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User's Manual
From the CAdvantagE Library
TM
TM
S Y S T E M S , I N C .
CAEPIPE User’s Manual, Version 5.1J, ©2003, SST Systems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Disclaimer
Please read the following carefully:
This software and this manual have been developed and checked for correctness and
accuracy by SST Systems, Inc. However, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the
authors or by SST Systems, Inc., as to the accuracy and correctness of the manual or the
functioning of the software and the accuracy, correctness and utilization of its calculations.
Users must carry out all necessary tests to assure the proper functioning of the software
and the applicability of its results. All information presented by the software is for review,
interpretation, approval and application by a Registered Professional Engineer.
CAEPIPE and CAdvantagE are trademarks of SST Systems, Inc. All other product names
mentioned in this document are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective
companies / holders.
SST Systems, Inc.
1641 N. First Street, Suite 275
San Jose, California 95112
Tel: (408) 4528111
Fax: (408) 4528388
Email: info@sstusa.com
www.sstusa.com
SST Systems, Inc.
1798 Technology Drive, Ste. 236
San Jose, CA 95110, USA
Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Menus
Main Window Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Layout Window Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Misc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Graphics Window Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Results Window Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Reference
Anchor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Ball Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Bellows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Branch SIF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Buried Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Cold Spring (Cut Pipe) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Comment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Concentrated Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Constant support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Data types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Dynamic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Dynamic Susceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Elastic Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Flange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
i
Contents
Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Force spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
From (Node) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Graphics Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Hanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Hinge joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Hydrotest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Jacket End Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Jacketed Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Layout Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Limit Stop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Local Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Missing Mass Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Miter Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Nonlinearities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Reducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Restraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Results Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Rigid element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Rod hanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Skewed Restraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Slip joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Snubber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Spider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Tie rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
User hanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
User SIF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Weld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
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Contents
Appendices
A Code Compliance
B31.1 (2001) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
B31.1 (1967) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
B31.3 (1999) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
B31.4 (1998) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
B31.5 (1992) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
B31.8 (1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
ASME (1980) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
ASME (1986) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
ASME (1992) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
BS 806 (1986) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
EN 13480 (2002) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Norwegian (1983) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Norwegian (1990) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
RCCM (1985) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
CODETI (1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Stoomwezen (1989) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Swedish (1978) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Z183 (1990) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Z184 (1992) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
FRP Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
B Rotating Equipment Reports
API 610 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
NEMA SM23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
API 617 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
C Import / Export
Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
D Nozzle Stiffness Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
E Dynamic Susceptibility Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
iii
Introduction
Thank you for choosing CAEPIPE (pronounced kpipe). CAEPIPE is a versatile program
for solving a variety of piping design and analysis problems in several industries such as
energy, process and aerospace.
CAEPIPE performs linear and nonlinear static and dynamic analyses of piping systems by
imposing a variety of loads such as dead weight, thermal, seismic, wind, spectrum, time
history, harmonic, etc., and checks for code compliance (ASME, B31, European, Swedish,
API 610, etc.). It calculates displacements, forces, stresses, etc., in the piping system and
produces concise, formatted reports.
CAEPIPE opens up to four windows simultaneously to provide you feedback on different
aspects of the model. Extensive graphical display capabilities to zoom, pan and rotate the
image and see the model from different viewpoints make the program very useful. CAEPIPE
uses the industry standard OpenGL
®
to render images realistically for easy visualization. As
the model is input and modified, CAEPIPE updates graphics simultaneously to give visual
feedback. It animates deflected and mode shapes and shows colorcoded stress contours.
CAEPIPE is a veritable powerhouse in terms of its speed of operation. It uses advanced
Windows programming techniques such as intelligent repainting, scroll box tracking,
multithreading, memorymapped files for faster data access, among others, to make your
job easier and faster. Also, every effort is made to keep the program and data file sizes
small.
Many thoughtful and useful details in the program allow you to work more productively. For
example, you can annotate your model with copious comments to enhance documentation
of the model, or duplicate repetitive input or rotate sections of the model with one operation.
CAEPIPE does not confuse you with unnecessary buttons on a toolbar, which contains only
the most frequently performed tasks. The keyboard shortcuts, too, are designed to make
you more efficient and effective.
Overall, CAEPIPE stands peerless in the field of piping design and stress analysis field. We
want you to benefit from it by making full use of the software’s features by exploring the
program and contacting our friendly and knowledgeable support staff.
If you have questions or comments, please email them to: support@sstusa.com
Three sections make up this User’s Manual:
1. Explanation of menus from the different CAEPIPE windows,
2. An alphabetically arranged technical Reference section, and
3. Appendices with related useful information.
The manual ends with an index.
1
Installation
Installing CAEPIPE is easy. Two important tasks need to be done after you connect the
hardware key securely to an LPT port or a USB port of your computer.
1. Install the hardware key driver and server (from Rainbow Technologies).
2. Install CAEPIPE.
CAEPIPE software is distributed on a Compact Disc. In addition to the software required
for step 1 above, the disc also contains other helpful material such as answers to frequently
asked questions (FAQ), CAEPIPE Information document, CAEPIPE Tutorial, utilities such as
a hardware key finder, etc. Feel free to browse through the contents and install whichever
is required, or contact our support staff for assistance.
When you insert the CAEPIPE CD (or Autoplay the CD), you will see a window similar to
that shown below on the left. Click on the CAEPIPE button. You will be shown another
window similar to that shown below on the right.
After you install the hardware key driver, you should install CAEPIPE software by clicking
on the Install CAEPIPE button.
You will now see the following interactive screens one after another where you are asked
the usual installation questions. Respond appropriately.
You must accept the terms of the License agreement by clicking on Yes before proceeding.
2
Installation
We recommend installing to the default folder shown as shown below on the left. If you
have previous installations of CAEPIPE, it will be helpful to name the Start menu folder
differently for each new version (e.g., CAEPIPE510J for version 5.10J) as shown below on
the right.
Once you have picked your choices, you can now begin installing or use the Back button to
return to previous screens to change your choices. Once you click on Install here, CAEPIPE
will be installed.
After installation, you can execute CAEPIPE by double clicking on the Desktop icon or by
selecting CAEPIPE from the CAEPIPE510J folder on the Start menu.
To uninstall CAEPIPE from your computer, select Uninstall CAEPIPE from the CAEPIPE510J
folder on the Start menu.
3
Menus
This section explains the commands under the different menus in the four CAEPIPE
windows: Layout, Graphics, List and Results. Each is an independent window with its own
menu and toolbar.
Some of the commands have keyboard shortcuts. They are shown in the online Help.
The menu items (commands) are shown as
Command Command
For the dialogs, the tabs are shown as
Tab
and the buttons are shown as
Button Button
Main Window File Menu
The Main window is the first window you encounter when you start CAEPIPE.
File Menu
This menu contains commands to open files and set user preferences.
Open last model (Enter) Open last model (Enter)
This command can be quite useful when you need to open repeatedly the same model.
Simply pressing Enter from the Main window will open the model for you. There is no
need to go through the Open File dialog.
Import Import
You can import a CAEPIPE model batch file (.mbf) by using this command.
5
Main Window File Menu
Preferences Preferences
Use this command to set your preferences for automatic saving and backup of the model,
setting text and graphics fonts and toolbar preferences.
Preferences command has three tabs  Backup, Fonts and Toolbar.
Backup
Make backup copy
With this checked, everytime you save your model, the previously saved model data is
copied to another file (backup file) that is named model.bak. You can select the location
where you want these files saved (click on Folder). Rename the file to somename.mod
before opening it in CAEPIPE.
Automatic Save
With this checked, and a time interval value entered, CAEPIPE will periodically save model
data to a file named model.sav, in the directory pointed to by Folder. A new model will be
saved to untitled.sav.
In the event of a computer system crash, the most recently saved data can be retrieved.
Locate the file (model.sav), rename it to somename.mod, before opening it in CAEPIPE.
Folder Folder
Select any folder to which you (as a user) have write permission. <Default> points to the
folder in which the model file (.MOD) that you open is located.
Example: You can create a new folder called CAEPIPE.BAK and specify it as backup & save
folder, so that all backups (.bak) and timed saves (.sav) will be written to this folder.
6
Main Window File Menu
Fonts
Text Text
Select a font face and size to use inside all CAEPIPE text windows (Layout, List and Results).
Graphics Graphics
Select a font face and size to use inside the Graphics window.
Toolbar
Show
You may choose to display or not display the toolbar in CAEPIPE windows.
Large buttons
There are two sizes for toolbar buttons. Selecting this command will show the toolbar with
large buttons.
7
Main Window Help Menu
Help Menu
From any CAEPIPE window  Main, Layout, List, Graphics or Results, you have access to
the same Help menu.
Help Help
Clicking on Help command opens the CAEPIPE online help file inside which you should
find this document that you are reading.
Tutorial Tutorial
The CAEPIPE Tutorial is available separately as an Adobe Acrobat (PDF) file. If Tutorial.pdf
is not inside your CAEPIPE program folder, then either visit our web site www.sstusa.com
or contact us at info@sstusa.com to get a copy.
About About
The About command is the accurate indicator of the CAEPIPE version and the hardware key
number you are using. Our support staff might ask for this information when you contact
them for support.
Also from the About dialog, you can access the SST web site by clicking on www.sstusa.com
and send Email to SST Support by clicking on support@sstusa.com
8
Layout Window File Menu
File Menu
This menu contains commands for standard file operations with a few special ones to note:
Open (Ctrl+O) Open (Ctrl+O)
You can open the following CAEPIPE file types from the Open menu.
1. Model files (*.mod)
2. Results files (*.res)
3. Material Library files (*.mat)
4. Material Library files (*.mdb) [old format]
5. Spectrum Library files (*.spe)
Open Results Open Results
The Results files (*.res) are opened using the menu File > Open Results. The corresponding
model file (.mod) must be present in the same directory as the results file (.res). For your
convenience, the Open Results dialog shows the results file for the currently opened model
if it is already analyzed, if not, the name of the last opened results file is filled in the name
field.
9
Layout Window File Menu
Export Export
Presently you can only export the model data to CAEPIPE’s neutral file format (called a
model batch file, .mbf).
10
Layout Window File Menu
Print Model (Ctrl+P) Print Model (Ctrl+P)
From here, you can print the model input data (under the Model tab), and change printer
settings (under the Printer tab). You can customize the look of your report/printout by
changing the font and page sizes/margins, etc.
You could change the selected printer and customize other settings in the Printer tab (shown
next).
11
Layout Window File Menu
Analyze Analyze
Once you are done modeling, use this command to analyze the model. At the end of
analysis, you are asked whether you want to "View results?" Click on OK or Cancel.
QA Block QA Block
Type in projectspecific information here. This information cannot be modified in the Results
window however it can be printed in Results.
12
Layout Window Edit Menu
Edit Menu
Using this menu, you can edit properties for elements (under Type column) and data items
(under Data column), insert and delete rows, split an element, rotate and renumber parts
of the model, change a few properties like friction coefficient for a range of rows, and
generate copies of existing rows.
Edit type (Ctrl+T) Edit type (Ctrl+T)
Double click on the element in the Type column or press Ctrl+T to edit properties (if
applicable) of an element (bend, valve, etc.). The appropriate dialog is shown.
Edit data (Ctrl+D) Edit data (Ctrl+D)
Double click on the Data item or press Ctrl+D to edit properties (if applicable) of the item
(flange, anchor, etc.). The appropriate dialog is shown.
Insert (Ctrl+Ins) Insert (Ctrl+Ins)
Use Ctrl+Ins to insert an empty row above the present highlighted row in the Layout
window. This command is also available from the context menu (by right clicking), in the
Offsets (DX, DY, DZ) columns.
13
Layout Window Edit Menu
Delete (Ctrl+X) Delete (Ctrl+X)
Use Ctrl+X on a row to delete it. To delete a range of rows, you must select the Delete
command from the Edit menu, and then type the row numbers to set the range for deletion.
If you want to delete till the end of the model, either type in a big number for "To #" such
as 9999 or type in the number (of rows) shown in the title bar in parentheses.
This command is also available from the context menu (by right clicking), in the Offsets
(DX, DY, DZ) columns.
Split Split
Use this command to split a straight element or the straight portion of a bend into two parts.
This can be useful to create nodes for supports or applying forces at intermediate locations.
To split curved portions of bends (including jacketed bends), specify intermediate nodes at
desired angles in the bend dialog. This command is also available from the context menu
by right clicking on the Offsets (DX, DY, DZ) columns.
When you have a long sloping pipe, you can create one long element with the slope built
into it and use the Split command to break it down into smaller elements. Or you could use
the Slope command.
14
Layout Window Edit Menu
Slope Slope
You can specify the slope of the line you want to model for an element, in terms of its
direction cosines (DCs).
The main function is to calculate automatically the offsets for a sloping element (that is
not aligned along one of the major global axes). When a pipe slopes (or is routed at an
angle) with respect to the global axes, it becomes necessary to calculate the offsets (DX,
DY and DZ) using those faithful sine and cosine functions. But, therein lies the problem.
Sometimes, calculations might get tricky and timeconsuming.
Let us see a few examples.
Example 1: A 20° line in the XZ plane, 10 feet long
Method 1:
Calculate the offsets:
DX = 10 cosine (20) = 9.4 (ft.), DZ = 10 sine (20) = 3.42 (ft.). Simple!
Method 2:
Find direction cosines (DCs) for the line (vector). Direction cosines are simply cosines of
the angles the vector makes with the global X, Y and Zaxes. In this case, A=20° (X),
B=90° (Y), C=70° (Z). Cosines of these angles are: X comp=0.94, Y comp=0, Z comp=0.342.
Now, position the cursor on the sloping element row, right click under DX/DY/DZ. Select
Slope from the menu, enter these numbers into the X comp, Y comp and the Z comp
fields of the Slope dialog that opens up, and type the length, 10 ft. Press Enter. CAEPIPE
calculates the respective offsets using the DCs you input.
Once you input the slope, follow this pipe with other elements down the line by inputting
different lengths while you retain the same direction cosines.
Example 2: A 40° line in the X(Y) plane
Method 2:
Find direction cosines, if the line is at 40 deg. to Xaxis in X(Y) plane, it makes 50° with the
(Y) axis. So, the DCs are: cos (40°) = 0.766, cos (50°) = 0.643, So, X comp = 0.766, Y comp
= 0.643, Z comp = 0.0. Type these DCs and a length into the Slope dialog. Press Enter.
More information about Direction cosines is available under the section on Direction
(Reference).
15
Layout Window Edit Menu
Rotate Rotate
You can rotate a model or a part of it about the global axes. CAEPIPE will adjust the offsets
for new orientation.
Example
Let us rotate the branch line of the familiar Sample model. The branch line is between
nodes 30 to 80 (rows 8 to 11 in the Layout window). Say, we wanted this branch line to be
routed in the X direction (i.e., it has to be rotated 180°).
16
Layout Window Edit Menu
Select Rotate from the Edit menu and type in the shown values.
Notice the rotated offsets (now they are in the X direction).
One thing to note: The valve additional weight is shown in the negative direction because
of the rotation. If you need to make it positive, edit the Valve (Ctrl+T) properties and
change the DY offset for it from 18 to 18 inches.
17
Layout Window Edit Menu
Change Change
Use this command for block operations such as changing a friction coefficient for all guides
and limit stops within a range of rows, or changing the material, section or load for a range
of rows. You are asked for the range when you select this command from the Edit menu.
18
Layout Window Edit Menu
Renumber Nodes Renumber Nodes
You can renumber existing node numbers in your model using this handy feature. It
becomes really useful when you have a big model and want to adopt a consistent node
numbering system throughout after multiple edits. You can renumber all or parts of the
system.
Before using this feature, please make a copy of your model and work on the copy.
Example
Assume that for the CAEPIPE Sample model, you wanted to change the node numbers for
the header to begin from 100, and the branch line to begin from 1000. This can be easily
done.
1. Changing header node numbers:
Select the menu Edit > Renumber nodes. The Renumber Nodes dialog will open. In the
dialog, type in:
• 2 and 6 for From Row# and To Row#,
• 100 for Starting node number and
• 10 for Increase node numbers by.
Press Enter (or click on OK) and CAEPIPE changes the node numbers.
19
Layout Window Edit Menu
2. Changing branch line numbering:
Again, use the menu Edit > Renumber nodes, in the Renumber Nodes dialog, type in
• 8 and 11 for From Row# and To Row#,
• 1000 for Starting node number and
• 10 for Increase node numbers by.
Press Enter (or click on OK) and CAEPIPE changes the node numbers.
The final layout looks like the following. Note that CAEPIPE tracks all occurrences of a
specific node number (e.g., 1000, the hanger node, occurs on two rows 4 and 8) throughout
the model so you do not have to remember to change every occurrence of the same node
number in multiple places in your model.
Other reasons you may want to use the Renumbering feature:
1. In a big model, multiple edits sometimes bring about confusing node numbering. Use
this feature to organize the numbering system.
2. You may need to follow a system for numbering just to make parts of the system easily
recognizable; all branch lines could get node numbers greater than 1000, all bypass lines
could get node numbers greater than 5000, and so on.
20
Layout Window Edit Menu
Generate Generate
This command allows you to generate copies of all or parts of the model while taking care
of node numbering and offsets. This is a powerful feature that makes you more productive
while modeling. Its power is best illustrated by an example.
Example 1:
Assume that we want to go from the first figure to the second figure. There are two ways to
reach the end result. The first is by modeling each and every line like shown in the second
figure. The second is the faster way using the Generate command, as you will see.
21
Layout Window Edit Menu
Summary of using the Generate command for the example:
1. First identify the part of the model that repeats and model it. In this case, it is the part
comprising of nodes 40 to 70 (rows 5 to 8).
2. Next, use the Generate command to create four additional branches, each starting with
say 140, 240, 340 and 440 (these node numbers could be any numbers).
3. Then, create one connecting element (from node 40 to 140).
4. Further generate three additional connecting elements.
That is it. A number of figures follow to depict the above process pictorially.
The above window shows the layout for the starting point of the model. Use the Generate
command.
Notice the four sets that are generated (only the first one marked in the following figure).
22
Layout Window Edit Menu
Look at the graphics that corresponds to the above Layout window.
23
Layout Window Edit Menu
Next, create one connecting element between 40 and 140, and generate the remaining
three.
Type 40 on an empty row, Tab to Type, press "F" for "From," press Enter (rows 25 and 26
above). Now, generate the rest.
24
Layout Window Edit Menu
25
Layout Window Edit Menu
Final model is the desired result. So, as you saw, Generate command allowed us to create
four branch lines from one existing line in three operations.
Example 2:
See example under Beam section in Reference: (Example 1: Pipe Rack using Beams) p. 107.
Regenerate Regenerate
Sometimes, owing to multiple edits, the model may be in an indeterminate stage. If you
have made many edits, use this command to regenerate the model which will reinterpret
the input and bring the model to a consistent state.
Duplicate Last Row (Ctrl+Enter) Duplicate Last Row (Ctrl+Enter)
This is another handy feature that increases your productivity. For those rows that repeat
themselves (except for node number), this is a time saver. This is useful in modeling pipe
racks or straight runs of pipe. Simply input all data on to a row and press Ctrl+Enter to
duplicate this row on to the next with the node number automatically incremented.
A Location/Comment/Hydrotest row cannot be duplicated. Neither can an inserted row
between two existing rows. This command works only on new empty rows at the end of
the model. If you press Ctrl+Enter right after a Location/Comment/Hydrotest row. CAEPIPE
will duplicate the row before the Location/Comment/Hydrotest row.
26
Layout Window View Menu
View Menu
A few Graphics window commands can be carried out from here.
Graphics (F2) Graphics (F2)
Use this command to move focus to the Graphics window. If the window is not open, then
F2 will open the Graphics window and move focus to it.
Viewpoint (F4) Viewpoint (F4)
Use this command to set the graphics viewpoint. Several useful buttons inside the dialog
allow you to change viewpoint to a preset one. For example, if you want to see the "plan"
view (Yvertical), click on "Y view" button.
Previous View (F5) Previous View (F5)
Use this command to display the previously viewed graphics image in the Graphics window.
The last used zoom level and area of the image are brought back into view.
Zoom All (Ctrl+A) Zoom All (Ctrl+A)
Use this command to view the whole model inside the Graphics window. Note that this
command does not move focus to the Graphics window but brings the whole model
graphics into view.
List (Ctrl+L) List (Ctrl+L)
This is one of CAEPIPE’s unique features that allows you to view itemized lists of every
input data (pipes, bends, materials, valves, spectra, etc.) in a separate window. See more
detailed explanation under the section List Window in Reference.
27
Layout Window View Menu
Find Node (Ctrl+F) Find Node (Ctrl+F)
Use this command to search for a node number inside this window.
28
Layout Window Options Menu
Options Menu
This menu allows you to specify analysis options, units, font and the node number increment
(for automatic generation of the next node number while inputting a model).
Analysis Analysis
The Analysis Options dialog is shown. Here you can specify analysis options related to
piping codes, temperature, pressure, dynamic analysis, etc., in various tabs of the dialog.
Code
On this tab you can choose the piping code and also set options for that piping code.
Piping code
The piping code can be selected from the "Piping code" dropdown combo box. The
following piping codes are available:
• None
• B31.1
• B31.1 (1967)
• B31.3
• B31.4
• B31.5
• B31.8
• ASME Section III Class 2 (1980, 1986 and 1992)
• BS 806 (British)
29
Layout Window Options Menu
• EN 13480 (European)
• Norwegian (1983 and 1990)
• RCCM (French)
• CODETI (French)
• Stoomwezen (Dutch)
• Swedish
• Z183 (Canadian)
• Z184 (Canadian)
Notes:
• When the selected piping code is "None," a static analysis load case, which includes
weight, pressure, thermal, cold spring and static seismic loads, all applied at the same
time, is available for analysis.
• For some piping codes, you need to select an additional option (e.g., Design Factor for
B31.8, equation level for ASME and RCCM, Location Factor for Z183 and Z184). These
are shown below.
30
Layout Window Options Menu
Include axial force in stress calculations
By checking or unchecking this box, you include or exclude axial force in stress calculations
(F/A term). This option applies to all stresses (Sustained, Occasional and Expansion). This
option is given here since some piping codes do not clearly state the axial term’s inclusion.
When this is included, the axial term F/A (where F=axial load, A=Pipe crosssectional area),
is included in calculation of all stress equations, S
L
, S
O
and S
E
.
Use Liberal Allowable Stresses
For B31.1, B31.1(1967), B31.3, B31.5 and CODETI piping codes, the allowable expansion
stress may be increased by a difference between the allowable sustained stress and the
actual sustained stress times the stress range reduction factor. See Thermal Expansion Stress
Range or equivalent under each piping code in Appendix A.
A piping code committee member opines: Perhaps the term "liberal allowable" is not the
best to describe the allowable. The allowable stress in B31.1 Eq. 13, i.e., S
A
+f(S
h
−S
L
),
can be used anytime. The only prerequisite is knowing the S
L
stresses, which will only be
the case after the supports are known or implicit. The Eq. 1 allowable stress, S
A
, is the
allowable stress traditionally used in the flexibility analysis when no supports other than
the equipment anchors are known. The flexibility analysis is used to determine whether
the layout of piping between the equipment anchors is adequate. The displacements
determined in the flexibility analysis will allow the designer to devise the pipe weight
supports to interfere with the flexibility of the pipe as little as possible, i.e., the designer will
use rigid supports where the piping does not move much, use variable springs where the
piping moves a small amount (most typically 1/4" to 4"), and use constant springs where
the movement is great (again, typically over 4"). For lateral loads the same concept as used
for the pipe weight supports is used for the lateral supports, i.e., if lateral displacements are
small, rigid supports may be used, for larger lateral movements, gapped or shock suppressor
supports are used (although shock suppressor supports require considerable maintenance
attention and in the long run are usually not preferable to gapped supports).
31
Layout Window Options Menu
Temperature
On this tab you can set options related to thermal loads.
Reference Temperature
Type in the reference temperature here. It is usually 70° F (21.1° C). This temperature is
used for a few things. One, it is used to lookup the material properties table for the value
of the cold modulus (cold = Reference). Two, this temperature’s corresponding coefficient
of thermal expansion is used for thermal expansion range calculations [e.g., T1 – T2 = (T1
– Tref) – (T2 – Tref)].
Number of Thermal cycles
The number of thermal cycles is used to determine the stress range reduction factor, f,
which is used to reduce the allowable expansion stress range, S
A
.
Number of Cycles Factor (f)
7,000 and less 1.0
Over 7,000 to 14,000 0.9
Over 14,000 to 22,000 0.8
Over 22,000 to 45,000 0.7
Over 45,000 to 100,000 0.6
Over 100,000 0.5
The typical equation for calculating thermal expansion stress range (e.g., for (B31.1) code)
is:
S
A
= f(1.25S
c
+ 0.25S
h
)
where
S
c
= allowable stress at cold temperature
S
h
= hot allowable stress
f = stress range reduction factor (from the above table).
32
Layout Window Options Menu
Number of Thermal Loads
The number of thermal loads is selected here. Up to three temperature loads may be
applied as part of Load (along with three pressures). The actual temperatures and pressures
are entered under Load. See Load in Reference.
Thermal = Operating – Sustained
Thermal load case results can be calculated as the difference between the Operating and
the Sustained load cases, i.e., the thermal load case is not solved independently. This is the
recommended procedure to solve thermal cases (T1, T2, T3) especially when nonlinearities
(limit stops, friction, etc.) are present.
Solve Thermal case
Results for the thermal load case are obtained from solving this case independently.
Elastic Modulus
The elastic modulus of the materials may be used at the reference temperature (Cold
modulus, recommended for code compliance calculations) or temperature dependent
modulus (Hot modulus) may be used for support load calculations for Sustained and
Operating load cases. Cold modulus is always used for the thermal load case.
33
Layout Window Options Menu
Pressure
On this tab you can set options related to pressure loads.
Pressure Stress
The longitudinal pressure stress may be calculated as:
pD/4t or pd
2
/(D
2
−d
2
)
Peak Pressure Factor
For occasional loads (seismic, spectrum and wind), the longitudinal pressure stress (in
pD/4t) is multiplied by this factor.
Bourdon Effect
Bourdon effect is the tendency of straight pipes to elongate and bends to straighten due
to internal pressure. This may be included or excluded from the analysis by checking or
unchecking the box.
By default this effect is treated as an expansion load and included in the expansion and
operating load cases. It is not applied in the sustained and occasional load cases.
If the environment variable "BOURDONP" is set, the Bourdon effect is treated as sustained
load and included in the sustained and operating load cases. It is not applied in the
expansion load cases.
For a straight pipe, the following equation is used.
Pressure deflection =
Pressure ×r
m
×L ×(1 −2ν)
2 ×E ×t
Where
r
m
= mean radius of the pipe
L = length of the pipe
ν = Poisson’s Ratio
E = Elastic Modulus (Axial modulus in the case of FRP pipes)
t = pipe thickness
34
Layout Window Options Menu
Pressure Correction for Bends (Pressure stiffening effect)
Pressure correction for bends is specified separately and is unaffected by Bourdon effect.
In large diameter thinwall bends, pressure can significantly affect the flexibility and SIF. If
pressure correction for bends is used: the Flexibility of the bend is divided by
1 + 6
P
E
r
t
7/3
R
r
1/3
and the SIF for the bend is divided by
1 + 3.25
P
E
r
t
5/2
R
r
2/3
Where
P = pressure
E = elastic modulus
r = mean radius of matching pipe
t = nominal wall thickness
R = bend radius
Pressure correction decreases the flexibility of the piping system (by increasing the stiffness
of the system because of the stiffened elbows). Hence, the system frequencies (in modal
analysis) tend to increase.
35
Layout Window Options Menu
Dynamics
On this tab you can set options related to dynamic analysis.
Cutoff Frequency
The modal analysis will terminate either when the number of modes requested has been
extracted or when the frequency (in Hz) exceeds the cutoff frequency value, whichever
occurs first. Typical value for cutoff frequency is 33 Hz, which is reasonable for earthquake
analysis. The maximum frequency you can input is 9999 Hz.
Number of Modes
The lowest number of modes to be extracted is specified here which is used to allocate
memory for modal solution. The cutoff frequency and number of modes are used together
to arrive at the modal solution. The modal solution is stopped when the cutoff frequency is
reached or when the number of modes is reached, whichever occurs first. The maximum
number of modes that can be extracted is 999.
Include Missing Mass Correction
Missing mass correction to the response spectrum analysis can be included using this check
box.
Use Friction in Dynamic Analysis
Friction is optional in dynamic analysis. Friction is mathematically modeled by using
equivalent stiffnesses. If friction is included in dynamic analysis, the values of the equivalent
stiffnesses from the first operating case are used.
36
Layout Window Options Menu
Misc
On this tab you can set miscellaneous options.
Include Hanger stiffness
When the checkbox is checked, the hanger spring rates are added to the overall stiffness
matrix. This is recommended as it is more accurate analysis.
If the checkbox is not checked, the hanger stiffness is not include in the analysis. Some
users prefer this as it more closely matches "hand calculations."
Vertical Direction
The vertical global axis for the model may be specified as Y or Z. Be careful when you
change this setting on an existing model because all the offsets from the previous vertical
axis will be transferred to the new vertical axis.
37
Layout Window Options Menu
Units (Ctrl+U) Units (Ctrl+U)
This is one of the commands in CAEPIPE that gives you a lot of flexibility. You can set any
combination of units: English, SI or Metric, for any item. For convenience "All English," "All
SI" and "All Metric" buttons which can set all the units to that particular choice with a single
button click are available.
A few consultants in the US use stiffnesses in lb./in. but rest of the items in SI for their
international customers. The specific combination that you create is saved with the model
so you do not have to reset them every time. You could do your analysis in English units
and present your results to your client in SI units with the click of a button.
All English All English
All English units are shown below.
38
Layout Window Options Menu
All SI All SI
All SI units are shown below.
All Metric All Metric
All Metric units are shown below.
39
Layout Window Options Menu
Font Font
You can display the text in all CAEPIPE text windows (Layout, List and Results) in a font
face and size of your choice. Here, the font chosen is Letter Gothic, 9 point:
Node Increment Node Increment
You can increase your productivity by having CAEPIPE automatically increment the node
number when you model a system in CAEPIPE. You can turn this feature off by specifying
a zero (0) increment here. The default is set to 10.
40
Layout Window Loads Menu
Loads Menu
From this menu, you can specify the load cases for analysis.
Load cases Load cases
Click on this command to select the different load cases for analysis. Most of the time,
selecting a load case is as simple as checking the corresponding checkbox.
For a few others, load cases appear in this dialog only after you input the related data. For
example, to perform a Response Spectrum analysis, you need to
• First input Spectrums (under Misc menu)
• Then, select those spectrums under the menu Loads > Spectrum.
• Finally, you go into Load cases and check the box next to Response Spectrum.
As another example, the Cold Spring load cases do not show up in this dialog if you have
not input a "cut pipe" element in the layout.
Further, multiple expansion and operating load cases appear here only when you set
multiple thermal loads under Options > Analysis > Temperature in the Layout window.
41
Layout Window Loads Menu
Static Seismic Load Static Seismic Load
Use this load to apply static seismic loads (gloads) to the model. CAEPIPE applies the input
gload to the piping system mass. The seismic loads are analyzed separately for X, Y and
Z directions. The computed results (displacements, forces and moments) from each of the
three load cases are combined using Absolute sum or Square root of sum of squares (SRSS)
which is user specified. When Piping code = None is selected, only an algebraic sum is
performed.
Static seismic is an unsigned case and you will not see a sign (+ or –) in the results for this
case.
Under menu Loads > Load cases, check the box next to Static Seismic (g’s) to select this
case for analysis. This load is treated as an Occasional load.
This gload is applied only in the specified direction, i.e., a Z (gload) of 0.189 is applied
only in the Z direction, not +Z.
42
Layout Window Loads Menu
The gload can be calculated from any of the several sources available (ASCE A58.1, UBC,
etc.). Guidelines from ANSI A58.11988, "Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other
Structures" are used in the example below.
Piping is assumed to be equivalent to equipment thus giving a force coefficient, Cp as 0.3.
1. First, based on the map below (Contiguous 48 States+Alaska/Hawaii/Puerto Rico), identify
the seismic zone and its corresponding coefficient (Z).
Seismic Zone Coefficient Z
4 1.0000
3 0.7500
2 0.3750
1 0.1875
0 0.1250
2. Determine the Importance Factor, I as follows:
I = 1.5, For piping required in an emergency or piping with contents representing
significant hazard to human life
I = 1.0, For other piping
3. Calculate the acceleration (g’s) as 0.3 ×Z ×I
43
Layout Window Loads Menu
Example:
For a power plant required to operate in an emergency, located in Anchorage, Alaska,
calculate the design earthquake load coefficient for piping required to operate the plant.
1. From the map above, seismic zone is 4; from the table above, corresponding coefficient
is 1.0.
2. For piping required to operate in an emergency, the Importance factor is 1.5.
3. Calculate acceleration (g’s) as 0.3 ×1.0 ×1.5 = 0.45
The acceleration or gload, 0.45g, needs to be applied in the desired horizontal/vertical
directions.
Static Seismic Analysis
CAEPIPE computes the inertia force (as mass × acceleration for each direction and applies
it as an occasional load. From the example above, assume we applied 0.45g in X, Y and
Z directions. CAEPIPE applies an X acceleration (of 0.45g) first and solves the case. This
procedure is then applied independently to the accelerations in Y and Z directions.
The above procedure results in three sets of solutions (displacements, element forces and
support loads) to acceleration loads in X, Y and Z directions, which are typically combined
in some manner. In CAEPIPE, two directional combination methods are available: SRSS
(Square root of sum of squares) and ABS (Absolute).
In the SRSS method, displacements, element forces, and support loads from the three X, Y
and Z accelerations are squared individually and added. The square roots of these respective
sums are the displacement, element force and moment, and support load at the given node.
In the ABS method, all absolute values of displacements, element forces and moments, and
support loads are added to get the total displacements, element forces and support loads.
The occasional stresses (S
O
) are added to S
L
(Sustained stress) and shown under Occasional
stresses (S
L
+S
O
).
44
Layout Window Loads Menu
Wind Load Wind Load
You can apply wind load to all or parts of your model. This load is applied as a lumped
(concentrated force) load at the nodes (i.e., it is not a distributed load along the element). A
wind profile is required for the region in which you (plan to) have the system installed. To
exclude an element from wind loading, the Load for it should have a "No" for Wind load.
Shape factor
Input a shape factor value here. CAEPIPE uses a constant value for shape factor. See ANSI
A58.1, "Minimum Design loads for Buildings and other Structures" for more information.
Direction
Input the direction of the wind in terms of the direction cosines (examples: for wind in Z
direction, Z comp = 1; for wind in 45° XY plane, X comp=1, Y comp=1, Z comp=0). See
section on Direction in Reference.
Wind Profile
You need to input values for wind velocity or pressure at different elevations. CAEPIPE
interpolates the wind load on an element from these values based on the elevation of its
center.
Units
You can specify the units for elevation, pressure and velocity.
Wind Pressure
The wind pressure in (lb/ft
2
) is calculated as:
Wind pressure = 0.0032 × Wind velocity
2
× Shape factor
where Wind velocity is in (mph).
45
Layout Window Loads Menu
Spectrum Load Spectrum Load
The spectrum load can only be input after spectrum(s) are input (under menu Misc >
Spectrums).
X, Y and Z spectrum
Select a spectrum from the dropdown combo box, which are input in the spectrum table
for each direction.
Factor
The multiplying (scale) factor for the spectrum is input here.
Mode Sum
Pick one of three choices, SRSS (square root of sum of squares), Closely spaced or Absolute.
See section on Dynamic Analysis in Reference for more information.
Direction Sum
Pick one of two choices, SRSS (square root of sum of squares) or Absolute. See section on
Dynamic Analysis in Reference for more information.
46
Layout Window Loads Menu
Time History Load Time History Load
Any phenomenon that gives rise to loads that vary with time can be input into CAEPIPE
for time history analysis. You may hand calculate these values or use a simulation program
(such as a transient fluid flow program for fluid hammer analysis) to get the variation of
forces or moments with respect to time at different points in the piping system. These loads
are input into CAEPIPE as time functions which are later applied at the corresponding nodes
of the piping system as "Time Varying Loads."
Time functions (input under menu Misc > Time Functions) are a series of non dimensional
values versus time, which describe the variation of the forcing function with respect to time.
The actual value of the time function at any time is found by linear interpolation between
time points.
When you input a "Time Varying Load" at a node, you may apply a scale factor, if necessary,
along with the direction of the force or moment.
CAEPIPE then will apply these loads to compute the response of the piping system by
performing a time history analysis.
Various parameters for time history analysis are specified in the Time History Analysis
Control dialog.
Time step
The time step (time interval) the analysis is performed at should be typically no more than
10% (smaller the better) of the period of the highest frequency of interest, i.e., higher the
frequency, smaller the time step, e.g., for a 33 Hz maximum frequency, the time step would
be less than 0.003 seconds.
Number of time steps
The time history response is calculated for a total time (seconds) of Time step × Number
of time steps. This is how long you want to study system response. The total time may
exceed the range of available data in the time function. The time function is only a forcing
function. But, CAEPIPE can compute system response to that forcing function well after
the forcing function ceases. For example, the effect of a really heavy steam hammer could
linger on for a minute, and your forcing function data could span only 8s (seconds).
47
Layout Window Loads Menu
Output interval
The output interval is the multiple of time step at which you want CAEPIPE to save (and
later display) results. For example, assuming a time step of 0.001s, if you wanted to see
results at every 100th time step (0.1s, 0.2s, 0.3s, and so on), enter 100 for output interval.
You need to check the "Save Results" checkbox to see these time varying results which
are saved in the file model.rth. If the "Save Results" checkbox is not checked, only the
enveloped results are available and not the variation with time. Note that the .rth files may
be very large for large models with many time steps.
Damping
The damping factor expressed as a percentage (not as a fraction). Enter 5 not 0.05 for 5%
damping.
Example:
Input: Time step = 0.01s, Number of time steps: 1000, Output interval: 10, Damping: 5%,
Save Results checkbox Checked.
CAEPIPE calculates the solutions at every 0.01s up to 10s. The results are saved every 0.1s
in the .rth file for output. Note however that CAEPIPE calculates the enveloped (maximums)
results at every time step interval and not the output interval. The output interval is strictly
for display purpose in the results and does not affect analysis.
The Time Varying Load dialog is shown below:
The Time Varying Load at a node is specified in terms of its direction, units, the associated
time function and a scale factor.
48
Layout Window Loads Menu
Harmonic Load Harmonic Load
Various parameters for harmonic analysis are specified in this dialog.
Harmonic loads can be loads from any sinusoidal loading, such as from rotating equipment,
or reciprocating pumps on a pipeline. The magnitude of the loading needs to be determined
before analysis. If only one compressor is on a line, then just one harmonic load is input. If
more than one load are acting on the same line, then the phase (angle) or the separation in
timing of application of each harmonic load becomes important (for example, the two loads
may be equal and opposite to each other thus canceling out any dynamic imbalance, or the
two loads can be in the same direction, say +X and separated by 30 deg.phase angle). So,
the situation must be carefully analyzed before imposing the loads.
Damping
This factor is applied to all the modes. You need to input percent of critical damping, not
as a fraction of critical damping (Example: For 5%, enter 5, not 0.05)
Combination
Modal responses are combined using one of two methods. Choose between Root mean
square (RMS) or Absolute sum (which may be too conservative).
After you input the data here, then apply Harmonic loads at nodes of interest. Then, select
Harmonic under the menu Loads > Load cases for analysis.
The Harmonic Load dialog is shown below:
The harmonic load can be imposed as a Force (FX/FY/FZ) at a specified frequency and
phase angle. The user may be able to get more information on the harmonic loading (mass,
rpm, eccentricity, etc.) from the manufacturer of the equipment.
Harmonic response is an unsigned case and you will not see a sign (+ or ) in the results
for this case.
49
Layout Window Misc Menu
Misc Menu
A few utilities such as Check bends and connections, sundry items such as opening the
list screens for materials, sections, loads, pumps, compressors and turbines, and commands
to enter data for spectrums, time functions, etc., are among the commands on this menu.
When Piping code is set to None under menu Options > Analysis, all items from Pumps to
Soils (inclusive) are disabled.
Coordinates (Ctrl+Shft+C) Coordinates (Ctrl+Shft+C)
This command lists the coordinates of all the nodes (including internally generated nodes
such as A, B nodes) in the model.
50
Layout Window Misc Menu
Straight line distance between two nodes can be found by using the menu View > Distance
command (Ctrl+D) in the coordinates window.
Element types (Ctrl+Shft+T) Element types (Ctrl+Shft+T)
/
Data types (Ctrl+Shft+D) Data types (Ctrl+Shft+D)
You can open these dialogs that contain the different elements or data items you can input
at a node. You can also open the same dialogs by clicking on the header row in the Layout
window or right clicking in the Type or Data column on an empty row.
More information about these commands is available under Layout Window in Reference.
Check Bends Check Bends
Incorrectly and incompletely modeled bends are identified by CAEPIPE when you select
this command. Such bends must be corrected before models can be analyzed.
Case 1 (Incorrect modeling)
An "Invalid Bend" occurs if the bend geometry is input incorrectly in the layout. For
example, for 90° bends, the bend radius should be less than or equal to the shorter of the
lengths (from the previous node to the bend node or from the bend node to the next node).
51
Layout Window Misc Menu
Case 2 (Incomplete modeling)
A bend needs to be given a change in direction from the previous direction on the row
below it. If this change is either not specified or incorrectly specified, CAEPIPE flags this
bend as an invalid bend. An example follows.
When you select the Check bends command under the Misc menu, you get the following
message for this model.
52
Layout Window Misc Menu
By studying the image and the Layout window above, you can see that the bend at node 20
turns from X direction into Z direction, and the bend at node 30 turns from Z direction into
Y direction. But, the bend at node 40 incorrectly turns from Y direction into Y direction. To
correct this, this bend needs to turn into any direction other than Y. The following screen
shots show the correction. The bend at node 40 now turns into Z direction.
When you run the same Check bends command again, you get the following message.
53
Layout Window Misc Menu
Check Connections Check Connections
Use this command to check for missing connections between pipes. By studying the
following two figures, can you identify what is wrong with the modeling? Check connections
command will.
By studying the previous Layout window, you will notice that even though node 50 seems
to be on the header (node 10 to node 25), it actually is not. Node 10 connects directly to
node 20 which connects to node 25. The loop begins from node 20 and goes up to node
50. But 50 is not defined on the header. So, there is no connection between the loop and
the header.
54
Layout Window Misc Menu
When you run the Check connections command, you get the following message.
So, you might want to run this command on complicated models with loops just to ensure
that all such connections are properly modeled.
Corrected modeling is shown next. Notice that node 50 is now defined as part of the header
from node 10 to node 25.
Materials, Sections and Loads Materials, Sections and Loads
Please see the respective sections with the same titles in Reference.
Beam Materials, Beam Sections and Beam Loads Beam Materials, Beam Sections and Beam Loads
These three can be found under Beam in Reference.
Pumps, Compressors and Turbines Pumps, Compressors and Turbines
Please see the respective section with the same title in Reference.
55
Layout Window Misc Menu
Spectrums Spectrums
There are three methods for inputting spectrums.
1. Input spectrums directly into the model.
2. Create a spectrum library and load spectrums from it.
3. Input spectrums from a text file.
When you use the first two methods, you may use menu Options > Spectrum command to
set the different units for the X and the Yaxes, and also choose the interpolation method.
1. Input spectrums directly into the model
Select Spectrums from the Misc menu. You are shown the List window for spectrums. Start
typing values into it. The frequencies or periods do not have to be in an ascending order.
CAEPIPE will sort them later. You can input as many values as required.
56
Layout Window Misc Menu
2. Create a spectrum library and load spectrums from it
From the Main, Layout or Results window, select menu File > New.
Select Spectrum library. The spectrum library List window is shown. Start typing values into
it.
The frequencies or periods you type in do not have to be in an ascending order. CAEPIPE
will sort them later. You can input as many values as required. Be sure to save the file (it
will be saved to a filename you specify, with a .spe extension) using the Save command in
the File menu.
Now, open the CAEPIPE model that needs these spectrums. Open the saved library (menu
File > Library) and input spectrums into the model from the shown list.
57
Layout Window Misc Menu
3. Input spectrums from a text file
This method involves creating a separate text file (in the format shown below) for each
spectrum you want to input. The steps are given below.
a. For each spectrum, on the first line, type the Name of the spectrum (up to 31 chars).
On the second line, type units for Abscissa (Xaxis) and Ordinate (Yaxis) axes, separated
by a space.
After these two lines, on each line, you can input a value pair. You can input as many of
these value pair lines as required.
b. Each spectrum should be saved to a separate text file. More than one spectrum should
not be input in one text file as it cannot be read into CAEPIPE.
c. Now, open the CAEPIPE model that needs these spectrums. Select Read Spectrum from
the File menu, read all text files you created one after the other.
The format of a spectrum text file is shown below. The spectrum that is read appears on
the row where the yellow highlight is placed (under the Name column). You can use the
Edit menu commands to insert an empty row or delete an existing spectrum. Ensure that
no two spectrums share the same Name. CAEPIPE issues a warning should such occur.
The spectrum text file should be in the following format:
Name (up to 31 characters)
Abscissa units Ordinate units
Abscissa value1 Ordinate value1
Abscissa value2 Ordinate value2
. .
. .
. .
Where
Abscissa units: 0 = Frequency (Hz)
1 = Period (Sec)
Ordinate units: 0 = Displacement (inch)
1 = Displacement (mm)
2 = Acceleration (in/sec2)
3 = Acceleration (mm/sec2)
4 = Acceleration (g’s)
58
Layout Window Misc Menu
Example file
Test Spectrum 1
0 2
1 190
2 220
3 250
4 1932
5 1000
6 1800
. .
. .
Analysis note:
While analyzing the response spectrum case, when a mode (frequency or period) falls
outside the spectrum table, CAEPIPE issues a warning and uses the value corresponding
to the closest frequency or period in the spectrum table (that is, CAEPIPE uses the lowest
frequency if the calculated frequency or period is lower than the spectrum table or uses the
highest frequency if the calculated frequency or period is higher than the spectrum table).
Once you are done inputting the different spectrums using any one of the three methods,
you need to input the Spectrum load itself under the menu Loads > Spectrum in the Layout
window.
Force Spectrums Force Spectrums
See section on Force Spectrum in Reference.
59
Layout Window Misc Menu
Time functions Time functions
Time functions are nondimensional (i.e., a series of time versus value pairs) tables which
describe the variation of the forcing function with respect to time. Usually, a transient fluid
flow analysis program computes forces as a function of time at all changes in directions
(bends/tees) and other points of interest. These forces/moments result from a transient
event such as a fluid hammer. Separate forcetime histories are then input as time functions
and applied as Time Varying Loads within CAEPIPE at the corresponding nodes of interest
in the piping model.
In CAEPIPE, the time function you define can have any interval between two time values.
You can make that table as fine as you want it to be.
You must have a zero entry for the Value next to the first Time input. Time history analysis
begins at time t=0.0. You can input as many timevalue pairs as required.
There are two methods for inputting time functions.
