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Republic of the Philippines

Department of Education
Division of Taguig City and Pateros
Ballecer St. Zone 2 Central Signal Village, Taguig City

A Research about Leading

and Controlling

A Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement

(Organization and Management)

Submitted by:
Ediza, Kenneth R.

Submitted to:
Mr. Rolando Amistoso
1. What is Leading?

Leading is another of the basic function within the management process "Leading is the use of influence
to motivate employees to achieve organizational goals" (Richard Daft). Leading involves the social and informal
sources of influence that you use to inspire action taken by others. If managers are effective leaders, their
subordinates will be enthusiastic about exerting effort to attain organizational objectives.

2. How Leaders influence others?

Gain the trust of others -The foundation for everything related to your leadership has to be built on

Let go of your ego-A leader with a healthy ego is one who has mastered the paradoxical balance of
personal humility with confidence and fierce resolve.

Demonstrate competence- That includes the ability to communicate that vision, so followers are
actively engaged in pursuing it. Competence builds confidence in your people.

Inspire others to find their voice- In today's social economy, leaders will cast a company vision and
enroll their followers to express their voice as co-creators and co-contributors to the vision.

Develop a cultural identity- have distinctive corporate identities that attract great employees. You'll
find these corporate cultures usually centered around giving employees ownership over decisions
(shared leadership), authenticity (open communication, expression of thoughts, ideas, and perspectives)
and the building of community (collaboration, diversity, inclusion).

3. The Nature of Leadership?

Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce (effect) subordinates to work with confidence and zeal
- Koontz and ODonnell

Leadership is the exercise of authority and making of decisions - Dubin,R

Nature and characteristics of Leadership

Leadership is a personal quality

It exists only with followers

Leadership is a process of influence. A leader must be able to influence the behaviour,attitude and
beliefs of common goals.

Leadership is neither bossism nor it is synonymous with management

Leadership gives an experience of helping people attain common objectives

4. Behavioral Approaches to Leadership styles

Task-oriented leader behaviors- (sometimes called initiating structure) involve structuring the roles of
subordinates, providing them with instructions, and behaving in ways that will increase the performance
of the group. Task-oriented behaviors are directives given to employees to get things done and to ensure
that organizational goals are met.

People-oriented leader behaviors- (also called consideration) include showing concern for employee
feelings and treating employees with respect. People-oriented leaders genuinely care about the well-
being of their employees and they demonstrate their concern in their actions and decisions.
5. Contingency Approaches to Leadership styles

Contingency- A theory meaning one thing depends on other things.

The contingency approaches to leadership describe the role the situation would play in choosing the most
effective leadership style.

Fiedlers contingency model- The earliest and one of the most influential contingency theories was
developed by Frederick Fiedler. A model designed to diagnose whether a leader is task-oriented or
relationship oriented and match leader style to the situation.

Situational Theory- Hersey and Blanchards extension of the Leadership Grid focusing on the
characteristics of followers as the important element of the situation, and consequently, of determining
effective leader behavior.

Path-Goal Theory- A contingency approach to leadership in which the leaders responsibility is to

increase subordinates motivation by clarifying the behaviors necessary for task accomplishment and

The Vroom-Jago Contingency Model- A contingency model that focuses on varying degrees of
participative leadership, and how each level of participation influences quality and accountability of

6. What is Controlling?

Controlling involves ensuring that performance does not deviate from standards. Controlling is one of the
managerial functions and it is an important element of the management process. After the planning, organising,
staffing and directing have been carried out, the final managerial function of controlling assures that the activities
planned are being accomplished or not. Control can be defined as "that function of the system that adjusts
operations as needed to achieve the plan, or to maintain variations from system objectives within allowable
limits". The control subsystem functions in close harmony with the operating system. The degree to which they
interact depends on the nature of the operating system and its objectives. Stability concerns a system's ability to
maintain a pattern of output without wide fluctuations. Rapidity of response pertains to the speed with which a
system can correct variations and return to expected output.

7. Importance of Controlling?

It is an important function because it helps to check the errors and to take the corrective action so that
deviation from standards are minimized and stated goals of the organization are achieved in a desired manner.

It helps to achieve the desired goals by planning. Management must, therefore, compare actual results with
pre-determined standards and take corrective action of necessary.

8. Steps in control process

Step 1. Establishment of Standard.

Standards are the criteria against which actual performance will be measured. Standards are set in both
quantitative and qualitative terms.

Step 2. Measurement of actual performance

Performance is measured in an objective and reliable manner. It should be checked in the same unit in which the
standards are set.

Step 3. Comparing actual performance with standards.

Step 4. Analysis the cause of deviations.

Step 5. Taking corrective action.

9. Types of Control
The first two types can be mapped across two dimensions: level of proactivity and outcome versus
behavioral. The following table summarizes these along with examples of what such controls might look like.

Proactivity Behavioral control Outcome control

Feedforward Organizational culture Market demand or economic forecasts


Concurrent Hands-on management supervision The real-time speed of a production line

control during a project

Feedback control Qualitative measures of customer Financial measures such as profitability,

satisfaction sales growth


Proactivity can be defined as the monitoring of problems in a way that provides their timely prevention, rather than after
the fact reaction.

Feedforward control- it addresses what can we do ahead of time to help our plan succeed. The essence of
feedforward control is to see the problems coming in time to do something about them. For instance, feedforward
controls include preventive maintenance on machinery and equipment and due diligence on investments.
Concurrent Controls- The process of monitoring and adjusting ongoing activities and processes is known as
concurrent control. Such controls are not necessarily proactive, but they can prevent problems from becoming
worse. For this reason, we often describe concurrent control as real-time control because it deals with the present.
feedback controls- involve gathering information about a completed activity, evaluating that information, and
taking steps to improve the similar activities in the future. This is the least proactive of controls and is generally a
basis for reactions. Feedback controls permit managers to use information on past performance to bring future
performance in line with planned objectives.


