and guide others


to become professionals

MS: can be regarded as equivalent to 50% PhD

34
Objectives of degrees
Course
based

Bachelors: General education

Masters: Possession of advanced knowledge

Doctorate (PhD): License to teach and guide others


to become professionals

MS: can be regarded as equivalent to 50% PhD

research
based

35
Procedure
Course based learning Research based learning

36
Procedure
Course based learning Research based learning
Teacher prescribes courses Student identifies courses

37
Procedure
Course based learning Research based learning
Teacher prescribes courses Student identifies courses

Read text books / class notes Extensive reading of books


and papers (100s of pages)
beyond ones specialization

38
Procedure
Course based learning Research based learning
Teacher prescribes courses Student identifies courses

Read text books / class notes Extensive reading of books


and papers (100s of pages)
beyond ones specialization
(includes reading about the
research process, as distinct
from discipline specific data,
concepts and theories)

39
Procedure
Course based learning Research based learning
Teacher prescribes courses Student identifies courses

Read text books / class notes Extensive reading of books


and papers (100s of pages)
beyond ones specialization

Ready acceptance of what is


Raise big important questions
taught; seek small clarifications

40
Procedure
Course based learning Research based learning
Teacher prescribes courses Student identifies courses

Read text books / class notes Extensive reading of books


and papers (100s of pages)
beyond ones specialization

Ready acceptance of what is


Raise big important questions
taught; seek small clarifications
A research question guides
and centers your research

41
Procedure
Course based learning Research based learning
Teacher prescribes courses Student identifies courses

Read text books / class notes Extensive reading of books


and papers (100s of pages)
beyond ones specialization

Ready acceptance of what is


Raise big important questions
taught; seek small clarifications

Arduous, persistent study for


Study for a few hrs at a stretch
a few yrs at a stretch

42
Procedure
Course based learning Research based learning
Lab: collect and interpret data Collect and interpret data
to support established laws to verify new hypotheses

43
Procedure
Course based learning Research based learning
Lab: collect and interpret data Collect and interpret data
to support established laws to verify new hypotheses

Solve problems Formulate problems

44
Procedure
Course based learning Research based learning
Lab: collect and interpret data Collect and interpret data
to support established laws to verify new hypotheses

Solve problems Formulate problems

Write examinations Evaluate others work

45
Procedure
Course based learning Research based learning
Lab: collect and interpret data Collect and interpret data
to support established laws to verify new hypotheses

Solve problems Formulate problems

Write examinations Evaluate others work

Can do things all by oneself Work with guide and fellow


scholars

46
Evaluation Criteria
Course based learning Research based learning

47
Evaluation Criteria
Course based learning Research based learning
Time bound examinations Takes 3-6 years
(1 5 hours duration)

48
Evaluation Criteria
Course based learning Research based learning
Time bound examinations Takes 3-6 years
(1 5 hours duration) Problems are different
Problems are same for all for different students

49
Evaluation Criteria
Course based learning Research based learning
Time bound examinations Takes 3-6 years
(1 5 hours duration) Problems are different
Problems are same for all for different students
Solution Solution
- one correct solution to a - no one correct solution;
problem should be new / original

50
Evaluation Criteria
Course based learning Research based learning
Time bound examinations Takes 3-6 years
(1 5 hours duration) Problems are different
Problems are same for all for different students
Solution Solution
- one correct solution to a - no one correct solution;
problem should be new / original
- may take > six months
- each takes upto 20 min and
and 100 200 sides of A4
4 sides of A4 size paper
size paper

51
Evaluation Criteria
Course based learning Research based learning
Time bound examinations Takes 3-6 years
(1 5 hours duration) Problems are different
Problems are same for all for different students
Solution Solution
- one correct solution to a - no one correct solution;
problem should be new / original
- may take > six months
- each takes upto 20 min and
and 100 200 sides of A4
4 sides of A4 size paper
size paper
- submitted to the teacher - submitted to international
journals / conferences
Evaluation Criteria
Course based learning Research based learning
Results declared in a few Review of a paper / thesis
days of the examination may take 6 months 1 yr

53
Evaluation Criteria
Course based learning Research based learning
Results declared in a few Review of a paper / thesis
days of the examination may take 6 months 1 yr

Pass marks > 35% Paper / thesis acceptance


based on
- newness / originality
- truth / accuracy
- scientific technique
- keen analysis
- quality of communication
54
A body of literature dealing with the research
process and skills, as distinct from discipline
specific data, concepts and theories

55
Research process
Books

H. Churchill and T. Sanders, Getting your PhD A practical


insiders guide, Sage publications Ltd., 2007.

P. Dunleavy, Authoring a PhD: How to plan, draft, write and


finish a doctoral thesis or dissertation, Palgrave Macmillan,
2003.

56
Research process
Books

E. M. Phillips and D. S. Pugh, How to get a PhD A handbook


for PhD students and their supervisors, Viva books Pvt. Ltd.,
1999.

P. J. Feibelman, A PhD is not enough a guide to survival


in science, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1993.

P. Medawar, Advice to a young scientist, Harper Colophon


Books, New York, 1979.

[Suggested by Prof. M. V. Satyanarayana (Physics dept. IIT M)]

57
Research process
Articles available on internet

Richard Hamming, You and your research, Bell


Communications Research Colloquium Seminar, 7th Mar. 1986.

D. S. Bernstein, A students guide to research, IEEE Control


Systems Magazine, p. 102, Feb. 1999.

58
Scientific method
Books

S. S. Carey, A beginners guide to scientific method,


Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2011.

G. L. Squires, Practical physics, Cambridge University


Press, 2001.

Articles available on internet

P. S. Blackawton et. al., Blackawton bees, Biology Lett..


doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.1056, published online on 22nd Dec.
2010.

59
Communication skills
Books

Handbook of Science Communication, compiled by Antony


Wilson, Jane Gregory, Steve Miller, Shirley Earl, Overseas
Press India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2005.

P. Dunleavy, Authoring a PhD: How to plan, draft, write and finish


a doctoral thesis or dissertation, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

60
Communication skills
Youtube videos on effective speech

Overcoming nerves when giving a presentation


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mbDipVRt5aE

The importance of body language in presentations


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IqqiDw58NSE

The importance of vocal variety in presentations


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hdBNUDIOIP8

Great openings and closings


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NyE1Kz0e--0

61
Publishing

M. A. Fine and L. A. Kurdek, Reflections on Determining


Authorship Credit and Authorship Order on Faculty-
Student Collaborations, American Psychological
Association, vol. 48, no.11, pp. 1141-1147, Nov. 1993.

A. Dance, Authorship: Who's on first? Nature, vol. 489,


pp. 591-593, Sept. 2012.

62
Indian contributions in Mathematics

Evolution of Indian Mathematics (1 hour talk)


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aDy0axJfzrY

Mathematics in India from Vedic period to modern times


(40 NPTEL lectures)
http://nptel.ac.in/courses/111101080/

63