1. Input time functions directly into the model.
2. Create a text file for each function and read it into CAEPIPE.
1. Input time functions directly into the model
Click on menu Misc > Time functions to type in time functions. Time is measured in
seconds. Value is nondimensional. You can assign units to these Values when you input a
Time varying load at a node. For now, simply start typing the timevalue pairs. After you
are done, input parameters for the Time History Analysis Control dialog, and then input
Time Varying Loads at nodes of interest.
60
Layout Window Misc Menu
2. Create a text file for each function and read it into CAEPIPE
Read these text files into CAEPIPE using the menu File > Read Time Function command.
For each function, you need to type a Name (up to 31 characters) on the first line, type time
followed by a Value (separated by a space) on the following line. You can input as many
timevalue pairs (one on each line) as required.
The format of the time function text file is shown below. The time function that is read from
a file appears on the row where the yellow highlight is placed (under the Name column).
You can use the Edit menu commands to insert an empty row or delete an existing time
function. Ensure that no two time functions share the same Name. CAEPIPE issues a
warning should such occur.
Time Function 1
0 0
0.1 0
0.2 0.025
0.3 26.65
0.4 112
0.5 806
0.6 7984
0.7 1882
0.8 2531
0.9 2480
1 2109
. .
. .
Once you are done inputting time functions, you need to specify the parameters in the
Time History Analysis Control dialog under menu Loads > Time History.
61
Layout Window Misc Menu
Then, you need to specify Time Varying Loads at the applicable nodes in the model. The
following figure shows the time function as a timevarying force applied in the Y direction
(FY) at node 100. Under Units, you can specify one of several depending on whether you
are applying the Values in the time function as a force (FX, FY, FZ) or a moment (MX, MY,
MZ). For more details, please see discussion under menu Loads > Time History.
Soils Soils
See Buried Piping Example in the section on Buried Piping in Reference.
62
Layout Window Window Menu
Window Menu
CAEPIPE can keep up to four windows open simultaneously for your convenience for a
model file.
The windows are:
• Layout
• Graphics
• List, and
• Results
From any window, you can move focus from that window to any other window (such as
Graphics or List) using a Hotkey. Hotkey F2 will move focus between text (Layout, List and
Results) and Graphics windows, and F3 between open text windows (between Layout and
List).
Users who have a small monitor and work with maximized windows for input, list, graphics
and results, will see the advantage of these hotkeys (F2 and F3). In such a setting, one
keypress (F2 or F3) will quickly move the focus to another window (without having to either
minimize the one where the focus is or switch to another window through the taskbar).
From the Layout window:
From the List window:
From the Graphics window:
From the Results window:
Note: In the above Window menu from the Results window, if you moved focus to the
Layout window, then the hotkey F3 would be assigned to Layout (not List as shown). So,
the Window menu would look like:
63
Graphics Window File Menu
File Menu
This menu has commands for printing and copying graphics images to the clipboard. You
can also set the drawing size for a printer/plotter and type in a new title for the image.
Print (Ctrl+P) Print (Ctrl+P)
The Print command opens the the Print Graphics dialog which allows you to select a printer
and customize other print settings.
Printer
On the Printer tab, you can setup the printer and the graphics print page as well as select
the font for printing graphics.
Font Font
Note that the font you select here is different from the Font selected in the Graphics Font
dialog under the Options menu. The Font command here sets the font for printing only, and
the one under the Options menu sets the font to use for Graphics display only as explained
on p. 74.
64
Graphics Window File Menu
Preview Preview
Before you print an image, you can preview it by clicking on this button.
While in the Preview mode, click on Close to return to the Graphics window or click on
Print to send the job to the printer.
65
Graphics Window File Menu
Print to File Print to File
This can be a useful command to convert the line drawing (vector) graphics to other vector
formats such as an Encapsulated Postscript (EPS), Windows Enhanced Metafile (EMF),
AutoCAD’s DXF or HPGL’s PLT. You can specify a filename for the graphics file. CAEPIPE
can also convert other vector graphics such as nonrendered stress and stress ratio plots,
deflected and mode shapes to the above vector formats.
Note on DXF output
CAEPIPE puts only the model information including the line drawing into a DXF file in
different layers. It does not put any results (like stresses or deflected shapes) to a DXF file.
Print Dialog for OpenGL Rendered Images
For OpenGL rendered images, you will see a different Print dialog. Here, as in the earlier
Print dialog, you can select a printer and customize certain print settings. The resolution
and image background can be set, too.
66
Graphics Window File Menu
Setting the resolution to High might take up a lot of system memory and slow your system
down. Should such happen, use the Low or Medium setting.
Preview Preview
Preview the OpenGL graphics rendering by clicking on this button.
67
Graphics Window File Menu
Copy (Ctrl+C) Copy (Ctrl+C)
You can copy the displayed graphics image to the clipboard and then paste this image
into any other program that accepts it. For example, you can copy the rendered view of a
model and paste it into your paint or a graphics processing program so that you can use
the finished image (possibly with your annotations) in a word processing program of your
choice to generate a report.
Drawing Size Drawing Size
The drawing size command applies only to DXF and PLT files. Before you generate a DXF
or a PLT from menu File > Print > Print to File, you need to set the drawing size here. The
default is set to A size (Letter 8.5" x 11").
There are several US and ISO sizes available.
Plot Title Plot Title
For the graphics image printout (or for one copied through Copy command), you may type
in an image title different from the model title (in the Layout window). Clicking on Reset
will restore the title to the original model title.
68
Graphics Window View Menu
View Menu
This menu contains commands for graphics operations.
Viewpoint (F4) Viewpoint (F4)
Use this command to set the graphics viewpoint. Several useful buttons inside the dialog
allow you to change viewpoint to a preset one.
For example, if you want to see the "plan" view (Yvertical), click on "Y view" button.
Previous View (F5) Previous View (F5)
Use this command to display the previously viewed graphics image in the Graphics window.
The last used viewpoint, zoom level and area of the image are brought back into view.
Center (Ctrl+Shift+C) Center (Ctrl+Shift+C)
Use this command for centering the image around a particular location. When you select
this command, the mouse pointer turns into a cross hair. It can be moved around by moving
the mouse. Position the cross hair at the image location that you want centered and then
left click on the mouse to center the whole image around that point.
Turn (Ctrl+T) Turn (Ctrl+T)
Use this command to rotate the image about the horizontal or the vertical axis. Move the
thumb on the scroll bar to rotate the image, or use the arrow keys on the keyboard.
69
Graphics Window View Menu
Zoom All (Ctrl+A) Zoom All (Ctrl+A)
Use this command to view the whole model in the Graphics window.
Zoom In, Zoom Out Zoom In, Zoom Out
Use these commands to increase or decrease the magnification level for the image. Hotkeys
are PageUp (for Zoom in) and PageDown (for Zoom out).
Show Show
Use this command to either display or suppress display of various items in the Graphics
window. This feature helps in reducing clutter in the image. In addition, it enables you to
display selectively one or more items in the Graphics window. Select or deselect items and
click on OK or Apply (to see the effect immediately while keeping the dialog open). Click
on All or None button to select all or deselect all the items with one click.
The Local Coordinate system can be shown for all the elements while viewing Results.
70
Graphics Window View Menu
Show Nodes Show Nodes
Use this feature to show node numbers selectively at different locations (such as anchors,
limit stops, valves, etc.) to check your input or to display node numbers selectively for one
or more items (anchors, hangers, etc.) in the Graphics window. To show node numbers,
select or deselect the required items and click on OK or Apply (to see the effect immediately
while keeping the dialog open). Click on All or None button to select all or deselect all the
items with one click.
Redraw (Ctrl+D) Redraw (Ctrl+D)
Use this command to redraw the entire graphics image. This will refresh the screen with
the existing image. This feature is useful when you are working with a twomonitor system.
71
Graphics Window View Menu
Render (Ctrl+R) Render (Ctrl+R)
Use this command to generate a realistic 3D image of the model. Once you have a rendered
image, you can use the Zoom All, Zoom in, Zoom out, Turn and other graphics commands
on it. You can use the Show and the Show Nodes commands too to show specific items
and/or node numbers. This image can be printed to a color printer.
72
Graphics Window Options Menu
Options Menu
This menu contains commands to change the axes symbol location, color of graphics
background, OpenGL rendering quality and the graphics font.
Axes Axes
The axes symbol can be displayed in any one of the four corners of the Graphics window
or not at all.
Background Background
The default background color for the Graphics windows is black. You can change it to
white if you like. Changing so will also use less toner when you print a graphics image.
Rendering Quality Rendering Quality
This feature allows you to set the quality of the rendered image. It is best to set this to High
unless your computer renders images noticeably slowly.
73
Graphics Window Options Menu
Font Font
You can select any available font for graphics display here. Note: Font for printing graphics
is selected in the Print Graphics dialog as explained on p. 64.
The text in the Graphics window below is shown in Impact font.
74
Results Window File Menu
File Menu
The File menu here is similar to the File menu in the Layout window. You can open or
close any CAEPIPE model, material, spectrum library or CAEPIPE results file from here.
Print (Ctrl+P) Print (Ctrl+P)
This command lets you print all model input and computed results. This dialog has five
tabs and six buttons.
Model
On this tab, check those input data items that you would like to print.
75
Results Window File Menu
Load cases
On this tab, check the different load cases for which you want to print results.
Results
On this tab, check the different results items that you want to print.
76
Results Window File Menu
Misc
On this tab, select the items of interest that you want to print.
Printer
On this tab, you can customize your printer settings such as selecting a different printer,
setting different margins, and the print font. By selecting a custom Adobe Acrobat Printer
(if available on your system), you can generate an Adobe PDF (Portable Document Format)
file that contains the whole model input and output.
77
Results Window File Menu
Print Dialog Buttons
Print Print
After selecting the items you want to print, click on Print button to send output to the
printer selected under the Printer tab.
Cancel Cancel
You can click on Cancel to exit the dialog without printing.
Preview Preview
Before printing, you can preview how the printed output will appear by clicking on Preview.
If necessary, you can adjust the printer settings (under the Printer tab) to change the print
font and margins, and preview again.
78
Results Window File Menu
To File To File
If you want to send all of your selected items (input and results) to a formatted text file,
click on this button. Presently, a few features such as Support Load Summary cannot be
output to a text file.
All All
To select all items, click on the All button.
None None
To deselect all items, click on the None button.
Export Export
This command is selectively enabled for certain results items where the results can be
exported in CSV (Comma Separated Values) format, which can be read by many programs
such as Excel.
Input Input
A very useful command, Input allows you to quickly go to the model Layout window
without having to go through a model Open (file) command.
QA Block QA Block
This command shows you the QA information you input in the Layout window. As the
shown information is not editable here, to make changes to it, you need to go back to the
Layout window and use the same command under the File menu. After you make edits,
you need to save the model and reanalyze.
79
Results Window Results Menu
Results Menu
You can open the list of all results by selecting Results command (Ctrl+R). Press Tab or
Shift+Tab to move forward or backward through the different results items, each of which
will be shown in the same Results window.
This menu may change with the displayed item. For example, this menu shows like in the
above figure for Sorted Stresses, Code Compliance and Hanger Report.
For Support Load summary, the menu shows similar to the following figure. The first set of
commands is for showing the support load summary for other supports, one at a time. The
second set of commands is as before.
For Support Loads, the menu changes to show related commands for the new results item.
80
Results Window Results Menu
The first set of commands is for showing the support loads for other supports (hangers,
limit stops, etc.), one at a time (you can also click on the white right or left arrow).
The second set of commands (Load cases, etc.) is for changing the load case for the
displayed support. For example, the title bar of the figure shows Loads on Anchors:
Sustained. You can change the load case to Expansion load case for this support by
selecting the Next load case command (you can also click on the black right or left arrow).
The last set of commands is as before.
For Element forces, the menu changes to show related commands.
The first set of commands is for showing other forces (at other elements such as expansion
joints and valves), one at a time (you can also click on the white right or left arrow).
The second set of commands (Load cases, etc.) is for changing the load case for the
displayed support. For example, if the title bar of the figure showed Sustained load case,
then by selecting the Next Load case command, you can display forces for the Expansion
load case (you can also click on the black right or left arrow). The last set of commands is
as before.
81
Results Window Results Menu
For Displacements, the menu changes to show related commands as follows:
The first set of commands is for showing other displacements (such as minimum and
maximum displacements and at other supports) You can also click on the white right or left
arrow.
The second set of commands (Load cases, etc.) is for changing the load case for the
displayed displacements. For example, if the title bar of the figure showed Sustained load
case, then you can show displacements for the Expansion load case by selecting the Next
Load case command. (you can also click on the black right or left arrow). The last set of
commands is as before.
For Mode Shapes, the menu changes to show two commands specific to the new results.
They are to move forward or backward through the available mode shape details. The last
set of commands is as before.
So, depending on the displayed results item, the Results menu (Ctrl+R) will show different
menus with at least one common set of commands for moving forward or backward through
the different results.
82
Results Window View Menu
View Menu
This menu contains commands most of which help you to perform graphicsrelated
operations. The List and Find Node commands function like they do in Layout window
> View menu. Center of Gravity command is explained later in this section. As with the
Results menu, this menu too changes its offerings depending on the results item being
viewed.
The first menu shown here is available from the Sorted Stresses results. The first set of
commands relates to viewing stresses graphically in the Graphics window.
83
Results Window View Menu
Color code stresses Color code stresses
/
No color coding No color coding
Displays or removes the color coded stress (or stress ratio) contour in the Graphics window.
To display a color coded contour, place the yellow highlight on the type of stress you want
to see graphically, for example, on Expansion stress. Then, select Color code stresses. Next,
click on Show stresses or stress ratios button on the toolbar. The Graphics window will
show the color coded contour.
When you select No color coding, stresses or stress ratios are plotted as numeric values,
i.e., without color coding in the Graphics window as shown below.
84
Results Window View Menu
Thresholds Thresholds
Use this command to display stresses (or stress ratios) over a specified stress or stress ratio
value. These values are shown in the graphics window.
Hide Allowables Hide Allowables
Selecting this command will remove the Allowables columns from the Results display. For
some codes that have too many columns, this command helps by reducing the number of
columns displayed.
Graphics (F2) through Find Node (Ctrl+F) commands function like they do under the Layout
window > View menu.
Under the Code Compliance results display, the View menu shows only one command
to Hide (stress) ratios (such as SL/SH, SE/SA). The remaining commands are the same as
before.
85
Results Window View Menu
For the Pipe element (or Other element) forces display, the following View menu is shown.
The only item new here is a command to Show LCS (Local Coordinate system)/Hide LCS
in the Graphics window for each element. As you keep scrolling through the different
elements in the results display, the corresponding element in the Graphics window will
show a small coordinate symbol that depicts the element’s LCS. The remaining commands
are the same as before.
86
Results Window View Menu
For Displacements results display, two commands to show and animate the deflected shape
are shown. The remaining commands are the same as before.
87
Results Window View Menu
For Frequencies and Mode Shapes results display, two commands to show and animate the
mode shape are shown. The remaining commands are the same as before.
88
Results Window View Menu
Center of Gravity Center of Gravity
This command displays the center of gravity and total weight of the piping system as
modeled. This command can be useful when you are comparing the weight of this model
with weight obtained from another source.
89
Reference
Anchor
An Anchor is a type of support used to restrain the movement of a node in the three
translational and the three rotational directions (or degrees of freedom; each direction is
a degree of freedom). In a piping system, this node may be on an anchor block or a
foundation, or a location where the piping system ties into a wall or a large piece of
equipment like a pump. An Anchor is input by typing "A" in the Data column or selecting
Anchor from the Data Types dialog.
By default, a rigid anchor is entered (i.e., an anchor with rigid stiffnesses in all six directions).
To change the default settings edit the anchor (double click on the anchor or press Ctrl+D
in the row which has the anchor). The Anchor dialog is shown.
To make the anchor nonrigid, the Rigid check box should be unchecked.
Stiffness
The stiffness may be rigid (specified by typing the letter "r" in the stiffness field), or some
value or be left blank. If it is left blank, there is no stiffness in that direction, i.e., the pipe is
free to move in that direction. Internally, the rigid stiffness value is set to 1×10
12
(lb/inch)
for translational stiffness and 1×10
12
(inchlb/radian) for rotational stiffness.
Releases for Hanger Selection
An Anchor by default acts in the six directions. Any combination of directions may be
released (that is, made unrestrained) during hanger design. This feature is useful when
hangers are used around equipment, where you want the hangers to take most of the
weight load and reduce the load acting on the nearby equipment. CAEPIPE, during hot load
calculation (preliminary sustained load case) in hanger design, releases the anchors (if the
anchor has releases) so that the loads are taken by the hangers rather than by the anchors
(which are modeling the equipment). After the hot load calculation, the released anchors
91
Anchor
are restored for subsequent analysis. Anchors are generally released when they are close to
the hangers (typically within about 4 pipe diameters).
Any combination of translations or rotations may be released. Typically, either the vertical
translation or all translations and rotations are released. To release the Anchor in a particular
direction, the corresponding check box should be checked.
Displacements Displacements
To specify displacements (anchor movements) at the anchor, click on the Displacements
button in the Anchor dialog. The Specified Displacements for Anchor dialog is shown.
The displacements at an anchor (translations and/or rotations) in the global X, Y and Z
directions may be specified. There are three types of displacements which can be specified:
1. Thermal (three displacements can be specified, one each for thermal loads T1, T2 and
T3) Applied only for the Expansion and Operating load cases.
2. Seismic (available for B31.1, ASME Section III Class 2, RCCM and EN13480 codes only)
Solved as a separate internal load case and added absolutely to static seismic and response
spectrum load cases.
3. Settlement (available under ASME Section III Class 2, RCCM and EN13480 codes only)
Applied to a separate load case called Settlement.
A displacement can be applied only if there is a corresponding stiffness in that direction,
i.e., the corresponding stiffness should not be left blank.
Settlement
For certain piping codes (ASME Section III Class 2, RCCM and EN13480), an anchor
settlement, which is a single nonrepeated anchor movement (e.g., due to settlement of
foundation), may be specified. This is applied to the Settlement load case. For those codes
which do not have a provision for settlement (like B31.1), specify the anchor settlement as
a thermal displacement (a conservative approach).
92
Anchor
Example 1: Flexible Anchor
Nodes on most large equipment are modeled as rigid anchors. If you need to specify
a nonrigid (i.e., flexible) anchor (for example at a pump or a nozzle to include vessel
flexibility), you can input those stiffnesses by editing the anchor.
Double click on the anchor to show the anchor dialog.
By default the anchor has all stiffnesses rigid, no releases for hanger selection and no
specified displacements. The stiffness fields are grayed, i.e., noneditable and the Rigid
checkbox is checked. Click on the Rigid checkbox to uncheck it. The stiffness fields now
become editable.
Input the required stiffness values and press Enter or click on OK. The anchor is now
modified to be a flexible anchor.
93
Anchor
Example 2: Rigid Vertical Support with Foundation Settlement
Assume that you need to model a vertical support on a foundation, and the foundation has
settled. Use ASME Section III Class 2 (1980) code for a code compliance check.
Vertical settlement (–Y) = 6 inches.
First, choose piping code as ASME Section III (1980), which has a provision for Settlement
load case, using the menu Options > Analysis > Code in the Layout window.
Next, create a rigid vertical support at the required node. Press "a" in the Data field to input
a default anchor.
Next, edit the anchor so that it acts as a vertical support only, by modifying the stiffnesses
similar to Example 1 so that only a Rigid stiffness KY in the Y direction remains.
Now the anchor is modified to act as a Vertical 2way rigid support. Click on the
Displacements button and type in –6 (inch) for Settlement under Y. You could also input
thermal and seismic displacements if required.
The anchor is now modified to be a rigid vertical support with a specified settlement
displacement.
94
Anchor
Example 3: Anchor Release During Hanger Design
Tobedesigned Spring hanger
Turbine
Node on turbine
modeled as rigid anchor
which is released
Assume that you had an anchored node on a turbine, and the hanger nearby was being
designed to take most of the load as shown in the figure above. Release all directions of
the Anchor so that the hanger is designed to take most of the loads and little load is taken
by the turbine.
First, enter an anchor for the node and then double click on it to edit it.
Click on the check boxes for Releases for hanger selection in the required directions (X,
Y, Z, XX, YY, ZZ). The anchor is now released in the specified directions during hanger
design.
The anchor is restored to the original state (of no releases) after the preliminary hot load
calculation during hanger design. See Hanger Design Procedure on p. 179.
95
Ball Joint
A ball joint is a zero length element, i.e., the "From" and "To" nodes are coincident. Hence,
the DX, DY and DZ fields in the Layout window should be left blank.
Ball joints are free to rotate about all three axes. If you do not want torsional rotation, input
"Rigid" for torsional stiffness.
A ball joint is input by typing "Ba" or "Ball" in the Type column or selecting Ball joint from
the Element Types dialog.
The Ball joint dialog is shown.
The rotational stiffnesses and the friction torques are specified independently in the bending
and torsional directions. The torsional direction (local x) is determined by the preceding
element. If a preceding element is not available, the following element is used to determine
the torsional direction. The bending directions (local y and z) are orthogonal to the torsional
direction (local x). Bending friction is determined by a resultant of torques in local y and z
directions. Similarly bending rotation is determined by a resultant of rotations in local y and
z directions.
The stiffness and friction torque values may be available from the manufacturer of the ball
joint or test results. Otherwise engineering judgement may be used.
The stiffness values may be left blank. In that case a very small value (1 inlb/deg) is used
internally to avoid dividing by zero.
96
Ball Joint
Rotation limit of 0.0 (zero) means it is unable to rotate (i.e., it is rigid). Rotation limit of
"None" or Blank means infinite (i.e., there is no limit).
Torque
Stiffness (Slope)
Friction Torque
Applied Torque
Rotation =
(Applied Torque  Friction Torque)
Stiffness
When the applied torque is less than friction torque, there is no rotation. When the applied
torque exceeds friction torque, the rotation is calculated as shown above. When rotation
limit is reached, there is no further rotation irrespective of the applied torque.
97
Beam
You can model elaborate structural support systems to support piping. In simple situations,
if the structure is stiffer than the piping is, you may not need to model the structure at
all but simply treat it as rigid (for example: input Rigid for Stiffness in Limit stop when
simulating a stiff beam). But, in cases where you need to account for structural flexibility,
use the Beam element to model structural support systems alongside piping systems.
The material, section and load for a beam are different from those for a pipe. Just as
you would define a material/section/load for a pipe, so too should you define a separate
material/section/load for a beam.
Upon analysis, CAEPIPE reports forces and moments for beam elements.
A beam is input by typing "bea" in the Type column or by selecting "Beam" from the
Element type dialog.
The Beam dialog is shown.
Beta angle
Beta angle is used to define the orientation of the beam local axes. See Beam orientation
later in this section.
Beam End Releases
Each end of the beam (From and To ends) can be released to simulate the type of structural
support you want to model. That is, you can use a combination of releases to specify
whether a beam end is fixed, pinned, etc.
98
Beam
Beam material
Before you input a beam element, you must define a beam material, section and load.
Select Beam materials from the Miscellaneous menu in the Layout or List window.
A list of beam materials is shown. Double click on an empty row to input a new beam
material.
A dialog for inputting beam material is shown.
The material name can be up to three alphanumeric characters to identify the beam
material. A more complete description can be entered under Description. Enter modulus of
elasticity, Poisson’s ratio (Nu), density of the material and coefficient of thermal expansion.
99
Beam
Beam section
Select Beam Sections from the Miscellaneous menu in the Layout or List window.
A list of beam sections is shown. Double click on an empty row to input a new beam
section.
100
Beam
A dialog for inputting beam sections is shown.
You can either input the data yourself or click on the Library button for a listing of different
AISC Ibeams, channels, tees, etc., that are built into CAEPIPE. Please be sure to verify the
properties that are shown in the fields after you select a section from the library.
The name can be up to three alphanumeric characters to identify the beam section. A more
complete description can be entered in the Description field.
The axial area, major and minor moments of inertia must be input. Input of torsional inertia
is optional. If it is not input, it defaults to the sum of major and minor moments of inertia.
Input of shear areas is optional. If it is not input, shear deflection is not included. Input of
depth and width are optional. Presently, they are used only for rendered plots of the beam.
Dialogs for selecting a beam section from the AISC library are shown below:
The type of the beam section (e.g., I beam W (Wide Flange) is selected from this dialog.
101
Beam
Another dialog which shows various available sections for the particular beam section type
is then shown.
After selecting the section, click on OK and the section properties will be entered in the
Beam section dialog.
102
Beam
Beam load
Select Beam Loads from the Misc menu in the Layout or List window.
A list of beam loads is shown.
Double click on an empty row to input a new beam load through the beam load dialog or
start typing into the fields.
103
Beam
The Load name can be up to three alphanumeric characters to identify the beam load.
You can enter up to three temperatures depending on the Number of Thermal loads. The
additional weight is a uniform weight per unit length added to the weight of the beam. This
could for example be used to add snow load to the beam. Wind load may or may not be
applied to the beam element by using the check box for Wind load in the dialog or typing
"Y" or "N" for Wind load in the List window.
104
Beam
Beam orientation
The Beam orientation is determined by the locations of the "From" and "To" nodes and the
beta angle of the beam element. The local xaxis of the beam is always from the "From"
node to the "To" node. The reference orientation corresponds to beta = 0.0.
A nonzero beta angle (measured from the reference position) rotates the local y and zaxes
of the beam about the local xaxis of the beam in the counter clockwise direction.
The local coordinate system for beams can be displayed for each beam element through the
List window (Ctrl+L, select Beams, menu View > Show LCS [for Local Coordinate System]).
Global vertical axis is Y
Beam is not Vertical
Y
X Z
Global
y
x
z
local
The local yaxis of the beam lies in the local x  global Y plane (i.e., vertical plane)
and is in the same positive direction as the global Y axis. The local zaxis is the cross
product of the local x and yaxes. Major bending plane is local xy, that is, Izz = Major
moment of inertia and Iyy = Minor moment of inertia.
Beam is Vertical
Y
X Z
Global
local y
z
x
The local zaxis of the beam is in the global Z direction. The local yaxis is in the
global –X direction. Major bending plane is xy, i.e., Izz = Major moment of inertia and
Iyy = Minor moment of inertia.
105
Beam
Global vertical axis is Z
Beam is not Vertical
Y
X
Z
Global
y
x
z
local
The local zaxis of the beam lies in the local x  global Z plane (i.e., vertical plane)
and is in the same positive direction as the global Zaxis. The local yaxis is the cross
product of the local z and xaxes. Major bending plane is xz, that is, Iyy = Major
moment of inertia and Izz = Minor moment of inertia.
Beam is Vertical
Y
X
Z
Global
local
y z
x
The local yaxis of the beam is in the global Y direction. The local zaxis is in the
global –X direction. Major bending plane is xz, i.e., Iyy = Major moment of inertia and
Izz = Minor moment of inertia.
106
Beam
Example 1: Pipe Rack using Beams
Here, you see how to use a beam element to construct a pipe rack and connect the beam
to the pipe so that CAEPIPE can account for the rack’s flexibility. The procedure is simple.
First, you need to create a beam material, section and load in addition to pipe material,
section and load.
As the Layout window shows, model the piping (nodes 10 to 40) and the first beam support
(nodes 100 to 140). Then, create the second beam support (nodes 150 to 190) using the
Generate command (under Edit menu in the Layout window). Finally, connect piping at
nodes 20 and 30 to beam nodes 120 and 170 using limit stops.
107
Beam
The "Generate" dialog is shown below:
The "Limit Stop" dialog is shown below:
108
Beam
The graphics is shown below:
Example 2: Base Supported Bend using a Beam
See Example 7 in the Bend section for modeling a base supported bend using a beam on
p. 124.
109
Bellows
Bellows are input by typing "bel" in the Type column or selecting "Bellows" from the
Element Types dialog.
The Bellows dialog is shown.
The stiffness values, pressure thrust area and weight should be taken from the manufacturer’s
catalog. The pressure thrust area will impose a thrust load of: (pressure × thrust area), on
both nodes of the bellows. Even if the bellows are tied, it is recommended that the pressure
thrust area is input. The weight is the empty weight. The contents, insulation and additional
weight are added to the empty weight.
110
Bend
In CAEPIPE, the term Bend refers to all elbows and bends (custombent pipes). An elbow
comes prefabricated with a standard bend radius (short or long radius) whereas a bend is
custom made from bending a straight pipe with a specified bend radius. Geometrically,
a bend is a curved pipe segment which turns at an angle (typically 90° or 45° from the
direction of the run of the pipe. Some of the items associated with a bend are shown below.
B
e
n
d
R
a
d
i
u
s
10 20 Bend node (TIP)
30
20A (Near end)
20B (Far end)
Bend thickness
Pipe thickness
Node 20 is the Bend node which is at the Tangent Intersection Point (TIP). As you can see
from the figure, it is not physically located on the bend. Its only purpose is to define the
bend. CAEPIPE automatically generates the end nodes of the curved portion of the bend
(nodes 20A and 20B, called the near and far ends of the bend. The bend end nodes (20A
and 20B in the figure) may be used to specify data items such as flanges, hangers, forces,
etc.
A bend is input by typing "b" in the Type column or selecting "Bend" from the Element
Types dialog.
111
Bend
If you need to modify an existing bend, double click on it or press Ctrl+T (Edit type) to
bring up the Bend dialog.
Bend Radius
The radius of a bend (measured along the centerline of the bend) can be specified as Long,
Short, or User (defined) by one of the radio buttons for Bend Radius. CAEPIPE has long
and short radii builtin for standard ANSI, JIS and DIN pipe sizes. For nonstandard pipe
sizes, Long radius is 1.5 times the pipe OD and Short radius is equal to the pipe OD.
Bend Thickness
Input the wall thickness of the bend if it is different from that of the adjoining pipe
thicknesses. The Bend Thickness, if specified, applies only to the curved portion of the
bend (node 20A to node 20B in the figure above).
Bend Material
If the material of the bend is different from that of the adjoining pipe, select the Bend
Material from the drop down combo box. The Bend Material, if specified, applies only to
the curved portion of the bend (node 20A to node 20B in the figure above).
Flexibility Factor
The Flexibility Factor for the bend can be specified. If the Flexibility Factor is specified, it is
used instead of the piping code specified Flexibility Factor.
SIFs
The SIFs for the bend can be specified (useful for FRP bends). If SIFs are specified, they are
used instead of the piping code specified SIFs. If User SIFs are also specified at bend nodes
(A and/or B nodes), they will be used instead of the bend SIFs or code specified SIFs.
112
Bend
Intermediate Nodes
An intermediate node, located in between the ends of the bend, may be required in some
situations to specify data items such as flanges, hangers, forces, etc. The intermediate node
is specified by giving a node number and an angle which is measured from the near end
of the bend (node 20A in figure). Up to two such nodes may be input. Note that the
intermediate nodes 13 and 16 are at angles of 30° and 60° respectively from node 20A (near
end). The intermediate nodes can be used for inputting data items such as flanges, hangers,
forces, etc.
20A (Near end)
20B (Far end)
Intermediate nodes
13
16
30°
60°
Bend Examples
Some examples follow. They illustrate some common modeling requirements.
Example 1: 90° Bend
Example 2: 45° Bend
Example 3: 180° Bend
Example 4: Flanged Bend
Example 5: Reducing Bend
Example 6: Bend Supported by a Hanger
Example 7: Base Supported Bend
To simplify the discussion of bend modeling, it is assumed that the material, section (8"
std), load and the first node (10) are already defined. It is also assumed that the bend has
long radius (12") and the cursor is placed in row #3.
113
Bend
Example 1: 90° Bend
10
20 (Bend)
30
DX = 2’0"
D
Y
=
−
2
’
0
"
Press Tab in row #3. Node 20 will be automatically assigned and the cursor will move to
the Type column. type "B" (for Bend), Tab to DX, type 2. Enter material, section, load
and press Enter. The cursor moves to the next row (#4).
Tab to the DY column. The next Node 30 is automatically assigned. In DY column, type
2 and press Enter. This completes the bend input.
114
Bend
Example 2: 45° Bend
10
20 (Bend)
30
45°
DX = 1’6" DX = 1’0"
D
Y
=
−
1
’
0
"
Press Tab in row #3. Node 20 will be automatically assigned and the cursor will move to
the Type column. type "B" (for Bend), Tab to DX, type 1’6". Enter material, section, load
and press Enter. The cursor moves to the next row (#4).
Tab to the DX column. The next Node 30 is automatically assigned. In the DX column,
type 1, Tab to DY and type 1, then press Enter. This completes the bend input.
115
Bend
Example 3: 180° Bend
A 180° bend or Ubend, is often used in an expansion loop to relieve thermal stresses in
the piping system. It is modeled as two 90° bends backtoback.
R
=
1
’
0
"
R
=
1
’
0
"
D
Y
=
−
1
’
6
"
DX = 2’0"
D
Y
=
1
’
6
"
10 40
20 (Bend) 30 (Bend)
Press Tab in row #3. Node 20 will be automatically assigned and the cursor will move
to the Type column. type "B" (for Bend), Tab to DY, type –1’6". Enter material, section,
load and press Enter. The cursor moves to the next row (#4).
Press Tab. Node 30 will be automatically assigned and the cursor will move to the Type
column. type "B" (for Bend), Tab to DX, type 2. (DX is 2’ because 8" std long radius
bend has 12" radius and since these two bends are back to back, DX = 2R). Press Enter
and the cursor moves to the next row (#5).
Tab to the DY column. The next Node 40 is automatically assigned. In DY column, type
1’6", then press Enter. This completes the bend input.
116
Bend
Example 4: Flanged Bend
Bends are often connected to the adjacent pipe sections with flanges. A flange may exist
on one or both sides of the bend. Flange weight may have a significant effect on the pipe
stresses. Also, the stress intensification and flexibility factors for a bend will decrease if one
or both of the ends are flanged.
10
30
20A
20B
Model the bend as in Example 1. Then input flanges at nodes 20A and 20B. Since these
are internally generated nodes, i.e., they do not normally appear in the Layout window, it
is necessary to specify input at these nodes using the Location type. To input the flange at
node 20A, in row #5, type 20A for Node, Tab to Type column and type "L" for Location.
This opens the Data Types dialog.
117
Bend
Select Flange as the data type and click on OK. This opens the Flange dialog.
Select the Type of the flange from the dropdown combo box, e.g., Single welded slipon
flange. To get the weight of the flange, click on the Library button.
Select the pressure rating for the flange (e.g., 600) and press Enter. The weight of the flange
is automatically entered in the Flange dialog. Press Enter again to input the flange.
Repeat the same procedure for the flange at node 20B.
118
Bend
The graphics is shown below:
The rendered graphics is shown below:
119
Bend
Example 5: Reducing Bend
CAEPIPE does not have a reducing bend element. A reducing bend may be modeled using
an average OD (outside diameter) and average thickness of the large and small ends of the
bend. The bend radius of the reducing bend should input as user bend radius. The stress
Intensification Factor (SIF) of the reducing bend, if available, should be input as Bend SIF.
10
20
30
R
=
1
6
"
D
Y
=
−
2
’
DX = 2’
8" pipe
4" pipe
10
15 (20A)
20
20B 30
R
=
1
6
"
D
Y
=
−
8
"
D
Y
=
−
1
’
4
"
DX = 2’
8" pipe
4" pipe
6.5625" OD
0.2795" Thk
The 8" std pipe (OD = 8.625", Thk = 0.322") with Name = 8 is already defined. Now
define a 4" std pipe (OD = 4.5", Thk = 0.237") with Name = 4.
The average OD of the two sections is (8.625 + 4.5) / 2 = 6.5625" and the average
Thickness is (0.322 + 0.237) / 2 = 0.2795".
Define a Non std section with Name = AVG, OD = 6.5625" and Thickness = 0.2795".
The list of sections is shown below.
It should be noted that the section specified on the Bend row in the Layout window
applies to the curved portion of the Bend (between the A and B nodes) as well as to the
straight portion from the preceding node to the A node. In this particular case we want
to assign the section "AVG" only to the curved portion and assign the section "8" to the
straight portion. This can be done by defining an additional node which is coincident
with the A node thus making the straight portion of the bend zero length.
In row #2, the first node (10) is already defined and the cursor is placed in row #3. Type
15 for Node, Tab to DY, type 8". Enter material(1), section (8), load(1) and press Enter.
The cursor moves to the next row (#4).
Press Tab. Node 20 is automatically assigned and the cursor will move to the Type
column. type "B" (for Bend), Double click in the Type column to edit the Bend. Click
on the User Bend Radius button and type 16 for bend radius. Press Enter to modify the
Bend and return to the Layout window. Tab to DY, type 1’4". Tab to the section column
120
Bend
and type "AVG". Then press Enter. The material and load are copied from the previous
row and the cursor moves to the next row(#5).
Tab to the DX column. The next Node 30 is automatically assigned. In DX column, type
2’. Tab to section column and type 4, then press Enter. This completes the reducing bend
input.
The Layout window is shown below:
The graphics is shown below:
The rendered graphics is shown below:
121
Bend
Example 6: Bend Supported by a Hanger
Assume that the bend is supported in the middle by a hanger.
10
20A
20B
30
15
45°
Model the bend as in Example 1. The hanger is input at node 15, which is in the middle of
the bend. Node 15 is created as an intermediate node on the bend as follows:
Double click on the bend (in the type column of the Layout window) to edit it. The bend
dialog is shown.
Under intermediate nodes, type 15 for node and 45 for its angle, then click on OK. This
creates an intermediate node 15 at 45° from the node 20A (near end of the bend) as shown
in the figure above.
122
Bend
Since node 15 does not normally appear in the Layout window, it is necessary to specify
data input at this node using the Location type. To input the hanger at node 15, in row #5,
type 15 for Node, Tab to Type column and type "L" for Location. This opens the Data Types
dialog.
Click on Hanger, the hanger dialog is shown.
Click on OK to accept the default hanger and a hanger is entered at node 15.
123
Bend
Example 7: Base Supported Bend
Two examples of base supported bends are shown below. In the figure on the left, the
support is modeled using a rigid vertical restraint. In the figure on the right the support is
modeled using a beam element.
10 20A
20B
30
Vertical restraint
10 20A
20B
30
100
Beam
Vertical Restraint Support
Model the bend at node 20 as before.
To put a vertical restraint at node 20B, type 20B for node and "L" for Location. This will
open the Data types dialog.
Double click on Restraint. This will open the Restraint dialog.
124
Bend
Click on the Vertical button to check the Y or Z restraint (depending on the vertical axis)
and click on OK.
The Layout window is shown below:
The graphics is shown below:
125
Bend
Beam Support
Model the bend at node 20 as before.
Create a beam material, section and load as described in the Beam section earlier in the
Reference.
Input a beam element from node 20B to node 100.
Type 20B in the Node column and "f" (for From) in the Type column to create a starting
point. Press Enter to move to the next row.
Type 100 in the Node column and "bea" (for Beam) in the Type column. In the DY
column, type the beam length with a negative sign (since the beam is going downward
from node 20B to node 100). Type the beam material, beam section and beam load
names in the Matl, Sect and Load columns. In the Data column type "a" to input an
Anchor.
The Layout window is shown below:
The graphics is shown below:
126
Branch SIF
A Stress Intensification Factor (SIF) type for a tee can be input by typing "br" in the Data
column or selecting "Branch SIF" from the Data types dialog.
The Branch SIF dialog is shown.
The type of the branch SIF can be selected from the Type dropdown combo box.
Depending on the piping code different types of branch SIFs may be available. Typical
branch SIF types (for B3.1 piping code) are shown below.
Some branch SIFs may require additional input, for example, in the case of a reinforced
fabricated tee, a pad thickness would be required;
127
Branch SIF
CAEPIPE differentiates between a header (run) and a branch line based on their ODs. So,
when CAEPIPE finds two lines with ODs of 8 inches and 6 inches, it designates the 8 inch
line as the header (or main) line with the 6 inch line designated as the branch line.
When the header and the branch lines have the same ODs, reduce the branch OD slightly
so that the header and the branch lines are properly designated (e.g., ODheader = 168.4
mm, ODbranch = 168.3 mm).
128
Buried Piping
Soil in Buried piping analysis is modeled by using bilinear restraints with an initial stiffness
and an ultimate load. After the ultimate load is reached the displacement continues without
any further increase in load, i.e., the yield stiffness is zero. The initial stiffness is calculated
by dividing the ultimate load by the yield displacement which is assumed to be D/25 where
D is outside diameter of the pipe.
Soil modeling is based on Winkler’s soil model of infinite closely spaced elastic springs.
Soil stiffness is calculated for all three directions at each node. Pressure value in the load is
suitably modified to consider the effect of static overburden soil pressure. Model is analyzed
for operating (W+P1+T1) condition and the displacements in the three directions are noted.
A check is made for whether skin friction is mobilized and the soil has attained the yield
state. If true, then the spring is released in that direction indicating that soil no longer offers
resistance in that direction. This modified model is again analyzed and checked for yield
stage. The iterative process is continued till the percentage difference between displacement
at each node for two successive iterations is less than 1%. The final stiffness is the true
resistance offered by the soil to the pipe.
General Procedure to model buried piping
1. First define soils using the command Misc > Soils in the Layout or List window.
2. Next, tie these defined soils with pipe sections (Ctrl+Shft+S to list Sections, double click
on an empty row, you will see the field Soil in the bottom right corner. Pick the soil
name from the dropdown combo box).
3. Use this modified section for each element on the Layout window that is buried with this
soil around it.
CAEPIPE presently does not discretize long sections of buried piping. A future release is
anticipated to provide more comprehensive soil modeling. Discretization is required near
"regions of discontinuities." These regions are changes in directions (bends, tees), or where
piping exits to open space, or piping enters the buried region. In these areas, you need to
subdivide long spans into smaller ones as much as possible. This will contribute to lowering
vertical deflections.
It is possible to specify different soil characteristics for different portions of the pipe model.
Here is how.
1. Define different soils using the command Misc > Soils.
2. Then, create as many pipe sections as the number of soils.
3. Associate each soil type with a section (to be used for the different portions).
4. Model piping using the different sections for different portions of the model.
Note: For vertical sections of pipe with varying buried depths, you can use only one soil
tied to one section and CAEPIPE will calculate appropriately.
129
Buried Piping
Ground Level
Ground level for a soil is the height of the soil surface from the global origin (height could
be positive or negative). It is NOT a measure of the depth of the pipe’s centerline.
In the figure, the height of the soil surface is 3 feet from the global origin. Pipe node 10
[model origin] is defined at (0,5,0). So, the pipe is buried 8’ (3’  [5’]) deep into the soil.
Similarly for the other soil.
The pipe centerline is calculated by CAEPIPE from the given data
Two Soil types
Two types of soils can be defined  Cohesive and Cohesionless. Soil density and Ground
level are input for both cohesive and cohesionless soils. The Ground level is used to
calculate depth of the buried section. For cohesive soil, Strength is the undrained cohesive
strength (Cs). For cohesionless soil, Delta (δ) is angle of friction between soil and pipe, and
Ks is Coefficient of horizontal soil stress. See nomenclature below for more information.
Highlight buried sections of the model in graphics
If your model contains sections that are above ground and buried, then you can selectively
see only the buried sections of piping in CAEPIPE graphics by highlighting the section
that is tied to the soil. Use the Highlight feature under the Section List window and place
highlight on the buried piping section (see Highlight under List window>View menu, or
press Ctrl+H). The Graphics window should highlight only that portion of the model that is
using that specific section/soil.
130
Buried Piping
Nomenclature
D = Outside diameter of pipe
Ks = Coefficient of horizontal soil stress which depends on the relative density and state of
consolidation of soil. Ks is empirical in nature and may be estimated from Nq/50.
Ks can vary depending on the compaction of the soil from 0.25 (for loose soil) to
1.0 (really compacted soil).
Nq = Bearing capacity factor = 0.98414 e
(0.107311 φ)
φ = δ + 5°
δ = angle of friction between soil and pipe.
Normal values for delta ranges between 25° – 45° (for sand).
Clean granular sand is 30° . With a mix of silt in it, the angle is 25° .
Sp = soil pressure = soil density × depth
Cs = Undrained cohesive strength (input for cohesive soil), (Cs in kN/m2) ≤ 1.0
Af = Adhesion factor = 1.7012775 e
(0.00833699 Cs)
kp = Coefficient of passive earth pressure
= (1 + sin φ) / (1 – sin φ)
bottom depth = depth + D/2
top depth = depth − D/2
Nr = (Nq – 1.0) tan (1.4 φ)
dq = dr = 1.0 + 0.1 tan (π/4 + φ/2) × depth / D, for d > 10° , otherwise dq = dr = 1.0
Calculation of Ultimate Loads
The ultimate loads (per unit length of pipe for axial and transverse directions and per unit
projected length of pipe for vertical direction) are calculated as shown below.
Different equations are used for cohesive (clayey) and cohesionless (sandy) soils.
Axial direction
Cohesive soil: Axial load = p × D × Af × Cs
Cohesionless soil: Axial load = p × D × Ks × Sp × tan δ
Transverse direction
Cohesive soil: Transverse load = D × (2 Cs + Sp + 1.5 Cs × depth / D)
Cohesionless soil: Transverse load = kp × kp × Sp × D
Vertically downward direction
Cohesive soil: Downward load = D × (5.7182 Cs + Soil density × bottom depth)
Cohesionless soil: Downward load = D × (Soil density × bottom depth × Nq × dq
+ 0.5 Soil density × D × Nr × dr)
Vertically upward direction
Cohesive soil: Upward load = D × Soil density × top depth + 2 Cs × top depth
Cohesionless soil: Upward load = D × Soil density × top depth
131
Buried Piping
Buried Piping Example
Ultimate Loads and Stiffnesses computed by CAEPIPE for this example are verified later in
this section.
Example data:
A 12" Std pipe 6’ long is buried, 3’ in cohesionless and 3’ in cohesive soils.
Soil properties are as follows:
Cohesionless (Name of soil: S1, associated with pipe section 12A):
Density = 120 lb / ft3
Delta (δ) = 20°
Ks = 0.29 (calculated from Nq/50, where Nq = 14.394)
Ground level = 3’
Cohesive (Name of soil: S2, associated with pipe section 12B):
Density = 150 lb / ft3
Strength = 100 psi
Ground level = –1’
1. Define soils using the command Misc > Soils.
132
Buried Piping
A List window for soils will be displayed. Double click on an empty row to define a new
soil.
For our example, define two soils  one cohesive and the other cohesionless with properties
as shown in the following dialogs.
Dialog for cohesionless soil:
Dialog for cohesive soil:
After you define the soils, you should see the two soils listed in the List window.
133
Buried Piping
2. Define pipe sections and then associate the soils with these sections.
Define two pipe sections, both 12"/STD pipe sections (name them 12A and 12B), and select
the correct soil in the pipe section dialog box using the Soil dropdown combo box.
Soil S1 is associated with section 12A:
Soil S2 is associated with section 12B:
134
Buried Piping
3. Define the layout from 10 to 20 to 30; the first pipe element from 10 to 20 uses section
12A (Cohesionless soil type S1), and the next pipe element 20 to 30 uses section 12B
(Cohesive soil type S2). Check Operating load case under Loads menu > Load cases for
analysis.
Save the model and analyze. Choose yes to view the results. From the Results dialog, pick
Soil Restraints. The different loads and stiffnesses will be shown. The numbers found here
below are the ones that are verified later in this section.