Outcome controls- are generally preferable when just one or two performance measures (say, return on
investment or return on assets) are good gauges of a businesss health. Outcome controls are effective when
theres little external interference between managerial decision making on the one hand and business
performance on the other. It also helps if little or no coordination with other business units exists.
Behavioral controls- involve the direct evaluation of managerial and employee decision making, not of the
results of managerial decisions. Behavioral controls tie rewards to a broader range of criteria, such as those
identified in the Balanced Scorecard. Behavioral controls and commensurate rewards are typically more
appropriate when there are many external and internal factors that can affect the relationship between a
managers decisions and organizational performance.
Finally, across the different types of controls in terms of level of proactivity and outcome versus
behavioral, it is important to recognize that controls can take on one of two predominant forms: financial
and nonfinancial controls.

Financial control involves the management of a firms costs and expenses to control them in relation to
budgeted amounts. Thus, management determines which aspects of its financial condition, such as assets, sales,
or profitability, are most important, tries to forecast them through budgets, and then compares actual
performance to budgeted performance. At a strategic level, total sales and indicators of profitability would be
relevant strategic controls.

Nonfinancial controls track aspects of the organization that arent immediately financial in nature but are
expected to lead to positive performance outcomes. The theory behind such nonfinancial controls is that they
should provide managers with a glimpse of the organizations progress well before financial outcomes can be

10. Components of organizational control systems

Organizational control systems allow executives to track how well the organization is performing, identify
areas of concern, and then take action to address the concerns.

Organizational control sub-systems

o Strategic plan- is an organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions
on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy.

o Long range plan

o Annual operating budget

o Statistical reports

o Performance appraisal- also referred to as a performance review, performance evaluation, (career)

development discussion, or employee appraisal is a method by which the job performance of an
employee is documented and evaluated.

o Policies and procedures

o Cultural control

o Objectives- measurable reference point (target) for corrective action

o Standards- guidepost on the way on achieving objectives

o Evaluation reward system- measure and reward individual and team contributions to attaining
organizational objectives

o Strategic control

o Identifying control problems

11. Strategic control system

Strategic control involves tracking a strategy as it's being implemented. It's also concerned with detecting
problems or changes in the strategy and making necessary adjustments. As a manager, you tend to ask yourself
questions, such as whether the company is moving in the right direction, or whether your assumptions about
major trends and changes in the company's environment are correct. Such questions necessitate the establishment
of strategic control

Premise Control

Every strategy is based on certain planning premises or predictions. Premise control is designed to check
methodically and constantly whether the premises on which a strategy is grounded on are still valid. If you
discover that an important premise is no longer valid, the strategy may have to be changed. The sooner you
recognize and reject an invalid premise, the better. This is because the strategy can be adjusted to reflect the

Special Alert Control

A special alert control is the rigorous and rapid reassessment of an organization's strategy because of the
occurrence of an immediate, unforeseen event. An example of such event is the acquisition of your competitor by
an outsider. Such an event will trigger an immediate and intense reassessment of the firm's strategy. Form crisis
teams to handle your company's initial response to the unforeseen events.

Implementation Control

Implementing a strategy takes place as a series of steps, activities, investments and acts that occur over a lengthy
period. As a manager, you'll mobilize resources, carry out special projects and employ or reassign staff.
Implementation control is the type of strategic control that must be carried out as events unfold. There are two
types of implementation controls: strategic thrusts or projects, and milestone reviews. Strategic thrusts provide
you with information that helps you determine whether the overall strategy is shaping up as planned. With
milestone reviews, you monitor the progress of the strategy at various intervals or milestones.

Strategic Surveillance

Strategic surveillance is designed to observe a wide range of events within and outside your organization that are
likely to affect the track of your organization's strategy. It's based on the idea that you can uncover important yet
unanticipated information by monitoring multiple information sources. Such sources include trade magazines,
journals such as The Wall Street Journal, trade conferences, conversations and observations.

12. Identifying control problems

Recognition for control is one thing but implementing is another. Kreitner mentioned three approaches in
identifying control problems
Executive Reality Check- From the term reality check itself. Executives (the top-level managers)
periodically work in the trenches to increase their awareness of operations. These not only alert
top managers to control problems but also foster empathy for lower-level employees problems and
Comprehensive Internal Audit- Not only external auditing are needed (these verifies an
organizations financial records and reports and are always performed by Certified Public
Accountants) but also internal audits, of which determines the efficiency and effectivity of the
activities of an organization. Internal audit can identify weak spots and problems in the
organizational control system. Internal auditing is the independent appraisal of the various
operations and systems control within an organization to determine whether acceptable policies and
procedure are followed, established standards are met, resources are used efficiently and
economically, planned missions are accomplished effectively, and the organizations objectives are
being achieved.
General Checklist of Symptoms of Inadequate Control- If there are no internal auditors, the use of a
checklist for symptoms of inadequate control may be used. The following are the list of the common
symptoms as follows:
o An unexplained decline in revenues and profits
o A degradation of service (customer complaints)
o Employee dissatisfaction (complaints, grievances, turnover)
o Cash shortages caused by bloated inventories or delinquent accounts receivable
o Idle facilities or personnel
o Disorganized operations (work flow bottlenecks, excessive paperwork)
o Excessive cost
o Evidence of waste and inefficiency (scrap, rework)
It must be noted that behind every symptom is a problem waiting to be solved.