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9/12/2017 design and construction of a 6v and 12 volts automatic battery charger - for B.

harger - for B.Sc, HND, and OND project topics and material

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CONSTRUCTION

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A 6V and 12 VOLTS AUTOMATIC


BATTERY CHARGER

ABSTRACT

This project is titled design and construction of a 6 and 12V automatic battery
charger. A 6 and 12volts Automatic battery charger is a dual acid battery
charger that is designed to charge 6v and as well 12v battery.
This automatic charger is basically a DC power supply source. Here a
transformer is used to step down the AC mains input voltage to the required
level as per the rating of the transformer. And the selection of voltage is done
using single pole double throw switch whenever there is need for that. That
is, whenever there is a 6v battery to be charged, the switch would be sued
the select the required voltage from the charger and vice-versa.
This transformer is always a high power type and is able to produce a high
current output as required by most lead-acid batteries.
A bridge rectifier configuration is used to rectify the low voltage AC into DC
and is further smoothed by a high value electrolytic capacitor.
This DC is fed to an electronic circuit which regulates the voltage into a
constant level and is applied to the battery under charge, where the energy is
stored through an internal process of chemical reaction.
In automatic battery chargers a voltage sensor circuit is incorporated to sense
the voltage of the battery under charge. The charger is automatically switched
OFF when the battery voltage reaches the required optimum level.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

APPROVAL PAGE
DEDICATION
ACKNOWELDGEMENT
ABSTRCT
TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

1. INTRODUCTION
2. BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
3. AIM/OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT

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9/12/2017 design and construction of a 6v and 12 volts automatic battery charger - for B.Sc, HND, and OND project topics and material

5. APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT


6. LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
7. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
8. PROJECT ORGANISATION

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF BATTERY CHARGER
2.2 REVIEW OF BATTERY CHARGER
2.3 REVIEW OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF BATTERY CHARGERS
2.4 REVIEW OF SILICON CONTROLLED RECTIFIER (SCR)

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY

3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE SYSTEM

3.2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM


3.3 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
3.4 SYSTEM OPERATION
3.5 DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS USED

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULT ANALYSIS

4.1 CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE AND TESTING


4.2 CASING AND PACKAGING
4.3 ASSEMBLING OF SECTIONS
4.4 TESTING OF SYSTEM OPERATION
4.5 COST OF PRODUCTION

CHAPTER FIVE
1. CONCLUSIONS
2. RECOMMENDATION

5.3 REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Battery charger is an electronics device used in charging and recharging
batteries when a battery is used up by the instrument connected to it. This
electronics device has the ability to stop charging when the battery is fully
charged and starts charging when the battery voltage drops below the set
point
The 6 and 12-volt battery charger uses household current to put an electric
charge into a discharged battery. The charger's circuits convert 240-volt
household alternating current (AC) to the 6 and 12-volt direct current (DC)
that the battery needs.

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9/12/2017 design and construction of a 6v and 12 volts automatic battery charger - for B.Sc, HND, and OND project topics and material

This charger will charge any 6V and 12V lead acid battery including flooded,
gel and AGM. It is fully automatic and will charge at a rate up to about 4A
until the battery voltage reaches a preset point at which it will switch to a
very low current float charge. If the battery voltage drops again the charger
will begin charging until the voltage once again reaches the cut off point. In
this way it can be left connected to a battery indefinitely to maintain full
charge without causing damage. An LED indicates when the battery is fully
charged.
A 6V and 12-volt battery charger is roughly the size of a car battery. It has a
thick cable ending in two heavy-duty copper alligator clips, a black clip for the
battery's negative terminal and a red one for positive. The charger has an on-
off switch and a meter to indicate charging power.

1. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this course is to design and construct a dual 6V and 12V
automatic battery charger that can charge batteries of 6V and as well as 12V.

1.2 ADVANTAGES OF AUTOMATIC BATTERY CHARGER


The main advantages of this battery charger over other chargers is the ability
of the charger to indicate battery charging levels and also the ability to stop
charging when the battery is fully charged and resume charging when the
battery level drops below the set level.

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE COURSE


Features of automatic battery charger are as below:

1. Automatic battery charger has an indicator to indicate when the battery


is fully charged
2. Built in Indications for showing Full, Empty Levels of any type of battery
3. It has two manually operated switch that is used to ON and OFF the
entire system, that is the first switch and the second switch that is used
to select the charging voltage, either from 6V to 12V or from 12V to 6V..
4. It composes of in-built active components which stop charging process
when the battery is fully charged.
5. It consumed less current but generate high current to the load.

1.4 APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT


Battery charger is used in the following devices for the purpose of recharging
device batteries:

It is used in inverter

It is used in cellphone

It is used in Solar energy system

It is used in vehicles

It is used in an uninterruptible power supply(UPS), etc.

1.5 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT


The only problem with this device is that it takes longer time to recharge car
battery because of the low current output, and it is design only for a 12
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9/12/2017 design and construction of a 6v and 12 volts automatic battery charger - for B.Sc, HND, and OND project topics and material

battery.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT


A battery charger is an electrical device employed in charging batteries that
are usually charged by battery charges are the storage batteries also known
as accumulators.
The charger is made up of various electrical and electronics component which
for the purpose of charging are group into your basic unit, they are:
The power supply units
The smoothing circuits
The regulating unit and
Regulated D.C charging units
A Battery charger comes in various designs and voltage. The choice of a
particular and of charger that depends largely in Ah size of battery or
batteries which charge the mini battery changer could be used to charge
batteries whose voltage ranges from 6 12 volts. The bigger battery changes
are for batteries with voltage ranging from 12 48 volts. These are the heavy
duty batteries.
The battery charge is built in such a way that it delivers a constant value of
d.c current into the battery it is charging in the opposite direction from which
current flows on the batteries during discharge one cannot successfully design
a battery charge with out a fundamental understanding of the accumulator
because it also makes up the operation.

1.8 PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION


The various stages involved in the development of this project have been
properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading.
In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:
Chapter one of this work is on the introduction to a 6 and 12V automatic
battery charger. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective
limitation and problem of a 6 and 12V automatic battery charger were
discussed.
Chapter two is on literature review of a 6 and 12V automatic battery charger.
In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.
Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method
involved during the design and construction were discussed.
Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate
functionality was analyzed.
Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.

RELATED WORK

1]. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A 12 VOLTS AUTOMATIC BATTERY


CHARGER

2]. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A 12 VOLTS AUTOMATIC BATTERY


CHARGER WITH CHARGING PROGRESS AND CHARGING LEVEL
INDICATOR

3]. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A 12 VOLTS CAR BATTERY


CHARGER

4]. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A 12 VOLTS AUTOMATIC CAR


BATTERY CHARGER WITH FULL VOLTAGE CUTOUT

5]. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A 6V and 12 VOLTS AUTOMATIC


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9/12/2017 design and construction of a 6v and 12 volts automatic battery charger - for B.Sc, HND, and OND project topics and material

BATTERY CHARGER

6]. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A 6V BATTERY CHARGER

7]. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A 6V CELL PHONE BATTERY


CHARGER

8]. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A SOLAR BATTERY CHARGER USING


15V/130W SOLAR PANEL

9]. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A SOLAR CELL PHONE CHARGER

10]. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A SOLAR CELL PHONE CHARGER


WITH BATTERY BACKUP

11]. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SOLAR CHARGE CONTROLLER

12]. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A 12 VOLTS AUTOMATIC BATTERY


CHARGER USING SCR

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