135
Buried Piping
Example Verification
Verification of cohesionless restraints (for pipe element 10 to 20)
Sp = soil pressure = soil density × depth
depth = 3’  (5’) = 8’ (since the pipe centerline is at 5’ and ground level is at 3’).
Sp = 120 lb/ft3 × 8 ft = 960 lb / ft2 = 6.6667 lb/in2
Axial direction
Axial load = π× D × Ks × Sp × tan δ
= π× 12.75 × 0.29 × 6.6667 × tan (20)
= 28.1861 lb/in
= 1014.7 lb (for 36", length of pipe) (CAEPIPE: 1014.7)
Assuming yield displacement = D/25,
Axial stiffness = 25 × 2624.2 / 12.75 = 5145.5 (lb /in) (CAEPIPE: 5145.5)
Transverse direction
φ = δ+ 5° = 20° + 5° = 25°
kp = Coefficient of passive earth pressure
= (1 + sin φ) / (1  sin φ)
= 2.4639
Transverse load = kp × kp × Sp × D
= 2.4639 × 2.4639 × 6.6667 × 12.75
= 516.0239 lb /in
= 18576.88 lb (for 36") (CAEPIPE: 18577)
Transverse stiffness = 25 × 18576.88 / 12.75
= 36425 lb / in (CAEPIPE: 36425)
Vertically downward direction
bottom depth = 96" + 12.75"/2 = 102.375"
Nq = Bearing capacity factor = 0.98414 e
(0.107311 φ)
= 14.39366
Nr = (Nq – 1.0) × tan (1.4 φ) = 9.37834
since δ> 10°
dq = dr = 1.0 + 0.1 × tan(π/4 + φ/2) × depth / D = 2.18188
Downward load = D × (Soil density × bottom depth × Nq × dq + 0.5 × Soil density ×
D × Nr × dr)
= 12.75 × ((120/1728) × 102.375" × 14.39366 × 2.18188 + 0.5 × (120/1728) × 12.75"
× 9.37834 × 2.18188)
= 12.75 × 232.3305 lb / in
= 106639.7 lb (for 36") (CAEPIPE: 106640 lb)
Downward stiffness = 25 × 106639.7 / 12.75
= 209097 lb/in (CAEPIPE: 209098)
Vertically Upward Direction
top depth = 96" – 12.75"/2 = 89.625"
Upward load = D × Soil density × top depth
= 12.75" × (120/1728) × 89.625
= 79.35547 lb / in
= 2856.7968 lb (for 36") (CAEPIPE: 2856.8)
Upward stiffness = 25 × 2856.7968 / 12.75 = 5601.56 lb/in (CAEPIPE: 5601.6)
136
Buried Piping
Verification of cohesive restraints (for pipe element 20 to 30)
Sp = soil pressure = soil density × depth
depth = –1’ – (–5’) = 4’ (since the pipe centerline is at 5’ and ground level is at 3’).
Sp = 150 lb/ft3 × 4 ft = 600 lb / ft2 = 4.16667 lb/in2
Axial direction
Soil strength = Cs = 100 psi = 100 × 6.89476 KN/M2 = 689.476 KN/M2
Af = Adhesion factor = 1.7012775 e
(0.00833699 Cs)
= 5.424795E3
Axial load = π× D × Af × Cs
= π× 12.75" × 5.424795E3 × 100 psi
= 21.72982 lb / in
= 782.25 lb (for 36") (CAEPIPE: 782.3)
Axial stiffness = 25 × 782.25 / 12.75 = 1533.82 lb /in (CAEPIPE: 1533.8 lb/in)
Transverse direction
Transverse load = D × (2 Cs + Sp + 1.5 Cs × depth / D)
= 12.75" × (2.0×100 + 4.166667 + 1.5×100×48/12.75)
= 9803.125 lb/in
= 352912.5 lb for 36" (CAEPIPE: 352913)
Transverse stiffness = 25 × 352912.5 / 12.75
= 691985.3 lb /in (CAEPIPE: 691985)
Vertically Downward direction
bottom depth = 48" + 12.75"/2 = 54.375"
Downward load = D × (5.7182 Cs + Soil density × bottom depth)
= 12.75" × (5.7182×100 + (150/1728) × 54.375")
= 7350.8857 lb/in
= 264631.88 lb for 36" (CAEPIPE: 264632)
Downward stiffness = 25 × 264631.88 / 12.75
= 518886 lb / in (CAEPIPE: 518886)
Vertically Upward Direction
top depth = 48" – 12.75"/2 = 41.625"
Upward load = D × Soil density × top depth + 2 Cs × top depth
= 12.75" × ((150/1728) × 41.625" + 2×100×41.625")
= 8371.069 lb / in
= 301358.49 lb for 36" (CAEPIPE: 301359)
Upward stiffness = 25 × 301358.49 / 12.75
= 590899 lb / in (CAEPIPE: 590899)
References
1. Tomlinson, M. J., Pile Design and Construction Practice. Fourth Edition. London: E & FN
Spon, 1994.
2. Fleming, W.G.K., et al. Piling Engineering. Second Edition. Blackie Academic and
Professional. (Chapters 4 and 5).
137
Cold Spring (Cut Pipe)
Cold spring (cut short or cut long) is used to reduce thermal forces on equipment connected
to the piping system. Cold spring for a straight pipe is input by typing "c" in the Type
column or selecting "Cut pipe" from the Element Types dialog.
The Cut pipe dialog is shown.
Select "Cut short" or "Cut long" using the radio buttons. The amount of cut (short or long)
should be positive.
Piping codes do not allow credit for cold spring in stress calculations. So, a cold spring
is used in additional sustained and operating load cases which are not used in stress
calculations but are used for support loads and rotating equipment reports.
Cold Spring load cases appear in the Loads menu (under Load cases) after a cold spring
(Cut pipe element) is input into the model. The Load cases menu is shown below:
138
Cold Spring (Cut Pipe)
Select the desired Cold Spring load cases shown for analysis. The Hanger selection
procedure does not consider the cold spring since the selection is based on the first
Operating (W+P1+T1) load case. However, if Cold Spring is used, the hanger loads for the
Cold spring load cases [for example, Cold Spring+(W+P1+T1)] will include the effect of the
Cold spring.
139
Comment
You can make as many comments as required anywhere in the Layout window. They print
along with the layout data.
Two ways for putting in a comment are,
1. Simply type "c" first (in the Node column) on an empty row, or
2. On an empty row, select "Comment" from the Element Types dialog (Ctrl+Shft+T).
Use menu Edit > Insert (Ctrl+Ins) to insert an empty row between two existing rows of data.
Rows 11, 12, 15 and 17 are the comment lines (light green background).
140
Compressor
A compressor (like a turbine or a pump) is input by selecting "Compressors" from the Misc
menu in the Layout or List window. Upon analysis, an API 617 compressor compliance
report is produced. See Appendix B (API 617, for Compressors) for related information.
Once you see the Compressor List window, double click on an empty row for the
Compressor dialog and enter the required information.
A short description to identify the compressor may be entered for Description. The nozzle
nodes must be anchors and the shaft axis must be in the horizontal plane. Some of the
nozzle nodes may be left blank if they are not on the compressor (e.g., extraction nodes).
141
Concentrated Mass
A concentrated mass is input by typing "conc" in the Data column or selecting "Conc. Mass"
from the Data Types dialog.
The Concentrated Mass dialog is shown.
The weight of the concentrated mass should be input for Weight. The concentrated mass is
located at the offset (DX, DY, DZ) from the node. Deadweight, seismic and dynamic loads
due to concentrated masses are applied to the model.
142
Constant Support
A constant support hanger exerts a constant supporting force on the piping. A constant
support always acts in the vertical direction. The constant support load is automatically
calculated. To analyze an existing constant support with a known load, input it as a user
hanger with zero spring rate.
A constant support is input by by typing "cons" in the Data column or selecting "Constant
Support" from the Data Types dialog.
The Constant Support dialog is shown.
Number of Hangers
The number of hangers is the number of separate hangers connected in parallel at this
node.
Connected to Node
By default the hanger is connected to a fixed ground point which is not a part of the piping
system. A hanger can be connected to another node in the piping system by entering the
node number in the "Connected to node" field. This node must be directly above or below
the hanger node.
143
Data Types
Items such as anchors, hangers, forces, etc., which are defined at nodes, are input in the
Data column as Data types; as opposed to items such as pipes, bends, valves, etc., which
connect nodes, are input in the Type column as Element types.
The Data items can be selected from the Data Types dialog which is opened when you
click on the Data header in the Layout window.
You may also use the command: Misc > Data types,
or press Ctrl+Shift+D to open the Data Types dialog.
You can select the data type by clicking on the radio button or pressing the first letter of
the item, e.g., press "f" for Flange, Force or Force spectrum load.
144
Direction
Direction is required for several items such as Pump, Compressor, Turbine, Nozzle (for
vessel axis), Limit Stop, Skewed restraint, Elastic element, Hinge joint, etc.
The axis or the orientation of an item (listed above), is called the direction vector which is
described in terms of the vector’s global X, Y and Z components.
The angles the vector makes with the X, Y and Z axes are called Direction angles. The
cosines of these angles are called Direction cosines (or global X, Y and Z components used
in CAEPIPE).
There are two methods of computing the X, Y and Z components.
First method: When you know the direction angles (see examples 1, 2 and 3).
Second method: When you know the coordinates of the end points of the vector (see
example 4).
Example 1: Vertical Vessel
Assume a vertical vessel with axis in the Y direction, and α, β, γ as the direction angles the
axis of the vessel makes with global X, Y and Z axes.
The angles are α = 90° , β = 0° (since axis is parallel to Y axis) and γ = 90° .
So, the direction cosines or X, Y and Z components are
X comp = cos (α = 90° ) = 0,
Y comp = cos (β = 0° ) = 1,
Z comp = cos (γ = 90° ) = 0.
For Z vertical: X comp = 0, Y comp = 0 and Z comp = 1.
Example 2: Limit Stop at 45° from the Xaxis in the XY plane
For a limit stop whose axis is oriented at 45° from the Xaxis in the XY plane, the angles
are α = 45° , β = 45° and γ = 90° .
So, the direction cosines or X, Y and Z components are
X comp = cos (α = 45° ) = 0.70711,
Y comp = cos (β = 45° ) = 0.70711,
Z comp = cos (γ = 90° ) = 0.0
145
Direction
Example 3: Hinge axis at 30° from the Zaxis in the YZ plane
30°
60°
L
Y
X
Z
Hinge axis vector
Y component = L cos 60° = 0.5 L
Z component = L cos 30° = 0.866 L
X component = L cos 90° = 0
Direction Cosines of Hinge Axis vector
Y Component
Z Component
b
g
a = 90°
From the above figure, we have the angles α = 90° , β = 60° and γ = 30° . Assuming L = 1
(or any length), the direction cosines or X, Y and Z components are
X comp = cos (α = 90° ) = 0.0,
Y comp = cos (β = 60° ) = 0.5,
Z comp = cos (γ = 30° ) = 0.866
Example 4: Skewed Support
X
Z
Y
P1
P2
a
g
b
P1P2: Skewed support
(Direction vector)
L: Length of vector
a, b, g : Direction angles
L
Assume that we have a skewed support along P
1
P
2
(which is the direction vector) shown
in the figure above, Assume that the coordinates of these two points are P
1
= (12’,12’,12’)
and P
2
=(15’,16’,14’).
Let us calculate this vector’s global X, Y and Z components. There are two methods here.
146
Direction
Short method
X comp = (X
2
−X
1
) = (15 −12) = 3
Y comp = (Y
2
−Y
1
) = (16 −12) = 4
Z comp = (Z
2
−Z
1
) = (14 −12) = 2
Long method
First, let us calculate the length of the vector, L.
L =
(X
2
−X
1
)
2
+ (Y
2
−Y
1
)
2
+ (Z
2
−Z
1
)
2
= 5.385
The angles α, β and γ which the vector makes with the global X, Y and Z axes are called
the Direction angles of the vector; The cosines of these angles are called Direction cosines.
cos α =
X
2
−X
1
L
, cos β =
Y
2
−Y
1
L
, cos γ =
Z
2
−Z
1
L
The direction cosines are
X comp = cos α = 0.55709, Y comp = cos β = 0.74278, Z comp = cos γ = 0.37139
For information, the direction angles are α = 56° 8", β = 42° 1" and γ = 68° 11".
To verify the results, the sum of the squares of the direction cosines must be 1.0. Thus,
cos
2
α + cos
2
β + cos
2
γ = 0.557092
2
+ 0.742782
2
+ 0.371392
2
= 1.0
147
Dynamic Analysis
Modal Analysis
The equations of motion for an undamped lumped mass system may be written as:
[M]{¨ u} + [K]{u} = {F(t)} (1)
where [M] = diagonal mass matrix
{u} = displacement vector
{¨ u} = acceleration vector
[K] = stiffness matrix
{F(t)} = applied dynamic force vector
If the system is vibrating in a normal mode (i.e., free not forced vibration), we may make
the substitutions
{u} = {a
n
} sin ω
n
t
{¨ u} = −ω
2
n
{a
n
} sin ω
n
t
{F(t)} = 0
to obtain
−ω
2
n
[M]{a
n
} + [K]{a
n
} = 0
or
[K]{a
n
} = ω
2
n
[M]{a
n
} (2)
where {a
n
} is the vector of modal displacements of the n
th
mode (eigenvector).
Thus we have an eigenvalue (characteristic value) problem, and the roots of equation (2)
are the eigenvalues (characteristic numbers), which are equal to the squares of the natural
frequencies of the modes.
In CAEPIPE, the eigenvalue problem is solved using a determinant search technique.
The solution algorithm combines triangular factorization and vector inverse iteration in an
optimum manner to calculate the required eigenvalues and eigenvectors. These are obtained
in sequence starting from the lowest eigenpair ω
2
1
, {a
1
}. An efficient accelerated secant
procedure which operates on the characteristic polynomial
p(ω
2
) = det([K] −ω
2
[M])
is used to obtain a shift near the next unknown eigenvalue. The eigenvalue separation
theorem (Sturm sequence property) is used in this iteration. Each determinant evaluation
requires a triangular factorization of the matrix [K] −ω
2
[M]. Once a shift near the unknown
eigenvalue has been obtained, inverse iteration is used to calculate the eigenvector. The
eigenvalue is obtained by adding the Rayleigh quotient correction to the shift value. The
eigenvector {a
n
}, has an arbitrary magnitude and represents the characteristic shape of that
mode.
148
Dynamic Analysis
Orthogonality
For any two roots corresponding to the n
th
and m
th
modes, we may write equation (2) as
[K]{a
n
} = ω
2
n
[M]{a
n
} (3)
[K]{a
m
} = ω
2
m
[M]{a
m
} (4)
If we postmultiply the transpose of (3) by {a
m
}, we obtain
([K]{a
n
})
T
{a
m
} = (ω
2
n
[M]{a
n
})
T
{a
m
}
or
{a
n
}
T
[K]
T
{a
m
} = ω
2
n
{a
n
}
T
[M]
T
{a
m
} (5)
Premultiplying (4) by {a
n
}
T
,
{a
n
}
T
[K]{a
m
} = ω
2
m
{a
n
}
T
[M]{a
m
} (6)
Since [M] is a diagonal matrix, [M] = [M]
T
. Also, since [K] is a symmetric matrix,
[K] = [K]
T
. The left sides of equations (5) and (6) are therefore equal.
Subtracting (6) from (5),
(ω
2
n
−ω
2
m
){a
n
}
T
[M]{a
m
} = 0 (7)
Since ω
n
= ω
m
,
{a
n
}
T
[M]{a
m
} = 0 (8)
which is the orthogonality condition for eigenvectors.
Modal Equations
Since the eigenvectors (modal displacements) may be given any amplitude, it is convenient
to replace {a
n
} by {φ
n
} such that
{φ
n
}
T
[M]{φ
n
} = 1 (9)
The eigenvectors are evaluated so as to satisfy equation (9) and at the same time keep the
displacements in the same proportion as those in {a
n
}. The eigenvectors are then said to
be normalized. Note that equation (7) is still satisfied since, if n = m, ω
2
n
− ω
2
m
= 0, and
the remaining terms may be given any desired value.
equation (2) now may be written for the n
th
mode as
[K]{φ
n
} = ω
2
n
[M]{φ
n
}
Let [Φ] be a square matrix containing all normalized eigenvectors such that the n
th
column
is the normalized eigenvector for the n
th
mode. We can therefore write the matrix equation
so as to include all modes as follows:
[K]{Φ} = [M][Φ][ω
2
n
] (10)
where [ω
2
n
] is a diagonal matrix of eigenvalues. We now premultiply both sides of (10) by
[Φ]
T
to obtain
[Φ]
T
[K][Φ] = [Φ]T[M][Φ][ω
2
n
] (11)
It may be shown that
[Φ]
T
[M][Φ] = [ I ] (12)
where [ I ] is the unit diagonal matrix. equation (12) can easily be verified by expansion
and follows from the orthogonality condition and the fact that [Φ] has been normalized.
equation (11) therefore can be written as
[Φ]
T
[K][Φ] = [ω
2
n
] (13)
149
Dynamic Analysis
Returning now to the equation of motion (1),
let
{u} = [Φ]{A
n
}
and
{¨ u} = [Φ]{
¨
A
n
} (14)
Where {A
n
} is the modal amplitude of the n
th
mode. This merely states that the true
modal displacements equal the characteristic displacements (eigenvector displacements)
times the modal amplitude determined by the response calculations and, further that the
total displacements are linear combinations of the modal values. If we now premultiply
equation (1) by [Φ]
T
and substitute equations (14), we obtain
[Φ]
T
[M][Φ]{
¨
A
n
} + [Φ]
T
[K][Φ]{A
n
} = [Φ]
T
{F(t)} (15)
Substituting from equations (12) and (13) in equation (15),
{
¨
A
n
} + [ω
2
n
]{A
n
} = [Φ]
T
{F(t)} (16)
which represents the modal equations of motion.
Support Motion
Solutions for support motion may be obtained if {F(t)} is replaced by −¨ u
s
(t){M}, where
¨ u
s
(t) is the prescribed support acceleration. Thus the modal equations of motion may be
written as
{
¨
A
n
} + [ω
2
n
]{A
n
} = −¨ u
s
(t)[Φ]
T
{M} (17)
where A
n
is the relative modal displacement for the n
th
mode with respect to the support.
The participation factors for the modes are given by
{Γ
n
} = [Φ]
T
{M} (18)
Then the modal amplitude for the n
th
mode is given by
A
n
= Γ
n
u
0
n
(19)
where u
0
n
is the response of a single degree of freedom system having circular frequency
ω
n
. Using equations (14) and (19), the displacements are given by,
{u} = [Φ]{A
n
} = [Φ]{Γ
n
u
0
n
} (20)
150
Dynamic Analysis
Effective Modal Mass
Effective modal mass is defined as the part of the total mass responding to the dynamic
loading in each mode. When the participation factor is calculated using normalized
eigenvectors as in equation (18), the effective modal mass for the n
th
mode is simply the
square of the normalized participation factor,
M
n
= Γ
2
n
Effective modal mass is useful to verify if all the significant modes of vibration are included
in the dynamic analysis by comparing the total effective modal mass with the total actual
mass.
Response Spectrum
The concept of response spectrum, in recent years has gained wide acceptance in structural
dynamics analysis, particularly in seismic design. Stated briefly, the response spectrum is
a plot of the maximum response (maximum displacement, velocity, acceleration or any
other quantity of interest), to a specified loading for all possible single degreeoffreedom
systems. The abscissa of the spectrum is the natural frequency (or period) of the system,
and the ordinate, the maximum response.
In general, response spectra are prepared by calculating the response to a specified
excitation of single degreeoffreedom systems with various amounts of damping. Numerical
integration with short time steps is used to calculate the response of the system. The step
bystep process is continued until the total earthquake record is completed and becomes the
response of the system to that excitation. Changing the parameters of the system to change
the natural frequency, the process is repeated and a new maximum response is recorded.
This process is repeated until all frequencies of interest have been covered and the results
plotted. Typically the El Centro, California earthquake of 1940 is used for this purpose.
Since the response spectra give only maximum response, only the maximum values for each
mode are calculated and then superimposed (modal combination) to give total response. A
conservative upper bound for the total response may be obtained by adding the absolute
values of the maximum modal components (absolute sum). However this is excessively
conservative and a more probable value of the maximum response is the square root of the
sum of squares (SRSS) of the modal maxima.
To calculate response of the piping system, for each natural frequency of the piping system,
the input spectrum is interpolated (linearly or logarithmically). The interpolated spectrum
values are then combined for the X, Y and Z directions (direction sum) either as absolute
sum or SRSS sum to give the maximum response of a single degreeoffreedom system:
u
0
max
at that frequency.
From equation (20), the maximum displacement vector for the n
th
mode can be calculated
from the maximum response of a single degreeoffreedom system,
{u
n
}
max
= {φ
n
} Γ
n
u
0
n max
The maximum values of element and support load forces per mode are calculated from the
maximum displacements calculated per mode as above using the stiffness properties of the
structure.
151
Dynamic Analysis
The total response (displacements and forces) is calculated by superimposing the modal
responses according to the specified mode sum method which can be absolute sum, square
root of sum of squares (SRSS) or closely spaced (10%) modes method.
Closely Spaced Modes
Studies have shown that SRSS procedure for combining modes can significantly underes
timate the true response in certain cases in which some of the natural frequencies of a
structural system are closely spaced. The ten percent method is one of NRC approved
methods (Based on NRC Guide 1.92) for addressing this problem.
R =
N
¸
n=1
R
2
n
+ 2
¸
R
i
R
j

where R = Total (combined) response
R
n
= Peak value of the response due to the n
th
mode
N = Number of significant modes
The second summation is to be done on all i and j modes whose frequencies are closely
spaced to each other. Let ω
i
and ω
j
be the frequencies of the ith and jth modes. The modes
are closely spaced if:
ω
j
−ω
i
ω
i
≤ 0.1 and 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ N
Time History
Time history analysis requires the solution to the equations
[M]{¨ u} + [C]{ ˙ u} + [K]{u} = {F(t)} (21)
where [M] = diagonal mass matrix
[C] = damping matrix
[K] = stiffness matrix
{u} = displacement vector
{ ˙ u} = velocity vector
{¨ u} = acceleration vector
{F(t)} = applied dynamic force vector
The time history analysis is carried out using mode superposition method. It is assumed that
the structural response can be described adequately by the p lowest vibration modes out of
the total possible n vibration modes and p < n. Using the transformation u = ΦX, where
the columns in Φ are the p mass normalized eigenvectors, equation (21) can be written as
¨
X + ∆
˙
X + Ω
2
X = Φ
T
F (22)
where ∆ = diag (2ω
i
ξ
i
)
Ω
2
= diag (ω
2
i
)
152
Dynamic Analysis
In equation (22), it is assumed that the damping matrix [C] satisfies the modal orthogonality
condition
{φ
i
}
T
[C]{φ
j
} = 0 (i = j)
Equation (22) therefore represents p uncoupled second order differential equations. These
are solved using the Wilson θ method, which is an unconditionally stable stepbystep
integration scheme. The same time step is used in the integration of all equations to simplify
the calculations.
Harmonic Analysis
A harmonic analysis is performed to analyze the response to sinusoidal loads. Harmonic
forces can arise from unbalanced rotating equipment, acoustic vibrations caused by recip
rocating equipment, flow impedance, and other sources. These forces can be damaging
to a piping system if their frequency is close to the system’s natural frequency, thereby
introducing resonant conditions. The equation of dynamic equilibrium associated with the
response of the structure subjected to harmonic forces is:
[M]{¨ u} + [C]{ ˙ u} + [K]{u} = sin(ωt)F (23)
where [M] = diagonal mass matrix
[C] = damping matrix
[K] = stiffness matrix
{u} = displacement vector
{ ˙ u} = velocity vector
{¨ u} = acceleration vector
ω = frequency of the applied force
t = time
F = maximum magnitude of the applied force
More complex forms of vibration, such as those caused by the fluid flow, may be considered
as superposition of several simple harmonics, each with it own frequency, magnitude, and
phase.
A harmonic analysis uses the results from the modal analysis to obtain a solution. A single
damping factor is used for all modes.
First, the maximum response of each harmonic is obtained separately. Then the total re
sponse of the system is determined by combining the individual responses. The combination
method may be specified as the Root Mean Square (RMS) or Absolute Sum.
153
Dynamic Susceptibility
Dynamic Susceptibility feature is a screening tool for potentially large alternating stresses.
The dynamic stresses are the dynamic bending stresses associated with vibration in a
natural mode. In other words, the modal analysis result has been generalized to include
the alternating bending stresses associated with the vibration in a natural mode. The
dynamic susceptibility for any mode is the ratio of the maximum alternating bending stress
to the maximum vibration velocity. This "susceptibility ratio" provides an indicator of
the susceptibility of the system to large dynamic stresses. Also, the associated animated
mode shapes include colorspotmarkers identifying the respective locations of maximum
vibration and maximum dynamic bending stress. The susceptibility ratio and the graphics
feature provide incisive insights into the reasons for high susceptibility and how to make
improvements.
The "Modal Analysis" output load case in CAEPIPE has been enhanced. In addition to the
modal frequencies and mode shapes, you will see two new results items called "dynamic
stresses" and "dynamic susceptibility."
In case you do not see these two items in the results dialog, you need to activate this feature
by defining an environment variable.
First method:
An environment variable "HARTLEN" needs to be declared under My Computer > Properties
> Environment > Variable (HARTLEN), and its Value set to (YES). Please check with your
System Admin because different versions of Windows have slightly different methods of
doing it.
154
Dynamic Susceptibility
Second method:
Open the MSDOS Command Prompt. Type "SET HARTLEN=YES" (enter), change directory
(using CD command) to where CAEPIPE program files are located, start CAEPIPE.EXE.
Upon (modal) analysis, the Results dialog will display the required results (dynamic stresses
and dynamic susceptibility).
Please see Appendix for a detailed technical discussion of the method with an example.
155
Elastic Element
The elastic element is a general 6 × 6 stiffness matrix, with nonzero diagonal terms and
zero offdiagonal terms. Use this element to model the stiffness of a component unavailable
in CAEPIPE.
An elastic element is input by typing "e" in the Type column or selecting "Elastic element"
from the Element Types dialog.
The Elastic element dialog is shown.
The stiffnesses are in the local coordinate system defined by the directions of the local x,
y and zaxes. The local yaxis should be perpendicular to the local xaxis (i.e., their dot
product should be zero). The local zaxis is internally calculated as cross product of the
local x and yaxes.
The elastic element is not subjected to any sustained or thermal expansion loads.
156
Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP)
Use of FRP pipe due to its light weight, superior corrosion resistance, temperature capa
bilities and mechanical strength has gained wide acceptance in many industries. Several
manufacturers like FIBERCAST manufacture different types of FRP pipes and fittings and
provide technical assistance to their customers from design through installation. You can
model FRP material in CAEPIPE and have the program calculate deflections, forces, moments
and stresses.
To define the FRP material, click on "Matl" in the header row in the Layout window.
In the Material List window that is shown, double click on an empty row to input a new
material.
The Material dialog will be shown.
157
Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP)
The material name can be up to three alphanumeric characters. Enter description and
density. You need to select "FR: Fiber Reinf. Plastic (FRP)" from the Type dropdown combo
box before you click on the Properties button. The Poisson’s ratio (Nu) is the ratio of the
strain in the axial direction resulting from the stress in the hoop direction.
When you click on the Properties button, you are shown the table below where you enter
temperature dependent properties.
FRP Material Moduli
CAEPIPE requires three moduli for an FRP material:
Axial
Axial
Hoop
Shear
• Axial or Longitudinal (this is the most important one)
• Hoop (this is used in Bourdon effect calculations). If this modulus is not available, use
axial modulus.
• Shear or Torsional. If this modulus is not available, use engineering judgment in putting
1/2 of axial modulus or a similar value. Note that a high modulus will result in high
stresses, and a low modulus will result in high deflections.
For FRP bends, a Flexibility factor of 1.0 is used unless you override it by specifying a
Flexibility factor inside the bend dialog. Also for FRP bends, CAEPIPE uses a default SIF
of 2.3. You can override this too by specifying UserSIFs at the bend end nodes (A and B
nodes).
Stiffness matrix
The stiffness matrix for an FRP material is formulated in the following manner:
The stiffness matrix for a pipe is calculated using the following terms:
Axial term = L / EA
Shear term = shape factor x L / GA
Bending term = L / EI
Torsion term = L / 2GI
where L = length, A = area, I = moment of inertia
E = Elastic modulus, G = shear modulus
158
Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP)
For an isotropic material,
G = E / 2(1 + ν)
where ν = Poisson’s ratio,
For an FRP material, however,
E = axial modulus and G is independently specified (i.e., it is not calculated using E and ν).
The hoop modulus and FRP Poisson’s ratio are only used in Bourdon effect calculation
where,
Poisson’s ratio used = FRP Poisson’s ratio input x axial modulus / hoop modulus
Results
CAEPIPE calculates deflections, forces, moments and stresses. Each item can be seen under
the respective title in Results. FRP element stresses can be seen, sorted or unsorted. These
different stresses are computed as per formulas given towards the end of Appendix A.
159
Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP)
FRP piping in Rendered graphics views is shown in golden color.
160
Flange
A flange is input by typing "fl" in the Data column or selecting "Flange" from the Data Types
dialog. If flanges are located at the bend end nodes (A, B nodes), or jacketed bend nodes
(C, D nodes), the bend flexibility and SIF are modified.
The Flange dialog is shown.
The type of the flange can be selected from the Type dropdown combo box.
Weight
The weight should be the total weight of flanges, i.e., if there are two flanges the weight
should be the weight of two flanges.
Gasket Diameter
The gasket diameter is used in calculating equivalent flange pressure in the flange report.
161
Flange
Allowable Pressure
The equivalent flange pressure is compared with the allowable pressure for the flange in
the flange report. In many cases the allowable pressure may be conservatively set to the
flange rating.
Flange Library
The flange library may be accessed by clicking on the Library button of the Flange dialog.
The weight in the library is the weight of two weld neck flanges (including bolts).
Flange Report
The flange report is shown in the results.
Every flange in a model is listed in the flange report. The flange pressure is an equivalent
pressure calculated from the actual pressure in pipe, the bending moment on the flange
and the axial force on the flange, as follows:
Flange Pressure = Pressure +
16 ×Bending Moment
π ×Gasket dia
3
+
4 ×Axial Force
π ×Gasket dia
2
The Gasket diameter is at the gasket loading location (if it is not input, it is conservatively
assumed to be the internal diameter of the pipe).
The above shown equation is based on the article NC3658.1 of ASME Section III Class 2,
1992 edn., page 176.
The equivalent flange pressure is compared with the allowable pressure.
162
Force
Forces and moments in the global X, Y and Z directions are input by typing "fo" in the Data
column or selecting "Force" from the Data Types dialog.
The Force dialog is shown.
The forces and moments are applied in the sustained and operating load cases.
163
Force Spectrum
In force spectrum analysis, the results of the modal analysis are used with force spectrum
loads to calculate the response (displacements, support loads and stresses) of the piping
system. It is often used in place of a timehistory analysis to determine the response of
the piping system to sudden impulsive loads such as water hammer, relief valve and slug
flow loads. The force spectrum is a table of spectral values vs frequencies that captures
the intensity and frequency content of the timehistory loads. It is a table of Dynamic
Load Factors (DLF) vs. natural frequencies. DLF is the ratio of the maximum dynamic
displacement divided by the maximum static displacement. Note that Force spectrum is
a nondimensional function (since it is a ratio) defining a curve representing force vs.
frequency. The actual force spectrum load at a node is defined using this force spectrum in
addition to the direction (FX, FY, FZ, MX, MY, MZ), units (lb, N, kg, ftlb, inlb, Nm, kgm)
and a scale factor. The Force spectrums are input from the Layout or List menu: Misc >
Force spectrums.
The Force spectrum list appears.
164
Force Spectrum
Enter a name for the force spectrum and spectrum values vs frequencies table. In addition
to inputting the force spectrum directly, it can also be read from a text file or converted
from a previously defined time function.
To read a force spectrum from a text file:
use the List menu: File > Read force spectrum.
The text file should be in the following format:
Name (up to 31 characters)
Frequency (Hz) Spectrum value
Frequency (Hz) Spectrum value
Frequency (Hz) Spectrum value
. .
. .
. .
The frequencies can be in any order. They will be sorted in ascending order after reading
from the file.
To convert a previously defined time function to force spectrum:
use the List menu: File > Convert time function.
The Convert Time Function dialog appears.
165
Force Spectrum
Select the time function to convert from the Time function name drop down combo box.
Then input the Force spectrum name (defaults to the Time function name), Maximum
frequency, Number of frequencies and the Damping. When you press Enter or click on OK,
the time function will be converted to a force spectrum and entered into the force spectrum
list.
The time function is converted to a force spectrum by solving the dynamic equation of
motion for a damped single spring mass system with the time function as a forcing function
at each frequency using Duhamel’s integral and dividing the absolute maximum dynamic
displacement by the static displacement.
Force Spectrum Load
The force spectrum loads are applied at nodes (in Data column in Layout window). At least
one force spectrum must be defined before a force spectrum load at a node can be input.
To apply the force spectrum load at a node click on the Data heading or press Ctrl+Shift+D
for Data Types dialog.
Select "Force Sp. Load" as the data type and click on OK. This opens the Force Spectrum
Load dialog.
Select the direction, units and force spectrum using the drop down combo boxes and input
appropriate scale factor. Then click on OK to enter the force spectrum load.
Input force spectrum loads at other nodes similarly. Then select the force spectrum load
case for analysis using the Layout menu: Loads > Load cases.
166
Force Spectrum
Note that Modal analysis and Sustained (W+P) load cases are automatically selected when
you select Force spectrum load case. The force spectrum load case is analyzed as an
Occasional load.
167
From (Node)
When you want to start a new branch line, you have to designate the starting node number
as a "From" node. This could be an existing node, in which case you do not have to specify
values for the DX, DY and DZ fields. If you are specifying a new node, then you have to
specify the coordinates for the node in the DX, DY and DZ fields. If no values are specified
as coordinates, then they are taken as zero.
"From" is input by typing "f" in the Type column or selecting "From" from the Element
Types dialog.
The first node of a model is always a "From" node. The DX, DY, DZ fields for this node
may be left blank to have a (0,0,0) origin or coordinates may be specified in the DX, DY
and DZ fields to have a nonzero reference point for the model.
Values specified for DX, DY and DZ for any other node other than a From node are
interpreted as offsets (not as coordinates).
168
Graphics Window
When you open a model, CAEPIPE automatically opens the Layout window and the
Graphics window. Many commands to manipulate the image such as zoom, turn, pan and
print are available in this window.
The image shown above can be shown with a white background too (use menu Options >
Background > White).
When a model is opened, the Graphics window shows the view of the model when the
model was last saved.
Context Menu
Rightclicking anywhere inside this window displays the context menu.
169
Graphics Window
In addition to a few commands constantly available on this menu, other commands appear
on the menu depending on the results item shown in the Results window. For example,
when Sorted stresses are shown, the context menu shows three commands specific to Sorted
stresses (Show Stresses, Show stress ratios and [set stress/ratio] Thresholds).
Editing in Graphics Window
Clicking on an editable element or data item brings up the related dialog (same as that you
see opened in the Layout window). You can enter or modify properties inside the dialog
just as if you were editing in the Layout window. This feature gives you more flexibility
during editing your model. Modified or newly entered data is immediately updated in
the Layout and the List windows. When you click on any symbol, CAEPIPE automatically
synchronizes the highlights in the Layout and the List windows on the row that contains the
element/data item you clicked on, so that you see all the pertinent data at the same time.
This feature works in Render mode too. Sometimes when symbols are closely grouped,
you may want to zoom in on that area before clicking on a symbol. That way, CAEPIPE
presents you the correct dialog box. Dialog boxes are opened only for elements/data that
have editable data. For example, clicking on a pipe element will not open a dialog box but
will all the same synchronize the highlights in the other windows to the same pipe element.
When you are viewing results, you can still click on an element/data item, except now the
data you see presented are readonly (you cannot edit them).
170
Graphics Window
When you click on a valve (as shown above), you will see the following dialog in the
window. You may modify any value.
171
Graphics Window
Hotkeys You Can Use
In addition to conventional MSWindows hotkeys (such as Ctrl+P for Print, Ctrl+C for copy
image, etc.), you may use the following keys.
Ctrl+A Zoom All
Ctrl+Shift+C Center image around a chosen point
Ctrl+T Turn (rotate) image
Ctrl+S Show
Ctrl+N Show node numbers
Ctrl+D Redraw image
Ctrl+R Render image
F2 Move focus to Layout or List window (wherever the focus was before)
F4 Viewpoint
F5 Previous view
Page Up Zoom in
Page Down Zoom out
Dynamic Resizing of Window Image
When you resize the Graphics window, CAEPIPE will automatically resize the image
proportionately. Dynamic scaling makes it unnecessary for you to "Zoom All" every time
you resize the window.
Using Scroll Thumbs
When you want to move or pan the image, simply drag the scroll thumbs in the scrollbar
and the image moves accordingly. If you have activated the Turn command (menu View >
Turn, or Ctrl+T), then the scroll thumbs will rotate the image when moved.
172
Graphics Window
Graphics Synchronization with Open Text Windows
The graphics image has a flashing item (such as an anchor or bend) that is synchronized
at all times with the text window that has the focus. In complex models, the flashing item
points out precisely the location of the element you are working on by acting as a flashing
beacon. Example: Move the highlight in Layout to an anchor. The Graphics and the List
windows automatically show or highlight the same anchor.
Dynamic Updating of Data in All Open windows: Layout, Graphics and List
Example: Delete an Anchor or change a Material name in the List window. The Layout and
the Graphics windows are automatically updated immediately, showing the changes. You
are not forced to perform edits from any one given window. You get instant feedback.
Simultaneous Visual Updates of Deflected and Mode Shapes
Just switch between different load cases (or mode shapes) in the Results window and you
will see the respective deflected/mode shape change too in the Graphics window.
Zoom Window
To enlarge an area of image, simply use the mouse to draw a window (a box) around
an area you are interested in. When you release the mouse button, CAEPIPE enlarges the
image.
The zoomed image is shown next.
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Graphics Window
Menus and Toolbar
The different menus in this window are explained in detail in the Menus section. A summary
is given here.
File menu:
• Image can be printed to a printer or a file (formats supported are Windows Enhanced
Metafile (EMF), Encapsulated Postscript (EPS), HPGL plot file (PLT) and AutoCAD DXF).
You can change the printer font from here.
Before printing to a printer or a file, you can change the title for the printout using the
Plot Title command. Before printing a rendered image, you may want to select a white
background and a quality of rendering (default is High).
View menu:
• Mainly for Graphics operations (Viewpoint, Previous view and Zoom All).
Selective display of node numbers and graphic symbols makes CAEPIPE flexible and
powerful (use Show and Show Nodes commands). In addition, other standard graphical
operations such as pan, zoom, previous view, viewpoint change, center image, etc., are
available through the menus or a readily available context menu.
• Render Mode: Use this mode for realistic visualization of your model using OpenGL®.
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Graphics Window
Even in this mode, you can selectively display symbols and/or node numbers. Use a
combination of Show and Show Nodes commands available in the context menu (or from
View menu). Image can be printed, too.
Options menu:
• Customize the display image by choosing a display font, repositioning the Axes symbol,
and changing the size of the toolbar icons.
Window menu:
• From here, you can move the focus to the text window from which it came. F2 will
move focus between text and Graphics windows. The real advantage of this hotkey (F2)
is for users who have a small monitor and work with maximized windows for input, list,
graphics and results. In such a setting, one keystroke (F2) will quickly move the focus to
another window (without having to either minimize the one where the focus is or switch
windows through the taskbar).
Help menu:
• For online help.
175
Guide
Guides are used to restrain the pipe against translation in the lateral directions. A guide
restricts the translational movement normal to its axis, i.e., displacements are restrained in
the local y and z directions. A guide is input by typing "g" in the Data column or selecting
"Guide" from the Data Types dialog.
The Guide dialog is shown.
Friction Coefficient
When a friction coefficient is entered, a nonlinear analysis is performed. In each iteration,
the friction force is calculated which is friction coefficient times the normal force (the vector
sum of y and z reaction forces). This force is applied in the local x direction opposing the
axial motion of pipe. The solution converges when the displacement changes by less than
1% between successive iterations.
Stiffness
The default stiffness is rigid which is input by typing "r" or "Rigid" in the Stiffness field. A
nonrigid stiffness may be entered by typing the value of the stiffness in the Stiffness field.
Gap
If there is a clearance between the pipe and the guide it may be entered as a Gap. The
gap is assumed to be symmetric about the guide axis. This gap must be closed before any
restraint forces can be developed. If there is no gap leave this field blank or enter it as 0.0.
176
Guide
Connected to Node
By default the guide is connected to a fixed ground point which is not a part of the piping
system. A guide can be connected to another node in the piping system by entering the
node number in the "Connected to Node" field.
Local Coordinate System (LCS)
The guide direction (local x) is based on the preceding element. If a preceding element
is not available, the following element is used to calculate the guide direction. The local
coordinate system (LCS) may be viewed graphically from the Guide List window by the
menu: View > Show LCS.
177
Hanger
A spring hanger always acts in the vertical direction. A spring hanger or "To be designed"
hanger is input by typing "h" in the Data column and pressing Enter or selecting "Hanger"
from the Data Types dialog.
The Hanger dialog is shown.
Type
The type (i.e., manufacturer) of the hanger can be selected from the dropdown combo box
"Type." The following hanger types are available:
Hanger Types
ABBPBS Fee & Mason Nordon
Basic Engineers Flexider (3060120) NPS Industries
BergenPaterson Flexider (50100200) Piping Services
BergenPaterson (L) Fronek Piping Tech & Products
BHEL Hyderabad Grinnell Power Piping
BHEL Trichy Hydra Sanwa Tekki(3060120)
Borrello Lisega Sanwa Tekki(85170)
Carpenter & Paterson Mitsubishi (3060120) Sarathi
Comet Mitsubishi (80160) Spring Supports
Corner & Lada Myricks SSG
Dynax NHK (3060120)
Elcen NHK (80160)
178
Hanger
Number of Hangers
The number of hangers is the number of separate hangers connected in parallel at this node.
The stiffness and load capacity of each hanger are multiplied by the number of hangers to
find the effective stiffness and load capacity of the hanger support at this node.
Load Variation
The load variation (in percent) is the maximum variation between the cold and hot loads.
Typical value is 25%.
Short Range
Short range hangers are used if the available space is not enough for installing midrange
hangers. However, they are considered a specialty item and generally not used. If a short
range hanger is to be designed, check the Short Range check box.
Connected to Node
By default the hanger is connected to a fixed ground point which is not a part of the piping
system. A hanger can be connected to another node in the piping system by entering the
node number in the "Connected to node" field. This node must be directly above or below
the hanger node.
Hanger Design Procedure
1. Calculate Hot Load
Hot load is the load which balances the piping system under sustained loads. To calculate
hot load, a preliminary sustained load analysis is performed in which all hanger locations
are restrained vertically. If any anchor is to be released (so that the hanger rather than the
nearby equipment takes the sustained load), it is released. The reactions at the hanger
locations from this preliminary sustained load analysis are the hanger hot loads.
2. Calculate Hanger Travel
Vertical restraints (applied in step 1) at hanger locations are removed. Released anchors
(if any) are restored. A preliminary operating load case analysis is performed. If multiple
thermal load cases are specified only the first thermal load is used for this operating load
case. The hot loads (calculated in step 1) are applied as upward forces at the hanger
locations. Vertical displacements at the hanger locations obtained from this operating
load case analysis are the hanger travels. If limit stops are present, the hot loads are
recalculated with the status of the limit stops at the end of the preliminary operating load
case. Then the hanger travels are recalculated using the recalculated hot loads.
3. Select Hanger
The hanger is selected from the manufacturer’s catalog based on the hot load and hanger
travel. The cold load is calculated as: cold load = hot load + spring rate x hanger travel.
The hanger load variation is calculated as: Load Variation = 100 x Spring rate x travel
/ Hot load. The calculated load variation is checked against specified maximum load
variation. The hanger for which both the hot and cold loads are within the hanger’s
allowable working range and the load variation is less than the allowed load variation is
selected. The hanger is selected such that the hot load is closest to the average of the
minimum and maximum loads.
179
Hanger
4. Install Hangers
If "Include hanger stiffness" is chosen in the Analysis options: The hanger spring rates
are added to the overall stiffness matrix. The hanger cold loads are used in the sustained
and operating load cases. If "Do not include hanger stiffness" is chosen in the Analysis
options: The hanger spring rates are not added to the overall stiffness matrix. The hanger
hot loads are used in the sustained and operating load cases.
180
Hinge Joint
Hinge joint is an expansion joint designed to permit angular rotation in a single plane by
use of a pair of pins that pass through plates attached to the expansion joint ends. Hinge
joints are used in sets of two or three to absorb pipe movement in one or more directions
in a single plane piping system. A pair of hinge joints, separated by a section of piping, will
act together to absorb lateral deflection. Hinge joints are designed to take the full pressure
thrust.
H
i
n
g
e
a
x
i
s
The two sides of the hinge joint shown are joined
by hinge pins which are along the hinge axis
shown in the figure. A hinge is modeled by two
nodes, one on each side of the hinge joint. The
two nodes of the hinge joint are coincident. So, it
is a zero length element, i.e., the "From" and "To"
nodes are coincident. Hence, the DX, DY and DZ
fields in the Layout window should be left blank.
A hinge joint is input by typing "h" in the Type column or selecting "Hinge joint" from the
Element Types dialog.
The Hinge joint dialog is shown.
181
Hinge Joint
Rotational Stiffness
Also called Angular stiffness. Input the stiffness around the rotational (hinge) axis. The
stiffness value may be available from the manufacturer of the hinge joint or test results.
Otherwise engineering judgement may be used. The stiffness values may be left blank. In
that case a very small value (1 inlb/deg) is used internally to avoid dividing by zero.
Rotation Limit
Rotation limit is an upper limit on the rotation of hinge joint in the plus or minus directions.
Rotation limit of 0.0 (zero) means it is unable to rotate (i.e., it is rigid). Rotation limit of
"None" or Blank means infinite (i.e., there is no limit).
Friction Torque
The hinge joint will rotate only if the external torque exceeds the friction torque. Beyond
that the rotation is proportional to the rotational stiffness of the hinge joint. The friction
torque value may be available from the manufacturer of the hinge joint or test results.
Otherwise engineering judgement may be used. If you do not want friction in the hinge
joint, the friction torque value may be left blank.
Torque
Stiffness (Slope)
Friction Torque
Applied Torque
Rotation =
(Applied Torque  Friction Torque)
Stiffness
When the applied torque is less than friction torque, there is no rotation. When the applied
torque exceeds friction torque, the rotation is calculated as shown above. When rotation
limit is reached, there is no further rotation irrespective of the applied torque.
Weight
This is the total weight of the Hinge joint assembly.
Axis direction
The hinge axis is specified by the "Axis direction." See "Direction," for more information on
specifying a direction using X comp, Y comp and Z comp.
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Hinge Joint
Example
Assume that we had the model shown below (shown with an exaggerated deflection)
containing 6" piping with a pair of Hinge joints. Each Hinge joint has the following data:
rotational stiffness of 66 inlb/degree, and weight of 35 lb.
30
Expansion
Hinge 1
Hinge 2
Anchor
Anchor
Guide
Guide
Expansion
10 20
(40, 50)
(60, 70)
80 90 100
Magnified deflected
shape
Undeflected model
The following steps describe the modeling procedure:
The first node 10 is already defined as an anchor. Press Enter to move to the next row.
Type 20 for Node, 3’6" for DX, enter material, section and load names, Guide for Data.
Press Enter to move to the next row.
Input bend at node 30: Type 30 for Node, press Tab to move to the Type field. Type "b"
and Tab to next column to enter a bend, 2’ for DX, press Enter to move to the next row.
Type 40 for Node, enter –1’6" for DY (as the offset from node 30 to node 40), press Enter
to complete the bend and move to next row.
Type 50 for Node. Type "h" in the Type column. This shows the hinge dialog.
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Hinge Joint
Enter 66 (inlb/deg.) for Rotational stiffness, 35 (lb) for Weight, 1.0 for Z comp (axis
direction), press Enter or click on OK to close the dialog. This completes the hinge input.
Since there cannot be any offsets (DX, DY, DZ) for the hinge node from the previous
node, the cursor automatically moves to the next row.
Type 60 for Node, enter –1’6" for DY (as the offset from node 50 to node 60), press Enter
to move to next row.
Type 70 for Node. Type "h" in the Type column. This shows the hinge dialog. Enter the
hinge data as before and click on OK to move to the next row.
Input bend at node 80: type 80 for Node, press Tab to move to Type field, type "b" for
Type and Tab to next column to enter a bend. Type –1’6" for DY (offset from node 70 to
bend node 80), press Enter.
Complete the model through nodes 90 and 100 similar to steps 1 and 2 above.
The Layout window is shown below:
184
Hinge Joint
The graphics is shown below:
The rendered graphics is shown below:
185
Hydrotest
Hydrotest load case is used to analyze loading from a hydrostatic test which is performed
by filling the piping system with a pressurized fluid (typically water), before putting the
system in service to check for leaks, etc. All hangers are assumed pinned (i.e., they act
as rigid vertical supports) during hydrotest. The hydrotest load is defined by the specific
gravity of the test fluid (1.0 for water), the test pressure and whether to include or exclude
the insulation weight (because many times the hydrotest is performed before applying the
insulation). The hydrotest load is input by pressing "h" on an empty row in the Layout
window (similar to pressing "c" for a comment) or on an empty row, selecting "Hydrotest
load" from the Element Types dialog (Ctrl+Shft+T).
The "Hydrotest Load" dialog appears.
After the hydrotest load is input by pressing Enter or clicking on OK, the hydrotest load
appears in the Layout window.
If you need to modify an existing hydrotest load, double click on the row which defines the
hydrotest load to bring up the Hydrotest Load dialog. The hydrotest load is applied to the
rows that follow till changed by another hydrotest load. The hydrotest load can be constant
over the whole model or can be changed or even excluded in parts of the model.
186
Hydrotest
To analyze the hydrotest load case, the Hydrotest load case must be selected using the
command Loads > Load cases from the Layout window.
The hydrotest load case is analyzed as a Sustained load.
187
Jacket End Cap
A jacket end cap is used to rigidly connect all six degrees of freedom of the coincident
nodes of a jacketed pipe (i.e., the node on the core pipe and the corresponding node
on the jacket pipe are tied together so that both nodes have the same displacements and
rotations).
A jacket end cap is input at a jacketed pipe node by typing "j" in the Data column or
selecting "Jacket End Cap" from the Data Types dialog.
188
Jacketed Piping
Jacketed piping consists of a core pipe surrounded by a jacket pipe with separate material,
section and load for core and jacket.
Jacketed Pipe
A Jacketed pipe is input by typing "JP" under Type or selecting "Jacketed pipe" from the
Element types dialog. The material, section and load specified in the Jacketed Pipe dialog
apply to the jacket pipe while the ones mentioned on the layout row (next to offsets) apply
to the core pipe.
The Jacketed Pipe dialog is shown.
The jacket’s material, section, and load names are input here. The properties of a jacket
pipe are retained until changed. So, there is no need to retype the names of the jacket
properties every time you input a jacketed pipe.
Internal nodes
CAEPIPE generates a "J" node for jacket pipes. For example, if you had a jacket pipe from
node 10 to 20, CAEPIPE generates a 10J and a 20J as jacket nodes.
These internally generated nodes may be used to specify data items such as a spider, jacket
end cap, support (hanger, restraint), forces on the jacket.
189
Jacketed Piping
Jacketed Bend
A Jacketed bend consists of a core bend (with a straight portion) surrounded by a jacket
bend (with a straight portion of jacket pipe).
A Jacketed bend is input by typing "JB" in the Type column or by selecting "Jacketed bend"
from the Element types dialog.
The Jacketed Bend dialog is shown.
Jacket (properties)
The jacket’s material, section, and load names are input here. The properties of a jacketed
pipe are retained until changed. So, there is no need to retype the names of the jacket
properties every time you input a jacketed pipe.
190
Jacketed Piping
Core (properties)
Presently these properties are disabled. You need to enter them on the layout row under
Material, Section and Load.
Bend radius
Separate bend radii may be specified for the core and the jacket pipes.
Note that CAEPIPE does not check for interference between the core and the jacket arising
out of differently specified bend radii.
Usually, the core and the jacket pipes have the same bend radii. Use the Render feature in
the Graphics window to check visually for interference.
Bend thickness
Separate bend thicknesses may be specified for the core and the jacket bends, if they are
not default jacket and core section thicknesses.
Intermediate nodes
You can define additional nodes on the outside jacket of a jacketed bend for locating
supports. You may also use internal nodes generated by CAEPIPE. See Internal nodes
below.
Internal nodes
CAEPIPE generates "C" and "D" nodes for the Jacketed bend on the jacket at the near and
far ends of the bend. The core pipe (bend) has its own "A" and "B" nodes. Example: When
you define a Jacketed bend from node 20 to node 30, 30A, 30B (nodes on core bend),
30C and 30D (nodes on jacket) are generated. Nodes (30A, 30C) and (30B and 30D) are
coincident only if the core and the jacket pipes have the same bend radii. See figure.
These internal nodes may be used to specify data items such as a spider jacket end cap,
supports, forces, etc.
Split a Bend/Pipe
A jacketed pipe/bend may be split by using the Split option in the Edit menu in the Layout
window.
Contents Weight
The weight of the contents between the jacket and the core pipes is calculated in the
following manner:
(a) Twice the insulation thickness on the core pipe is added to the outer diameter of the
core pipe. (b) Area is calculated by using the above diameter (a). (c) The internal area of
the jacket pipe is calculated. (d) The area (b) is subtracted from the internal area of the
jacket pipe (c) and this result is further used to compute weight.
Jacketed Reducer
See modeling procedure in section on the Reducer.
191
Jacketed Piping
Example: Jacketed Pipe/Bend
The figure below shows a Jacketed pipe with a Jacketed bend (at node 20TIP). Observe
the spider at the far end of the bend (node 20B).
The nodes 10J, 20C, 20D, 30J, 20A, 20B are internally generated nodes. You may use them
for specifying data items such as spiders, supports (hanger, restraint), forces, etc.
The nodes (10, 10J), (20A, 20C), (20B, 20D) and (30, 30J) are coincident. The nodes 20A
and 20B are coincident with 20C and 20D respectively only if the core and the jacket pipes
have the same bend radii.
Note that the core and jacket nodes are not connected even though they are coincident.
The pipes have to be supported and connected using supports and jacket connections. An
anchor each at nodes 10 and 10J is specified. The hanger is at node 30J since it is attached
to the jacket.
A jacket connection of the type spider at node 20B acts as an internal guide between the
core pipe and the jacket pipe, that is, it prevents any radial movement but allows sliding,
rotating and bending movement between core and jacket pipes.
The end cap at node 30 connects the core and jacket pipes rigidly.
192
Layout Window
The window that is displayed when you open a piping model is the Layout window.
A Layout window, as the name indicates, allows you to create/modify the layout of your
piping model.
Other things you can do here are:
• Specify material types, pipe sections and loads.
• Use some graphics features (zoom all, viewpoint, etc.) to view the model.
• Define analysis options such as which piping code to use, set reference temperature, set
cutoff frequency for mode extraction, as well as set units, etc.
• Define load cases (Sustained, Expansion, Response Spectrum, etc.) for analysis.
In the Layout window, the row you are working on is highlighted by the yellow highlight
bar (in figure below, the highlight is on the Title row). The following illustration names the
different fields in the Layout window. Presently, there are ten fields (columns) in the Layout
window.
The Header row with column headings (see "Clickable Header row" in the illustration) is a
special row that allows you to click on it to perform a related operation. For example, you
can click on Type to show Element types.
Description of Fields (numbers in parentheses refer to numbers in the illustration above).
# (Row Number)
The first field contains the row number, automatically incremented. It is not editable.
(1) Node
This is the node number field where you type in node numbers as you model the piping
system. The numbers should be numeric except when you are using internally generated
nodes (A, B, C, D, J).
To change an existing node number, click in this field and use Backspace or Delete key.
Type in a new node number. Press Tab or Enter and confirm the change.
193
Layout Window
You need not enter each node number. It is automatically generated when you press Tab
to move to the next field. You can set an increment under the menu Options > Node
increment command.
(2) Type
This is the element type field. An element is a fitting or a component between two nodes.
This could be a pipe, a bend, a valve, an expansion joint or most items listed under the
Element types dialog. See a description later in this section under Element Types.
(3) DX, DY, DZ
These fields are offsets (also called relative coordinates) in the three global X, Y and Z
directions. They are measured from the previous node’s location.
Offsets are components of lengths of elements (exceptions are zerolength elements like a
ball and a hinge joint). For example, to specify the offsets of a 6 feet long pipe routed 30
degrees to global Xaxis (in XY plane), the offsets are: DX=5.196 ft., DY=3 ft.
If the element is in a skewed direction, then calculate the X, Y and the Z components
(using basic trigonometry) and input them here, or use the Slope command to calculate the
components.
When you specify values for the DX, DY and DZ fields for the From row, they are treated
as (absolute) coordinates of the node rather than (relative) offsets from the previous node.
If the model begins at the global origin (0,0,0), you do not need to specify coordinates for
the first From node. For any other From row with a previously defined node number, you
do not need to enter coordinates because CAEPIPE already has the coordinates of this node
(for example, node 30 on row 8 in the previous figure).
The offsets can be negative depending on the way you route your piping.
(4) Matl (Material)
Type in the material name of the material you want to use for this element.
(5) Sect (Section)
Type in the section name of the pipe section you want to use for this element.
(6) Load
Type in the load name of the load you want to use for this element.
(7) Data
Use this field to enter data items at a node such as anchors, flanges, nozzles, hangers, SIFs,
etc. See Data types below for how to specify an item.
(8) Comment
You can create a comment anywhere you like in the Layout window by simply pressing "c"
on an empty row. You can use this feature to annotate the model with notes. Comments
print along with the layout data so you can use this feature to document the model.
You can specify a specialized form of a comment to input a Hydrostatic test load by
pressing "h" on an empty row. The load is applied to the model from that row onwards
until modified again (in the figure, the Hydrostatic load is applied to model from row 8
onwards).
194
Layout Window
Menubar
File menu:
• Standard file operations with a few special ones to note  Open Results (model file
(.MOD) must be present for this operation), Print (to file), Analyze (model), QA Block,
Recently opened file list. You can open not only the CAEPIPE model file, but also
material and spectrum library files, and the CAEPIPE Results files.
Edit menu:
• You can edit all types of data (elements, supports, range of rows) from here. Use Ctrl
T to edit element (bend,valve), Ctrl D to edit Data (flange, anchor). You can change
properties for groups of elements, split elements and generate copies of existing rows.
View menu:
• Mainly for Graphics (Viewpoint, Previous view and Zoom All). Other functions are to
open the List window (Ctrl L) by selecting one of the displayed items, and search for a
node number.
Options menu:
• For setting Analysis options such as Piping code, Reference Temperature, Pressure
correction, cutoff frequency for mode extraction, etc., set Units (SI, Metric, English or a
combination), and customize the look of CAEPIPE by choosing a display font.
Loads menu:
• Set the load cases for analysis, and specify loads for the model such as static seismic,
wind, spectrum, time history, etc.
Misc menu:
• View model coordinates, define/view materials, sections, loads (also for beams), pumps,
compressors and turbines, time functions and spectra.
Window menu:
• From here, you can move the focus to another window (such as Graphics or List).
Remember, F2 will move focus between text and Graphics windows, and F3 between
open text windows. The real advantage of these hotkeys (F2 and F3) is for users who
have a small monitor and work with maximized windows for input, list, graphics and
results. In such a setting, one keypress (F2 or F3) will quickly move the focus to another
window (without having to either minimize the one where the focus is or switch windows
through the taskbar).
Help menu:
• For online help.
195
Layout Window
Toolbar
The toolbar presently is organized into three groups: File, Window and Graphics operations.
• File operations are New (model), Open (a model), Save (model), and Print.
• Window operations are (move focus to) Graphics window, List window, and display a
dialog of List of items to show an item in the List window.
• Graphics operations are Viewpoint and Zoom all.
In the very first window (when you start CAEPIPE), there is a button to open the last opened
model file (hotkey: Enter). This is not available from other windows.
Hotkeys You Can Use
You can use following hotkeys in the Layout window:
Tab Move cursor from field to field
(left to right)
Shift Tab Same as Tab but right to left
Page Up Move highlight up one page
Page Down Move highlight down one page
Delete/BkSp Delete characters
Ctrl+Insert Insert an empty row
Ctrl+X Delete a row
F1 Help
Other hotkeys listed under menus
Home Move cursor to the first
character in a field
End Move cursor to the last
character in a field
Ctrl+Home Top of model
Ctrl+End End of model
Arrow keys Move highlight one row/field
at a time
F2 Graphics window
F3 List window
Function Keys
F1: Opens online help.
F2: This key moves the focus to and from the Graphics window.
F3: This key moves focus to and from the List window.
F4: Opens the Viewpoint dialog which you can set for the Graphics window.
F5: This function key restores the Graphics window to the previous graphics view.
List (Ctrl+L)
List is a powerful feature that helps you see itemized lists of information in the model.
All input data can be viewed through this command. For example, you can view all
element and data types specified in the model, list Coordinates of the nodes of the
model, Specified displacements, Nozzle stiffnesses, Branch nodes, Threaded joints, Pumps,
Turbines, Compressors, Materials, Sections and Loads, etc.
This is a useful tool to verify information, for example, whether all bends have the same
bend radius or whether limit stops are aligned in the correct directions or how many anchors
have been specified in the model and so on.
196
Layout Window
This command is "intelligent" in that the list dialog shows only those items that exist in
the model. Consequently, List can display as small a list as in the first figure below or as
comprehensive a list as shown in the next figure.
197
Layout Window
Element types
How to input an Element
To input an element in a new row, either right click in the Type field of the row or leftclick
on Type (in the Header row) to display the Element types dialog (or press Ctrl+Shft+T).
Select the element you want from this dialog to insert into the model.
Notice the different types of elements available. Any of these can be input for "Type." Some
of these are strictly not elements such as From, Location, Comment and Hydrostatic test
load but need to be input from here anyway. All of these have keyboard shortcuts. You do
not have to necessarily open this dialog to input any of these. You can type the first letter
or first few letters (example: Be for bend, M for miter, V for valve, etc.) to input an element
type.
Shortcut keys for Element types
b (Tab) Bend
ben Bend (no Tab required, and typing "ben" moves the cursor over to the DX field.)
bea Beam
bel Bellows
ba Ball joint
c Cut pipe (Cold spring)
e Elastic element
f From
h Hinge joint
j Jacketed pipe
jb Jacketed Bend
l (L) Location
m Miter Bend
P Pipe (you don’t have to type this because a Pipe is the default element type)
r (Tab) Reducer
re Reducer
ri Rigid element
s Slip joint
v Valve
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Layout Window
Once input, each element name appears under the Type field. The only exception is the
Pipe element which is indicated by a blank (see the first annotated figure in this section).
The field under Type is blank on the row that contains Node 30 signifying a pipe.
How to change the Element type
If you wanted to change a Valve element to an Elastic element, then you have to do the
following: Move the highlight bar to the row which contains the Valve (or click once on
Valve). Delete the word "Valve" and press "E", confirm the change;
or
Assuming the highlight is on the Valve row, click on Type (in the header row) to display
the Element types dialog and then select Elastic element from it. The Valve changes to an
Elastic element after you confirm the change.
How to change Element properties
From the keyboard: Press Ctrl+T (from anywhere on the row) to edit the element. Note: A
pipe has no editable property, and Ctrl+T would do nothing.
Mouse: Right clicking on the element gives you applicable choices. For example, for a
Bend, you are shown Edit Bend and List Bends as the choices.
Notes:
1. A pipe element is the default element type. So, leave the element type field blank for
that row.
2. An existing element type (say, a bend) cannot be changed to a Location type.
3. To change the element type, you can erase (use Backspace or Delete key) the existing
element and specify a new one (using an accelerator key), or use the mouse to specify
another element by clicking on Type in the header row.
199
Layout Window
Data types
How to input a Data item
When you want to input a support, a restraint, a flange, an SIF, etc., at a node, use the
mouse or the keyboard (several key accelerators are available to make your job easy) to
open the Data types dialog and select an item from it.
Keyboard: Press Ctrl+Shift+D to open the Data types dialog to select an item, or, type one
of the following keys (under Shortcut keys) that will automatically enter the respective Data
type (press Ctrl D to position the cursor in this field):
Mouse: To open the Data types dialog,
• Left click on Data (in the header row), or
• Right click in the Data column, or
• Select Misc menu >> Data Types.
Shortcut keys for Data types
a Anchor (rigid)
br Branch SIF (Welding tee, Branch connection, etc.)
c (Enter) Concentrated Mass
conc Concentrated Mass
cons Constant Support
f (Enter) Flange
fl Flange
fo Force
g Guide
h (Enter) Hanger (to be designed)
han Hanger (to be designed)
har Harmonic load
j Jacket end cap
l (L) Limit stop
n Nozzle
r (Enter) Restraint (2way), see also X, Y, Z below
ro Rod hanger
s (Enter) Skewed restraint
200
Layout Window
Shortcut keys for Data types (Continued)
sk Skewed restraint
sn Snubber
sp Spider
th Threaded joint
t (Enter) Time varying load
ti Time varying load
u (Enter) User hanger
user s User SIF
w Weld
x X restraint (2way)
y Y restraint (2way)
z Z restraint (2way)
Notice the different types available. For example, press "a" in the Data field to input an
Anchor (you do not have to go through the longwinded mouse method of clicking on Data
in the header row to display the Data types dialog, and then selecting Anchor from it).
How to change the Data type
Assume that you wanted to change an Anchor to a Nozzle. Before you change an existing
Data type (Anchor), you have to delete it. A deletion cannot be undone.
To delete, click on Anchor, delete the word "Anchor" and then type "n" or right click on the
Anchor, and select "Delete Anchor."
Alternately, with the cursor placed on the row for which you need to change the Anchor,
click on Data on the header row, and pick Nozzle and confirm the change.
How to edit the Data item’s properties
To edit properties for anchors, flanges, etc.
Keyboard: Press Ctrl+D (from anywhere on the row) to edit the item. Note: A Threaded
Joint has no editable property, and Ctrl D would do nothing.
Mouse: Right clicking on the item gives you applicable choices. Example: For an Anchor,
you are shown Edit Anchor.
Notes:
1. You cannot specify a data item for a Bend, a Miter Bend or a Jacketed Bend, as the
node number is a tangent intersection point, and does not exist physically on the
element. Instead, create an intermediate node for the Bend or Jacketed Bend and
then specify a data item at the new node using Location type. You cannot create an
intermediate node for a miter bend.
2a. You can delete an existing data item at anytime:
 Use the Delete or the Backspace key to erase the item and press Enter.
 Right click on the item and select Delete Item
2b. Alternately, to change the data type, you can erase (use Backspace or Delete key) the
existing item and type a new one (accelerator), or use the mouse to specify another
data item by clicking on Data in the header row.
A deletion (whether a row or a field entry) cannot be undone.
201
Layout Window
Context Menus
Context menus (right click menus) can be found everywhere in CAEPIPE. For example,
when you right click on an Anchor, or a Bend, you are shown the following context menus.
You can perform any listed action that more than often is a shortcut (e.g., Delete Anchor or
List Anchors).
Right clicking on DX/DY/DZ shows you, for example, Insert, Delete (rows), Split (an
element ) and (specify) Slope for an element. Right click in the Matl, Sect or Load column
to see the respective context menu.
202
Limit Stop
Limit stops (and Line Stops) prevent a node from moving beyond a certain distance in a
certain direction. The node can move freely within the gap. After the gap closes, a limit stop
acts as a rigid or flexible restraint resisting further movement of the node in the specified
direction. If friction is specified, after a limit is reached, friction force will act opposing
movement in the plane normal to the limit stop direction.
Direction
(vector)
Upper Limit
Lower Limit
Limit Stop Node
A limit stop is input by typing "l(L)" in the Data column or selecting "Limit Stop" from the
Data Types dialog.
203
Limit Stop
The Limit Stop dialog is shown.
Limits
Also called Gaps. These limits, upper and lower, are the gaps present on either side of the
node. The gap in front of the limit stop node in the direction of the vector is called the
upper limit, and the gap to the rear of the limit stop node is called the lower limit. The gap
is measured from the undeflected position of the node.
Typically, the upper limit is positive and the lower limit is negative. In some situations, it is
possible to have a positive lower limit or a negative upper limit.
The algebraic value of the upper limit must be greater than the lower limit. For example,
upper limit = –0.125", lower limit= –0.25".
If a particular limit does not exist (that is, a node can move freely on that side of the node),
then that limit should be left blank (as in the case of a 1way vertical support, the upper
limit should be blank).
If there is no gap at all, then the corresponding limit should be explicitly input as zero.
When zero is entered, the limit stop acts as a oneway restraint in that direction.
Direction
The direction in which the limit stop is oriented must be specified in terms of its global X,
Y and Z components. Press the "Vertical" button to set the direction to vertical.
If you have connected the limit stop node to another node, then unless the connected node
is coincident with the limit stop node, the direction must not be input. It is calculated from
the locations of the connected node and the limit stop node, and it is oriented from the
connected node to the limit stop node.
Friction coefficient
If friction coefficient is specified, a friction force will oppose the movement in the plane
normal to the limit stop direction when the gap is closed. This friction force is displayed in
results under Limit stop support loads.
204
Limit Stop
If you had several limit stops with friction coefficients specified, and you wanted to change
all of those friction coefficients to the same value, use the Change command under Edit
menu.
Stiffness
The default is set to Rigid stiffness. Other values may be input.
Connected to Node
A limit stop node can be connected to another node. During gap and friction calculations,
the relative displacements of the limit stop node are calculated with respect to the connected
node. If the limit stop node is connected to an external fixed point (Ground point), leave the
"Connected to Node" blank. See "Direction" above for information about how the direction
is calculated depending on whether the connected node is coincident or not with the limit
stop node.
Limit Stop Node
D
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
Connected Node
U
p
p
e
r
L
i
m
i
t
L
o
w
e
r
L
i
m
i
t
Solution procedure
Limit stops require a nonlinear iterative solution. If a friction coefficient is specified, the
following procedure is used for convergence. If the lower or upper limit is reached, the
corresponding reaction force is calculated. The maximum friction force is the product of
205
Limit Stop
friction coefficient and the reaction force. The solution converges when the displacement
varies by less than 1% between successive iterations.
Limit stops are included in dynamic analysis. The status of the limit stops for the first
operating case (W+P1+T1) is used during dynamic analysis. If the limit is reached in the
first operating case, then the limit stop is treated as a rigid twoway restraint in the direction
of the limit stop.
Example 1: Vertical 1way restraint
Assume that you have a vertical 1way support with the following data: Upper limit = None,
Lower limit = 0, Friction coefficient = 0.3, Direction vector of the limit stop is vertical along
+Y axis.
Model the pipe up to the Limit stop node 30. At node 30, type "l(L)" in the Data column.
The limit stop dialog will be shown.
In the limit stop dialog, press "Vertical" button. The data is automatically entered (0.000
for Lower limit, No Upper limit (blank), 1.000 for Y comp (vertical)). Enter 0.3 for friction
coefficient (this acts in the XZ plane which is perpendicular to the direction of the limit
stop).
206
Limit Stop
Example 2: Pipe Slide/Shoe Assembly
Z
Y
Gap 0.25"
Gap 0.5"
Shoe
Guide
Gap 0.5"
X
Y
Figure not to scale
The assembly is modeled using three limit stops, one in each direction.
When you start a new model file, node 10 and an Anchor are automatically input, press
Enter to move cursor to next empty row.
Press Tab in the Node column which puts the node number 20 automatically. Type 5’ for
DX, enter material, section and load names, press Enter.
Press Tab in the Node column which puts the node number 30 automatically. Type 5’ for
DX, Tab to Data column and type "l(L)" to open limit stop dialog. Input line stop with
gap (0.5") along X axis (Notice that this is a oneway restraint, there is only one stop
block along +X). Type Upper limit 0.5", leave lower limit blank, Direction as (X comp =
1, Y comp = 0, Z comp = 0), Friction coeff=0.3, press Enter.
207
Limit Stop
Create a limit stop in the Y direction. Type 30 for Node, press Tab to move to Type field,
type "L" for Location, choose Limit stop from the Data Types dialog, in the Limit stop
dialog, type Upper limit = 0.5", Lower limit = 0.0, Direction (X comp =0, Y comp = 1, Z
comp = 0), Friction coeff=0.3, press Enter.
Create a limit stop in the Z direction. Type 30 for Node, press Tab to move to Type field,
type "L" for Location, choose Limit stop from the Data Types dialog, in the Limit stop
dialog, type Upper limit = 0.25", Lower limit = –0.25", Direction (X comp =0, Y comp =
0, Z comp = 1), Friction coeff=0.3, press Enter.
208
Limit Stop
The Layout window is shown below.
The Graphics window is shown below.
209
Limit Stop
Example 3: Limit stop Connected to Another Node
As shown in the figure below, there are two 300" long cantilever pipes separated by 8"
between center lines.
8"
0.375"
6.625" OD
300"
8.625" OD Figure not to scale
X
Y
10 20
40 30
The gap between the bottom of the top pipe and the top of the bottom pipe is
8" − (6.625" + 8.625") / 2 = 0.375".
If both pipes were free to deflect, the top pipe will deflect 1.908" and the bottom pipe will
deflect 1.116" at the free ends. The relative deflection between them will be 1.908" – 1.116"
= 0.792". This however is not possible because when the relative deflection exceeds 0.375"
the pipes will touch. This situation can be modeled using a limit stop connecting the free
ends of the pipes. In this case the top pipe deflects 1.608", i.e., less than the 1.908" free
deflection because it is resisted by the bottom pipe. The bottom pipe deflects 1.233", i.e.,
more than the 1.116" free deflection because additional load is imposed on it by the top
pipe when they touch. The difference between the deflections is 1.608 – 1.233 = 0.375" as
expected.
When you start a new model file, node 10 and an Anchor are automatically input, press
Enter to move cursor to next empty row.
Press Tab in the Node column which puts the node number 20 automatically. Type 300"
for DX, enter material, 6" section and load names, press Enter.
For the bottom pipe, start with node 30 of Type "From" at DY = –8" and make it an
anchor. On the next row enter node 40 with DX = 300" and 8" section. Press Enter to go
to the next row.
Enter the limit stop at node 20. Type 20 for Node, press Tab to move to Type field, type
"L" for Location, choose Limit stop from the Data Types dialog, in the Limit stop dialog,
leave the Upper limit blank and input Lower limit = 0.375". Input the Connecting Node
as 40. Since this limit stop connects two nodes, the direction should be left blank. The
direction is implicitly from node 40 to node 20.
210
Limit Stop
Alternatively the limit stop could be specified at node 40 connected to node 20. The
direction now would be from node 20 to 40. The limits would still be no upper limit and
lower limit = 0.375" since the direction is now reversed compared to the previous case.
Both these cases will give identical results.
The Layout window is shown below.
The Graphics is shown below.
Limit stop connected to another node LimitStop03
X
Y
Z
10 20
30 40
211
Load
Load is used to apply temperature, pressure, contents weight, additional weight (e.g., due
to snow load) on the piping system. Also the wind load can be turned "on" or "off" on parts
of the model selectively using Load.
The load has a name which is specified in the Load column for a row in the Layout window
to associate a load with an element.
Each load allows up to three operating conditions for Temperature and Pressure. This load
is not to be confused with Load cases found under the Loads menu in the Layout window.
Load cases are analysis cases (Sustained case, Thermal case, Operating case, etc.).
To define a new load, click on Load in the Header row in the Layout window (or select
Loads under the Misc menu, hotkey: Ctrl+Shift+L). This opens a List window that displays
all loads.
Either you can start typing the load data directly here into the fields or double click on an
empty row to enter data through a dialog.
Depending on the number of thermal loads specified (under Options > Analysis > Tem
perature), up to three temperature/pressure load sets (T1/P1, T2/P2, T3/P3) are available
which correspond with the three operating load cases for each element.
212
Load
Load Name
Type in an alphanumeric name (up to three characters) in this field. It can be changed
later if you wish.
Temperature 1, 2, 3
Type up to three operating temperatures. The maximum of the three temperatures is the
Design temperature which is used to look up the corresponding allowable stress (Sh) for
the material.
The other quantities looked up using these three temperatures are the thermal expansion
coefficient (alpha) and the temperaturedependent modulus.
Pressure 1, 2, 3
Type up to three operating pressures which correspond with the three operating tempera
tures above. The maximum of the three pressures is the Design pressure which is used to
calculate the pressure stress term [PD/4t or Pd
2
/(D
2
− d
2
), specified under Options >
Analysis > Pressure].
Specify gauge pressures for Pressures 1, 2 and 3. Negative pressures may be specified, too.
Specific Gravity
Type in the specific gravity of contents inside the pipe. This is used to calculate the weight
of the contents which is added to the weight of the pipe. Specific gravity is with respect to
water.
Additional weight
The value you enter here is taken as weight per unit length of the element and the total
weight is added to the weight of the pipe. (Total weight = Length x Additional weight per
unit length).
For example, this could be used to apply the weight of the snow on the pipe.
Wind load
Type Y(es) or N(o) to apply or not apply the wind load for this element. When you press
Y(es), the wind load (entered as a separate load under Loads menu) is applied to this
element. The default is Y(es).
For example, this is useful when you have part of a pipeline exposed to wind and the
remaining part inside a building. In such a case, you should have two Load sets, all data
the same except that one has Wind load and the other does not. The load set with the wind
load is applied to those elements that are affected by wind.
213
Local Coordinate System
For a straight element (such as a pipe or a beam), the "local x" axis is along the element,
from the "From" node to the "To" node. For a node location such as a guide, the local
axes are based on the previous connected element. If such an element does not exist, the
following element is used. The local y and zaxes are calculated differently depending on
whether the vertical direction is Y or Z and also depending on whether the element is in
the vertical direction.
The local coordinate system may be displayed graphically (for beams and guides in the
input processor and for all the elements in the output processor) by selecting the "Show
LCS (Local coordinate system)" option from the View menu.
In CAEPIPE, the local coordinate system is indicated by lower case x, y and z letters. The
global coordinate system is indicated by upper case X, Y and Z letters.
Global vertical axis is Y
Element is not Vertical
Y
X Z
Global
y
x
z
local
The local yaxis of the element lies in the local x  global Y plane (i.e., vertical plane)
and is in the same positive direction as the global Y axis. The local zaxis is the cross
product of the local x and yaxes.
Element is Vertical
Y
X Z
Global
local y
z
x
The local zaxis of the element is in the global Z direction. The local yaxis is in the
global –X direction.
214
Local Coordinate System
Global vertical axis is Z
Element is not Vertical
Y
X
Z
Global
y
x
z
local
The local zaxis of the element lies in the local x  global Z plane (i.e., vertical plane)
and is in the same positive direction as the global Zaxis. The local yaxis is the cross
product of the local z and xaxes.
Element is Vertical
Y
X
Z
Global
local
y z
x
The local yaxis of the element is in the global Y direction. The local zaxis is in the
global –X direction.
215
Local Coordinate System
Local Coordinate System for a Bend
For a bend, at the "From" node, the local x axis is along the tangent from the "From" node
to the tangent intersection point. The local yaxis is along the radius and points to the center
of curvature. The local zaxis is cross product of the local x and yaxes.
Similarly, at the "To" node, the local xaxis is along the tangent line from the tangent
intersection point to the "To" node. The local yaxis is along the radius and points to the
center of curvature. The local zaxis is the cross product of the local x and yaxes.
To
From
Tangent
Intersection
x
(axial)
y
(inplane)
y
(inplane)
z
(outofplane)
x
(axial)
Center of
Curvature
z
(outofplane)
216
Local Coordinate System
Element Forces and Moments
The sign conventions for the element forces and moments in the local coordinate system,
follow strength of materials conventions, i.e., forces and moments are positive in the
positive local axes directions at the "To" node and they are negative in the positive local
axes directions at the "From" node.
f
x
, m
x
m
x
, f
x
f
z
m
z
m
z
f
z
m
y
f
y
f
y
m
y
From To
Positive sign conventions for local forces and moments are shown at the "From" and "To"
nodes of an element. Note that positive directions at the "From" node are reversed compared
to the positive directions at the "To" node.
217
Location
Use Location (press "L" in the Type field or pick Location from the Element types dialog)
to input more than one data item at a node. For example, you may want to input a force
at an existing hanger (see Example 1 below) or three limit stops (in different directions) at
one node. See Example 2 under Limit stop.
Another use for Location is when you want to input a data item at an internally generated
node. Nodes are internally generated by CAEPIPE for bends (A, B nodes, e.g., 20A) and
Jacketed pipes/bends (J, C, D nodes, e.g., 10J).
By design, each row in the Layout window allows only one data item to be inserted under
the Data field. Additional data items can be input only through Location.
Ensure that the node you use for Location has already been defined on an earlier row or
defined earlier as an intermediate node for a bend or is an internally generated node. In
other words, you cannot use Location on an undefined node.
Example 1: Hanger and Force at the same node
Assume that you had a Grinnell Hanger and a vertical force of 350 pounds at node 20.
Observe the following sample Layout window which shows how to model these data.
In the above window, observe that node 20 appears twice in the Node field, first when it
was defined for the first time (row 4), and second when it was repeated (row 7) to apply
the external force on it. Row 4 contains the Hanger as external data whereas row 7 contains
Force as the external data.
Row 7 is modeled in the following manner: Type 20 for Node, press Tab to move highlight
to the Type column, press "L" for Location. The Data types dialog is opened automatically
when you press "L". Select Force, type in 350 (for FY), press Enter.
218
Location
Example 2: Data at internally generated nodes
Let us take the example given under Jacketed pipe/bend. We know that for a Jacketed pipe,
CAEPIPE internally generates the J node on the jacket. For the Jacketed Bend, CAEPIPE
generates the C and D nodes on the jacket.
There are four data items in this example.
1. Node 10J is the starting Jacket node which is anchored (node 10 is separately anchored,
since it is the node on the core pipe).
2. There is a hanger at node 30J since the hanger is connected to the Jacket.
3. There is a spacer (spider) at the far end of the bend, node 20B (which is on the core
pipe). Remember that the bend has a jacket on the outside.
4. Node 30 has an end cap
The following sample Layout window contains all these data as Location data.
Example 3: Bend supported by a Hanger
See Example 6 in the Bend section for an example of using Location at an intermediate
node on p. 122.
219
Material
A material can be specified in CAEPIPE for all piping including outside jacket, bends
(jacketed and miter) and beams (beam material is discussed under the section on Beams).
Once you define and name a material type, you specify the name on the Layout window
under the column "Matl".
The material name you specify on the layout applies to the piping element on that row.
For jacketed piping, you must specify two materials  one for the core pipe (on the Layout
window), and the other for the jacket pipe in its own dialog. The material you specify for
a bend, a jacketed bend, and for a miter bend applies only to that specific element on that
input row.
There are two ways in which you can define materials:
1. By defining a material inside the CAEPIPE model, or
2. By picking a material from an existing material library.
For the sake of convenience, we suggest that you create your own material library for your
company or if needed for a particular piping system project and share it with your team
members.
Below, let us see how to create a material inside a model and how to create or modify a
material library.
Define a Material inside a CAEPIPE model
From the Layout window, click on "Matl" on the header row (or select Materials from the
Misc menu, Ctrl+Shift+M).
The List window for materials is shown.
220
Material
In the Material List window, you can edit inside both panes  the left pane contains Name,
Description, Type of material, Density, Poisson’s ratio (nu) and Joint factor and the right pane
contains material properties (usually modulus of Elasticity, Coefficient of thermal expansion
[Alpha], and the codespecific Allowable stress) as a function of Temperature. While
entering the temperaturedependent material properties, you do not need to necessarily
enter temperatures in an ascending order. CAEPIPE will sort the entries later.
After you are done entering properties for one material, be sure to press Enter when the
cursor is in the left pane, to move it to the next row so you can start entering the next
material. You can insert, delete and edit any material (see under Edit menu).
These panes may change depending on the piping code chosen. For example, for the
Swedish and Norwegian codes, the following window is displayed. This window contains
additional columns for Tensile strength and instead of a single Joint factor, it has Longitudinal
and Circumferential joint factors.
The European (EN13480) code, has a column for Tensile strength and the temperature
dependent properties have an additional column for fCR (allowable creep stress).
221
Material
To Input a New Material
You can input a new material in three ways:
1. Start typing directly into the fields in the Materials List window.
2. Input through dialogs (shown below for some but not all piping codes).
For the Swedish and Norwegian piping codes, the Material dialog has Longitudinal and
Circumferential joint factors and a Tensile strength field.
For the European (EN13480) piping code, the Material dialog has a single Joint factor and
a Tensile strength field.
222
Material
3. Pick a material from an existing material library (supplied with CAEPIPE or your own).
Click on the Library button on the toolbar to open the library:
(or select Library command under the File menu):
You will have to open a library file first if it was not previously opened.
You can select a material from the library by double clicking on it or highlighting it and
clicking on OK.
223
Material
Name
Material name can be specified using up to three alphanumeric characters.
Description
A description for the material can be input using up to 31 characters.
Type
The Types of material are shown below.
AL for Aluminum
AS for Austenitic Stainless Steel
CA for Copper alloys annealed
CC for Copper alloys cold worked
CS for Carbon Steel
FR for Fiber Reinforced Plastic piping
FS for Ferritic steel
NA for Nickel alloys 800, 800H, 825
SS for Stainless Steel
TI for Titanium
These material types are used in calculation of the Y factor for allowable pressure at high
temperatures for certain piping codes. Swedish and Norwegian piping codes also use it for
calculating allowable expansion stress range. These codes also need tensile strength.
For Fiber Reinforced Plastic piping, you need to select the material type "FR" to enter FRP
material properties. More information can be found under the section Fiber Reinforced
Plastic.
Density
Density of the material is used to calculate weight load and also mass for dynamic analysis.
Nu
The Poisson’s ratio (Nu) defaults to 0.3 if not input.
Joint factor
The joint factor is the longitudinal weld joint factor used in the calculation of allowable
pressure. For Swedish and Norwegian piping codes, a circumferential joint factor is also
input which is used in the calculation of longitudinal pressure stress.
Tensile strength
For Swedish, Norwegian and European (EN13480) piping codes, tensile strength is used
in the calculation of the allowable expansion stress range. For Stoomwezen piping code,
tensile strength is used in the calculation of hot allowable stress.
224
Material
To create or modify a material library
CAEPIPE offers you flexibility in creating your own material libraries (user defined libraries).
That way, you do not feel restricted by the offered choices in materials and can continually
keep updating the material libraries with your own materials. To create a library: From the
Main window, select File > New and click on Material Library.
A List window for materials is shown.
You must select a piping code first, using the menu command Options > Piping code,
before you start entering properties.
You can, as before, start typing directly into the fields, or enter properties through a dialog.
The only difference is that materials in the library do not have names whereas those in a
model have names.
After you are done entering materials, you must save to a material library file by using the
File > Save command.
225
Material
Give the file a suitable name. The file will be saved with a .mat extension.
Should you need to change the piping code, then you need to update all materials’
properties (in this library) according to the new code. Better yet, please create a new library
for the new code.
Frequently, this issue confuses users and they end up using material properties that
come from one code under another code (Example: A53 Grade B, common to B31.1
and B31.3, is used by mistake under the wrong code. Note that this material has
different allowable stresses under the two codes!).
Therefore, please make sure that you use correct properties from the correct piping code
and that the correct code is set under Options (Analysis > Piping code) menu in the Layout
window.
CAEPIPE comes with two libraries  B31.1 material library (B311.mat) and B31.3 material
library (B313.mat). When inside a CAEPIPE model, you can open any library and pick a
material from it. Make sure that the proper library is chosen, especially between B31.1 and
B31.3 libraries because they have significantly different allowable stresses. Also verify the
properties in these libraries before you use them.
226
Missing Mass Correction
In dynamic analysis using modal superposition, usually an approximate solution is obtained
because only a limited number of modes is considered. (For seismic analysis, typically
all modes up to 33 Hz). The errors in pipe displacements and stresses are usually small
because they are affected relatively little by high modes. The error in support loads may be
substantial because the influence of high modes on support loads can be important. In stiff
piping systems with few low frequency modes, stresses may also be affected significantly.
Using limited number of modes results in some mass of the system being ignored. The
distribution of this "missing mass" is such that the inertia forces associated with it will
usually produce small displacements and stresses. However these forces will often produce
significant support loads, and in stiff systems can produce significant stresses.
A correction can be made by determining the modal contributions to the mass of the system
and obtaining the "missing mass" as the difference between these contributions and the
actual mass.
The inertial force vector for the n
th
mode is given by
{F
n
} = −[M]{¨ u
n
} = ω
2
n
[M]{φ
n
}A
n
(1)
where [M] = diagonal mass matrix
{¨ u
n
} = acceleration vector
ω
n
= circular frequency
{φ
n
} = mass normalized eigenvector
A
n
= modal displacement for mode n
For X seismic excitation,
A
n
= {φ
n
}
T
[M]{r
x
}
S
a
nx
ω
2
n
= Γ
nx
S
a
nx
ω
2
n
(2)
where {r
x
} = displacement vector due to a unit displacement in the X direction
S
a
nx
= spectral acceleration for the n
th
mode for excitation in the X direction
Γ
nx
= mass participation factor in the X direction for mode n
Let m = number of modes used in the analysis
N = total number of modes
If it is assumed that the higher modes: m+1 through N are in phase and have a common
spectral acceleration S
a
ox
(conservatively taken as the maximum spectral acceleration after
the m
th
mode), the total inertial force contribution of these higher modes (also known as
"Rigid body force" or "Left out force") is
{F
R
x
} = S
a
ox
[M]
N
¸
n=m+1
{φ
n
} Γ
nx
(3)
227
Missing Mass Correction
It can be shown that
{r
x
} =
N
¸
n=1
{φ
n
} Γ
nx
=
m
¸
n=1
{φ
n
} Γ
nx
+
N
¸
n=m+1
{φ
n
} Γ
nx
(4)
Substituting from (4) for the summation in (3),
{F
R
x
} = S
a
ox
[M]
{r
x
} −
m
¸
n=1
{φ
n
} Γ
nx
(5)
Note that there will be missing mass inertia forces in the Y and Z directions, in addition to
the X direction, for X excitation.
The missing mass force vectors for the Y and Z directions are similarly calculated. The
response to each of these three force vectors is calculated and these additional response
vectors are combined with the responses of the first "m" modes.
The above described method is based on the following technical paper by Powell.
Powell, G.H. "Missing Mass Correction in Modal Analysis of Piping Systems." Transactions
of the 5th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology. August
1979: Berlin, Germany
228
Miter Bend
Miter bends are typically used when space limitations do not allow the use of regular bends
(elbows), or when a miter is more economical to use than a regular bend. Miters are not
fittings. They are fabricated from pipe, to requirements. "The use of miters to make changes
in direction is practically restricted to lowpressure lines, 10inch and larger if the pressure
drop is unimportant..." (Sherwood 1980).
See figure below for Miter bend parameters.
r
S
q
In this figure, r = mean radius of pipe
S = miter spacing at center line
θ = onehalf angle between adjacent miter axes (≤ 22.5° )
Before modeling a miter bend, you should determine whether it is closely or widely spaced.
Closely Spaced Miter
A miter bend is closely spaced when S < r (1 + tan θ).
r
S
q
R
A closely spaced miter bend is input as a single miter bend element.
The Bend Radius (R) is calculated as: R = 0.5 S cot θ.
229
Miter Bend
Widely Spaced Miter
A miter bend is widely spaced when S ≥ r (1 + tan θ).
r
q
S
R
R
R
R
A widely spaced miter bend is modeled with as many miter bend elements as there are
miter cuts.
The Bend Radius (R) is calculated as: R = 0.5 r (1 + cot θ).
A miter bend is input by typing "m" in the Type column or selecting "Miter bend" from the
Element types dialog.
The Miter bend dialog is shown.
230
Miter Bend
Bend Radius
The bend radius (R) depends on the type of miter (Closely or Widely spaced). It is calculated
as explained previously and input in this field.
Bend Thickness
Input the wall thickness of the miter bend if it is different from that of the adjoining pipe
thicknesses. The Bend Thickness, if specified, applies only to the curved portion(s) of the
equivalent bend(s) of the miter bend.
Bend Material
If the material of the miter bend is different from that of the adjoining pipe, select the Bend
Material from the drop down combo box. The Bend Material, if specified, applies only to
the curved portion(s) of the equivalent bend(s) of the miter bend.
Flexibility Factor
The Flexibility Factor for the miter bend can be specified. If the Flexibility Factor is specified,
it is used instead of the piping code specified Flexibility Factor.
Closely spaced
To specify the miter bend as closely spaced, click on the "Closely spaced" radio button.
Widely spaced
To specify the miter bend as widely spaced, click on the "Widely spaced" radio button.
Parameters for 90° Miter Bends
The parameters (dimensions) for 90° miter bends (with 2, 3, 4 miter cuts) in terms of
dimension (A), mean pipe radius (r) and number of miter cuts (N) are shown in the
following table.
Use the table to determine whether the miter bend is Closely spaced or Widely spaced, and
if it is Widely spaced and has 2, 3 or 4 miter cuts, to calculate the dimensions B, C, D, E
and R (equivalent miter bend radius) before modeling it.
A closely spaced miter requires only the miter bend radius (same as dimension A shown in
the figures).
Dimensions for Widely spaced miters only
N S Closely spaced if B C D E R
2 0.828427 A A < 1.707107 r 0.414214 A 0.585786 A   1.707107 r
3 0.535898 A A < 2.366025 r 0.267949 A 0.464102 A   2.366025 r
4 0.397825 A A < 3.013670 r 0.198912 A 0.367542 A 0.281305 A 0.152241 A 3.013670 r
N = Number of miter cuts
Half angle θ = 90° /(2N)
The following pages show the details of how dimensions B, C, D and E were calculated,
and are provided only for your information. The above table is important for your modeling
requirements. For miters with more than 4 cuts, you have to calculate the required
dimensions similar to those shown on the following pages. The next table outlines the
modeling procedure for either miter type.
231
Miter Bend
Miter Modeling Procedure
Determine Miter Type
Closely Spaced Miter Widely Spaced Miter
Any number of cuts 2 cuts 3 cuts 4 cuts
Model miter as a single
Closely spaced miter
with Bend radius as
dimension A.
Calculate R, B and C from above table.
Calculate offsets of nodes using B and C.
See Example 2 Widely spaced miter.
Calculate R, B, C, D
and E from above ta
ble. Calculate offsets
of nodes using B, C,
D and E.
See Example 1, Closely
spaced miter.
Model this miter as 2
widely spaced miters
with R as the bend
radius.
Model this miter as 3
widely spaced miters
with R as the bend
radius.
Model this miter as 4
widely spaced miters
with R as the bend
radius.
Two Miter Cuts (N=2)
A
A
B
C B
C
45°
22.5°
22.5°
θ = 90° / ( 2 x 2 ) = 22.5°
S = 2 A tan θ = 0.828427 A
B = A tan θ = 0.414214 A
C = 2 A tan θ cos 2θ = 0.585786 A
Closely spaced
The miter is Closely spaced if,
S < r ( 1 + tan θ)
substituting for S,
2A tan θ < r (1 + tan θ)
A < 1.707107 r
Bend radius, R = 0.5 S cot θ = A
Widely spaced
R = 0.5 r ( 1 + cot θ) = 1.707107 r
Three Miter Cuts (N=3)
A
A
B
C B
C
30°
15°
15°
B
B
30°
θ = 90° / ( 2 x 3 ) = 15°
S = 2 A tan θ = 0.535898 A
B = A tan θ = 0.267949 A
C = 2 A tan θ cos 2θ = 0.464102 A
Closely spaced
The miter is Closely spaced if,
S < r ( 1 + tan θ)
substituting for S,
2A tan θ < r (1 + tan θ)
A < 2.366025 r
Bend radius, R = 0.5 S cot θ = A
Widely spaced
R = 0.5 r ( 1 + cot θ) = 2.366025 r
232
Miter Bend
Four Miter Cuts (N=4)
A
A
B
C B
C
2
2
.5
°
1
1
.
2
5
°
11.25°
D
D
E
E
2
2
.
5
°
2
2
.
5
°
θ = 90° / ( 2 x 4 ) = 11.25°
S = 2 A tan θ = 0.397825 A
B = A tan θ = 0.198912 A
C = 2 A tan θ cos 2θ = 0.367542 A
D = 2 A tan θ sin 4θ = 0.281305 A
E = 2 A tan θ sin 2θ = 0.152241 A
Closely spaced
The miter is Closely spaced if,
S < r ( 1 + tan θ)
substituting for S,
2A tan θ < r (1 + tan θ)
A < 3.013670 r
Bend radius, R = 0.5 S cot θ = A
Widely spaced
R = 0.5 r ( 1 + cot θ) = 3.013670 r
Example 1: Closely Spaced Miter
Example Data:
Pipe OD = 8.625", thickness, t = 0.322"
Mean pipe radius, r = (8.625  0.322) / 2 = 4.1515",
Number of miter cuts = 3,
Dimension A = 8", See 3cut miter figure.
Look up table (Miter modeling procedure), for an outline of the modeling procedure.
First, determine the type of miter (Closely or Widely spaced) before modeling it.
Look up Summary of Miter parameters, for N = 3. A miter is Closely spaced if A < 2.366025r.
This condition is true for r = 4.1515". Hence, this is a Closely spaced miter.
Steps for Example 1
Create From node: When you start a new model file, node 10 and an Anchor are
automatically input, press Enter to move cursor to next empty row.
Construct miter bend: type 20 for Node (simply pressing Tab puts this node number
automatically for you), type "m" under the Type column, type 8" for bend radius, select
Closely spaced, click on Ok. Type 10" for DX, enter material, section and load names,
press Enter.
Finish the miter bend: type 30 for Node and 10" for DY, press Enter.
233
Miter Bend
Example 1: Closely Spaced Miter MITER1
X
Y
Z 10
10
10
20
30
Length (i nch)
Example 2: Widely Spaced Miter
Let us assume the same data as in Example 1 (Closely spaced miter) with only one change,
namely, dimension A (see next figure).
Pipe OD = 8.625", thickness, t = 0.322"
Mean pipe radius, r = (8.625  0.322) / 2 = 4.1515",
Number of miter cuts = 3,
Dimension A = 12".
Look up table (for Miter modeling procedure) for an outline of the modeling procedure.
A
A
B
C B
C
30°
15°
15°
B
B
30°
10 20
30
40
50
A = 12"
B = 3.2154"
C = 5.5692"
It is essential to determine the type of miter (Closely or Widely spaced) before modeling it.
234
Miter Bend
Determine miter type
Look up table, Summary of Miter parameters, for N = 3. A miter is Closely spaced if A <
2.366025r. This condition is false for r = 4.1515". Hence, this is a Widely spaced miter.
This miter bend has to be modeled as a series of 3 miters. Next, observe in this table that
dimensions B, C and R (Equivalent miter bend radius) can be calculated for N = 3 cuts.
Calculate required dimensions
With r = 4.1515",
Equivalent miter bend radius, R = 2.366025 × r = 9.8225",
Dimension B = 0.267949 × A = 3.2154",
Dimension C = 0.464102 × A = 5.5692"
See previous figure. After calculating B, C and R, let us now calculate the offsets of nodes
20, 30 and 40 (the 3 nodes correspond with the 3 miter cuts).
Calculate Offsets
Offsets of node 20 from 10: (First miter cut)
DX = B = 3.2154"
DY = 0" (because node 20 is on the horizontal axis).
Offsets of node 30 from 20: (Second miter cut)
DX = C = 5.5692"
DY = B = 3.2154"
Offsets of node 40 from 30: (Third miter cut)
DX = B = 3.2154"
DY = C = 5.5692"
Offsets of node 50 from 40:
DX = 0" (because node 50 is on the vertical axis).
DY = B = 3.2154"
Now, start to build the model in CAEPIPE as shown in Example 1 but with different data
(bend radius = 9.8225", select Widely Spaced miter, and offsets as shown above).
Steps for Example 2
Create From node: When you start a new model file, node 10 and an Anchor are
automatically input, press Enter to move cursor to next empty row.
Construct first miter bend: type 20 for Node (simply pressing Tab puts this node number
automatically for you), type "m" under the Type column, type 9.8225" for bend radius,
select Widely spaced, click on Ok. Type 3.2154" for DX, enter material, section and load
names, press Enter.
Construct second miter bend: type 30 for Node (simply pressing Tab puts this node
number automatically for you), type "m" under the Type column, type 9.8225" for bend
radius, select Widely spaced, click on Ok. Type 5.5692" for DX, 3.2154" for DY, press
Enter.
Construct third miter bend: type 40 for Node (simply pressing Tab puts this node number
automatically for you), type "m" under the Type column, type 9.8225" for bend radius,
select Widely spaced, click on Ok. Type 3.2154" for DX, 5.5692" for DY, press Enter.
Finish the miter bend: type 50 for Node and 3.2154" for DY, press Enter.
235
Miter Bend
Example 2: Widely spaced miter (3 cuts) MITER2
X
Y
Z
3.2154
6.4308
6.4308
3.2154
Lengths(inch)
10 20
30
40
50
3 Miter cuts
Miter spacing, S
Sherwood, David. R., and Dennis J. Whistance. THE "PIPING GUIDE" A Compact Reference
for the Design and Drafting of Industrial Piping Systems. First Edition (revised). San
Francisco: Syentek Books Co., 1980
236
Node
A Node refers to a connecting point between elements such as pipes, reducers, valves,
expansion joints and so forth. Usually, a node has a numeric designation. Occasionally, the
number for the node is followed by a letter such as A/B/C/D/J. A and B nodes (e.g., 20A,
20B) designate the near and far ends of a Bend node (see section on Bend). J, C and D, on
the other hand (e.g., 10J, 10C, 10D) designate a Jacket pipe and a Jacket bend (see section
on Jacketed Piping). All of these alphanumeric nodes are internally generated.
In the Layout window, the node numbers are typed in the Node field. A node number
may be typed as an integer or an integer followed by one of the letters A/B/C/D/J. Use
"Location" type to specify more than one data item at a node (See section on Location).
The starting node in a piping network is always a node of type "From" which is usually
anchored.
Nodes not only act as connect points for elements but also act as locations for providing
supports or applying restraints/external forces and moments to the piping system. Each
node has six static degrees of freedom, three translational (in x, y and z directions) and
three rotational (about x, y and z axes). Any or all of them may be restrained.
Specifying coordinates
The values typed in the DX, DY and DZ fields on the Layout window are interpreted as
offsets from the previous node. If it is required to specify absolute coordinates for a node
(i.e., fix the location of a point in space), the node has to be of type "From" or should have
an asterisk (*) at the end of it (e.g., 20*). In these cases, the numbers entered in the DX, DY
and DZ fields are interpreted as absolute coordinates of the node rather than offsets from
the previous node. If the coordinates for a particular node are duplicated the second set of
values is ignored. An asterisk (*) for a "From" node is ignored too.
You can list all coordinates by selecting Coordinates under Misc menu (or click on the
Node header or right click on any node number). This feature can be helpful for verifying
correctness of the input.
In the Layout window, you can search for a node by using the "Find node" command
(under the View menu), specify a "Node increment" for automatic node numbering (under
Options menu), and renumber nodes for a range of rows (under Edit menu).
237
Nonlinearities
There are several types of nonlinearities in CAEPIPE:
1. Gaps in limit stops, guides.
2. Rotational limits in ball and hinge joints.
3. Rod hangers as one way restraints.
4. Tie rods with different stiffnesses and gaps in tension and compression.
5. Friction in limit stops, guides, slip joints, hinge joints and ball joints.
6. Buried piping.
An iterative solution is performed when nonlinearities are present. At each iteration, the
stiffness matrix and the load vector are reformulated because both of these depend on the
solution (displacements) from the previous iteration.
Limit stop
Limit stops are input by specifying direction, the upper and lower limits and optionally a
friction coefficient. The upper and lower limits are along the direction of the limit stop and
measured from the undeflected position of the node. Typically the upper limit is positive
and the lower limit negative. The upper limit should be algebraically always greater than
the lower limit. In some situations it is possible to have a positive lower limit or a negative
upper limit. If a particular limit does not exist (i.e., a node can move unrestrained in that
direction), that limit should be left blank. If a gap does not exist then the limit should be
explicitly input as zero.
Solution Procedure
At each iteration, the displacements at the limit stop node are resolved along the limit
stop direction. The resolved displacement is compared with the upper and lower limits. If
the displacement exceeds the upper limit or is less than the lower limit the gap is closed
otherwise it is open. The solution is converged when the displacement is within 1% of
previous displacement.
If the gap is open, no stiffness or force is applied due to the limit stop at the node.
If the gap is closed, high stiffness ( 1×10
12
lb/inch) along with a force = gap x high stiffness
are applied in the direction of the limit stop at the node. The limit stop in this case acts like
a specified displacement.
After the solution has converged and if the gap is closed, the support load at the limit stop is
calculated by: (resolved displacement  gap distance) x high stiffness. During hanger design,
the hot loads are recalculated with the status of the limit stops at the end of the preliminary
operating load case. Then the hanger travels are recalculated using the recalculated hot
loads.
In dynamic analysis, the status of the limit stops for the first operating case (W+P1+T1), is
used. It either the upper or lower limit is reached for the first operating case, the limit stop
is treated as a rigid twoway restraint in the direction of the limit stop. If the limit is not
reached, then it is treated as having no restraint.
238
Nonlinearities
Friction
Friction is specified by entering coefficient of friction for limit stop and guide, entering
friction force and/or friction torque for slip joint, entering friction torque for hinge joint and
entering bending and/or torsional friction torque for ball joint.
Friction is modeled using variable equivalent stiffnesses (fictitious restraints) in CAEPIPE.
The stiffness of these fictitious restraints is estimated from the results of previous iteration.
If friction is included in dynamic analysis, the values of the equivalent stiffnesses from the
first operating case are used in modal and dynamic analyses.
Friction in Limit Stop
If the gap is not closed there is no normal force and hence no friction. If the gap is
closed, the normal force (limit stop support load) is calculated as explained above. The
maximum friction force is friction coefficient * normal force. The displacement of the limit
stop node is resolved into a plane normal to the limit stop direction (let us call this resolved
displacement: y). Also let ky = equivalent friction stiffness which is assumed to be zero for
first iteration.
If y is non zero or y * ky > maximum friction force
then ky = maximum friction force / y
otherwise ky = high stiffness ( 1×10
12
lb/inch) [This is the case of no sliding]
In the next iteration the equivalent friction stiffness is added to the stiffness matrix. The
iterations are continued till the displacement y is within 1% of displacement from the
previous iteration. The friction force is y * ky.
Friction in Guide
A guide is modeled by adding high stiffnesses perpendicular to the direction of the pipe.
The normal force in the guide is calculated by the vector sum of the local y and z support
loads. Maximum friction force is friction coefficient * normal force. The displacements at
the guide node are resolved in the direction of the guide. Let us call this displacement: x.
Also let kx = equivalent friction stiffness which is assumed to be zero for first iteration.
If x is non zero or x * kx > maximum friction force
then kx = maximum friction force / x
otherwise kx = high stiffness ( 1×10
12
lb/inch) [This is the case of no sliding]
In the next iteration the equivalent friction stiffness is added to the stiffness matrix. The
iterations are continued till the displacement x is within 1% of displacement from the
previous iteration. The friction force is x * kx.
239
Nonlinearities
Friction in Slip Joint
The relative displacements (From node, To node) for the slip joint are resolved in the
direction of the slip joint. Let us call this relative displacement: x. Also let kx = equivalent
friction stiffness which is assumed to be zero for first iteration.
If x is non zero or x * kx > friction force
then kx = friction force / x
otherwise kx = high stiffness ( 1×10
12
lb/inch) [This is the case of no sliding]
In the next iteration the equivalent friction stiffness is added to the stiffness matrix. The
iterations are continued till the displacement x is within 1% of displacement from the
previous iteration.
Similar technique is used for friction torque (using rotations instead of translations).
Friction in Hinge Joint
The relative rotations (From node, To node) for the hinge joint are resolved in the direction
of the hinge axis. Let us call this relative rotation: x. Also let kx = equivalent friction stiffness
which is assumed to be zero for first iteration. Maximum friction torque = friction torque +
hinge stiffness * x.
If x is non zero or x * kx > maximum friction torque
then kx = maximum friction torque / x
otherwise kx = high stiffness [This is the case of no sliding]
In the next iteration the equivalent friction stiffness is added to the stiffness matrix. The
iterations are continued till the displacement x is within 1% of displacement from the
previous iteration.
Friction in Ball Joint
For a ball joint friction in bending (transverse) and torsional (axial) directions is treated
independently. For the bending case, the resultant of the local y and z directions is used.
Otherwise a procedure similar to the one used for hinge joint is used.
Friction in Dynamic Analysis
Friction is optional in dynamic analysis. Friction is mathematically modeled by using
equivalent stiffnesses. If friction is included in dynamic analysis, the values of the equivalent
stiffnesses from the first operating case are used.
240
Nonlinearities
Misconvergence
During the iterative solution procedure for nonlinearities, a misconvergence is reported in
the following manner,
You have three options:
• Continue the iterative procedure for 500 more iterations to see whether the solution
converges, or
• Accept the misconvergence (maximum misconvergence is reported, 100% in the above
dialog), or
• Exit the analysis processor completely.
An environment variable "CPITER" may be defined to change number of iterations from the
default 500. For example, SET CPITER=10000 will change the number of iterations to 10000
before showing the dialog: Continue, Accept or Exit if there is nonconvergence.
241
Nozzle
Nozzles are integral attachments of vessels (such as a storage tank) which connect with
external piping. Nozzles transmit the shell (vessel) flexibility to the piping system and hence
included in piping stress analysis.
Two types of nozzles can be modeled: A nozzle attached to a cylindrical vessel relatively
far from the ends of the cylinder, and a nozzle attached to a cylindrical shell with a flat
bottom and close to the flatbottom.
CAEPIPE calculates the nozzle stiffnesses (local flexibility components) according to WRC
297 and API 650 guidelines. See Appendix D for the procedures.
Cylindrical Vessel
L1
L2
M
T
M
C
V
L
V
C
M
L
P
Nozzle
V
e
s
s
e
l
T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
V
e
s
s
e
l
O
D
N
o
z
z
l
e
O
D
N
o
z
z
l
e
T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
(
y
S
h
e
a
r
)
(
z
S
h
e
a
r
)
The coordinate system is as shown in the figure. The six components of the forces and
moments at the nozzlevessel interface are:
P = Radial load M
C
= Circumferential moment
V
C
= Circumferential load M
T
= Torsional moment
V
L
= Longitudinal load M
L
= Longitudinal moment
Of the six components of stiffnesses, only three stiffnesses, axial (K
x
), circumferential (K
yy
),
and longitudinal (K
zz
), are computed. The remaining three are assumed to be rigid.
242
Nozzle
A nozzle is input by typing "n" in the Data column or selecting "Nozzle" from the Data
Types dialog.
The Nozzle dialog is shown. Note that the Displacements button is disabled. It is only
enabled after the nozzle is input (i.e., existing nozzle).
Nozzle
OD: Outside diameter of the nozzle.
Thk: Thickness of the nozzle.
Vessel
OD: Outside diameter of the vessel.
Thk: Thickness of the vessel.
L1, L2: Distances from the nozzle to the nearest stiffening ring, tubesheet or the vessel end.
Vessel axis direction
The orientation of the vessel axis in terms of its global X, Y and Z components are entered
here. See example under "Specifying a Direction."
243
Nozzle
FlatBottom Tanks
For a nozzle on a flatbottom tank and close to the flatbottom, check the Flatbottom tank
checkbox.
L
Vessel OD
Vessel Thickness
2a(Nozzle OD)
Nozzle Thickness
M
C
V
L
M
T
P
M
L
V
C
FlatBottom Tank
Nozzle
A slightly modified Nozzle dialog is displayed.
All the input fields are the same as before except:
244
Nozzle
L
L is the distance from the flatbottom to the nozzle centerline.
Reinforcing pad
If the nozzle is reinforced, check this box.
Stiffness Calculation
Here again, only three stiffnesses, axial, circumferential and longitudinal are computed
according to API 650 guidelines. See Appendix D for the procedure.
The flatbottom tank nozzles are subject to the following limitations (API 650):
Limitations
Nozzle OD/Vessel OD ratio must be between 0.005 and 0.04.
L/Nozzle OD ratio must be between 1.0 and 1.5. See graphs in Appendix D, Figures D3
through D14.
Displacements
Displacements (translations and/or rotations) in the global X, Y and Z directions may be
specified for nozzles (for thermal, settlement and seismic cases). Click on the Displacements
button. You will see a dialog similar to one shown below. Type in specified displacements
and press Enter.
There are three types of displacements which can be specified:
1. Thermal (three displacements can be specified, one each for thermal loads T1, T2 and
T3) Applied only for the Expansion and Operating load cases.
2. Seismic (available for B31.1, ASME Section III Class 2, RCCM and EN13480 codes
only) Solved as a separate internal load case and added absolutely to static seismic and
response spectrum load cases.
3. Settlement (available under ASME Section III Class 2, RCCM and EN13480 codes only)
Applied to a separate load case called Settlement.
Settlement
For certain piping codes (ASME Section III Class 2, RCCM and EN13480), a settlement,
which is a single nonrepeated movement (e.g., due to settlement of foundation), may be
specified. This is applied to the Settlement load case. For those codes which do not have
a provision for settlement (like B31.1), specify the settlement as a thermal displacement (a
conservative approach).
245
Nozzle
Example 1: Nozzle on a cylindrical vessel
Assume the following data:
Vessel OD = 1800 in.
Vessel Thickness = 1.0 in.
Nozzle OD = 26 in.
Nozzle Thickness = 0.5 in.
L1 = L2 = 1200 in.
Elastic modulus for vessel material = 28×10
6
psi.
The first node (10) is already defined as an anchor. To replace the anchor by a nozzle, right
click on the Anchor in the Data column, then select Delete Anchor. Then type "n" in the
Data column to input the nozzle. The Nozzle dialog will be shown. Input the nozzle data
in the dialog. The Layout window looks like the following:
The graphics is shown next.
Nozzle Stiffnesses
The three stiffnesses computed can be viewed using the List command (Ctrl+L in the Layout
window). In the List dialog, select Nozzle Stiffnesses. The following window is displayed.
The nozzle/vessel data may be edited here (double click to edit).
246
Nozzle
Example 2: Nozzle on a flatbottom storage tank
Assume the following data:
Vessel OD = 1800 in.
Vessel Thickness = 1.0 in.
Nozzle OD = 26 in.
Nozzle Thickness = 0.5 in.
L = 36 in.
Elastic modulus of the vessel material = 28×10
6
psi.
No reinforcing pad on the vessel.
Create the pipeline till the nozzle node. At the nozzle node, enter a Nozzle by typing "n"
and provide the required data. Check the Flatbottom tank checkbox.
The Layout window looks like the following.
The graphics is shown next.
The three nozzle stiffnesses computed can be viewed as before by using the List command
(Ctrl+L) and selecting Nozzle Stiffnesses.
247
Pump
A pump (like a turbine or a compressor) is input by selecting "Pumps" from the Misc
menu in the Layout or List window. Upon analysis, an API 610 pump compliance report
is produced. Two types of pumps can be modeled: Horizontal or Vertical inline. See
Appendix B (API 610, for Pumps) for related information.
Once you see the Pump List window, double click on an empty row for the Pump dialog
and enter the required information.
248
Pump
Type a short description to identify the pump in Description. The nozzle nodes on the
pump must be made anchors and the shaft axis must be in the horizontal plane. The nozzle
locations (top, side or end) should be specified for each suction and discharge nodes.
See section on specifying a Direction for information on Xcomp/Ycomp/ Zcomp.
You must enter coordinates for the center of the pump (this is required only for horizontal
pumps). According to API 610, the center is defined for pumps with two support pedestals
by "the intersection of the pump shaft centerline and a vertical plane passing through the
center of the two support pedestals." For pumps with four support pedestals, the "center is
defined by the pump shaft centerline and a vertical plane passing midway between the four
pedestals." See Appendix B for illustrative figures.
A pump may be modeled in the following manner: Consider the network below consisting
of two pipe segments connected by a pump.
10−20−30−. . . −90−100
→
PUMP
←
200−210−. . . −280−290−300.
The suction side of the pump ends at node 100. The discharge side begins at node 200.
Make nodes 100 and 200 anchors so that equipment loads can be calculated. A similar
method applies to turbines and compressors too.
A different dialog is shown for vertical inline pumps.
Only Description, Suction and Discharge nodes are required.
249
Reducer
A reducer is used to join a larger pipe to a small pipe. A reducer is Concentric when
the axes at the reducer ends are collinear, otherwise the reducer is called Eccentric. An
eccentric reducer is used when it is required to keep the top or bottom of the line level.
See figures below.
In the figures below, observe that the two ends of the reducers are of different diameters.
The larger end (at node 20) has the outside diameter and thickness as OD1 and Thickness
1 (Thk1) with the smaller end (at node 30) having OD2 and Thickness 2 (Thk2). In case of
the eccentric reducer, the eccentricity as shown is between the two axes of the ends of the
reducer. The cone angle, α, is as shown in the following figure.
OD2
Eccentricity
(a) Concentric Reducer
OD1
Thickness1
Thickness2
a, Cone angle
(b) Eccentric Reducer, Nomenclature same as in (a)
20
30
30
20
An eccentric reducer’s eccentricity is modeled by a change in offsets of the "To" node (node
30 in Figure (b) above). Eccentricity is (ID1 − ID2) / 2. See example 2 later in this section.
A reducer (concentric or eccentric) is input by typing "re" in the Type column or selecting
"Reducer" from the Element Types dialog.
250
Reducer
The Reducer dialog is shown.
OD1, OD2, Thk1, Thk2
These are the crosssection properties at the two ends of the reducer. OD stands for
outside diameter and Thk stands for thickness. By default, OD1 and Thk1 contain preceding
section’s outside diameter and thickness, but different values may be typed here. The
Section1 and Section2 buttons can be used to quickly input OD and Thk values from
previously defined sections.
Cone angle
This angle is shown in Figure (a). It is used to calculate SIF at the ends of the reducer for
certain piping codes (B31.1, ASME Section III Class 2, RCCM, Swedish and Norwegian). For
these codes, if the cone angle is left blank, the maximum value of the SIF (2.0) is used. For
all other piping codes, the cone angle is not used.
SIF Calculation
For B31.1, ASME Section III Class 2, EN 13480, RCCM, Swedish and Norwegian For these
codes, as mentioned above, the cone angle (if input) is used to calculate the SIF. If the cone
angle is not input, the maximum value of the SIF (2.0) is used.
For Swedish and Norwegian piping codes, additional input is required which affects the
calculation of SIF.
Knuckles
if the reducer is with knuckles check this box.
251
Reducer
Delta
If the reducer is without knuckles, specify delta which is the mismatch (difference in mean
radii across the weld at the smaller end of the reducer). If the reducer is with knuckles,
delta is not used.
For other codes, If the code is not specific about a reducer’s SIF, then a value of 1.0 is used.
Weight, Stiffness and Stress Calculation
The properties such as weight of the reducer, stiffness, contents weight and insulation
weight are based on the average diameter (of OD1 and OD2) and average thickness (of
Thk1 and Thk2).
The stresses at each end, however, are calculated using the actual dimensions at each end.
Jacketed Reducer
A jacketed reducer may be modeled in the following manner: Calculate the average of OD1
(large end of the reducer) and OD2 (small end of the reducer). Calculate the average of
Thk1 (thickness at the large end) and Thk2 (thickness at the small end) of the reducer.
Create a new pipe section with these parameters. Insert a jacketed pipe at that location
which has the calculated average OD and thickness.
Example 1: Concentric Reducer
To model a concentric reducer as shown in Figure (a) with the following data: 8"x4" reducer,
OD1=8.625", Thk1=0.322", OD2=4.5", Thk2=0.237".
Create two sections, 8"/STD and 4"/STD.
The first node (10) is already defined. Press Enter to move to the next row.
Complete pipe run till node 20: type 20 for Node, type 1 (ft.) for DX, enter material, 8"
section and load names, press Enter.
Input reducer: Type 30 for Node, press Tab to move to the Type field, type "Re" (to
open the Reducer dialog box, note that the preceding 8" section properties are already
displayed for OD1 and Thk1).
Press the "Section 2" button to select the section at "To" node.
252
Reducer
Highlight the 4" section and press OK. 4.5" for OD2 and 0.237" for Thk2 will be entered
in the Reducer dialog.
Press OK, type 11" for DX (reducer’s length) and press Enter. Now you are asked if you
want to change section, press Yes. "Select Section" dialog will be shown. Highlight the 4"
section and press Enter. Press Enter again on Layout to move to the next row.
Type 40 for Node, 1 (ft.) for DX, press Enter.
Concentric Reducer Example1
X
Y
Z
10 20 30 40
253
Reducer
Example 2: Eccentric Reducer
To model an eccentric reducer as shown in Figure (b) with the following data: 8"x6" reducer,
OD1=8.625", Thk1=0.322", OD2=6.625", Thk2=0.28", eccentricity = (ID1 − ID2) / 2 = 0.958"
which is modeled as change in elevation.
Create two sections, 8"/STD and 6"/STD.
The first node (10) is already defined. Press Enter to move to the next row.
Complete pipe run till node 20: type 20 for Node, type 12" for DX, enter material, 8"
section and load names, press Enter.
Input reducer: Type 30 for Node, press Tab to move to the Type field, type "Re" (to
open the Reducer dialog box, note that the preceding 8" section properties are already
displayed for OD1 and Thk1).
Press the "Section 2" button to select the section at "To" node.
Highlight the 6" section and press OK.
6.625" for OD2 and 0.28" for Thk2 will be entered in the Reducer dialog.
Press OK, type 11" for DX (reducer’s length along X axis), 0.958" for DY (this is the
eccentricity), then press Enter. Now you are asked if you want to change section, press
Yes. "Select Section" dialog will be shown. Highlight the 6" section and press Enter. Press
Enter again on Layout to move to the next row.
254
Reducer
Type 40 for Node, 12" for DX, press Enter.
The graphics is shown below:
255
Restraint
This support type is a convenient way to specify a translational twoway rigid restraint in
the global X, Y and Z directions. This is most commonly used to specify a rigid 2way
vertical restraint.
A restraint is input by typing "re" in the Data column or selecting "Restraint" from the Data
Types dialog.
The Restraint dialog is shown.
Use the check boxes to apply the restraint for a particular direction. Alternately, simply
typing "X" or "Y" or "Z" inputs a restraint in the respective direction. Click on the vertical
button for a rigid vertical restraint.
Rigid restraint has stiffness of 1×10
12
(lb/inch).
256
Results Window
The Results window is opened either after analysis of a model or by opening a results file
(.res) from the File menu in the Main, Layout or Results windows.
Upon successful completion of model analysis, you are shown the following dialog in which
you click on Yes or No to view the computed results.
When you click on Yes, the Results window opens, in which you can view every computed
result for the piping model. This window displays results in an organized fashion conducive
to easy understanding of the results. The other windows (Layout and List) may be opened
from here in readonly mode. You can view any detail in these windows but cannot modify
any data. To modify the input data, you must open the Layout window in input mode (by
selecting menu File > Input).
A dialog listing the different results for a model is shown below. Select an item to see it.
When you view results, it is helpful to be aware of the following:
• The name of the results item and the load case (if applicable) are always shown in the
title bar of the Results window.
• Synchronized highlight: When you move the highlight to a node number (or an element)
in the Results window, the highlight in the Graphics window is automatically synchronized
to the corresponding node number (or element).
257
Results Window
• One key navigation: By merely pressing the Tab key, you can move forward through the
different results one at a time (Sorted stresses, Code Compliance, Support Loads, Element
forces, etc.), or move backward by using Shift Tab, or by clicking on the cyan colored
arrows (left and right). In this window, the display order of results is circular, i.e., if you
press Tab from Sorted Stresses, you will see Code compliance, or if you press Shift+Tab,
you will see Time History results (or whichever is the last item on the list).
• Changing Toolbar and Menus: As you move forward or backward through the results,
the toolbar changes with the displayed result. Also, the menu commands in Results and
View menus change. They contain commands that are relevant to the displayed result.
• Simultaneous graphics: As you know, you can view graphics simultaneously with results
(and input).
• In some items, you will notice left and right black arrows. By clicking on these arrow
buttons (or pressing the corresponding arrow keys on the keyboard), you can change
the load case. Similarly, in some other results, you will notice left and right white arrows.
By clicking on these arrow buttons (or pressing the corresponding arrow keys on the
keyboard with the CTRL key), you can display results for other related items (for example,
while viewing Support loads, you can change over to other supports [like limit stops,
hangers, restraints, etc.]).
Depending on the model configuration, you might see more choices within a topic. For
example, you might see the Other Forces dialog from Pipe Forces results. You might also
see the Other Supports dialog from Support Loads results.
258
Results Window
Each results item has a context menu as shown in the sorted stresses window. Rightclick
to see what the context menu offers. For sorted stresses, you are shown Show stresses,
Show stress ratios, Thresholds and Hide Allowables. The resulting actions of the first three
commands apply to the Graphics window and the last one applies to the Results window. A
total of four columns (1.5SH, SA, SH+SA and 3.0SC) are removed when you Hide Allowables
thereby allowing you to reduce the amount of information presented. See next figure.
A few screenshots of Results window with the different results items are shown next.
Code Compliance
The stresses are displayed on an element basis. Sorted stresses shows stresses at nodes
sorted by stress ratios. In the window below, notice the results that are shown for each
element (highlight is on element 19, nodes 120 and 122).
259
Results Window
Branch Connection Stresses
Branch connection stresses are available for only a few piping codes such as ASME Section
III. You can change the load case by pressing the left or right black arrow key.
Hanger Report
Flange Report
260
Results Window
Rotating Equipment Reports
The rotating equipment reports are produced for all Operating load cases. This example
model has several cold spring operating load cases and hence you see the left and right
black arrow keys.
The left and right white arrow keys advance (or go back) to the next (or previous) rotating
equipment report.
Soil Restraints
Soil restraints are shown when you have buried piping.
261
Results Window
Support Load Summary
This gives you a summary of several combinations of different load cases by showing the
algebraically minimum and maximum loads. This table can be of use to a support designer.
The supports at which a load summary is available can be shown by clicking on the Other
Supports button (immediately to the left of the left white arrow button). Select the support
from the list of available supports.
Here, support load summaries are available for the four supports shown.
Support loads on all the supports in the model are shown in the next window. The window
first shows loads for anchors, if present. Then, when you click on the left or right white
arrow, CAEPIPE shows you loads at different supports.
262
Results Window
You can find out which other supports are in the model by clicking on the Other Supports
button (immediately to the left of the left white arrow button). When you click on this
button, the list of available support types is shown. Select the type.
263
Results Window
Support Loads
Support Loads are shown for all support types. For a support type, the support loads can
be shown for all load cases by clicking on the black right/left arrow or simply press arrow
keys on the keyboard. A list of load cases can be shown by clicking on the Load cases
button.
264
Results Window
Element Forces
Forces and moments on all pipe elements are shown next. If you had nonpipe elements
such as a valve, you can display forces and moments for them too by clicking on the Other
Forces button on the toolbar.
Forces and moments can be shown in global coordinates by clicking on the Global forces
button (or selecting Global Forces command from the Results menu, hotkey: F7). When
you select Global forces, the forces and moments are shown in global coordinates and the
button changes in the same location to a Local forces button. So, should you want to return
to pipe forces in local coordinates, simply click again at the same location on the Local
forces button.
265
Results Window
Sorted FRP Stresses
Displacements
Displacements for all load cases can be shown (operating load case shown here). Click on
the black left/right arrow to show displacements for other load cases.
You can show animated deflected shape by clicking on Show animated deflected shape
button in the toolbar.
Also, you can show Minimum/Maximum displacements, displacements at flexible joints (if
any) by clicking on the Other displacements button and selecting the item of interest (or by
clicking on the left/right white arrows).
266
Results Window
Displacements in local coordinates for all flexible joints (bellows, ball, hinge, etc.) is shown
under Flex joints.
Minimum/Maximum displacements for each load case can be shown (Sustained load case
shown below). You can show minimum/maximum displacements for other load cases by
clicking on the black arrows.
Displacements at other supports can be shown (limit stops shown here).
267
Results Window
Frequencies
A list of natural frequencies, periods, modal participation factors and modal mass fractions
is shown next. You can show each frequency’s mode shape graphically or animate it by
clicking on Show mode shape or Show animated mode shape button in the toolbar.
Each frequency’s mode shape detail is shown in the next window. As in the earlier window,
you can show graphically the mode shape or animate it by clicking on the appropriate
button.
268
Results Window
Dynamic Susceptibility
Please see section by that name in Reference and also Appendix E.
269
Results Window
Time History
For time history results, you are shown the following dialog from which you need to select
an item.
Then, you are shown a list of supports in the model from which you need to select one.
270
Results Window
Once you select a support from the list, then you are shown the time history at that location.
You can export time history results to a comma separated values (.csv) file that can be read
by a spreadsheet program such as MSExcel (see menu File > Export).
271
Results Window
Hotkeys You Can Use
For keyboard operations, there are several hotkeys (in addition to MSWindows keys for
open, print, exit, etc.) to make you more productive.
Tab Next results item
(Shift) Tab Previous results item
Right Arrow Key Next load case or mode shape
Left Arrow Key Previous load case or mode shape
Ctrl+Right Arrow Key Next item of same type (e.g., support, displacement)
Ctrl+Left Arrow Key Previous item of same type
Ctrl+F Find node
Ctrl+L List
Ctrl+U Units
Ctrl+A Graphics  Zoom all
F2 Move focus to Graphics window
F3 Move focus to Layout, List or Results window
(wherever the focus was before)
F4 Graphics  Set Viewpoint
F5 Graphics  Previous view
F6 Show list of Other supports, forces, displacements, etc.
F7 Show forces, displacements in global/local coordinates
Open Other Windows
You can open the remaining text windows from here  List and Layout  to have all four
windows open at the same time to enhance your understanding of the model results. Use
the Window menu to open the other windows.
Menus and Toolbar
These items are explained in detail under Menus. A summary is given here.
File menu
Contains mainly file operations including starting a new model, and opening another Results
file, printing, etc.
Results menu
This is one of the menus that changes with the displayed result. At all times, it contains
commands for
• Display list of Results
• Move forward to Next Result (Tab key)
• Move backward to Previous Result (Shift+Tab key)
272
Results Window
An example of the additions to the Results menu:
When Support Loads are displayed, the menu displays, in addition to the above, the
following commands:
• Other supports
• Next Support
• Previous Support
• Load cases
• Next Load case
• Previous Load case
All of the above commands appear on the toolbar.
View menu
Commands for graphics operations are available from here. This menu, like the Results
menu, changes with displayed results.
An example of the changes:
When Sorted Stresses are displayed, the menu displays, in addition to the above, the
following commands:
• Show stresses in the Graphics window
• Show stress ratios in the Graphics window
• Set stress or stress ratio thresholds (to display stresses or stress ratios that are above a
specific threshold value).
You do not have to move focus to the Graphics window to execute these commands.
Options menu
You can change units or font from the options menu. Any change here in units or font will
affect all text windows. But the change in units is not saved when you close the Results
window (they will be saved when you change units in input mode and save the model).
Window menu
You can move focus to other windows. F2 is used to move between text and Graphics
windows, and F3 is used to move focus between open text windows. This is helpful to
those when you work with maximized windows (perhaps, because of a lower monitor
resolution).
Help menu
For online Help.
273
Rigid Element
A rigid element is input by typing "ri" in the Type column or selecting "Rigid element" from
the Element Types dialog.
The Rigid element dialog is shown.
Weight
The only required input is weight. It is applied as a distributed load along the length of
the rigid element. To this weight, the Additional weight from Load is added. Contents
and insulation weight are not used. Material density does not affect the weight of the rigid
element.
Thermal expansion of the rigid element is calculated using the coefficient of thermal
expansion from the material and temperatures from the load. Wind load is calculated using
the section properties.
The stiffnesses of 1×10
12
(lb/inch) in translational directions (axial and shear), and 1×10
12
(inchlb/rad) in rotational directions (bending and torsional) are used.
To model a rigid, weightless element, type zero for weight and ensure that the corresponding
Load set (specified on the Layout window) used for this element does not have any
Additional weight specified.
274
Rod Hanger
A rod hanger is a rigid oneway vertical support. The rod hanger node is rigidly supported
against downward movement and is able to move freely in the upward direction. That is, the
rod hanger is rigid in tension (downward movement) and has no stiffness in compression
(upward movement). In dynamic analysis, the status of the rod hanger from the first
operating case (W+P1+T1) is used, i.e., if the rod hanger is in tension in the first operating
case, a rigid vertical restraint is used in dynamic analysis. If the rod hanger is in compression
in the first operating case, no vertical restraint is used in dynamic analysis. A rod hanger
always acts in the vertical direction.
A rod hanger is input by by typing "ro" in the Data column or selecting "Rod Hanger" from
the Data Types dialog.
By default, one rod hanger without a connected node is input. This data (Number of
hangers, Connected node) may be edited in the Rod Hanger dialog.
Number of Hangers
The number of hangers is the number of separate hangers connected in parallel at this
node.
Connected to Node
By default the hanger is connected to a fixed ground point which is not a part of the piping
system. A hanger can be connected to another node in the piping system by entering the
node number in the "Connected to node" field. This node must be directly above the hanger
node.
275
Rod Hanger
A rod hanger in CAEPIPE functions as a limit stop, that is, it functions as a nonlinear
oneway restraint. It is rigid in Y direction and fully flexible in +Y direction (in a Yvertical
system). The rod hanger offers no resistance in +Y direction.
Rod hanger results are included in the hanger report which reports results for the first
operating case (W+P1+T1). In the hanger report, a rod hanger’s spring rate may be shown
either as Rigid or zero. The zero spring rate often confuses users. It simply means that there
is liftoff at the hanger location for the first operating case. One can confirm this by studying
vertical displacement (Y or Z) at the support for the first operating case (which will be 0 or
positive). You can find reports for other operating load cases under Support Loads > Other
Supports > Rod Hangers.
Liftoff (i.e., zero spring rate and a zero or positive operating condition displacement)
indicates that the support may not be needed and could be removed.
276
Section
A Section denotes the crosssectional properties of a pipe used to build a piping model.
Each section needs several properties such as outside diameter (or Nominal Dia.), thickness
of pipe, corrosion allowance, insulation and inside lining.
You define each section by typing in requisite properties and giving it a name. Then, you
type this name under the Section field on the Layout window.
Click on "Sect" on the Header row or select Sections from the Misc.
You will be presented with a List window that lists all defined sections in the model. Double
click on an empty row to define a new section.
The section dialog will be shown.
Section name
Type an alphanumeric name (up to 3 characters long) in this field.
277
Section
Nominal Dia, Schedule
There are three pipe sizes’ databases builtin for your convenience. They are the ANSI
(American National Standards Institute), DIN (Deutsche Industrie Norm) and JIS (Japanese
Industrial Standard). The default is ANSI.
When you click on the dropdown combo box for pipe sizes, you are shown the list of
pipe sizes that pertains to the selected database (ANSI, DIN or JIS). ANSI pipe sizes go from
1/8" to 48". DIN goes from 15 to 1600 and JIS goes from 8A to 1500A. Select the required
nominal pipe size and schedule (wall thickness). If you would like to change to a different
database (JIS or DIN), click on the appropriate radio button. Upon selection, CAEPIPE
populates the correct OD and Thickness.
Note that each database allows you a nonstandard definition (Non std in the pipe sizes list).
This becomes useful for defining those pipe sizes that are not listed, in which case you may
enter the Outside diameter and Thickness of the nonstandard pipe.
Corrosion Allowance
The corrosion allowance reduces the wall thickness of the pipe. It is used to calculate the
allowable pressure for the pipe. Additionally, for some piping codes (B31.3, B31.4, B31.5,
B31.8, B31.1 (1967), CODETI, Canadian Z183 and Z184), corrosion allowance is used for
reducing the section modulus and axial area only for calculating sustained and occasional
stresses.
Mill Tolerance
The mill tolerance (in percent) is also used to reduce the wall thickness of the pipe while
calculating allowable pressure. For example, if the mill tolerance is input as 12.5, the pipe
thickness (while calculating allowable pressure) is = 0.875 x nominal thickness.
Reduced thickness = (1 − Mill tolerance/100) × nominal thickness − Corrosion allowance
278
Section
Insulation
Type the pipe insulation density and thickness here. Click on the Insulation button for the
insulation library, or enter your own.
Highlight the desired insulation material and then press Enter. The insulation density is
entered on the section property dialog. The insulation density and insulation thickness are
used to calculate the insulation weight which is added to the weight of the pipe.
Lining
Linings are used to prevent internal corrosion that might occur during transportation of a
gas or fluid. CAEPIPE has the ability to model these protective coatings inside the pipe.
Insulation
Lining
Pipe
Lining is different from insulation. Insulation is around and outside of the pipe. Lining is on
the inside of the pipe. Both have respective thicknesses and densities. See figure.
While calculating the weight of the fluid/gas inside the pipe, CAEPIPE accounts for lining
thickness by reducing the pipe’s internal diameter by twice the lining thickness.
279
Skewed Restraint
A Skewed Restraint is a support which resists translation along or rotation about the specified
direction at a node. This support can be oriented in any direction. You have to either
calculate the stiffness or use a manufacturer supplied stiffness for the support you want to
model.
Use this restraint to model sway braces, sway struts and similar supports. You can also use
this to model vertical/horizontal supports.
The figure below shows an application.
Pipe
50
Z
Y
X
Rigid Sway Strut assembly
A skewed restraint is input by typing "sk" in the Data column or selecting "Skewed restraint"
from the Data Types dialog.
280
Skewed Restraint
The Skewed Restraint dialog is shown.
Type
Translational: Use this type to restrain translation along the specified direction.
Rotational: Use this type to restrain rotation about the specified direction.
Stiffness
Type in the translational or rotational stiffness of the support. As an illustration, assume
that you had a rod (in tension only) which you were modeling as a skewed restraint. You
can calculate the stiffness in the following manner: Assume a 2.5 in. dia. rod 2 feet long,
modulus of elasticity of rod material = 30×10
6
psi.
The translational (axial) stiffness is AE/L =
π
4
(2.5)
2
×30×10
6
/ 24 = 6,135,925 lb./in.
The rotational stiffness is GJ/L =
E
2(1 +ν)
×
J
L
= 1,843,727 in.lb./rad., where G is the
shear modulus, ν is the Poisson’s ratio and J is polar moment of inertia.
Direction
If you have no "connected to node," the direction in which the skewed restraint is oriented
must be specified in terms of its global X, Y and Z components. See section on specifying
a Direction.
If you have connected the skewed restraint node to another node, then the direction must
not be input. It is calculated from the locations of the skewed restraint node and the
connected node, and it is oriented from the skewed restraint node towards the connected
node. In order to be able to calculate the direction, the skewed restraint node and the
connected node must not be coincident.
Connected to node
If the skewed restraint node is connected to an externally fixed point (ground), leave the
"Connected to node" blank. A skewed restraint node can be connected to another node that
must not be coincident with the skewed restraint node. Note that during skewed restraint
force calculations, the relative displacement of the skewed restraint node is calculated with
respect to the connected node.
281
Skewed Restraint
Example: Modeling a Sway Brace
Assume that we need to model two sway braces in the same arrangement as shown in the
figure at the beginning of this section. The translational stiffness of the sway braces is given
as 894 lb./in. As can be seen from the figure, the orientation of the sway braces (sway struts
in the figure) are at 45° from the X and Yaxes. We will model the support on the right
first and then the support on the left.
The following steps describe the modeling procedure:
Create node (on pipeline) where support is required. In this case, the node is 50. Position
highlight on this row.
First support (right): Type "sk" in the Data column to open the skewed restraint dialog
box.
Ensure that Type is set to Translational, if not, click on the Translational radio button.
Type 894 for Stiffness, type 1 for Y comp and –1 for Z comp, press Enter.
Second support (left): type 50 for Node on an empty row, press Tab to move to next
field, press "l(L)" for Location. This will open the Data types dialog.
Select Skewed restraint by clicking on it to open the skewed restraint dialog. Enter the
skewed restraint dialog similar to the first skewed restraint except in this case type 1 for
Z comp, press Enter.
282
Skewed Restraint
The Layout window is shown below:
The graphics is shown below:
The rendered graphics is shown below:
283
Slip Joint
The slip joint allows for axial (through telescopic action) and torsional movement between
adjacent pipes. Slip joints, susceptible to lateral buckling due to internal pressure, may
become less effective when subjected to small bending loads. Proper guiding to prevent
buckling and keeping the two telescopic parts concentric are therefore necessary.
A Slip Joint is input by typing "s" under the Type column or by selecting "Slip joint" from
the Element types dialog.
The Slip joint dialog is shown.
The required data for a slip joint can usually be obtained from the slip joint manufacturer.
A slip joint will have axial deflection or rotation only when the external forces exceed the
friction force or friction torque respectively. If the pressure thrust area is input, a thrust load
of: Pressure x Thrust area on both nodes of the slip joint will be imposed. The weight is
the empty weight. The contents, insulation and additional weight are added to the empty
weight. A slip joint is rigid in lateral directions.
See the section on Nonlinearities for related information.
284
Snubber
A snubber provides translational restraint in a specified direction for seismic and dynamic
cases only.
A snubber is input by typing "sn" in the Data column or selecting "Snubber" from the Data
Types dialog.
The Snubber dialog is shown.
The stiffness defaults to Rigid, however a stiffness may be input for flexible snubbers. See
section on specifying a Direction for information on X comp, Y comp, Z comp.
285
Spider
A spider (also called a spacer) is used to connect the coincident nodes of a jacketed pipe
(i.e., the node on the core pipe and the corresponding node on the jacket pipe). The spider
acts as an internal guide. At the spider location, the local xaxis is calculated along the pipe
direction. The spider connects the local y and z translations for the core and jacket nodes. It
prevents any radial movement but allows sliding, rotating and bending movement between
core and jacket pipes. No gap is allowed between the core pipe and the spider. See section
on Jacketed pipe for related information.
A spider is input at a jacketed pipe node by typing "sp" in the Data column or selecting
"Spider" from the Data Types dialog.
286
Supports
CAEPIPE provides many support types, which enable you to model available support
hardware. These support types are grouped under the Data types menu (See section on
Data Types).
Anchor
An anchor can be modeled as a flexible/rigid support which by default restrains the three
global translations and three global rotations at the applied node (six degrees of freedom).
Use this to model all anchor blocks, and nodes where piping connects to equipment
(pumps, compressors, turbines, etc.).
Restraint
A restraint is a twoway rigid support which restrains the translations (negative and positive
directions) along the specified global directions. You can apply a restraint in all the three
directions at the same time.
Skewed Restraint
This is a flexible twoway support which can be oriented in any direction. Use this
support either to resist translational movement along or rotational movement about (as in
a pipe sleeve which resists nonaxial rotation) the specified direction. Use this to model
rigid/flexible sway struts and sway braces.
Hanger, User hanger, Rod hanger, Constant support
These are vertical supports only. Use a Hanger when you want to design a variable spring
hanger(s) for your piping system (there are 30+ hanger catalogs builtin to CAEPIPE for your
convenience). Use a User hanger when you want to analyze hangers in an existing piping
system. Use a Rod hanger for a rod hanger assembly. Use a Constant support to design a
constant support or a constant effort hanger.
"Bottomedout" Springs
To analyze this situation, use a spring hanger and a limit stop at this node. Type in the
maximum allowable hanger travel for one of the limits of the limit stop. Once the hanger
traverses the maximum distance allowed, the limit stop becomes active.
287
Supports
Guide
A Guide is a rigid/flexible restraint which resists lateral pipe movements (in directions
perpendicular to the axis of the pipe). You can specify a gap, if required, inside the
guide. A friction coefficient is optional. Use a Guide to model Ustraps, UBolts, pipe guide
assemblies, pipe slides and similar supports.
Limit stop
A Limit stop is a nonlinear restraint. It can be oriented in any direction, and a gap can be
specified on both sides of the pipe. A limit stop allows free movement for the distance of
the gap and then acts as a rigid or flexible restraint.
A Line Stop is a support that restricts axial movement of pipe. This support can be modeled
using a Limit stop with its direction oriented along the pipe’s axis. Use this support to model
pipe slide assemblies, pipe skirts and similar arrangements. See section on Limit stop for an
example.
A Limit stop can be used to model supports for pipe racks where vertical downward
movement is restricted and upward movement is not. See Example of pipe rack modeling
in the Beam section.
Refer to the respective CAEPIPE support term in Reference for a detailed explanation on it.
288
Tie Rod
Tie rod is a nonlinear element with different stiffnesses and gaps in tension and compression.
It can be used to model tie rods in bellows, chains, etc. The force vs. displacement
relationship for a tie rod is shown below.
Displacement
Force
Compression
gap
Tension
gap
Tension
stiffness
Compression
stiffness
When the tie rod is in tension, and the displacement is greater than the tension gap,
tension stiffness is used. If the displacement is less than the tension gap, zero stiffness is
used. Similarly when the tie rod is in compression, and the displacement is greater than
the compression gap, compression stiffness is used. If the displacement is less than the
compression gap, zero stiffness is used.
A Tie rod is input by typing "t" in the Type column or selecting "Tie rod" from the Element
Types dialog.
The Tie Rod dialog is shown.
A tie rod can be made "Tension only" by setting the compression stiffness to zero. Similarly
it can be made "Compression only" by setting the tension stiffness to zero. Both Tension
and Compression stiffnesses cannot be zero. If there is no tension or compression gap,
leave it blank or specify it as zero.
289
Turbine
A turbine (like a pump or a compressor) is input by selecting "Turbines" from the
Miscellaneous (Misc) menu in the Layout window. CAEPIPE, upon analysis, produces a
NEMA SM23 turbine compliance report. See Appendix B (NEMA SM23, for Turbines) for
related information.
Once you see the Turbine List window, double click on an empty row for the Turbine
dialog and enter the required information.
290
Turbine
A short description to identify the turbine may be entered for Description. The nozzle nodes
must be anchors and the shaft axis must be in the horizontal plane. Some of the nozzle
nodes may be left blank if they are not on the turbine (e.g., extraction nodes).
See specifying a Direction for information on how to specify X comp/Y comp/ Z comp for
Shaft axis.
291
User Hanger
User defined hangers may be used for analyzing existing hangers. A user hanger is input
by typing "u" in the Data column and pressing Enter or selecting "User Hanger" from the
Data Types dialog.
The User Hanger dialog is shown.
Spring Rate
The spring rate is required. For a constant support user hanger, input the spring rate as
zero.
Number of Hangers
The number of hangers is the number of separate hangers connected in parallel at this
node. The stiffness and load of each hanger are multiplied by the number of hangers to
find the effective stiffness and load of the hanger support at this node.
Hanger Load
Input the hanger load, if known. Otherwise, leave it blank and CAEPIPE will calculate the
load.
Hanger Load
The hanger load may be specified as hot or cold using the Load type radio buttons.
Connected to Node
By default the hanger is connected to a fixed ground point which is not a part of the piping
system. A hanger can be connected to another node in the piping system by entering the
node number in the "Connected to node" field. This node must be directly above or below
the hanger node.
292
User SIF
User SIF (Stress Intensification Factor) may be used to specify SIF at a node where there is
normally no SIF (i.e., non bend or non tee node) or to override calculated SIF at the node.
The User SIF could be used for any component for which you need to input an SIF value 
nonright angle tees, nonstandard tee/branch connection, flanges, etc.
It could also be used to override calculated SIF values. For example, in the case of a bend
or tee, CAEPIPE calculates the SIF according to the piping code. To override the calculated
SIF, specify a User SIF. Note that a User SIF is applied to all elements that come together at
this node.
A User SIF is input by typing "user s" in the Data column or selecting "User SIF" from the
Data types dialog.
Depending on the piping code, either a single value (B31.1) or both inplane and outof
plane values of SIF (B31.3) may be required. The corresponding dialog will be shown.
293
Valve
A Valve is input by typing "v" in the Type column or selecting "Valve" from the Element
Types dialog.
The Valve dialog is shown.
Weight
The weight is the empty weight (without contents, insulation, etc.). This weight is applied
as a uniformly distributed load along the length of the valve. Additional weight, if specified,
is treated as a concentrated weight offset from the center of the valve.
Length
If the valve length is input, the DX, DY, DZ in Layout is adjusted to match the valve length.
If the valve length is left blank, the valve length is calculated from DX, DY, DZ input in
Layout.
Thickness X
The thickness multiplier (Thickness X) is used for stiffness calculation (i.e., the thickness
of the pipe section is multiplied by Thickness multiplier in the calculation of the valve
stiffness). Typical value for Thickness multiplier is 3 which is the default value if left blank.
294
Valve
Insulation weight X
The insulation weight multiplier (Insulation weight X) is used if the valve has additional
insulation compared to adjacent pipe (i.e., weight of insulation calculated from the insulation
thickness of the pipe section is multiplied by Insulation weight X). Typical value for
insulation weight multiplier is 1.75 which is the default value if left blank.
Additional weight
The additional weight is a concentrated weight which may be specified at an offset from
the center of the valve. This may be used to model the valve operator.
Valve Library
The valve library may be accessed by clicking on the Library button of the Valve dialog.
Note that the weight given in the library is the weight of a weld end gate valve. If the valve
is flanged, the flanges at the two ends must be separately input using the Flange data type.
Calculation of Moment of Inertia:
The internal diameter of the valve is calculated from the section O.D. and the section
thickness.
I.D. = O.D. − 2 × Thk
Then a new O.D. is calculated as:
New O.D. = I.D. + 2 × Thk × Multiplier
The moment of inertia is based on the new O.D. and Thk x Multiplier. For a thin walled
pipe, Thickness multiplier and Inertia multiplier are approximately the same. The weight
of the contents of the valve is based on the I.D. as calculated above. The weight of
the insulation is the weight calculated from the section O.D. and insulation thickness and
insulation density (from section properties) multiplied by the insulation weight multiplier.
295
Valve
Angle/Relief Valve
Angle and relief valves which have the outlet pipe at some angle (typically 90° ) from the
inlet pipe may be modeled by two valves one after the other and at that angle. The total
weight of the actual valve must be divided between these two modeled valves.
Analysis note: For a relief valve, you need to calculate the relief valve force and input it at
the valve node as a Force (CAEPIPE treats it as a sustained load). Then, input a dummy
gload (e.g., 0.001g) and select Static Seismic for analysis. In results, look at the occasional
stresses which include the effects of Sustained and Occasional loads. Sometimes, you may
have to ignore the excessive Sustained stress at the relief valve due to the input Force.
Examine the occasional stress with respect to the occasional allowable (1.2SH), not the
Sustained allowable (SH).
296
Weld
A Weld at a node is input by typing "w" in the Data column or selecting "Weld" from the
Data types dialog.
The Weld dialog is shown. Four types of welds are available: Butt, Fillet, Concave Fillet, and
a Tapered transition. The type of the weld should be selected from the "Type" dropdown
combo box.
Butt weld and Tapered transition require the input of weld mismatch. Mismatch is the
difference in the mean radii across the weld.
The SIF for a weld is calculated according to the selected piping code. If you have an
unlisted weld type, you could specify the SIF for it using the User SIF data type.
297
Appendix A
Code Compliance
B31.1 (2001)
Allowable Pressure
The calculation of allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is based on equation 4
of 104.1.2.
P =
2SEt
m
D
o
−2Y t
m
where
P = Allowable pressure
S = Allowable stress
E = Joint factor (input as material property)
t
m
= t
n
× (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance
(Any additional thickness ("A" in the actual code equation),
should be included in corrosion allowance)
t
n
= Nominal pipe thickness
D
o
= Outside diameter
d = Inside diameter
Y = 0.4 (Pressure coefficient)
Y =
d
(d +D
o
)
if D
o
/t
m
< 6
For closely spaced miter bends, the allowable pressure is calculated from equation (C3.1)
of 104.3.3.
P =
SEt
m
(R −r)
r(R −r/2)
where
r = mean radius of pipe = (D
o
−t
n
)/2
R = equivalent bend radius of the miter
For widely spaced miter bends, the allowable pressure is calculated from equation (C3.2)
of 104.3.3.
P =
SEt
2
m
r(t
m
+ 1.25 tan θ
√
rt
m
)
where
θ = miter half angle
299
B31.1 (2001)
Sustained Stress
The stress (S
L
) due to sustained loads (pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical
loads) is calculated from equation 11 of 104.8.1
S
L
=
PD
o
4t
n
+
0.75iM
A
Z
≤ S
h
where
P = maximum pressure
D
o
= outside diameter
t
n
= nominal wall thickness
i = stress intensification factor. The product 0.75i, shall not be less than 1.0
M
A
= resultant bending moment due to sustained loads
Z = section modulus, for reduced outlets, effective section modulus
S
h
= hot allowable stress
Occasional Stress
The stress (S
LO
) is due to occasional loads is calculated from equation 12 of 104.8.1 as the
sum of stress due to sustained loads (S
L
) and stress due to occasional loads (S
O
) such as
earthquake or wind. Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently.
S
LO
=
PD
o
4t
n
+
0.75iM
A
Z
+
0.75iM
B
Z
≤ 1.2S
h
where
M
B
= resultant moment due to occasional loads
Expansion Stress
The stress (S
E
) due to thermal expansion is calculated from equation 13 of (104.8.3).
S
E
=
iM
C
Z
≤ S
A
where
M
C
= resultant moment due to thermal expansion
S
A
= f(1.25S
c
+ 0.25S
h
)
S
c
= allowable stress at cold temperature
f = stress range reduction factor from Table 102.3.2(C)
When S
h
is greater than S
L
, the allowable stress range may be calculated as
S
A
= f[1.25(S
c
+S
h
) −S
L
]
This is specified as an analysis option: "Use liberal allowable stresses",
in the menu Options > Analysis on the Code tab.
300
B31.1 (2001)
301
B31.1 (2001)
302
B31.1 (2001)
303
B31.1 (2001)
304
B31.1 (1967)
Allowable Pressure
The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from 104.1.2.
P =
2SEt
m
D −2Y t
m
where
P = allowable pressure
S = allowable stress
E = joint factor (input as material property)
t
m
= minimum required thickness, including mechanical, corrosion, and erosion allowances
= t× (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance
t = nominal pipe thickness
D = outside diameter
d = Inside diameter
Y = Pressure coefficient from Table 104.1.2(a)2
Sustained Stress
The stress (S
L
) due to sustained loads (pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical
loads) is calculated from 102.3.2(d)
S
L
=
PD
4t
m
+
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
Z
≤ S
h
where
P = maximum pressure
D = outside diameter
t
m
= minimum wall thickness
i
i
= inplane stress intensification factor
i
o
= out of plane stress intensification factor
M
i
= inplane bending moment
M
o
= out of plane bending moment
Z = section modulus
S
h
= hot allowable stress
Occasional Stress
The stress (S
LO
) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (S
L
) and stress
due to occasional loads (S
O
) such as earthquake or wind. Wind and earthquake are not
considered concurrently (102.3.1).
S
LO
= S
L
+
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
Z
≤ 1.2S
h
305
B31.1 (1967)
Expansion Stress
The stress (S
E
) due to thermal expansion is calculated from (119.6.4).
S
E
=
S
2
b
+ 4 S
2
t
≤ S
A
where
S
b
= resultant bending stress =
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
/Z
S
t
= torsional stress = M
t
/2Z
Z = uncorroded section modulus, for a branch, effective section modulus
S
A
= f(1.25S
c
+ 0.25S
h
)
S
c
= allowable stress at cold temperature
f = stress range reduction factor from Table 102.3.2(c).
When S
h
is greater than S
L
, the allowable stress range may be calculated as
S
A
= f[1.25(S
c
+S
h
) −S
L
]
This is specified as an option (Use liberal allowable stresses) in the menu Options > Analysis
on the Code tab.
306
B31.1 (1967)
307
B31.3 (1999)
Allowable Pressure
The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from 304.1.2.
P =
2SEt
m
D −2Y t
m
where
P = allowable pressure
S = allowable stress
E = joint factor (input as material property)
t
m
= minimum required thickness, including mechanical and corrosion allowances
= t × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance
t = nominal pipe thickness
D = outside diameter
d = Inside diameter
Y = Pressure coefficient from Table 304.1.1
For closely spaced miter bends, the allowable pressure is calculated from 304.2.3.
P =
SEt
m
(R −r)
r(R −r/2)
where
r = mean radius of pipe = (D −t)/2
R = equivalent bend radius of the miter
For widely spaced miter bends,
P =
SEt
2
m
r(t
m
+ 1.25 tan θ
√
rt
m
)
where
θ = miter half angle
Sustained Stress
The stress (S
L
) due to sustained loads (pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical
loads) is calculated from 302.3.5(c)
S
L
=
PD
4t
m
+
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
Z
≤ S
h
where
P = maximum pressure
D = outside diameter
t
m
= minimum wall thickness
i
i
= inplane stress intensification factor
i
o
= out of plane stress intensification factor
M
i
= inplane bending moment
M
o
= out of plane bending moment
Z = section modulus
S
h
= hot allowable stress
308
B31.3 (1999)
Occasional Stress
The stress (S
LO
) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (S
L
) and stress
due to occasional loads (S
O
) such as earthquake or wind. Wind and earthquake are not
considered concurrently (302.3.6).
S
LO
= S
L
+
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
Z
≤ 1.33S
h
Expansion Stress
The stress (S
E
) due to thermal expansion is calculated from (319.4.4).
S
E
=
S
2
b
+ 4 S
2
t
≤ S
A
where
S
b
= resultant bending stress =
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
/Z
S
t
= torsional stress = M
t
/2Z
M
t
= torsional moment
Z = uncorroded section modulus, for a branch, effective section modulus
S
A
= f(1.25S
c
+ 0.25S
h
)
S
c
= allowable stress at cold temperature
f = stress range reduction factor from Table 302.3.5.
When S
h
is greater than S
L
, the allowable stress range may be calculated as
S
A
= f[1.25(S
c
+S
h
) −S
L
]
This is specified as an option (Use liberal allowable stresses) in the menu Options > Analysis
on the Code tab.
309
B31.3 (1999)
310
B31.3 (1999)
311
B31.3 (1999)
312
B31.3 (1999)
313
B31.4 (1998)
Allowable Pressure
The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from 404.1.
P =
2S
A
t
m
D
where
P = allowable pressure
S
A
= allowable stress = 0.72 ×E × yield strength
E = joint factor (input as material property)
t
m
= minimum required thickness, including mechanical and corrosion allowances
= t × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance
t = nominal pipe thickness
D = outside diameter
Sustained Stress
The stress S
L
due to sustained loads (pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical
loads) is calculated from 402.3.2(d).
S
L
=
PD
4t
m
+
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
Z
≤ 0.75S
A
where
P = maximum pressure
D = outside diameter
t
m
= minimum wall thickness
i
i
= inplane stress intensification factor
i
o
= out of plane stress intensification factor
M
i
= inplane bending moment
M
o
= out of plane bending moment
Z = section modulus
Occasional Stress
The stress S
LO
is calculated from 402.3.3(a) as the sum of stress due to sustained loads S
L
and stress due to occasional loads (S
O
) such as earthquake or wind. Wind and earthquake
are not considered concurrently.
S
LO
= S
L
+
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
Z
≤ 0.80 yield strength
314
B31.4 (1998)
Expansion Stress
The stress (S
E
) due to thermal expansion is calculated from 419.6.4(c).
S
E
=
S
2
b
+ 4 S
2
t
≤ 0.72 yield strength
where
S
b
= resultant bending stress =
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
/Z
S
t
= torsional stress = M
t
/2Z
M
t
= torsional moment
Z = uncorroded section modulus, for a branch, effective section modulus
315
B31.4 (1998)
316
B31.4 (1998)
317
B31.5 (1992)
Allowable Pressure
The allowable internal pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from 504.1.1.
P =
2SEt
m
D −2Y t
m
where
P = allowable pressure
S = allowable stress
E = joint factor (input as material property)
t
m
= minimum required thickness, including mechanical and corrosion allowances
= t × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance
t = nominal pipe thickness
D = outside diameter
d = Inside diameter
Y = Pressure coefficient
= 0.4 for t < D/6
= d/(D +d) for t ≥ D/6
Sustained Stress
The stress (S
L
) due to sustained loads (pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical
loads) is calculated from 502.3.2(d).
S
L
=
PD
4t
m
+
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
Z
≤ S
h
where
P = maximum pressure
D = outside diameter
t
m
= minimum wall thickness
i
i
= inplane stress intensification factor
i
o
= out of plane stress intensification factor
M
i
= inplane bending moment
M
o
= out of plane bending moment
Z = section modulus
S
h
= hot allowable stress
Occasional Stress
The stress (S
LO
) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (S
L
) and stress
due to occasional loads (S
O
) such as earthquake or wind. Wind and earthquake are not
considered concurrently (502.3.3).
S
LO
= S
L
+
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
Z
≤ 1.33S
h
318
B31.5 (1992)
Expansion Stress
The stress (S
E
) due to thermal expansion is calculated from (519.4.5).
S
E
=
S
2
b
+ 4 S
2
t
≤ S
A
where
S
b
= resultant bending stress =
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
/Z
S
t
= torsional stress = M
t
/2Z
M
t
= torsional moment
Z = uncorroded section modulus, for a branch, effective section modulus
S
A
= f(1.25S
c
+ 0.25S
h
)
S
c
= allowable stress at cold temperature
f = stress range reduction factor from Table 502.3.2.
When S
h
is greater than S
L
, the allowable stress range may be calculated as
S
A
= f[1.25(S
c
+S
h
) −S
L
]
This is specified as an option (Use liberal allowable stresses) in the menu Options > Analysis
on the Code tab.
319
B31.5 (1992)
320
B31.5 (1992)
321
B31.5 (1992)
322
B31.5 (1992)
323
B31.8 (1995)
Allowable Pressure
The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from 841.1.
P =
2St
m
FET
D
where
P = allowable pressure
S = yield strength
t
m
= minimum required thickness, including mechanical and corrosion allowances
= t × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance
t = nominal pipe thickness
D = outside diameter
F = construction type design factor
(input under menu Options > Analysis on the Code tab.)
E = longitudinal joint factor (input as material property)
T = temperature derating factor
Stress due to Sustained and Occasional Loads
The sum of longitudinal pressure stress and the bending stress due to external loads, such
as weight of pipe and contents, seismic or wind, etc., is calculated according 833.4(b) and
(c).
S
L
=
PD
4t
m
+
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
Z
S
LO
= S
L
+
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
Z
≤ 0.75 S F T
P = maximum pressure
D = outside diameter
t
m
= minimum wall thickness
i
i
= inplane stress intensification factor
i
o
= out of plane stress intensification factor
M
i
= inplane bending moment
M
o
= out of plane bending moment
Z = section modulus
Expansion Stress
The stress (SE) due to thermal expansion is calculated from 833.2.
S
E
=
S
2
b
+ 4 S
2
t
≤ 0.72 yield strength
where
S
b
= resultant bending stress =
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
/Z
S
t
= torsional stress = M
t
/2Z
M
t
= torsional moment
Z = uncorroded section modulus, for a branch, effective section modulus
324
B31.8 (1995)
Total Stress
The sum of the expansion stress S
E
, the longitudinal pressure stress, and the longitudinal
bending stress due to sustained and occasional loading S
LO
should not exceed the specified
minimum yield strength according to 833.4.
S
E
+S
LO
≤ yield strength
325
B31.8 (1995)
326
B31.8 (1995)
327
ASME Section III, Class 2 NC (1980)
Allowable Pressure
The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from Equation 5 of
NC3641.1.
P =
2SEt
m
D −2Y t
m
where
P = allowable pressure
S = allowable stress
E = joint factor (input as material property)
t
m
= minimum required thickness, including mechanical and corrosion allowances
= t × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance
t = nominal pipe thickness
D = outside diameter
d = Inside diameter
Y = Pressure coefficient
= 0.4 for t < D/6
= d/(D +d) for t ≥ D/6
Sustained Stress
The stress (S
L
) due to sustained loads (pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical
loads) is calculated from Equation 9 of NC3652.
S
L
=
PD
4t
+
0.75iM
A
Z
≤ S
h
where
P = maximum pressure
D = outside diameter
t = nominal wall thickness
i = stress intensification factor. The product 0.75i, shall not be less than 1.0
M
A
= resultant bending moment due to sustained loads =
M
2
X
+M
2
Y
+M
2
Z
Z = section modulus, for reduced outlets, effective section modulus
S
h
= hot allowable stress
Occasional Stress
The stress (S
LO
) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (S
L
) and stress
due to occasional loads (S
O
) such as earthquake or wind from Equation 10 of NC3652.2.
Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently.
S
LO
= S
L
+
0.75iM
B
Z
≤ 1.2S
h
where
M
B
= resultant moment due to occasional loads
328
ASME Section III, Class 2 NC (1980)
Expansion Stress
The stress (S
E
) due to thermal expansion is calculated from Equation 11 of NC3652.3.
S
E
=
iM
C
Z
≤ S
A
where
M
C
= resultant moment due to thermal expansion
S
A
= f(1.25S
c
+ 0.25S
h
)
S
c
= allowable stress at cold temperature
f = stress range reduction factor from Table NC3611.2(e)1
The stress due to pressure, weight, other sustained loads and thermal expansion is calculated
from Equation 13 of NC3652.2.
S
TE
= S
L
+S
E
≤ S
h
+S
A
329
ASME Section III, Class 2 NC (1980)
330
ASME Section III, Class 2 NC (1980)
331
ASME Section III, Class 2 NC (1980)
332
ASME Section III, Class 2 NC (1986)
Allowable Pressure
The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from Equation 5 of
NC3641.1.
P =
2SEt
m
D −2Y t
m
where
P = allowable pressure
S = allowable stress
E = joint factor (input as material property)
t
m
= minimum required thickness, including mechanical and corrosion allowances
= t × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance
t = nominal pipe thickness
D = outside diameter
d = Inside diameter
Y = Pressure coefficient
= 0.4 for t < D/6
= d/(D +d) for t ≥ D/6
Sustained Stress
The stress (S
L
) due to sustained loads (pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical
loads) is calculated from Equation 8 of NC3652.
S
L
= B1
PD
2t
+B2
M
A
Z
≤ 1.5S
h
where
B1, B2 = primary stress indices from NB3680
P = maximum pressure
D = outside diameter
t = nominal wall thickness
M
A
= resultant bending moment due to sustained loads =
M
2
X
+M
2
Y
+M
2
Z
Z = section modulus, for reduced outlets, effective section modulus
S
h
= hot allowable stress
Occasional Stress
The stress (S
LO
) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (S
L
) and stress
due to occasional loads (S
O
) such as earthquake or wind from Equation 9 of NC3653.1.
Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently.
S
LO
= S
L
+B2
M
B
Z
≤ 1.8S
h
where
M
B
= resultant moment due to occasional loads
333
ASME Section III, Class 2 NC (1986)
Expansion Stress
The stress (S
E
) due to thermal expansion is calculated from Equation 10 of NC3653.2.
S
E
=
iM
C
Z
≤ S
A
where
i = stress intensification factor
M
C
= resultant moment due to thermal expansion
S
A
= f(1.25S
c
+ 0.25S
h
)
S
c
= allowable stress at cold temperature
f = stress range reduction factor from Table NC3611.2(e)1
The stress due to pressure, weight, other sustained loads and thermal expansion is calculated
from Equation 11 of NC3653.2(c).
S
TE
=
PD
4t
+
0.75iM
A
Z
+
iM
C
Z
≤ S
h
+S
A
0.75i shall not be less than 1.0.
334
ASME Section III, Class 2 NC (1986)
335
ASME Section III, Class 2 NC (1986)
336
ASME Section III, Class 2 NC (1986)
337
ASME Section III, Class 2 NC (1992)
Allowable Pressure
The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from Equation 5 of
NC3641.1.
P =
2SEt
m
D −2Y t
m
where
P = allowable pressure
S = allowable stress
E = joint factor (input as material property)
t
m
= minimum required thickness, including mechanical and corrosion allowances
= t × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance
t = nominal pipe thickness
D = outside diameter
d = Inside diameter
Y = Pressure coefficient
= 0.4 for t < D/6
= d/(D +d) for t ≥ D/6
Sustained Stress
The stress (S
L
) due to sustained loads (pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical
loads) is calculated from Equation 8 of NC3652.
S
L
= B1
PD
2t
+B2
M
A
Z
≤ 1.5S
h
where
B1, B2 = primary stress indices from NB3680
P = maximum pressure
D = outside diameter
t = nominal wall thickness
M
A
= resultant bending moment due to sustained loads =
M
2
X
+M
2
Y
+M
2
Z
Z = section modulus, for reduced outlets, effective section modulus
S
h
= hot allowable stress
Occasional Stress
The stress (S
LO
) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (S
L
) and stress
due to occasional loads (S
O
) such as earthquake or wind from Equation 9 of NC3653.1.
Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently.
S
LO
= S
L
+B2
M
B
Z
≤ 1.8S
h
where
M
B
= resultant moment due to occasional loads
338
ASME Section III, Class 2 NC (1992)
Expansion Stress
The stress (S
E
) due to thermal expansion is calculated from Equation 10 of NC3653.2.
S
E
=
iM
C
Z
≤ S
A
where
i = stress intensification factor
M
C
= resultant moment due to thermal expansion
S
A
= f(1.25S
c
+ 0.25S
h
)
S
c
= allowable stress at cold temperature
f = stress range reduction factor from Table NC3611.2(e)1
The stress due to pressure, weight, other sustained loads and thermal expansion is calculated
from Equation 11 of NC3653.2(c).
S
TE
=
PD
4t
+
0.75iM
A
Z
+
iM
C
Z
≤ S
h
+S
A
0.75i shall not be less than 1.0.
339
ASME Section III, Class 2 NC (1992)
340
ASME Section III, Class 2 NC (1992)
341
ASME Section III, Class 2 NC (1992)
342
BS 806 (1986)
Allowable Pressure
The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from 4.2(4).
P =
2fet
f
D −2t
f
where
P = allowable pressure
f = allowable stress
e = joint factor (input as material property)
t
f
= minimum required thickness, including mechanical and corrosion allowances
= nominal pipe thickness × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance
D = outside diameter
The allowable pressure for miter bends is calculated from 4.4.2.4(10).
P =
fe
X(1 + 0.6427 tan α
√
X)
where
α = miter angle
X = (D −t
f
)/2 t
f
Stresses
Stresses are calculated according to 4.11.
Sustained stresses are due to pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical loads.
Maximum value is 0.8 × proof stress value or rupture stress value in hot condition.
Expansion stresses are due to thermal (including specified displacements) and pressure
loadings. Maximum value is lower of
1) 0.9 × proof stress at room temperature plus 0.9 × proof stress at design temperature.
2) 0.9 × proof stress at room temperature plus rupture stress at design temperature.
Hot stresses are due to pressure, deadweight, other sustained mechanical loads, thermal
and cold pull loadings. Maximum value is the rupture stress at design temperature.
Occasional stresses (which are due to seismic, dynamic or wind loadings) are not calculated.
If these are to be evaluated, ASME B31.1 code should be used according to Inquiry Case
806/2 : November 1986 to BS 806 : 1986.
343
BS 806 (1986)
Stresses on Straight Pipes and Bends (4.11.4)
The combined stress f
C
on straight pipes and bends including miter bends is calculated
from (28).
F
C
=
F
2
+ 4f
2
S
where
F = greater of f
T
or f
L
f
T
= transverse stress (4.11.4.2)
= transverse pressure stress + transverse bending stress
f
L
= longitudinal stress (4.11.4.3)
= longitudinal pressure stress + longitudinal bending stress
f
S
= torsional stress (4.11.4.4)
Transverse Stress f
T
(4.11.4.2)
The transverse pressure stress on both straight pipes and bends excluding miter bends is
calculated from (29).
pd
2t
+ 0.5p
The transverse pressure stress on miter bends is calculated from (30)
pd
2t
+ 0.5p
1 + 0.6427 tan α
d +t
2 t
The transverse bending stress on straight pipe is zero.
The transverse bending stress on bends including miter bends is calculated from (31)
r
I
(M
i
F
Ti
)
2
+ (M
o
F
To
)
2
where
d = inside diameter
t = thickness
p = pressure
M
i
= inplane bending moment
M
o
= outofplane bending moment
F
Ti
= inplane transverse stress intensification factor
F
To
= outofplane transverse stress intensification factor
r = mean radius of pipe
I = moment of inertia
D = outside diameter
α = miter angle
344
BS 806 (1986)
Longitudinal Stress f
L
(4.11.4.3)
The longitudinal pressure stress on both straight pipes and bends including miter bends is
calculated form (32)
p d
2
4 t(d +t)
The longitudinal bending stress on straight pipe is calculated from (33).
d + 2 t
2I
M
2
i
+M
2
o
The longitudinal bending stress on bends including miter bends is calculated from (34).
r
I
(M
i
F
Li
)
2
+ (M
o
F
Lo
)
2
where
F
Li
= inplane longitudinal stress intensification factor
F
Lo
= outofplane longitudinal stress intensification factor
Torsional Stress f
S
(4.11.4.4)
The torsional stress for both straight pipes and bends including miter bends is calculated
from (35).
f
S
= M
t
d + 2t
4I
where
M
t
= torsional moment
Stress at Branch Junction (4.11.5)
The combined stress at a branch junction is calculated from (36)
f
CB
=
f
2
B
+ 4f
2
SB
where
f
B
= transverse pressure stress at the junction plus nondirectional bending stress
f
SB
= torsional stress at the junction
345
BS 806 (1986)
Transverse Pressure Stress at Branch Junction (4.11.5.2)
The transverse pressure stress at branch junction is calculated from (37)
p m
d
1
+t
a
2 t
a
where
d
1
= mean radius of main pipe
t
a
= minimum thickness of main pipe
p = design pressure
m = stress multiplier, equal to:
(a) for branch junctions where both r2/r1 and t2/t1 are less than or equal to 0.3
m = 1.8 +
2.8r
2
r
1
r
1
t
1
(b) for branch junctions where either r2/r1 and t2/t1 are greater than 0.3
m = 2.5Z
0.2042
1
for d
2
/d
1
≤ 0.7
m = 2.5Z
0.2415
1
for d
2
/d
1
> 0.7
Z
1
= (r
2
/t
2
)
2
t
1
/r
1
r
1
= mean radius of main pipe
r
2
= mean radius of branch pipe
t
1
= thickness of main pipe
t
2
= thickness of branch pipe
Nondirectional Bending Stress at Branch Junction (4.11.5.3)
For the main pipe, the bending stress is calculated from (40)
r
1
I
(M
i
B
i
)
2
+ (M
o
B
o
)
2
where
r
1
= mean radius of main pipe
I = moment of inertia of main pipe
M
i
= inplane bending moment
M
o
= outofplane bending moment
B
i
= inplane branch stress intensification factor (Fig. 4.11.1(6))
B
o
= outofplane branch stress intensification factor (Fig. 4.11.1(6))
For the branch pipe, the bending stress is calculated from
r
2
I
(M
i
B
i
)
2
+ (M
o
B
o
)
2
where
r
2
= mean radius of branch pipe
I = calculated from πr
3
2
B
o
t
2
or πr
3
2
t
1
whichever gives the lower value
346
EN 13480 (2002)
Allowable Pressure
The allowable pressure for straight pipes is calculated from equation 6.11 or 6.13 depending
on the ratio between inner and outer diameter.
For D
o
/D
i
≤ 1.7
P =
2 ×f ×z ×e
D
o
−e
For D
o
/D
i
> 1.7
P = f ×z ×
(1 −a
2
)
(1 +a
2
)
where
P = allowable pressure
D
o
= pipe outer diameter
D
i
= pipe inner diameter
f = allowable stress according to chapter 5 in EN 13480
z = joint factor, see chapter 4.5
e = nominal pipe thickness x (1  mill tolerance/100  corrosion allowance)
a = 1 −
2 ×e
D
o
For pipe bends the maximum allowable pressure is calculated from equation 6.11 and 6.13
using modified values of pipe wall thickness e
int
at the intrados of the bend.
e
int
= e
(R/D
o
−0.25)
(R/D
o
+ 0.25)
where
R = Radius of bend
Sustained Stress
The stress σ
1
, due to pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical loads is calculated
from equation (12.3.21).
σ
1
=
PD
o
4 e
n
+
0.75 i M
A
Z
≤ f
h
where
P = maximum pressure
D
o
= outside diameter
e
n
= nominal pipe wall thickness
i = stress intensification factor. The product 0.75i, shall not be less than 1.0
M
A
= resultant bending moment due to sustained loads
Z = section modulus
f
h
= allowable stress at maximum temperature
347
EN 13480 (2002)
Occasional Stress
The stress σ
2
, due to occasional loads is calculated from equation (12.3.31) as the sum of
the stress due to sustained loads and the stress due to occasional loads such as earthquake
or wind.
σ
2
=
PD
o
4 e
n
+
0.75 i M
A
Z
+
0.75 i M
B
Z
≤ k f
h
where
M
B
= resultant bending moment due to occasional loads
k = 1.2 if the occasional load is acting less than 1% in any 24 hour operating period.If the
occasional load is acting more than 10% of any 24 hour operating period the load must be
treated as normal sustained loading. In CAEPIPE k = 1.2 is used for occasional loading.
Expansion Stress
The stress σ
3
, due to thermal expansion and alternating loads, e.g., seismic displacements,
is calculated from equation (12.3.41).
σ
3
=
i M
C
Z
≤ f
a
where
M
C
= resultant bending moment due to thermal expansion and alternating loads.
f
a
= allowable stress range
= U(1.25f
c
+ 0.25f
h
) Eh/Ec
U = stress range reduction factor taken from table 12.1.31.
f
c
= allowable stress at minimum temperature
f
h
= allowable stress at maximum temperature
E
c
= elastic modulus at minimum temperature
E
h
= elastic modulus at maximum temperature
If the conditions in equation (12.3.41) is not met, equation (12.3.42) may be used.
σ
4
=
PD
o
4 e
n
+
0.75 i M
A
Z
+
i M
C
Z
≤ f
h
+f
a
Additional Conditions for the Creep Range
For piping operating within the creep range, the stress, σ
5
, due to sustained, thermal and
alternating loadings shall satisfy equation (12.3.51) below.
σ
5
=
PD
o
4 e
n
+
0.75 i M
A
Z
+
0.75 i M
C
3Z
≤ f
CR
where
f
CR
= allowable creep stress value calculated according to section 5.3.
348
EN 13480 (2002)
Stresses due to a Single Nonrepeated Support Movement
The stress, σ
6
, from a single nonrepeated support movement, is calculated from equation
(12.3.61).
σ
6
=
i M
D
Z
≤ 3f
where
M
D
= resultant moment from a single nonrepeated anchor movement
f = allowable stress at room temperature
349
EN 13480 (2002)
EN 134803:2002 (E)
Issue 1 (200205)
242
Annex H
(normative)
Flexibility characteristics, flexibility and stress intensification factors and
section moduli of piping components and geometrical discontinuities
Piping component and geometrical disconuities characteristics for general cases, particular connections, and out of
plane and in plane bending of the piping system shall be in accordance with Tables H.1 to H.3.
Table H.1 — Flexibility characteristics, flexibility and stress intensification factors and section moduli for
general cases
N° Designation Sketch Flexibility
characteristic
h
Flexibility
factor
k
B
Stress
intensification factor
i
Section
modulus
Z
1 straight pipe 1 1 1
2 plain bend
2
m
n
4
d
e R
h
65 , 1
3 2
9 , 0
h
o
4
i
4
o
32 d
d d
3 Closely spaced
mitre bend
l < r (1 + tan)
(l = 2 R tan)
2
m
n
4
d
e R
with
2
cot l
R
6 5
52 , 1
h
3 2
9 , 0
h
(to be continued)
350
EN 13480 (2002)
EN 134803:2002 (E)
Issue 1 (200205)
243
N° Designation Sketch Flexibility
characteristic
h
Flexibility
factor
k
B
Stress
intensification factor
i
Section
modulus
Z
4 Single mitre
bend or widely
spaced mitre
bend
l r (1 + tan)
2
m
n
4
d
e R
with
4
cot 1
m
+
=
d
R
6 5
52 , 1
h
3 2
9 , 0
h
5 forged weldedin
reducer
Shape conditions :
s 60°
e
n
> d
o
/100
e
2
> e
1
1 2 1
n
o
100
5 , 0


.

\

+
e
d
max. 2,0
( in deg.)
6 tee with welded
on, weldedin or
extruded nozzle
m
n
2
d
e 1
3 2
9 , 0
h
Header :
o
4
i
4
o
32 d
d d ÷
7 as above,
however, with
additional
reinforcing ring
2 3
n m
2 5
pl n
5 , 0 2
e d
e e +
with e
pl s
e
n
1
3 2
9 , 0
h
Nozzle
x
2
b m,
4
e d
8 forged weldedin
tee with e
n
and
e
n,b
as
connecting wall
thickness
m
n
8 , 8
d
e 1
3 2
9 , 0
h
with e
x
as
smaller value
of
e
x1
= e
n
and
e
x2
= i e
n,b
resp.
9 butt weld e
n
s 5mm
and s 0,1e
n
e
n
< 5mm and
> 0,1
e
n
1
1
1,0
1,8
(to be continued)
351
EN 13480 (2002)
EN 134803:2002 (E)
Issue 1 (200205)
244
Table H.1 (concluded)
N° Designation Sketch Flexibility
characteristic
h
Flexibility
factor
k
B
Stress
intensification factor
i
Section
modulus
Z
10
wall thickness
transitions
30°
15°
(without
circumferential weld
at transitions = 0) 1
1,3 +
0,0036
n
o
e
d
+3,6
d
max 1,9
o
4
i
4
o
32 d
d d
11
fillet welds at
setin
connections
concave shape with
continuous
transition to pipe
1 1,3
smaller value
of
o
4
i
4
o
32 d
d d
and
12
1 2,1
a d
2
o
4
352
Norwegian (1983)
Allowable Pressure
The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from Equation 6.3.
p =
2 f z
L
T
eff
Dm−T
eff
where
p = allowable pressure
f = allowable stress
z
L
= joint efficiency of longitudinal weld (input as material property)
T
eff
= nominal pipe thickness × (1 – mill tolerance/100) – corrosion allowance
D = outside diameter
d = inside diameter
m = pressure coefficient
= 1.0 for D/d < 1.6
= 0.25(D/d) + 0.6 for 1.6 ≤ D/d ≤ 2.0
Sustained Stress
Stress (S
L
) due to sustained loads (pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical loads)
is calculated from Equation 9.32.
S
L
=
p D
4 T
eff
z
C
+
0.75 k
1
M
A
W
≤ f
2
where
p = maximum pressure
z
C
= joint efficiency of circumferential weld (input as material property)
k
1
= stress intensification factor. The product 0.75k
1
shall not be less than 1.0
M
A
= resultant bending moment due to sustained loads
W = section modulus, for reduced outlets, effective section modulus
f
2
= hot allowable stress
Occasional Stress
The stress (S
LO
) is calculated as the sum of the stress due to sustained loads (S
L
) and the
stress (S
O
) due to occasional loads such as earthquake or wind from Equation 9.33. Wind
and earthquake are not considered concurrently.
S
LO
=
p D
4 T
eff
z
C
+
0.75 k
1
(M
A
+M
B
)
W
≤ 1.2 f
2
where
M
B
= resultant bending moment due to occasional loads
353
Norwegian (1983)
Expansion Stress
The stress (S
E
) due to thermal expansion is calculated from Equation 9.34.
S
E
=
k
1
M
C
W
≤ S
r
Alternatively, Equation 9.35 may be used.
S
L
+S
E
≤ f
2
+S
r
where
M
C
= resultant bending moment due to thermal expansion.
S
r
= f
r
(1.17R
1
+ 0.17R
2
)
f
r
= stress range reduction factor taken from Table 9.1.
R
1
= smaller of f
1
and 0.267R
m
R
2
= smaller of f
2
and 0.367R
m
f
1
= allowable stress at cold condition
f
2
= allowable stress at hot condition
R
m
= tensile strength at room temperature
At moderate temperatures (up to 370º C) for carbon steel, low alloy steel and chromium
steel (specified as CS material type) and up to 425º C for austenitic stainless steel (specified
as AS material type), the limits 0.267R
m
and 0.367R
m
are disregarded and S
r
is selected
as smaller of S
r
and S
r
,
where
S
r
= 1.17f
1
+ 0.20f
2
S
r
= 290f
r
−f
2
354
Norwegian (1983)
355
Norwegian (1983)
356
Norwegian (1983)
357
Norwegian (1983)
358
Norwegian (1983)
359
Norwegian (1983)
360
Norwegian (1990)
Allowable Pressure
The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from Equation 6.3.
p =
2 f z
L
T
eff
Dm−T
eff
where
p = allowable pressure
f = allowable stress
z
L
= joint efficiency of longitudinal weld (input as material property)
T
eff
= nominal pipe thickness × (1 – mill tolerance/100) – corrosion allowance
D = outside diameter
d = inside diameter
m = pressure coefficient
= 1.0 for D/d < 1.6
= 0.25(D/d) + 0.6 for 1.6 ≤ D/d ≤ 2.0
Sustained Stress
Stress (S
L
) due to sustained loads (pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical loads)
is calculated from Equation 10.7.
S
L
=
p D
4 T
eff
z
C
+
0.75 k
1
M
A
W
≤ f
2
where
p = maximum pressure
z
C
= joint efficiency of circumferential weld (input as material property)
k
1
= stress intensification factor. The product 0.75k
1
shall not be less than 1.0
M
A
= resultant bending moment due to sustained loads
W = section modulus, for reduced outlets, effective section modulus
f
2
= hot allowable stress
Occasional Stress
The stress (S
LO
) is calculated as the sum of the stress due to sustained loads (S
L
) and the
stress (S
O
) due to occasional loads such as earthquake or wind from Equation 10.8. Wind
and earthquake are not considered concurrently.
S
LO
=
p D
4 T
eff
z
C
+
0.75 k
1
(M
A
+M
B
)
W
≤ 1.2 f
2
where
M
B
= resultant bending moment due to occasional loads
361
Norwegian (1990)
Expansion Stress
The stress (S
E
) due to thermal expansion is calculated from Equation 10.9.
S
E
=
k
1
M
C
W
≤ S
r
Alternatively, Equation 10.10 may be used.
S
L
+S
E
≤ f
2
+S
r
where
M
C
= resultant bending moment due to thermal expansion.
S
r
= smaller of S
r
and S
r
S
r
= 1.25f
1
+ 0.25f
2
S
r
= f
r
R
s
−f
2
f
r
= stress range reduction factor
f
1
= allowable stress at cold condition
f
2
= allowable stress at hot condition
R
s
= permissible extent of stress for 7000 load cycles for different materials
R
s
is determined by material type as follows:
Material Type R
S
Carbon and low alloy steel CS 290
Austenitic stainless steel AS 400
Copper alloys, annealed CA 150
Copper alloys, cold worked CC 100
Aluminum AL 130
Titanium TI 200
The stress range reduction factor f
r
depends on the number of thermal cycles (NE). For
moderate high temperatures (<= 370º C for carbon, low alloy and chromium steel and <=
425º C for austenitic stainless steel), fr is calculated from
fr = (7000/N
E
)
0.2
N
E
> 100 (i.e., f
r
≤ 2.34)
At higher temperatures, S
r
shall not be greater than f
r
(1.25R
1
+0.25R
2
) and f
r
shall not
be greater than 1.0.
where
R
1
= smaller of f
1
and 0.25R
m
R
2
= smaller of f
2
and 0.25R
m
R
m
= tensile strength at room temperature
362
Norwegian (1990)
363
Norwegian (1990)
364
Norwegian (1990)
365
Norwegian (1990)
366
Norwegian (1990)
367
Norwegian (1990)
368
Norwegian (1990)
369
Norwegian (1990)
370
Norwegian (1990)
371
RCCM (1985)
Allowable Pressure
The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from Equation 2 of C
3641.1.
P =
2SEt
m
D −2Y t
m
where
P = allowable pressure
S = allowable stress
E = joint factor (input as material property)
t
m
= minimum required thickness, including mechanical and corrosion allowances
= t × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance
t = nominal pipe thickness
D = outside diameter
d = Inside diameter
Y = Pressure coefficient
= 0.4 for t < D/6
= d/(D +d) for t ≥ D/6
Sustained Stress
The stress (S
L
) due to sustained loads (pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical
loads) is calculated from Equation 6 of C 3652.
S
L
=
PD
4t
+
0.75iM
A
Z
≤ S
h
where
P = maximum pressure
D = outside diameter
t = nominal wall thickness
i = stress intensification factor. The product 0.75i, shall not be less than 1.0
M
A
= resultant bending moment due to sustained loads =
M
2
X
+M
2
Y
+M
2
Z
Z = section modulus, for reduced outlets, effective section modulus
S
h
= hot allowable stress
Occasional Stress
The stress (S
LO
) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (S
L
) and stress
due to occasional loads (S
O
), such as earthquake or wind from Equation 10 of C 3654.
Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently.
S
LO
= S
L
+
0.75iM
B
Z
≤ 1.2S
h
where
M
B
= resultant moment due to occasional loads
372
RCCM (1985)
Expansion Stress
The stress (S
E
) due to thermal expansion is calculated from Equation 7 of C 3653.2.
S
E
=
iM
C
Z
≤ S
A
where
M
C
= resultant moment due to thermal expansion
S
A
= f(1.25S
c
+ 0.25S
h
)
S
c
= allowable stress at cold temperature
f = stress range reduction factor from Table C 3653.3
The stress due to pressure, weight, other sustained loads and thermal expansion is calculated
from Equation 8 of C 3653.2.
S
TE
= S
L
+S
E
≤ S
h
+S
A
373
RCCM (1985)
374
RCCM (1985)
375
RCCM (1985)
376
CODETI (1995)
Allowable Pressure
The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from
P =
2SEt
m
D −2Y t
m
where
P = allowable pressure
S = allowable stress
E = joint factor (input as material property)
t
m
= minimum required thickness, including mechanical and corrosion allowances
= t × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance
t = nominal pipe thickness
D = outside diameter
d = Inside diameter
Y = Pressure coefficient
For closely spaced miter bends, the allowable pressure is calculated from
P =
SEt
m
(R −r)
r(R −r/2)
where
r = mean radius of pipe = (D −t)/2
R = equivalent bend radius of the miter
For widely spaced miter bends,
P =
SEt
2
m
r(t
m
+ 1.25 tan θ
√
rt
m
)
where
θ = miter half angle
Sustained Stress
The stress (S
L
) due to sustained loads (pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical
loads) is calculated from
S
L
=
PD
4t
m
+
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
Z
≤ S
h
where
P = maximum pressure
D = outside diameter
t
m
= minimum wall thickness
i
i
= inplane stress intensification factor
i
o
= out of plane stress intensification factor
M
i
= inplane bending moment
M
o
= out of plane bending moment
Z = section modulus
S
h
= hot allowable stress
377
CODETI (1995)
Occasional Stress
The stress (S
LO
) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (S
L
) and stress
due to occasional loads (S
O
) such as earthquake or wind. Wind and earthquake are not
considered concurrently.
S
LO
= S
L
+
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
Z
≤ 1.3S
h
Expansion Stress
The stress (S
E
) due to thermal expansion is calculated from
S
E
=
S
2
b
+ 4 S
2
t
≤ S
A
where
S
b
= resultant bending stress =
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
/Z
S
t
= torsional stress = M
t
/2Z
M
t
= torsional moment
Z = uncorroded section modulus, for a branch, effective section modulus
S
A
= f(1.25S
c
+ 0.25S
h
)
S
c
= allowable stress at cold temperature
f = stress range reduction factor from Table C.3.2.7
When S
h
is greater than S
L
, the allowable stress range may be calculated as
S
A
= f[1.25(S
c
+S
h
) −S
L
]
This is specified as an option (Use liberal allowable stresses) in the menu Options > Analysis
on the Code tab.
378
CODETI (1995)
379
CODETI (1995)
380
Stoomwezen (1989)
Sustained Stress
The stress (S
L
) due to sustained loads (pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical
loads) is calculated from
S
L
=
P(D −t)
4t
+
0.75iM
A
Z
≤ S
h
where
P = maximum pressure
D = outside diameter
t = nominal wall thickness
i = stress intensification factor. The product 0.75i, shall not be less than 1.0
M
A
= resultant bending moment due to sustained loads =
M
2
X
+M
2
Y
+M
2
Z
Z = section modulus, for reduced outlets, effective section modulus
S
h
= hot allowable stress: smaller of:
0.67 yield stress at temperature
0.44 tensile strength at 20º C
0.67 rupture stress (after 100,000 hours at temperature)
Occasional Stress
The stress (S
LO
) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (S
L
) and stress
due to occasional loads (S
O
),such as earthquake or wind. Wind and earthquake are not
considered concurrently.
S
LO
= S
L
+
0.75iM
B
Z
≤ 1.2S
h
where
M
B
= resultant moment due to occasional loads
Expansion Stress
The stress (S
E
) due to thermal expansion is calculated from
S
E
=
iM
C
Z
≤ S
A
where
M
C
= resultant moment due to thermal expansion
S
A
= smaller of:
C
f
(0.8 yield strength at 20º C + 0.13 hot yield strength)
C
f
(0.8 yield strength at 20º C + 0.2 x 0.67 rupture stress)
C
f
= stress range reduction factor
381
Stoomwezen (1989)
382
Swedish (1978)
Allowable Pressure
The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from Equation 6.3.
p =
2 σ
tn
z
L
s
eff
D
y
m−s
eff
where
p = allowable pressure
σ
tn
= allowable stress
z
L
= joint efficiency of longitudinal weld (input as material property)
s
eff
= nominal pipe thickness × (1 – mill tolerance/100) – corrosion allowance
D
y
= outside diameter
D
i
= inside diameter = D
y
−2s
eff
m = pressure coefficient
= 1.0 for D
y
/D
i
< 1.6
= 0.25(D
y
/D
i
) + 0.6 for 1.6 ≤ D
y
/D
i
≤ 2.0
Sustained Stress
Stress (S
L
) due to sustained loads (pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical loads)
is calculated from Equation 9.37.
S
L
=
p
max
D
y
4 s
eff
z
C
+
0.75 k
1
M
A
W
y
≤ σ
tn2
where
p
max
= maximum pressure
z
C
= joint efficiency of circumferential weld (input as material property)
k
1
= stress intensification factor. The product 0.75k
1
shall not be less than 1.0
M
A
= resultant bending moment due to sustained loads
W
y
= section modulus, for reduced outlets, effective section modulus
σ
tn2
= hot allowable stress
Occasional Stress
The stress (S
LO
) is calculated as the sum of the stress due to sustained loads (S
L
) and the
stress (S
O
) due to occasional loads such as earthquake or wind from Equation 9.38. Wind
and earthquake are not considered concurrently.
S
LO
=
p
max
D
y
4 s
eff
z
C
+
0.75 k
1
(M
A
+M
B
)
W
y
≤ 1.2σ
tn2
where
M
B
= resultant bending moment due to occasional loads
383
Swedish (1978)
Expansion Stress
The stress (S
E
) due to thermal expansion is calculated from Equation 9.39.
S
E
=
k
1
M
C
W
y
≤ S
r
Alternatively, Equation 9.40 may be used.
S
L
+S
E
≤ σ
tn2
+S
r
where
M
C
= resultant bending moment due to thermal expansion.
S
r
= f(1.17σ
1
+ 0.17σ
2
) from Equation 9.43.
f = stress range reduction factor taken from Table 9.1.
σ
1
= smaller of σ
tn1
and 0.267R
m
σ
2
= smaller of σ
tn2
and 0.367R
m
σ
tn1
= allowable stress at cold condition
σ
tn2
= allowable stress at hot condition
R
m
= tensile strength at room temperature
At moderate temperatures (up to 370º C) for carbon steel, low alloy steel and chromium
steel (specified as CS material type) and up to 425º C for austenitic stainless steel (specified
as AS material type), the limits 0.267R
m
and 0.367R
m
are disregarded and S
r
is selected
as smaller of S
r
and S
r
,
where
S
r
= 1.17σ
tn1
+ 0.20σ
tn2
S
r
= 290f −σ
tn2
384
Swedish (1978)
385
Swedish (1978)
386
Z183 (1990)
Allowable Pressure
The allowable pressure is calculated from 5.3.2.1.
P = 2 S t F LJ T/D
where
P = allowable pressure
S = specified minimum yield strength
t = minimum wall thickness
= nominal wall thickness × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance
F = design factor = 0.8 for steel pipe (from 5.2.3)
L = location factor (from Table 5.1)
J = joint factor (from Table 5.2), input as material property
T = temperature derating factor for steel pipe (from Table 5.3)
D = outside diameter
Sustained Stress
The stress (S
L
) due to sustained loads (pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical
loads) and wind loads, is calculated from (5.6.3.5)
S
L
=
PD
4t
+i
M
Z
≤ S F LJ T
where
P = maximum pressure
D = outside diameter
t = minimum wall thickness
i = stress intensification factor
M = resultant bending moment due to sustained loads
Z = corroded section modulus
S = specified minimum yield strength
F = design factor
L = location factor
J = joint factor
T = temperature derating factor
Occasional Stress
The stress (S
LO
) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained and wind loads (S
L
)
and stress due to occasional loads (S
O
), such as earthquake. The allowable stress for
occasional stress is not given in the code, therefore it is conservatively taken the same as
the sustained stress allowable.
S
LO
= S
L
+i
M
Z
≤ S F LJ T
where
M = resultant bending moment due to occasional loads
387
Z183 (1990)
Expansion Stress
The stress (S
E
) due to thermal expansion is calculated from (5.6.3.3).
S
E
=
S
2
b
+ 4 S
2
t
≤ 0.72 S T
where
S
b
= resultant bending stress = iM
b
/Z
S
t
= torsional stress = M
t
/2Z
M
b
= resultant bending moment due to expansion loads
M
t
= torsional moment due to expansion loads
Z = uncorroded section modulus
388
Z183 (1990)
389
Z183 (1990)
390
Z184 (1992)
Allowable Pressure
The allowable pressure is calculated from 5.4.2.1.
P = 2 S t F LJ T/D
where
P = allowable pressure
S = specified minimum yield strength
t = minimum wall thickness
= nominal wall thickness × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance
F = design factor = 0.8 for steel pipe (from 5.3.3)
L = location factor (from Table 5.1)
J = joint factor (from Table 5.2), input as material property
T = temperature derating factor for steel pipe (from Table 5.3)
D = outside diameter
Sustained Stress
The stress (S
L
) due to sustained loads (pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical
loads) and wind loads, is calculated from (5.19.3.5)
S
L
=
PD
4t
+i
M
Z
≤ S F LT
where
P = maximum pressure
D = outside diameter
t = minimum wall thickness
i = stress intensification factor
M = resultant bending moment due to sustained loads
Z = corroded section modulus
S = specified minimum yield strength
F = design factor
L = location factor
T = temperature derating factor
Occasional Stress
The stress (S
LO
) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained and wind loads (S
L
)
and stress due to occasional loads (S
O
), such as earthquake. The allowable stress for
occasional stress is not given in the code, therefore it is conservatively taken the same as
the sustained stress allowable.
S
LO
= S
L
+i
M
Z
≤ S F LT
where
M = resultant bending moment due to occasional loads
391
Z184 (1992)
Expansion Stress
The stress (S
E
) due to thermal expansion is calculated from (5.19.3.3).
S
E
=
S
2
b
+ 4 S
2
t
≤ 0.72 S T
where
S
b
= resultant bending stress = iM
b
/Z
S
t
= torsional stress = M
t
/2Z
M
b
= resultant bending moment due to expansion loads
M
t
= torsional moment due to expansion loads
Z = uncorroded section modulus
392
Z184 (1992)
393
Z184 (1992)
394
FRP Stress
Fiber Reinforced Plastic Pipe Stress
Hoop stress: S
H
=
PD
2t
m
Longitudinal stress: S
L
=
PD
4t
m
+
F
A
+
(i
i
M
i
)
2
+ (i
o
M
o
)
2
Z
Torsional stress: S
T
=
M
t
2Z
Shear stress: S
SH
=
S
L
−S
H
2
2
+
M
t
2Z
2
Maximum principal stress: S
P
=
S
L
+S
H
2
+S
SH
Maximum shear stress: S
S
= max
S
P
2
, S
SH
Octahedral shear stress: S
O
=
√
2
3
S
L
+S
H
2
2
+ 3
S
SH
2
where
P = pressure
D = outside diameter
t
m
= minimum thickness
= nominal thickness × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance
i
i
= inplane stress intensification factor
i
o
= out of plane stress intensification factor
M
i
= inplane bending moment
M
o
= out of plane bending moment
M
t
= torque
Z = section modulus
F = axial force
A = cross section area
395
Appendix B
Rotating Equipment Reports
API 610
API 610 (Eighth Edition, 1995) for Pumps
The allowable nozzle forces and moments for pumps are taken from Table 21 of the eighth
edition of API 610.
397
API 610
The coordinate systems and nozzle orientations for various pump configurations are shown
next.
398
API 610
399
API 610
Criteria for Piping Design
The criteria for piping design are taken from Appendix F of the API 610.
400
API 610
401
API 610
402
API 610
403
API 610
404
API 610
405
API 610
406
NEMA SM23
NEMA SM23 (1991) for Turbines
There are two types of allowables.
1. Allowables for each nozzle and
2. Combined allowables for each turbine.
1. Allowables for each Nozzle
The resultant force and the resultant moment at any connection must not exceed
3F
R
+M
R
≤ 500D
e
where
F
R
= resultant force at the nozzle (lb)
M
R
= resultant moment at the nozzle (ft.lb)
D
e
= nominal pipe size (inches) of the connection up to 8" in diameter
= (16 +D
nom
)/3 If the size is greater than 8"
2. Combined Allowables for the Turbine
The combined resultants of the forces and moments at the inlet, exhaust and extraction
nozzles resolved at the centerline of the exhaust nozzle must not exceed the following two
conditions:
(a) These resultant should not exceed:
2F
C
+M
C
≤ 250D
C
where
F
C
= combined resultant of inlet, exhaust and extraction forces (lb)
M
C
= combined resultant of inlet, exhaust and extraction moments (ft.lb.)
D
C
= diameter (in inches) of a circular opening equal to the total areas of the inlet,
exhaust and extraction nozzles up to a value of 9" in diameter
= (18 + Equivalent diameter) / 3 (in.) For values > 9"
(b) The components of these resultants shall not exceed:
F
X
= 50D
C
M
X
= 250D
C
F
Y
= 125D
C
M
Y
= 125D
C
F
Z
= 100D
C
M
Z
= 125D
C
where
F
X
= horizontal component of F
R
parallel to the turbine shaft
F
Y
= vertical component of F
R
F
Z
= horizontal component of F
R
at right angles to the turbine shaft
M
X
= horizontal component of M
R
parallel to the turbine shaft
M
Y
= vertical component of M
R
M
Z
= horizontal component of M
R
at right angles to the turbine shaft
407
NEMA SM23
X: Parallel to turbine shaft
Fx
Mx
Y: Vertical
Fy
My
Z: Perpendicular to turbine shaft
Fz
Mz
408
API 617
API 617 (Sixth edition, 1995) for Compressors
API 617 analysis is the same as NEMA SM23 analysis except that all the allowable values
are increased by a factor of 1.85.
409
Appendix C
Import / Export
Import
CAEPIPE can import a model created using a text file (batch file). The text file may be
created using a text editor and should have the extension: .mbf (model batch file). The text
file may also be created for an existing model using the Export command from the Layout
window.
To import a model, select the menu command File > Import from the Main window.
The Import Model dialog is shown.
Select the model batch file (.mbf) and then click on the Import button. The batch file will
be read and the corresponding model file (.mod) will be created and then shown in the
Layout window which can be further modified or analyzed.
411
Import
The input data is given in the following order. Except for the heading the start of each
section is indicated by a keyword. The data for that section follow. Only the first three
characters of the keyword are significant.
Keyword Data
Heading
OPTIONS Program options
MATERIAL Material properties
PIPE Section properties
LAYOUT Layout data
SEISMIC Seismic load
WIND Wind load
Heading
Any number of heading lines may be given. Only the first will be used as Title in the
CAEPIPE model.
OPTIONS
Hanger design
HGRA Grinnell
HGRB BergenPaterson
HGRC Fee and Mason
HGRD Basic Engineers
HGRE Power Piping
HGRF Nordon
HGRG Carpenter and Paterson
HGRH NPS
HGRI PTP
HGRJ Corner and Lada
HGRK Elcen
Piping code
B311 ANSI B31.1
B31167 USAS B31.1 (1967)
B313 ANSI B31.3
B314 ANSI B31.4
B315 ANSI B31.5
B318 ANSI B31.8
ASME ASME Section III, Class 2 (1980)
ASME86 ASME Section III, Class 2 (1986)
BS806 British code
EN13480 European code
NORWEGIAN Norwegian code
RCCM French code
SWEDISH Swedish code
STOOMWEZEN Dutch code
412
Import
Units
SI Metric units (default is English units)
RAD Radians for angles (default is degrees)
Vertical Axis
Z Vertical axis is Z (Default is Y)
OPTIONS Example
OPTIONS
HGRA,B311,RAD
MATERIAL
Name is Material Name (up to 3 characters). The values in square brackets ( [...] ) are
optional.
English units
First line: Name, Density (lb/in3), Poisson’s ratio, [Long. joint factor], [circ. joint factor]
Following lines: Name, Temp (F), E (psi), alfa (in/in/F), [allowable stress (psi)],
[yield stress (psi)], [rupture stress (psi)]
.
.
.
Metric units
First line: Name, Density (kg/m3), Poisson’s ratio, [Long. joint factor], [circ.joint factor]
Following lines: Name, Temp (C), E (kN/mm2), alfa (mm/mm/C),
[allowable stress (N/mm2)], [yield stress (N/mm2)], [rupture stress (N/mm2)]
.
.
.
MATERIAL Example (English units)
MATERIAL
A53,0.283,0.300,1.00
A53,70,29.5E+6,6.07E6,20000
A53,200,28.8E+6,6.38E6,20000
A53,300,28.3E+6,6.60E6,20000
A53,400,27.7E+6,6.82E6,20000
A53,500,27.3E+6,7.02E6,18900
ALU,0.098,0.330,1.00
ALU,70,10.0E+6,12.25E6,10000
ALU,150,9.80E+6,12.67E6,10000
ALU,200,9.60E+6,12.95E6,9800
ALU,250,9.40E+6,13.12E6,9000
ALU,300,9.20E+6,13.28E6,6600
413
Import
PIPE (Section properties)
Section properties are input as follows for pipe sections:
Note:
Name is Section Name (up to 3 characters).
OD must be actual OD and not Nominal pipe size (e.g., input 2.125 and not 2.0 for 2" NPS)
Thk must be an actual numerical value and not a schedule.
English units
Name, OD (inch), Thk (inch), Corrosion allowance (inch), Mill tolerance (%),
Insulation density (lb/ft3), Insulation Thk (inch)
Metric units
Name, OD (mm), Thk (mm), Corrosion allowance (mm), Mill tolerance (%),
Insulation density (kg/m3), Insulation Thk (mm)
PIPE Example (English units)
PIPE
8,8.625,0.5,0,0.0,11,2
6,6.625,0.28,0,0.0,11,2
LAYOUT
The piping layout is entered as a (keyletterdata) pair, which may be input in any order.
The exceptions to this convention are the comments which must always appear last. The
pairs are separated by commas. A data line which contains only continued comments (from
the previous line) is acceptable. A list of keyletters follows:
F From node
T To node
L Location node
K Code for node
M Material number
P Pipe (Section) property number
J Joint code
X X offset
Y Y offset
Z Z offset
B Bend radius
C Comments (separated by commas)
LAYOUT Example (English units)
LAYOUT
F10,KA,M5,P12,CT=650,P=500
T20,KI,X10’81/2,B20
T30,Z8
T40,JR,X1’6,CWGT=250
414
Import
F (From) From node is specified. When a new branch is started, the first node of
the branch is specified as a "From" node. The X, Y and the Z fields are
taken as coordinates rather than offsets from the previous node.
T (To) To node is specified. This is a "To" node from the previous "From" node
or the previous "To" node (but not from the previous "Location node").
L (Location) Location node is used to input additional data at a node when the node
has more than one data item such as a hanger/force, etc.
K (Code) The following codes may be used:
Code Description
A Anchor
I Tangent intersection (To node only)
H Hinge (To node only)
T Welding Tee
S Sweepolet
W Weldolet
F Fabricated Tee
E Extruded Tee
M (Material) A material is retained until altered. Another material should be entered
only when there is a change.
P (Pipe) A pipe (section property) is retained until altered. Another section
property should be entered only when there is a change.
J (Joint Code)
Code Description
R Rigid
D Reducer
E Expansion
V Valve
The weight of a rigid joint or a valve should be entered using a WGT
comment. The stiffnesses of the expansion joint should be entered using
an ES comment and the pressure thrust area should be entered using the
TA comment. The weight of the expansion joint should be entered using
a WGT comment.
X, Y and Z The offsets May be entered in combination of feet, inches and fractions
of an inch for English units and mm for Metric units.
Example: (English units)
Entry Value
10 10 ft
10’8 or 108 10 ft 8 in
0’8 or 08 8 in
10.5 10 ft 6 in
1’63/8 or 163/8 1 ft 6.375 in
415
Import
B (Bend Radius) The bend radius (inch or mm) is entered only if a tangent intersection
has been specified. The default is the long radius for the current section.
C (Comment) The comment section allows entry of data related to a particular node
or element. For example, a pipe end specified as a hinge would have
the rotational spring constant and the direction vector entered in the
comment section. A line temperature can be entered as comment and is
retained until changed.
Multiple comments may be entered separated by commas. If the last
comment is followed by a comma, the comment is continued on the
next line.
The comments are as follows:
AMB Ambient or reference temperature (F or C)
Default is 70 F.
Example: AMB=80
AWGT Additional weight for valve (lb. or kg)
Use only for valve.
Example: AWGT=100
CONE Cone angle for reducer (deg. or rad.)
CRTCH Crotch radius for an extruded tee (inch or mm)
Example: CRTCH=1.25
CS Constant support spring
Example: CS=2: Two constant support springs
CWGT Concentrated weight (lb or kg)
Use only for concentrated weight.
Example: CWGT=200
D or DIS Specified displacements (Inch or mm)
Note: Entry of zero is ignored and not treated as a specified displacement.
Example: D(0.1,0.25,0) or DIS(0.1,0.25,0)
DX=0.1,DY=0.25 or DISX=0.1,DISY=0.25
DV Direction vector
Example: DV(1,2,0)
ES Expansion joint stiffnesses
Axial(lb/in or N/mm)
Lateral(lb/in or N/mm)
Torsional(inlb/deg or inlb/rad or NM/deg or NM/rad)
Example: ES(1000,5000,200)
416
Import
F or FIXD Translational restraint
Example: FIXD(1,0,1) : Restrain X and Z translations
FIXDX=1 or FX or FIXDX
FIXR Rotational restraint
Example: FIXR(0,1,0) : Restrain Y rotation.
FIXRY=1 or FIXRY
FLANGE FLANGE = Type, where
Type Description
WN Weld neck flange
SO Single welded slip on
DW Double welded slip on
SW Socket welded
FW Fillet welded
LJ Lap joint
TH Threaded
Example: FLANGE=TH (Threaded flange)
FOR Force (lb or N)
Example: FOR(100,0,200) or FORX=100,FORZ=200
FREE Free anchor during hanger design
Example: FREE: Free all directions
FREEY: Free Y direction
G Guide
K Translational stiffness (lb/inch or N/mm)
Example: K=500,DV(1.5,0.75,0.25)
KR Rotational stiffness (in.lb./deg. or in.lb./rad. or Nm/deg or Nm/rad)
Example: KR=1200,DV(1.2,2.5,0)
LS Limit stop
LS(M1,M2)
M1=allowable movement in negative direction (in. or mm)
M2=allowable movement in positive direction (inch or mm)
Example : LS(1.0,1.5), DV(0,1,0), MU=0.3
MLV Maximum load variation (%) in hanger design
Default is 25%.
Example: MLV=30
MOM Moment (ftlb or NM)
Example: MOM(200,100,0) or MOMX=200, MOMY=100
MU Friction coefficient
Example: MU=0.3
417
Import
OD1 Outer diameter at from end for the reducer (inch or mm)
OD2 Outer diameter at to end for reducer (inch or mm)
OFFSET Offset of concentrated weight from node or
additional weight of valve from the center of valve (inch or mm)
OFFSET(X offset, Y offset, Z offset).
Example: OFFSET(0,18,0)
PAD Thickness of reinforcement for fabricated tee (inch or mm)
Example: PAD=0.25
P or PRES Pressure (psig or bar)
Example: P=500
ROT Specified rotation (deg or rad)
Note: Entry of zero is ignored and not treated as a specified rotation.
Example: ROT(1.5,0,0.25)
ROTX=1.5,ROTZ=0.25
SG Specific Gravity
Example: SG=0.8
SIF Stress intensification factor at node
Example: SIF=1.3
T or TEMP Temperature (F or C)
Example: T=650
TA Pressure thrust area for bellows (in2 or mm2).
Example: TA=12.3
THK1 Thickness at from end for reducer (inch or mm)
THK2 Thickness at to end for reducer (inch or mm)
U or UNIF Uniform load (lb/ft or Kg/m)
Example: U=200
US User defined spring hanger
US(No.of hangers, spring rate(lb./inch or N/mm), hot load(lb. or N))
Examples: US(2,600,1540)
US(1,0,2300) : Constant support
VS Variable spring hanger
Example : VS, VS=2: two variable spring hangers
WGT Weight of an item (ball joint, flange, etc.) (lb or kg)
Example: WGT=50
418
Import
SEISMIC
X,Y,Z Static equivalent seismic loads in g’s.
SEISMIC Example: Static seismic loads of 0.25 and 0.3 g’s in X and Z directions.
SEISMIC
0.25,0.00,0.30
WIND
Wind velocity (MPH or m/s), Shape factor (defaults to 0.6), X, Y, Z components of wind
direction.
WIND Example: A wind load of 100 mph in the X direction.
WIND
100,0.600,1.000,0.000,0.000
Example:
An example of a model batch file (.mbf file) is shown below:
Sample problem
OPTIONS
HGRA,B313
MATERIAL
A53,0.283,0.300,1.00
A53,70,29.5E+6,6.07E6,20000
A53,200,28.8E+6,6.38E6,20000
A53,300,28.3E+6,6.60E6,20000
A53,400,27.7E+6,6.82E6,20000
A53,500,27.3E+6,7.02E6,18900
A53,600,26.7E+6,7.23E6,17300
A53,650,26.1E+6,7.33E6,17000
PIPE
8,8.625,0.5,0,0.0,11,2
6,6.625,0.28,0,0.0,11,2
LAYOUT
F10,KA
T20,KI,B12,MA53,P8,X9’0",CT=600,P=200,SG=0.8
T30,Z6’0",CVS=1,MLV=25
T40,KI,B18,Z6’0"
T50,KA,Y6’0",CDIS(0,0.5,0)
F30
T60,P6,X6’0"
T70,JV,X2’0",CWGT=200,AWGT=50,OFFSET(0,18,0)
T80,KA,X6’0"
SEISMIC
0.25,0.00,0.30
WIND
100,0.600,1.000,0.000,0.000
419
Export
CAEPIPE can export a model to a text file with the extension .mbf (model batch file). The
text file may be edited using a text editor. The edited text file may be read back into
CAEPIPE by using the Import feature.
To export a model, select the menu command File > Export from the Layout window.
The Export Model dialog is shown.
Click on the Export button and the batch file will be written.
420
Appendix D
Nozzle Stiffness Calculations
Nozzle Stiffness Calculations
There are six stiffnesses at the nozzlevessel interface as shown in the following figure. Only
three out of the six are calculated and the other three are assumed to be rigid.
Cylindrical Vessel
L1
L2
M
T
M
C
V
L
V
C
M
L
P
Nozzle
V
e
s
s
e
l
T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
V
e
s
s
e
l
O
D
N
o
z
z
l
e
O
D
N
o
z
z
l
e
T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
(
y
S
h
e
a
r
)
(
z
S
h
e
a
r
)
The coordinate system is as shown in the figure. The six components of the forces and
moments at the nozzlevessel interface are:
P = Radial load M
C
= Circumferential moment
V
C
= Circumferential load M
T
= Torsional moment
V
L
= Longitudinal load M
L
= Longitudinal moment
Of the six components of stiffnesses, only three stiffnesses, axial (K
x
), circumferential (K
yy
),
and longitudinal (K
zz
), are calculated. The remaining three are assumed to be rigid.
Several graphs are given at the end of this appendix. The stiffness coefficients are obtained
by interpolating logarithmically from these graphs.
The first two, Figures D1 and D2, are used to calculate nozzle stiffness coefficients for
Nozzles on cylindrical vessels. Figure D1 is used to calculate the axial stiffness coefficient
and Figure D2 is used to calculate circumferential and longitudinal stiffness coefficients.
422
Nozzle Stiffness Calculations
Nomenclature
D = mean diameter of vessel
d = outside diameter of nozzle
T = thickness of vessel
t = thickness of nozzle
λ = (d/D)
D/T
Λ = L/
√
DT
L = unsupported length of cylinder
= 8L
1
L
2
/(
√
L
1
+
√
L
2
)
2
L1 = distance from nozzle center line to vessel end
L2 = distance from nozzle center line to vessel end
E = modulus of elasticity of vessel material
Axial Stiffness (K
x
)
K
x
= α ×
4.95ET
2
D
√
Λ
(1)
where
α = stiffness coefficient read from Figure D1.
Circumferential Stiffness (K
yy
)
K
yy
= β ×ET
3
(2)
where
β = stiffness coefficient read from Figure D2.
The bottom three curves in Figure D2, marked Circumferential moment M
C
are used to find
β.
Longitudinal Stiffness (K
zz
)
K
zz
= γ ×ET
3
(3)
where
γ = stiffness coefficient read from Figure D2.
The top two curves in Figure D2, marked Longitudinal moment M
L
are used to find γ.
423
Nozzle Stiffness Calculations
Calculation of Nozzle stiffnesses for Nozzles on Flatbottom tanks
This procedure is similar to the previous one.
L
Vessel OD
Vessel Thickness
2a(Nozzle OD)
Nozzle Thickness
M
C
V
L
M
T
P
M
L
V
C
FlatBottom Tank
Nozzle
As before, only three stiffnesses are calculated as the other three are assumed to be rigid.
The ones that are calculated are axial (K
x
), circumferential (K
yy
), and longitudinal (K
zz
).
For Nozzles on flatbottom tanks, twelve graphs are given at the end of this appendix,
Figures D3 through D14. Six are for "with reinforcing pad (on vessel)" with the other
six for no reinforcing pad on the vessel. The stiffness coefficients are obtained using the
appropriate graph.
424
Nozzle Stiffness Calculations
Nomenclature
R = Mean radius of vessel
t = thickness of vessel
2a = outside diameter of nozzle
Axial Stiffness (K
x
)
K
x
= K
R
×E ×(2a) (4)
where
K
R
= axial stiffness coefficient.
Circumferential Stiffness (K
yy
)
K
yy
= K
C
×E ×(2a)
3
(5)
where
K
C
= circumferential stiffness coefficient.
Longitudinal Stiffness (K
zz
)
K
zz
= K
L
×E ×(2a)
3
(6)
where
K
L
= longitudinal stiffness coefficient.
The graphs for stiffness coefficients follow:
425
Nozzle Stiffness Calculations
Figure D1: Stiffness coefficient for axial load on nozzle
426
Nozzle Stiffness Calculations
Figure D2: Stiffness coefficients for moment loads on nozzle
427
Nozzle Stiffness Calculations
Figure D3: Stiffness coefficient for axial load (with reinforcing pad)
(L/2a = 1.0)
Figure D4: Stiffness coefficient for circumferential moment (with reinforcing pad)
(L/2a = 1.0)
428
Nozzle Stiffness Calculations
Figure D5: Stiffness coefficient for longitudinal moment (with reinforcing pad)
(L/2a = 1.0)
Figure D6: Stiffness coefficient for axial load (with reinforcing pad)
(L/2a = 1.5)
429
Nozzle Stiffness Calculations
Figure D7: Stiffness coefficient for circumferential moment (with reinforcing pad)
(L/2a = 1.5)
Figure D8: Stiffness coefficient for longitudinal moment (with reinforcing pad)
(L/2a = 1.5)
430
Nozzle Stiffness Calculations
Figure D9: Stiffness coefficient for axial load (no reinforcing pad)
(L/2a = 1.0)
Figure D10: Stiffness coefficient for circumferential moment (no reinforcing pad)
(L/2a = 1.0)
431
Nozzle Stiffness Calculations
Figure D11: Stiffness coefficient for longitudinal moment (no reinforcing pad)
(L/2a = 1.0)
Figure D12: Stiffness coefficient for axial load (no reinforcing pad)
(L/2a = 1.5)
432
Nozzle Stiffness Calculations
Figure D13: Stiffness coefficient for circumferential moment (no reinforcing pad)
(L/2a = 1.5)
Figure D14: Stiffness coefficient for longitudinal moment (no reinforcing pad)
(L/2a = 1.5)
433
Appendix E
Dynamic Susceptibility Method
Dynamic Susceptibility Method
The “Dynamic Susceptibility” Method for Piping Vibration 
A Screening Tool for Potentiallylarge Alternating Stresses
Dr. R. T. Hartlen, Plant Equipment Dynamics, Ontario, CANADA
Summary
The output of the “Modal Analysis” load case in CAEPIPE has been enhanced. In addition to
the modal frequencies and mode shapes, it now includes two new outputs called “dynamic
stresses” and “dynamic susceptibility” . The dynamic stresses are the dynamic bending
stresses associated with vibration in a natural mode. That is to say, the modal analysis
result has been generalized to include the alternating bending stresses associated with the
vibration in a natural mode. The dynamic susceptibility for any mode is the ratio of the
maximum alternating bending stress to the maximum vibration velocity. This “susceptibility
ratio” provides an indicator of the susceptibility of the system to large dynamic stresses.
Also, the associated animated mode shapes include colorspotmarkers identifying the
respective locations of maximum vibration and maximum dynamic bending stress. The
susceptibility ratio and the graphics feature provides incisive insights into the reasons for
high susceptibility and how to make improvements. This new feature is illustrated by
application to the CAEPIPE “Sample problem” system.
1 Dynamic Susceptibility: New Analytical Tool Available for Vibration of
Piping
When addressing vibration issues, the piping designer does not have the specific require
ments, nor the analytical tools and technical references typically available for other plant
equipment such as rotating machinery. Typically, piping vibration problems only become
apparent at the time of commissioning and early operation, after a fatigue failure or degra
dation of pipe supports. Discovery of a problem is then followed by an ad hoc effort
to assess, diagnose and correct as required. The “Dynamic Susceptibility” analysis, now
included in CAEPIPE, provides a new analytical tool to assist the piping designer at any
stage, from preliminary layout to resolution of field problems.
CAEPIPE’s Dynamic Susceptibility feature utilizes the “Stress per Velocity” method, an
incisive analytical tool for “screening” the vibration modes of a system. It readily identifies
which modes, if excited, could potentially cause large dynamic stresses. Furthermore, it
reveals which features of the system layout and support are responsible for the susceptibility
to large dynamic stresses. At the design stage, the method allows the designer to quickly
identify and correct features that could lead to large dynamic stresses at frequencies likely
to be excited. Where problems are encountered in the field, the method provides quick
and incisive support to efforts of observation, measurement, assessment, diagnosis and
correction.
The technical foundation of this method lies in an underlying fundamental relationship
between the kinetic energy of vibratory motion, and the corresponding potential energy
stored in elastic stresses. That is to say, the kinetic energy at zero displacement and
maximum system velocity must equal the stored elastic energy at zero velocity and
maximum displacement. This implies a fundamental relationship between vibration velocity
and dynamic bending stresses, which is the foundation of the stress per velocity approach
for "susceptibility screening" of vibration modes.
The key analytical step is to determine, mode by mode, the ratio of maximum dynamic
stress to maximum vibration velocity. This ratio will lie in a lower “baseline range” for
435
Dynamic Susceptibility Method
uncomplicated systems such as classical uniformbeam configurations. For more complex
systems, the stress / velocity ratio will increase due to typical complications such as
threedimensional layout, discrete heavy masses, changes of crosssection and susceptible
branch connections. System modes with large stressvelocity ratios are the potentially
susceptible modes. The Stress / Velocity method, implemented in CAEPIPE as the Dynamic
Susceptibility feature, automatically and quickly finds these modes and quantifies the
susceptibility. Evaluation of the results, including specialpurpose color animation, helps to
identify which details of layout and support are responsible for the large stresses.
This technical note is to present and explain the “dynamic susceptibility” outputs now
included in the modal analysis load case, and to illustrate by application to the standard
CAEPIPE “Sample problem” system.
2 Underlying Fundamental Basis of the Method
2.1 Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy; Vibration Velocity and Dynamic Stresses
The underlying theoretical basis for the Stress / Velocity method is a deceptively straightfor
ward but universallyapplicable relationship between kinetic energy and potential (elastic)
energy for vibrating systems. Stated simply, for vibration at a system natural frequency,
the kinetic energy at maximum velocity and zero displacement must then be stored
as elastic (strain) energy at maximum displacement and zero velocity. Since the
strain energy and kinetic energy are respectively proportional to the squares of stress and
velocity, it follows that dynamic stress, σ, will be proportional to vibration velocity, v.
For idealized straightbeam systems, consisting of thinwalled pipe and with no contents,
insulation or concentrated mass, the ratio σ / v is dependent primarily upon material
properties, (density ρ and modulus E) ,and is remarkably independent of systemspecific
dimensions, naturalmode number and vibration frequency. For real continuous systems of
course, the kinetic and potential energies are distributed over the structure in accordance
with the respective modes shapes. However, integrated over the structure, the underlying
energy equality holds true. Provided the spatial distributions are sufficiently similar, ie
harmonic functions, the rms or maximum stress will still be directly related to the rms or
maximum vibration velocity.
2.2 The “Screening” Approach
As stated above, for idealized pure beam systems the stressvelocity ratio will depend
primarily upon material properties.
For real systems, the spatial patterns of the mode shapes will depart from the idealized
harmonic functions, and the stressvelocity ratios accordingly increase above the theoretical
minimum or baseline value. System details causing the ratios to increase would include the
threedimensional layout, large unsupported masses, highdensity contents in thinwalled
pipe, susceptible branch connections, changes of cross section, etc. The more “unfavorable”
the system layout and details, the larger the σ / v ratios for some modes.
Thus, the general susceptibility of a system to large dynamic stresses can be assessed by
determining the extent to which the σ / v ratios for any mode exceed the baseline range.
Furthermore, by determining which particular modes have the high ratios, and whether
these modes are known or likely to be excited, the atrisk vibration frequencies and mode
shapes are identified for further assessment and attention. This is the basis of the Stress /
Velocity method of analysis and it’s implementation as the “dynamic susceptibility” feature
in CAEPIPE.
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Dynamic Susceptibility Method
2.3 Relation to Velocitybased Vibration Acceptance Criteria
There are various general and applicationspecific acceptance criteria based upon vibration
velocity as the quantity of record. Some, in order to cover the worst case scenarios, are
overly conservative for many systems. Others are presented as being applicable only to
the first mode of simple beams, leading to the misconception that the stress / velocity
relationship does not apply at all to higher modes. In any case, there are real and perceived
limitations on the use of screening acceptance criteria based upon a single value of vibration
velocity.
The dynamic susceptibility method turns this apparent limitation into a useful
analytical tool! Specifically, large stress / velocity ratios, well above the baseline values,
are recognized as a "warning flag." Large values indicate that some feature(s) of the system
make it particularly susceptible to large dynamic stresses in specific modes.
3 What the Dynamic Susceptibility Method Does
3.1 General Approach
The Dynamic Susceptibility method is essentially a post processor to fully exploit the modal
analysis results of the system. Mode shape tables of dynamic bending stress and vibration
velocity are searched for their respective maxima. Dividing the maximum stress by the
maximum velocity yield the “σ/v ratio” for each mode. That ratio is the basis for assessing
the susceptibility to large dynamic stresses. Larger values indicate higher susceptibility
associated with specific details of the system.
3.2 Specific Implementation in CAEPIPE
The Stress / Velocity method has been implemented as additional analysis and output of
the CAEPIPE modal analysis. The modal analysis load case now includes additional outputs
and features as follows:
Dynamic Stresses This output provides the "mode shapes" of dynamic bending
stresses, tabulated along with the conventional mode shape of
vibration magnitude.
Dynamic Susceptibility This output is a table of s/v ratios, in psi / ips, mode by mode,
in rank order of decreasing magnitude. In addition to modal
frequencies and s/v ratios, the table also includes the node
locations of the maxima of vibration amplitude and bending
stresses.
With the dynamic susceptibility output selected, the animated
graphic display of the vibration mode shape includes the added
feature of color spot markers showing the locations of maximum
vibration and maximum dynamic bending stress.
These outputs will assist the designer through a morecomplete understanding of the
system’s dynamic characteristics. They provide incisive quantified insights into how specific
details of components, layout and support could contribute to large dynamic stresses, and
into how to make improvements.
437
Dynamic Susceptibility Method
4 What the Dynamic Susceptibility Method Does Not Do Directly
The Stress / Velocity method of assessment, and it’s implementation in CAEPIPE as dynamic
susceptibility, is based entirely upon the system’s dynamic characteristics per se. Thus the
vibration velocities and dynamic stresses employed in the analysis, although directly related
to each other, are of arbitrary magnitude. There is no computation of the response to a
prescribed forcing function, and no attempt to calculate actual dynamic stresses. Thus the
dynamic susceptibility results do not factor directly into a passfail code compliance
consideration. Rather, they assist the designer to assess and reduce susceptibility to large
dynamic stresses if necessary, in order to meet whatever requirements have been specified.
438
Dynamic Susceptibility Method
5 Illustrative Example of the Dynamic Susceptibility Analysis
The “dynamic susceptibility” feature of CAEPIPE will be illustrated here by application to
the standard CAEPIPE Example system. The modal analysis was performed for frequencies
up to 200 Hz, resulting in a reportingout for 12 modes.
The frequencies range from mode 1 at 14.5 Hz to mode 12 at 192 Hz. In two instances, very
similar horizontal and vertical modes appear in pairs, ie modes 3 & 4 and 7 & 8.
The relevant features of this system can be readily identified and understood, by reference
to the dynamicsusceptibility table and the animated graphic display of mode shape. Results
will be considered here in the order of decreasing susceptibility.
439
Dynamic Susceptibility Method
5.1 Axial movement of long pipe run (large added mass in motion)
From the dynamic susceptibility table, the top of the list is mode 2 at 20.8 Hz, having a
dynamic susceptibility of 649 psi / ips.
Mode 2: 20.78 Hz
X
Y
Z
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
From the animated graphic display, note that the maximum dynamic bending stresses are
at the anchored point, node 50. Note also that the dominant motion is a “Z” motion of the
straight run between nodes 20 and 40 (ie in effect an axial motion of that run as a rigid
body). The designer’s interpretation here is that the vertical rise from node 50 to node 40 is
effectively a cantilevered beam with an effective large added mass at the tip; that feature of
layout accounts for the high susceptibility.
5.2 Effects associated with the valve (local rigidity to bending, and added mass)
The nexthighest values of susceptibility are for the two pairs of modes, modes 7 & 8 at
129 and 133 Hz, and modes 3 & 4 at 27.8 and 31.2 Hz. As will be shown here, these are
associated with effects of the valve,
Mode 7: 129.17 Hz
X
Y
Z
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Mode 8: 132.99 Hz
X
Y
Z
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
The susceptibility for modes 7 & 8, respectively 594 and 589 psi / ips, is attributable to the
rigidity of the valve element within an otherwise flexible pipe run. This can be seen from
a close look at the animated graphic. Notice that these relatively high frequency modes
feature a reversal of bending curvature along the run between nodes 30 and 80. Notice also
that there is a stronger localized curvature on approach to the valve body. The designer’s
interpretation here is that, since there cannot be any curvature of the rigid valve itself, there
must be a more concentrated curvature of the adjacent pipe.
440
Dynamic Susceptibility Method
The dynamic susceptibility of modes 3 & 4, respectively 521 and 526 psi / ips, is associated
with the more straightforward "concentrated mass" effect of the valve.
Mode 3: 27.75 Hz
X
Y
Z
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Mode 4: 31.23 Hz
X
Y
Z
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
From the animated graphic, these modes feature a large amplitude vibration at the valve.
The kinetic energy of this added mass must be stored as strain energy in the flexing (ie
spring) element, resulting in elevated dynamic stresses.
5.3 Beam modes with "moderate" added mass effects of adjacent spans
Modes 1,5 and 6, with frequencies of 14.5, 47.4 and 52.4 Hz, show progressively decreasing
"intermediate to low" values of susceptibility at respectively 456, 383 and 339 psi / ips.
Mode 1: 14.51 Hz
X
Y
Z
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Mode 5: 47.41 Hz
X
Y
Z
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Mode 6: 52.42 Hz
X
Y
Z
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
441
Dynamic Susceptibility Method
Reference to the animated graphics shows that these modes involve predominantly trans
verse vibration (as contrasted with the prominent axial movement of mode 2) and involve
little participation at the valve (which accounted for the elevated susceptibility of modes
7 & 8 and 3 & 4). Notice that these modes, 1, 5, and 6, involve varying degrees of the
influence of effective added mass of adjacent spans, and of length of the cantilevered span
contributing most to stiffness.
5.4 Modes approaching the "simplebeam baseline" behavior
Modes 10, 11 and 12 have significantly higher frequencies, 164 to 192 Hz, and correspond
ingly short wavelengths. Consequently, the vibration pattern tends to be transverse beam
vibration "within the span," with little or no effect from connected spans or the valve. For
these modes, the susceptibility ratios range from 256 to 272 psi / ips. These values are
approaching the baseline values for uncomplicated mode shapes of the pipe section and
pipe contents of this system.
Mode 10: 163.99 Hz
X
Y
Z
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Mode 11: 173.05 Hz
X
Y
Z
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Mode 12: 191.85 Hz
X
Y
Z
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Mode 9: 138.66 Hz
X
Y
Z
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
NOTE: Mode 9, at 138 Hz, is clearly an exception, with a susceptibility of only 104 psi /
ips, well below the baseline level. From the animated display, it can be seen that this is not
really a "bending" mode; rather, the spring effect for this mode is an axial stretching of the
run between nodes 80 and 30. Consequently, the bending stresses are low, as reflected in
the abnormal susceptibility ratio. In effect, this mode lies outside the intended application
of the dynamic susceptibility approach. Notice however, that the low susceptibility ratio has
in effect "flagged" this mode as "not a bending mode"; that in itself provides the designer
additional insight into system characteristics and behavior.
442
Dynamic Susceptibility Method
5.5 Summary Comment
As per paragraphs 5.1 to 5.4, the dynamic susceptibility method has incisively identified the
key features of the Sample model, with respect to potentially large dynamic stresses. This
of course is a relatively simple system. An experienced designer, with some appreciation
of dynamics, might view the results as obvious. However, the method will do the same
job, automatically and directly, on any larger or more complex system for which nothing is
obvious!
6 Summary of “Dynamic Susceptibility” Analytical Capability
The stress / velocity method, implemented in CAEPIPE as the “Dynamic Susceptibility”
feature, provides quantified insights into the stress versus vibration characteristics of the
system layout per se.
In particular, the dynamic susceptibility table identifies specific modes that are susceptible
to large dynamic stresses for a given level of vibration. The larger the stress / velocity
ratio, the stronger the indication that some particular feature of layout, mass distribution,
supports, stress raisers, etc., is causing susceptibility to large dynamic stresses.
The animated modeshape display identifies, by the colorspotmarkers, the locations of
the respective maxima in dynamic stress and vibration velocity. Review of these animated
plots will reveal the offending pattern of motion, and provide immediate insight into what
features of the system are responsible for the large dynamic stresses.
Finally, the “dynamic stresses” table provides the distribution of dynamic stresses around the
system, ie in effect, the mode shape of dynamic stresses to go along with the conventional
mode shape of vibration. This information allows identification of other parts of the system,
if any, with dynamic stresses comparable to the identified maximum.
7 Suggested Applications and Associated Benefits
7.1 At the Design Stage
At the design stage, the dynamic susceptibility feature allows the designer to quickly
determine whether the system may be susceptible to very large dynamic stresses. This
could be a broad look at all frequencies, or could be focused on particular frequencies
where excitation is likely to occur. On identifying high susceptibility, the designer can then
make changes to improve the design. It is important to note that this method is based
upon the dynamicstress versus vibrationvelocity characteristics of the system per se. There
is no need to specify a forcing function and perform a response calculation and stress /
fatigue analysis. However, where such analysis is a requirement, the dynamic susceptibility
module can assist the designer to achieve a system layout that will meet the requirements
and criteria.
7.2 Commissioning, Acceptance Testing
The dynamic susceptibility feature can also contribute to planning acceptance testing and
associated measurements where these are undertaken whether by formal requirement or
by choice. Locations for measurement of vibration or dynamic strain can be selected based
upon knowing the locations of the maxima and the distribution of vibration and dynamic
stress. Reference to the dynamic susceptibility results can help assure that the modes
of most potential concern are well covered by the minimum set of practicallyachievable
measurements. Furthermore, modespecific acceptance criteria can be readily established to
avoid the restrictions of generally overconservative guideline type criteria, while providing
assurance that any highlysusceptible situations are identified and addressed.
443
Dynamic Susceptibility Method
7.3 Troubleshooting and Correction
As mentioned earlier, when vibration and/or fatigue problems are recognized at start up
or early operation, there is typically an ad hoc program of observation, measurement,
assessment, diagnosis and correction. It is not uncommon for there to be some uncertainty
about what to measure and what is acceptable. The dynamic susceptibility module can
contribute very effectively in these situations.
Normally, the overall symptoms, approximate frequency and pattern of vibration are known
to some extent from observation and/or a few measurements. After modelling the system,
and obtaining the dynamic susceptibility results, the subsequent steps can be highly focused
on specific frequencies and locations, the optimum measurements, and systemspecific
acceptance criteria.
Equally or more importantly, the proposed solution options can be modeled and evaluated
to make sure they will achieve the required improvement.
7.4 General
The dynamic susceptibility module does not apply directly to meeting code or other formal
stress analysis requirements. However, it is an incisive analytical tool to help the designer
understand the stress / vibration relationship, assess the situation and to decide how to
modify the design if necessary. It can be used for design, planning acceptance tests, and
troubleshooting and correction.
8 Information for Reference
The Stress /Velocity method for screening piping system modes was developed and brought
to the attention of SST Systems by Dr. R.T Hartlen of Plant Equipment Dynamics Inc.
The background material provided here is intended to provide only a concise summary
of the underlying fundamentals, the universality for idealized systems, and the expected
detaildependent variations for real systems. The stress / velocity method, although not
yet widely known and applied, is fundamentally theoretically sound. However, complete
theoretical rigor is beyond the scope of this note.
For users who may wish to independently examine and validate the underlying theoretical
fundamentals, a few key references are provided. References 1, 2 and 3 deal with
fundamentals. References 4 and 5 deal with application to piping. The CEA research
projects reported in References 3 and 4 were initiated and guided by Dr. Hartlen.
References
1. F.V Hunt, Stress and Strain Limits on the Attainable Velocity in Mechanical Systems, JASA,
32(9) 11231128, 1960
2. E.E Ungar, Maximum Stresses in Beams and Plates Vibrating at Resonance, ASME Journal
of Engineering for Industry, v84, n1, pp149155, 1962
3. R Elmaraghy et al, Correlation of Vibratory Stress, Velocity and Sound, Canadian Electrical
Association Project, G197, Feb 1982
4. J.D. Tulk, Correlation Between Dynamic Stress and Vibration Velocity in Complex Piping
Systems, Canadian Electrical Association Project G521, March 1988
5. Michael P. Norton, Acoustically Induced Structural Vibration and Fatigue  A Review,
Third International Congress on Airand Structureborne Sound and Vibration, June 1994,
Montreal, Canada.
444
Index
A
absolute sum, 42, 49, 151
acceleration, 44
spectral, 227
vector, 148
acceleration
vector, 152
additional weight, 104, 213, 295
analyze, 12
anchor, 91
displacements, 92
releases for hanger selection, 91
settlement, 92
stiffness, 91
angle valve, 296
animated
deflected shape, 87, 266
mode shape, 268
ANSI pipe sizes, 112, 278
API 610 report, 397
API 617 report, 409
API 650, 242
ASME (1980) code, 328
ASME (1986) code, 333
ASME (1992) code, 338
automatic save, 6
axes
local beam, 98
local coordinate system, 214
local elastic, 156
symbol location in graphics, 73
axial force, 31, 162
axial stiffness, 242, 422, 423, 425
B
B31.1 (1967) code, 305
B31.1 code, 299
B31.3 code, 308
B31.4 code, 314
B31.5 code, 318
B31.8 code, 324
ball joint, 96
displacements, 267
friction, 240
rotation limit, 97
stiffness, 96
batch file, 411
example, 419
export, 10, 420
import, 5, 411
beam, 98
additional weight, 104
AISC library, 101
beta angle, 98
end releases, 98
load, 103
local coordinate system, 105
material, 99
orientation, 105
section, 100
bellows, 110
displacements, 267
stiffness, 110
tie rods, 289
bend, 111
check, 51
examples, 113
180° bend, 116
45° bend, 115
90° bend, 114
base supported, 124
flanged, 117
reducing, 120
supported by a hanger, 122
flexibility factor, 112
incomplete, 52
intermediate nodes, 113
invalid, 51
long radius, 111, 112
material, 112
pressure correction, 35
pressure stiffening, 35
radius, 112
short radius, 111, 112
SIF, 112, 117, 120
tangent intersection point, 111
thickness, 112
bottomedout springs, 287
Bourdon effect, 34, 158
branch connection, 200
nonstandard, 293
stresses, 260
branch line, 16, 128, 168
branch nodes, 196
branch SIF, 127
BS 806 code, 343
buried piping, 129
general procedure, 129
ground level, 130
nomenclature, 131
C
center, 69
center of gravity, 89
445
Index
change, 18
check
bends, 51
connections, 54
circumferential
joint factor, 221, 224
circumferential stiffness, 242, 422, 423, 425
closely spaced modes, 152
code compliance, 259
CODETI code, 377
cold load, 179
cold spring, 138
color coded stresses, 84
comment, 140
compressor, 141
concentrated mass, 142
cone angle, 250, 251
connected node, 205, 275
hanger, 179
skewed restraint, 281
constant support, 143
as user defined hanger, 292
coordinates, 50, 168, 237
copy graphics, 68
core pipe, 188, 189, 191, 220, 286
core properties, 191
corrosion allowance, 278
cut pipe, 41, 138, 198
cutoff frequency, 36, 193, 195
D
damping
harmonic load, 49
time history, 48
data types, 144, 200
deflected shape, 87
animated, 87
deflection
shear, 101
delete, 14
density, 224
design
factor, 30, 324
hanger, 179
pressure, 213
temperature, 213
DIN pipe sizes, 112, 278
direction, 145
direction sum, 46
displacement
vector, 148, 152
displacements
anchor, 92
nozzle, 245
drawing size, 68
duplicate last row, 26
DXF file, 66, 174
dynamic analysis, 148
closely spaced modes, 152
effective modal mass, 151
friction, 36, 240
harmonic analysis, 153
modal analysis, 148
modal equations, 149
orthogonality, 149
participation factors, 151
response spectrum, 151
support motion, 150
time history, 152
dynamic susceptibility, 154
environment variable, 154
method, 435
E
earthquake, 151
analysis, 36
edit
data, 13
menu, 13
type, 13
effective modal mass, 151
eigenvalues, 148
eigenvector
normalized, 227
eigenvectors, 148
elastic element, 156
stiffness, 156
elastic modulus, 33
elbow, 111
element forces, 81, 265
element forces and moments
in global coordinate system, 265
in local coordinate system, 217
element stresses
FRP, 159
element types, 198
EMF file, 66, 174
EN 13480 code, 347
environment variable
BOURDONP, 34
CPITER, 241
dynamic susceptibility, 154
HARTLEN, 154
EPS file, 66, 174
exit, 241, 272
export model, 420
446
Index
F
fiber reinforced plastic (FRP), 157
flexibility factor, 158
moduli, 158
SIF, 158
stiffness matrix, 158
find node, 28
flange, 161
allowable pressure, 162
equivalent pressure, 162
gasket diameter, 161
library, 162
rating, 162
report, 162, 260
type, 161
Weight, 161
flexibility factor
bend, 112
FRP, 158
miter bend, 231
font
graphics, 6, 7, 74
printer, 64
printer, 11, 77
text, 6, 7, 40, 195, 273
force, 163
force spectrum, 59, 164
convert time function, 165
load, 166
read from a text file, 165
frequencies, 268
closely spaced, 152
frequency
circular, 150, 227
cutoff, 36
natural, 436
friction, 239
ball joint, 240
guide, 239
hinge joint, 240
in dynamic analysis, 36, 240
limit stop, 239
slip joint, 240
friction coefficient, 13, 176, 204, 238, 288
friction force, 176, 203, 204, 239, 284
friction torque, 96, 182, 239, 240, 284
from (node), 168
FRP, 157
FRP Stress, 395
G
gload, 42, 296
gasket diameter, 161
generate, 21
global
axes, 15
coordinate system, 214
forces, 265
origin, 130, 194
vertical axis, 37
graphics
background, 73
font, 74
rendering quality, 73
graphics window, 169
guide, 176
friction, 239
friction coefficient, 176
gap, 176
local coordinate system, 177
stiffness, 176
H
hanger, 178
catalog, 179, 287
cold load, 179
connected node, 179
constant support, 143
design procedure, 179
hot load, 179
load variation, 179
manufacturer, 178
number of, 179
report, 260, 276
rod, 275
short range, 179
stiffness, 179
to be designed, 178, 200
travel, 179, 238, 287
type, 178
user, 292
harmonic analysis, 153
harmonic load, 49
combination, 49
damping, 49
frequency, 49
phase angle, 49
harmonic response, 49
hinge joint, 181
angular stiffness, 182
axis direction, 182
displacements, 267
example, 183
friction, 240
friction torque, 182
rotation limit, 182
rotational stiffness, 182
Weight, 182
447
Index
hydrotest, 186
load, 186
load case, 187
I
import model, 411
input
material, 222
insert, 13
installation, 2
insulation, 279
density, 279
thickness, 279
weight
multiplier, 295
intermediate nodes, 113
internal nodes, 191
J
jacket end cap, 188
jacket pipe, 220
jacket properties, 190
jacketed bend, 190
internal nodes, 191
jacketed pipe, 189
internal nodes, 189
jacketed piping, 189
jacketed bend, 190
jacketed reducer, 191
JIS pipe sizes, 112, 278
joint factor, 224
circumferential, 224
longitudinal, 224
K
knuckles
reducer, 251
L
layout window, 193
left out force, 227
liberal allowable stresses, 31
limit stop, 203
friction, 239
nonlinearities, 238
solution procedure, 238
lining, 279
list, 27
load, 212
additional weight, 213
pressure, 213
snow, 213
specific gravity, 213
static seismic, 42
temperature, 213
wind, 213
load cases, 41
cold Spring, 138
force spectrum, 166
hydrotest, 187
print results, 76
loads
acceleration, 44
force spectrum, 164
thermal, 41
local coordinate system, 214
element forces and moments, 217
for a beam, 105
for a Bend, 216
for a guide, 177
for a pipe, 214
local forces, 217
location, 218
logarithmic interpolation, 151, 422
long radius, 111, 112, 416
longitudinal
joint factor, 221, 224
pressure stress, 34, 224
longitudinal stiffness, 242, 422, 423, 425
M
material, 220
create library, 225
define, 220
density, 224
description, 224
input, 222
name, 224
select from library, 223
type, 224
menus, 4
graphics window menus, 64
file menu, 64
options menu, 73
view menu, 69
layout window menus, 9
edit menu, 13, 195
file menu, 9, 195
help menu, 195
loads menu, 41, 195
misc menu, 50, 195
options menu, 29, 195
view menu, 27, 195
window menu, 63, 195
main window menus, 5
file menu, 5
help menu, 8
results window menus, 75
448
Index
file menu, 75
results menu, 80
view menu, 83
mill tolerance, 278
misconvergence, 241
missing connections, 54
missing mass correction, 227
include, 36
miter bend, 229
bend Material, 231
bend radius, 231
bend thickness, 231
closely spaced, 229, 231
flexibility factor, 231
modeling procedure, 232
parameters, 231
widely spaced, 230, 231
modal analysis, 148
modal displacements, 149
mode shapes, 66, 82, 88, 173
mode sum, 46
modulus
cold, 33
elastic, 33
hot, 33
N
NEMA SM23 report, 407
node, 237
find, 28
internal, 191
list coordinates, 237
specifying coordinates, 237
nominal diameter, 278
nonlinearities, 238
ball joint, 240
friction, 239
guide, 239
hinge joint, 240
limit stop, 238
misconvergence, 241
number of iterations, 241
slip joint, 240
types, 238
nonstandard
branch connection, 293
pipe, 278
Norwegian (1983) code, 353
Norwegian (1990) code, 361
nozzle, 242
axial stiffness, 242, 422, 423, 425
circumferential stiffness, 242, 422, 423, 425
coordinate system, 242, 422
displacements, 245
example
on a cylindrical vessel, 246
on a flatbottom storage tank, 247
longitudinal stiffness, 242, 422, 423, 425
on a cylindrical vessel, 242
on a flatbottom tank, 244
reinforcing pad, 245
settlement, 245
stiffness calculations, 422
stiffness coefficients, 422
NRC Guide 1.92, 152
number of modes, 36, 227
number of thermal cycles, 32, 362
number of thermal loads, 33, 104, 212
number of time steps, 47
O
occasional load, 34, 42, 44, 167
options menu, 29
other element forces, 86
P
pad thickness, 127
participation factor, 150, 227, 268
participation factors, 151
peak pressure factor, 34
period, 151, 268
phase angle
harmonic load, 49
pipe skirt, 288
pipe sleeve, 287
pipe slide assembly, 288
pipe slide/shoe assembly, 207
piping code, 29
plot title, 68
PLT file, 66, 174
Poisson’s ratio, 224
postscript, 66, 174
pressure
gauge, 213
negative, 213
pressure correction for bends, 35
pressure stiffening in bends, 35
pressure stress, 34
previous view, 27, 69
print, 64, 75
load cases results, 76
model, 11, 75
preview, 65, 67
results, 76
misc, 77
to file, 66
printer, 64, 77
font, 11, 77
pump, 248
449
Index
Q
QA block, 12
R
RCCM code, 372
redraw, 71
reducer, 250
concentric, 250
example, 252
cone angle, 250, 251
delta, 252
eccentric, 250
example, 254
example
concentric, 252
eccentric, 254
jacketed, 252
knuckles, 251
SIF, 251
stresses, 252
weight, stiffness and stress calculation, 252
reference temperature, 32, 193, 195, 416
regenerate, 26
releases for hanger selection, 91
relief valve, 296
render, 72
rendering quality, 73
renumber nodes, 19
report
flange, 162, 260
hanger, 260
rotating equipment, 261
response spectrum, 36, 41, 59, 151, 245
restraint, 256
stiffness, 256
results window, 257
rigid body force, 227
rigid element, 274
stiffness, 274
weight, 274
rod hanger, 275
stiffness, 275
rotate, 16
rotation limit
ball joint, 97
hinge joint, 182
S
save, 196
automatic, 6
schedule, 278
section, 277
ANSI pipe sizes, 278
corrosion allowance, 278
DIN pipe sizes, 278
insulation, 279
JIS pipe sizes, 278
lining, 279
mill tolerance, 278
name, 277
nominal diameter, 278
nonstandard, 278
schedule, 278
section modulus, 278
settlement
anchor, 92
nozzle, 245
shape factor, 45
shear
area, 101
deflection, 101
short radius, 111, 112
show, 70
show nodes, 71
SIF
bend, 112
branch, 127, 200
FRP, 158
reducer, 251
user, 201, 293
weld, 297
sign conventions, 217
skewed restraint, 280
connected node, 281
direction, 281
example: sway brace, 282
rotational, 281
stiffness, 280, 281
translational, 281
type, 281
slip joint, 284
friction, 240
friction force, 284
friction torque, 284
pressure thrust area, 284
slope, 15
snow load, 104, 212, 213
snubber, 285
stiffness, 285
soil restraints, 261
sorted stresses, 80, 83, 170, 258, 259, 273
specific gravity, 213
spectrum, 46
direction sum, 46
mode sum, 46
450
Index
spectrum library, 56
spectrum library:files, 9, 75, 195
spectrum load, 46
spectrums, 56
spider, 286
split, 14
spring rate, 37, 143, 179, 276, 292, 418
SRSS, 42, 44, 46, 151
static analysis, 30
static seismic analysis, 44
static seismic load, 42
stiffness
anchor, 91
ball joint, 96
bellows, 110
elastic element, 156
guide, 176
hanger, 179
hinge joint, 182
include hanger stiffness, 37
limit stop, 205
nozzle, 242, 422
reducer, 252
restraint, 256
rigid element, 274
rod hanger, 275
skewed restraint, 280
snubber, 285
tie rod, 289
user hanger, 292
valve, 294
stiffness matrix, 37, 148, 152, 153, 180, 238,
239
FRP, 158
Stoomwezen code, 381
stress range reduction factor, 31, 32
stresses
color coded, 84
FRP, 159
liberal allowable, 31
occasional, 44, 278
reducer, 252
sorted, 80, 83, 170
sustained, 278
support load summary, 262
support loads, 264
support motion, 150
supports, 287
anchor, 287
guide, 288
hangers, 287
limit stop, 288
restraint, 287
skewed restraint, 287
sway brace, 280, 282, 287
sway struts, 280, 287
Swedish code, 383
sweepolet, 415
T
tangent intersection point, 111, 201, 216, 415
tee
extruded, 415
fabricated, 415
SIF, 127
welding, 200, 415
tensile strength, 224
thermal cycles, 32, 362
thermal loads, 41, 92, 212, 245
thickness X (multiplier), 294
threaded joint, 196, 201
thresholds, 85
tie rod, 289
stiffness, 289
time history, 152
damping, 48
output interval, 48
time history load, 47
time step, 47
title
plot, 68
turbine, 290
turn, 69
U
ubolt, 288
ustrap, 288
units, 38
English, 38
Metric, 39
SI, 39
user hanger, 292
as constant support, 292
load, 292
spring rate, 292
stiffness, 292
user SIF, 293
V
valve, 294
additional weight, 295
angle, 296
calculation of moment of inertia, 295
insulation weight X, 295
length, 294
library, 295
relief, 296
stiffness, 294
451
Index
thickness X, 294
weight, 294
velocity
vector, 152
view
previous, 69
viewpoint, 27, 69
W
weld, 297
weldolet, 415
wind load, 45, 213
direction, 45
shape factor, 45
wind pressure, 45
wind profile, 45
WRC 297, 242
Y
Y factor, 224
Z
Z183 code, 387
Z184 code, 391
zero length element, 96, 181
zoom
all, 27, 70
in, 70
out, 70
window, 173
452
CAEPIPE User’s Manual, Version 5.1J, ©2003, SST Systems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Disclaimer
Please read the following carefully: This software and this manual have been developed and checked for correctness and accuracy by SST Systems, Inc. However, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the authors or by SST Systems, Inc., as to the accuracy and correctness of the manual or the functioning of the software and the accuracy, correctness and utilization of its calculations. Users must carry out all necessary tests to assure the proper functioning of the software and the applicability of its results. All information presented by the software is for review, interpretation, approval and application by a Registered Professional Engineer. CAEPIPE and CAdvantagE are trademarks of SST Systems, Inc. All other product names mentioned in this document are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies / holders.
SST Systems, Inc. SST Systems, Inc. 1798 N. First Street, Ste. 275 1641 Technology Drive,Suite236 San San Jose, CA 95110, USA Jose, California 95112
Tel: (408) 4528111 Fax: (408) 4528388 Email: info@sstusa.com www.sstusa.com
Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Menus
Main Window Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Layout Window Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Misc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Graphics Window Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results Window Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 64 69 73 75 75 80 83
Reference Anchor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Ball Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Bellows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Branch SIF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Buried Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Cold Spring (Cut Pipe) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concentrated Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Constant support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dynamic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dynamic Susceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 140 141 142 143 144 145 148 154
Elastic Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Flange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 i
Contents
Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Force spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 From (Node) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Graphics Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Hanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Hinge joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Hydrotest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Jacket End Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Jacketed Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Layout Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limit Stop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 203 212 214 218
Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Missing Mass Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Miter Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Nonlinearities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Reducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Restraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rigid element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rod hanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Skewed Restraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slip joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Snubber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 256 257 274 275 277 280 284 285 286 287
Tie rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 User hanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 User SIF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Weld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
ii
Contents Appendices A Code Compliance B31.1 (2001) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B31.1 (1967) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B31.3 (1999) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B31.4 (1998) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B31.5 (1992) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B31.8 (1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASME (1980) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASME (1986) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASME (1992) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BS 806 (1986) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EN 13480 (2002) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Norwegian (1983) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Norwegian (1990) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RCCM (1985) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CODETI (1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stoomwezen (1989) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Swedish (1978) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z183 (1990) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z184 (1992) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FRP Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
299 305 308 314 318 324 328 333 338 343 347 353 361 372 377 381 383 387 391 395
B Rotating Equipment Reports API 610 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 NEMA SM23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 API 617 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 C Import / Export Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 D Nozzle Stiffness Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 E Dynamic Susceptibility Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
iii
Introduction
Thank you for choosing CAEPIPE (pronounced kpipe). CAEPIPE is a versatile program for solving a variety of piping design and analysis problems in several industries such as energy, process and aerospace. CAEPIPE performs linear and nonlinear static and dynamic analyses of piping systems by imposing a variety of loads such as dead weight, thermal, seismic, wind, spectrum, time history, harmonic, etc., and checks for code compliance (ASME, B31, European, Swedish, API 610, etc.). It calculates displacements, forces, stresses, etc., in the piping system and produces concise, formatted reports. CAEPIPE opens up to four windows simultaneously to provide you feedback on different aspects of the model. Extensive graphical display capabilities to zoom, pan and rotate the image and see the model from different viewpoints make the program very useful. CAEPIPE uses the industry standard OpenGL® to render images realistically for easy visualization. As the model is input and modified, CAEPIPE updates graphics simultaneously to give visual feedback. It animates deflected and mode shapes and shows colorcoded stress contours. CAEPIPE is a veritable powerhouse in terms of its speed of operation. It uses advanced Windows programming techniques such as intelligent repainting, scroll box tracking, multithreading, memorymapped files for faster data access, among others, to make your job easier and faster. Also, every effort is made to keep the program and data file sizes small. Many thoughtful and useful details in the program allow you to work more productively. For example, you can annotate your model with copious comments to enhance documentation of the model, or duplicate repetitive input or rotate sections of the model with one operation. CAEPIPE does not confuse you with unnecessary buttons on a toolbar, which contains only the most frequently performed tasks. The keyboard shortcuts, too, are designed to make you more efficient and effective. Overall, CAEPIPE stands peerless in the field of piping design and stress analysis field. We want you to benefit from it by making full use of the software’s features by exploring the program and contacting our friendly and knowledgeable support staff. If you have questions or comments, please email them to: support@sstusa.com Three sections make up this User’s Manual: 1. Explanation of menus from the different CAEPIPE windows, 2. An alphabetically arranged technical Reference section, and 3. Appendices with related useful information. The manual ends with an index.
1
Installation
Installing CAEPIPE is easy. Two important tasks need to be done after you connect the hardware key securely to an LPT port or a USB port of your computer. 1. Install the hardware key driver and server (from Rainbow Technologies). 2. Install CAEPIPE. CAEPIPE software is distributed on a Compact Disc. In addition to the software required for step 1 above, the disc also contains other helpful material such as answers to frequently asked questions (FAQ), CAEPIPE Information document, CAEPIPE Tutorial, utilities such as a hardware key finder, etc. Feel free to browse through the contents and install whichever is required, or contact our support staff for assistance. When you insert the CAEPIPE CD (or Autoplay the CD), you will see a window similar to that shown below on the left. Click on the CAEPIPE button. You will be shown another window similar to that shown below on the right.
After you install the hardware key driver, you should install CAEPIPE software by clicking on the Install CAEPIPE button. You will now see the following interactive screens one after another where you are asked the usual installation questions. Respond appropriately.
You must accept the terms of the License agreement by clicking on Yes before proceeding.
2
Installation
We recommend installing to the default folder shown as shown below on the left. If you have previous installations of CAEPIPE, it will be helpful to name the Start menu folder differently for each new version (e.g., CAEPIPE510J for version 5.10J) as shown below on the right.
Once you have picked your choices, you can now begin installing or use the Back button to return to previous screens to change your choices. Once you click on Install here, CAEPIPE will be installed.
After installation, you can execute CAEPIPE by double clicking on the Desktop icon or by selecting CAEPIPE from the CAEPIPE510J folder on the Start menu. To uninstall CAEPIPE from your computer, select Uninstall CAEPIPE from the CAEPIPE510J folder on the Start menu. 3
Menus
This section explains the commands under the different menus in the four CAEPIPE windows: Layout, Graphics, List and Results. Each is an independent window with its own menu and toolbar. Some of the commands have keyboard shortcuts. They are shown in the online Help. The menu items (commands) are shown as
Command
For the dialogs, the tabs are shown as
Tab
and the buttons are shown as
Button
Import You can import a CAEPIPE model batch file (.Main Window File Menu The Main window is the first window you encounter when you start CAEPIPE. There is no need to go through the Open File dialog. File Menu This menu contains commands to open files and set user preferences.mbf) by using this command. Simply pressing Enter from the Main window will open the model for you. Open last model (Enter) This command can be quite useful when you need to open repeatedly the same model. 5 .
MOD) that you open is located.sav. Example: You can create a new folder called CAEPIPE. Backup Make backup copy With this checked.bak) and timed saves (.sav) will be written to this folder. rename it to somename. CAEPIPE will periodically save model data to a file named model. and a time interval value entered. In the event of a computer system crash. Rename the file to somename.BAK and specify it as backup & save folder.sav). so that all backups (. <Default> points to the folder in which the model file (. Automatic Save With this checked. You can select the location where you want these files saved (click on Folder). setting text and graphics fonts and toolbar preferences.Main Window File Menu Preferences Use this command to set your preferences for automatic saving and backup of the model.mod before opening it in CAEPIPE. the most recently saved data can be retrieved.Backup. in the directory pointed to by Folder. Locate the file (model.sav. everytime you save your model. A new model will be saved to untitled. before opening it in CAEPIPE. 6 .mod.bak. the previously saved model data is copied to another file (backup file) that is named model. Preferences command has three tabs . Folder Select any folder to which you (as a user) have write permission. Fonts and Toolbar.
Toolbar Show You may choose to display or not display the toolbar in CAEPIPE windows. Graphics Select a font face and size to use inside the Graphics window. Selecting this command will show the toolbar with large buttons.Main Window File Menu Fonts Text Select a font face and size to use inside all CAEPIPE text windows (Layout. Large buttons There are two sizes for toolbar buttons. List and Results). 7 .
com to get a copy.com or contact us at info@sstusa. Layout.Main Window Help Menu Help Menu From any CAEPIPE window . Our support staff might ask for this information when you contact them for support. you can access the SST web site by clicking on www.Main. Tutorial The CAEPIPE Tutorial is available separately as an Adobe Acrobat (PDF) file.sstusa.pdf is not inside your CAEPIPE program folder.com 8 .com and send Email to SST Support by clicking on support@sstusa. If Tutorial. About The About command is the accurate indicator of the CAEPIPE version and the hardware key number you are using. Graphics or Results. Help Clicking on Help command opens the CAEPIPE online help file inside which you should find this document that you are reading. Also from the About dialog.sstusa. then either visit our web site www. List. you have access to the same Help menu.
the name of the last opened results file is filled in the name field. Model files (*. 2.spe) Open Results The Results files (*.mat) Material Library files (*. The corresponding model file (.res) are opened using the menu File > Open Results.mdb) [old format] Spectrum Library files (*.res). 9 . if not.mod) Results files (*. 1.mod) must be present in the same directory as the results file (. the Open Results dialog shows the results file for the currently opened model if it is already analyzed. 3. 4.Layout Window File Menu File Menu This menu contains commands for standard file operations with a few special ones to note: Open (Ctrl+O) You can open the following CAEPIPE file types from the Open menu. 5. For your convenience.res) Material Library files (*.
Layout Window File Menu Export Presently you can only export the model data to CAEPIPE’s neutral file format (called a model batch file. . 10 .mbf).
you can print the model input data (under the Model tab). and change printer settings (under the Printer tab). etc. 11 . You can customize the look of your report/printout by changing the font and page sizes/margins.Layout Window File Menu Print Model (Ctrl+P) From here. You could change the selected printer and customize other settings in the Printer tab (shown next).
use this command to analyze the model. QA Block Type in projectspecific information here. you are asked whether you want to "View results?" Click on OK or Cancel. This information cannot be modified in the Results window however it can be printed in Results. At the end of analysis. 12 .Layout Window File Menu Analyze Once you are done modeling.
rotate and renumber parts of the model. in the Offsets (DX. etc. This command is also available from the context menu (by right clicking). valve. etc. insert and delete rows. and generate copies of existing rows. The appropriate dialog is shown.). Insert (Ctrl+Ins) Use Ctrl+Ins to insert an empty row above the present highlighted row in the Layout window. DY. Edit type (Ctrl+T) Double click on the element in the Type column or press Ctrl+T to edit properties (if applicable) of an element (bend. 13 . change a few properties like friction coefficient for a range of rows. split an element. anchor. you can edit properties for elements (under Type column) and data items (under Data column).Layout Window Edit Menu Edit Menu Using this menu.). Edit data (Ctrl+D) Double click on the Data item or press Ctrl+D to edit properties (if applicable) of the item (flange. DZ) columns. The appropriate dialog is shown.
When you have a long sloping pipe. This can be useful to create nodes for supports or applying forces at intermediate locations. and then type the row numbers to set the range for deletion. specify intermediate nodes at desired angles in the bend dialog. If you want to delete till the end of the model. Or you could use the Slope command. DY. Split Use this command to split a straight element or the straight portion of a bend into two parts. in the Offsets (DX. either type in a big number for "To #" such as 9999 or type in the number (of rows) shown in the title bar in parentheses. 14 . DY. This command is also available from the context menu (by right clicking). This command is also available from the context menu by right clicking on the Offsets (DX.Layout Window Edit Menu Delete (Ctrl+X) Use Ctrl+X on a row to delete it. To delete a range of rows. DZ) columns. To split curved portions of bends (including jacketed bends). you can create one long element with the slope built into it and use the Split command to break it down into smaller elements. DZ) columns. you must select the Delete command from the Edit menu.
Press Enter.766. Select Slope from the menu. B=90° (Y). When a pipe slopes (or is routed at an angle) with respect to the global axes. Y comp and the Z comp fields of the Slope dialog that opens up. More information about Direction cosines is available under the section on Direction (Reference). Z comp = 0. Sometimes. enter these numbers into the X comp. DY and DZ) using those faithful sine and cosine functions. Type these DCs and a length into the Slope dialog.94. Direction cosines are simply cosines of the angles the vector makes with the global X. So.643. the DCs are: cos (40°) = 0. Now. Let us see a few examples. Y. A=20° (X). to Xaxis in X(Y) plane. The main function is to calculate automatically the offsets for a sloping element (that is not aligned along one of the major global axes).). position the cursor on the sloping element row. Y comp=0. Example 1: A 20° line in the XZ plane. and type the length. calculations might get tricky and timeconsuming.and Zaxes. in terms of its direction cosines (DCs). follow this pipe with other elements down the line by inputting different lengths while you retain the same direction cosines. it makes 50° with the (Y) axis.42 (ft. Y comp = 0. cos (50°) = 0.Layout Window Edit Menu Slope You can specify the slope of the line you want to model for an element. 15 . DZ = 10 sine (20) = 3.766. therein lies the problem.4 (ft. 10 ft.342. CAEPIPE calculates the respective offsets using the DCs you input. X comp = 0. Press Enter. Z comp=0. Example 2: A 40° line in the X(Y) plane Method 2: Find direction cosines.0. 10 feet long Method 1: Calculate the offsets: DX = 10 cosine (20) = 9. Simple! Method 2: Find direction cosines (DCs) for the line (vector). it becomes necessary to calculate the offsets (DX. Once you input the slope.). But. Cosines of these angles are: X comp=0. C=70° (Z). So. if the line is at 40 deg.643. right click under DX/DY/DZ. In this case.
CAEPIPE will adjust the offsets for new orientation.e. The branch line is between nodes 30 to 80 (rows 8 to 11 in the Layout window). it has to be rotated 180°).Layout Window Edit Menu Rotate You can rotate a model or a part of it about the global axes. Say. Example Let us rotate the branch line of the familiar Sample model. 16 . we wanted this branch line to be routed in the X direction (i..
Notice the rotated offsets (now they are in the X direction). edit the Valve (Ctrl+T) properties and change the DY offset for it from 18 to 18 inches. If you need to make it positive. One thing to note: The valve additional weight is shown in the negative direction because of the rotation. 17 .Layout Window Edit Menu Select Rotate from the Edit menu and type in the shown values.
section or load for a range of rows. 18 . or changing the material. You are asked for the range when you select this command from the Edit menu.Layout Window Edit Menu Change Use this command for block operations such as changing a friction coefficient for all guides and limit stops within a range of rows.
19 . You can renumber all or parts of the system. 1. The Renumber Nodes dialog will open. Example Assume that for the CAEPIPE Sample model. • 100 for Starting node number and • 10 for Increase node numbers by. In the dialog. please make a copy of your model and work on the copy. and the branch line to begin from 1000.Layout Window Edit Menu Renumber Nodes You can renumber existing node numbers in your model using this handy feature. This can be easily done. Changing header node numbers: Select the menu Edit > Renumber nodes. Before using this feature. Press Enter (or click on OK) and CAEPIPE changes the node numbers. you wanted to change the node numbers for the header to begin from 100. It becomes really useful when you have a big model and want to adopt a consistent node numbering system throughout after multiple edits. type in: • 2 and 6 for From Row# and To Row#.
type in • 8 and 11 for From Row# and To Row#. use the menu Edit > Renumber nodes. all bypass lines could get node numbers greater than 5000. The final layout looks like the following. occurs on two rows 4 and 8) throughout the model so you do not have to remember to change every occurrence of the same node number in multiple places in your model.. 20 . Press Enter (or click on OK) and CAEPIPE changes the node numbers. Changing branch line numbering: Again. In a big model. and so on. • 1000 for Starting node number and • 10 for Increase node numbers by. in the Renumber Nodes dialog.Layout Window Edit Menu 2. the hanger node.g. multiple edits sometimes bring about confusing node numbering. You may need to follow a system for numbering just to make parts of the system easily recognizable. all branch lines could get node numbers greater than 1000. Other reasons you may want to use the Renumbering feature: 1. 2. 1000. Note that CAEPIPE tracks all occurrences of a specific node number (e. Use this feature to organize the numbering system.
This is a powerful feature that makes you more productive while modeling.Layout Window Edit Menu Generate This command allows you to generate copies of all or parts of the model while taking care of node numbering and offsets. The first is by modeling each and every line like shown in the second figure. as you will see. There are two ways to reach the end result. 21 . The second is the faster way using the Generate command. Example 1: Assume that we want to go from the first figure to the second figure. Its power is best illustrated by an example.
it is the part comprising of nodes 40 to 70 (rows 5 to 8). First identify the part of the model that repeats and model it. A number of figures follow to depict the above process pictorially. create one connecting element (from node 40 to 140). each starting with say 140. In this case. 2. Notice the four sets that are generated (only the first one marked in the following figure). 4. Further generate three additional connecting elements. use the Generate command to create four additional branches. That is it. Then. 340 and 440 (these node numbers could be any numbers). 3. 22 . 240. The above window shows the layout for the starting point of the model. Use the Generate command.Layout Window Edit Menu Summary of using the Generate command for the example: 1. Next.
Layout Window Edit Menu Look at the graphics that corresponds to the above Layout window. 23 .
24 . and generate the remaining three." press Enter (rows 25 and 26 above). Type 40 on an empty row. Now. press "F" for "From. generate the rest. create one connecting element between 40 and 140. Tab to Type.Layout Window Edit Menu Next.
Layout Window Edit Menu 25 .
this is a time saver. A Location/Comment/Hydrotest row cannot be duplicated. For those rows that repeat themselves (except for node number). the model may be in an indeterminate stage. If you have made many edits. owing to multiple edits. Duplicate Last Row (Ctrl+Enter) This is another handy feature that increases your productivity. Neither can an inserted row between two existing rows. Regenerate Sometimes. use this command to regenerate the model which will reinterpret the input and bring the model to a consistent state. Example 2: See example under Beam section in Reference: (Example 1: Pipe Rack using Beams) p. as you saw. This is useful in modeling pipe racks or straight runs of pipe. 26 .Layout Window Edit Menu Final model is the desired result. CAEPIPE will duplicate the row before the Location/Comment/Hydrotest row. If you press Ctrl+Enter right after a Location/Comment/Hydrotest row. This command works only on new empty rows at the end of the model. 107. Generate command allowed us to create four branch lines from one existing line in three operations. Simply input all data on to a row and press Ctrl+Enter to duplicate this row on to the next with the node number automatically incremented. So.
then F2 will open the Graphics window and move focus to it. Graphics (F2) Use this command to move focus to the Graphics window.Layout Window View Menu View Menu A few Graphics window commands can be carried out from here. Note that this command does not move focus to the Graphics window but brings the whole model graphics into view. The last used zoom level and area of the image are brought back into view. spectra. Viewpoint (F4) Use this command to set the graphics viewpoint. click on "Y view" button. Several useful buttons inside the dialog allow you to change viewpoint to a preset one. if you want to see the "plan" view (Yvertical). If the window is not open. List (Ctrl+L) This is one of CAEPIPE’s unique features that allows you to view itemized lists of every input data (pipes. 27 . For example. valves.) in a separate window. Previous View (F5) Use this command to display the previously viewed graphics image in the Graphics window. Zoom All (Ctrl+A) Use this command to view the whole model inside the Graphics window. materials. See more detailed explanation under the section List Window in Reference. etc. bends.
Layout Window View Menu Find Node (Ctrl+F) Use this command to search for a node number inside this window. 28 .
Code On this tab you can choose the piping code and also set options for that piping code. in various tabs of the dialog. pressure.. temperature.4 • B31.1 (1967) • B31.3 • B31.5 • B31. units. font and the node number increment (for automatic generation of the next node number while inputting a model).8 • ASME Section III Class 2 (1980. The following piping codes are available: • None • B31. 1986 and 1992) • BS 806 (British) 29 . dynamic analysis. Analysis The Analysis Options dialog is shown. Piping code The piping code can be selected from the "Piping code" dropdown combo box. etc. Here you can specify analysis options related to piping codes.1 • B31.Layout Window Options Menu Options Menu This menu allows you to specify analysis options.
is available for analysis.Layout Window Options Menu • • • • • • • • EN 13480 (European) Norwegian (1983 and 1990) RCCM (French) CODETI (French) Stoomwezen (Dutch) Swedish Z183 (Canadian) Z184 (Canadian) Notes: • When the selected piping code is "None.g. Design Factor for B31." a static analysis load case. all applied at the same time. • For some piping codes. equation level for ASME and RCCM. These are shown below. 30 . thermal.8. cold spring and static seismic loads.. which includes weight. pressure. you need to select an additional option (e. Location Factor for Z183 and Z184).
the designer will use rigid supports where the piping does not move much. is included in calculation of all stress equations. The flexibility analysis is used to determine whether the layout of piping between the equipment anchors is adequate. Occasional and Expansion). B31.e. 13. and use constant springs where the movement is great (again. which will only be the case after the supports are known or implicit. This option applies to all stresses (Sustained. This option is given here since some piping codes do not clearly state the axial term’s inclusion. B31. SO and SE . rigid supports may be used. is the allowable stress traditionally used in the flexibility analysis when no supports other than the equipment anchors are known. i.5 and CODETI piping codes. i. you include or exclude axial force in stress calculations (F/A term). 31 . A=Pipe crosssectional area).e. The displacements determined in the flexibility analysis will allow the designer to devise the pipe weight supports to interfere with the flexibility of the pipe as little as possible.3. A piping code committee member opines: Perhaps the term "liberal allowable" is not the best to describe the allowable. The only prerequisite is knowing the SL stresses. For lateral loads the same concept as used for the pipe weight supports is used for the lateral supports. use variable springs where the piping moves a small amount (most typically 1/4" to 4").. 1 allowable stress. gapped or shock suppressor supports are used (although shock suppressor supports require considerable maintenance attention and in the long run are usually not preferable to gapped supports). See Thermal Expansion Stress Range or equivalent under each piping code in Appendix A. typically over 4"). the allowable expansion stress may be increased by a difference between the allowable sustained stress and the actual sustained stress times the stress range reduction factor. The Eq. the axial term F/A (where F=axial load. i. SA + f (Sh − SL ). SA .e.1 Eq.1(1967). The allowable stress in B31.. B31.1. When this is included.Layout Window Options Menu Include axial force in stress calculations By checking or unchecking this box. SL . if lateral displacements are small.. for larger lateral movements. can be used anytime. Use Liberal Allowable Stresses For B31.
Reference Temperature Type in the reference temperature here.7 0. This temperature is used for a few things. One. it is used to lookup the material properties table for the value of the cold modulus (cold = Reference).1° C).000 Over 100. T1 – T2 = (T1 – Tref) – (T2 – Tref)].Layout Window Options Menu Temperature On this tab you can set options related to thermal loads.6 0. Number of Thermal cycles The number of thermal cycles is used to determine the stress range reduction factor. this temperature’s corresponding coefficient of thermal expansion is used for thermal expansion range calculations [e. 32 .8 0.000 to 14. SA .000 Over 45.g.000 and less Over 7.g. which is used to reduce the allowable expansion stress range.000 Over 22. It is usually 70° F (21.25Sh ) where Sc = allowable stress at cold temperature Sh = hot allowable stress f = stress range reduction factor (from the above table). Two.5 The typical equation for calculating thermal expansion stress range (e.000 to 100.000 to 22.0 0.25Sc + 0.1) code) is: SA = f (1.000 Factor (f) 1. f. for (B31. Number of Cycles 7...000 to 45.000 Over 14.9 0.
Solve Thermal case Results for the thermal load case are obtained from solving this case independently. friction.. Thermal = Operating – Sustained Thermal load case results can be calculated as the difference between the Operating and the Sustained load cases. the thermal load case is not solved independently. 33 . This is the recommended procedure to solve thermal cases (T1. recommended for code compliance calculations) or temperature dependent modulus (Hot modulus) may be used for support load calculations for Sustained and Operating load cases. The actual temperatures and pressures are entered under Load.Layout Window Options Menu Number of Thermal Loads The number of thermal loads is selected here. T2. See Load in Reference. T3) especially when nonlinearities (limit stops. Elastic Modulus The elastic modulus of the materials may be used at the reference temperature (Cold modulus. Cold modulus is always used for the thermal load case. etc. i.) are present. Up to three temperature loads may be applied as part of Load (along with three pressures).e.
By default this effect is treated as an expansion load and included in the expansion and operating load cases. If the environment variable "BOURDONP" is set. Bourdon Effect Bourdon effect is the tendency of straight pipes to elongate and bends to straighten due to internal pressure. It is not applied in the expansion load cases. spectrum and wind). For a straight pipe. Pressure Stress The longitudinal pressure stress may be calculated as: pD/4t or pd2 /(D2 − d2 ) Peak Pressure Factor For occasional loads (seismic. the longitudinal pressure stress (in pD/4t) is multiplied by this factor.Layout Window Options Menu Pressure On this tab you can set options related to pressure loads. P ressure def lection = Where rm = L = ν = E = t = P ressure × rm × L × (1 − 2ν) 2×E×t mean radius of the pipe length of the pipe Poisson’s Ratio Elastic Modulus (Axial modulus in the case of FRP pipes) pipe thickness 34 . the Bourdon effect is treated as sustained load and included in the sustained and operating load cases. This may be included or excluded from the analysis by checking or unchecking the box. It is not applied in the sustained and occasional load cases. the following equation is used.
25 Where P E r t 5/2 R r 2/3 P E r t R = = = = = pressure elastic modulus mean radius of matching pipe nominal wall thickness bend radius Pressure correction decreases the flexibility of the piping system (by increasing the stiffness of the system because of the stiffened elbows). In large diameter thinwall bends. the system frequencies (in modal analysis) tend to increase. If pressure correction for bends is used: the Flexibility of the bend is divided by 1+6 and the SIF for the bend is divided by P E r t 7/3 R r 1/3 1 + 3.Layout Window Options Menu Pressure Correction for Bends (Pressure stiffening effect) Pressure correction for bends is specified separately and is unaffected by Bourdon effect. 35 . Hence. pressure can significantly affect the flexibility and SIF.
Friction is mathematically modeled by using equivalent stiffnesses. The maximum number of modes that can be extracted is 999.Layout Window Options Menu Dynamics On this tab you can set options related to dynamic analysis. If friction is included in dynamic analysis. 36 . which is reasonable for earthquake analysis. The cutoff frequency and number of modes are used together to arrive at the modal solution. whichever occurs first. The maximum frequency you can input is 9999 Hz. Include Missing Mass Correction Missing mass correction to the response spectrum analysis can be included using this check box. Use Friction in Dynamic Analysis Friction is optional in dynamic analysis. Number of Modes The lowest number of modes to be extracted is specified here which is used to allocate memory for modal solution. The modal solution is stopped when the cutoff frequency is reached or when the number of modes is reached. Typical value for cutoff frequency is 33 Hz. Cutoff Frequency The modal analysis will terminate either when the number of modes requested has been extracted or when the frequency (in Hz) exceeds the cutoff frequency value. whichever occurs first. the values of the equivalent stiffnesses from the first operating case are used.
the hanger stiffness is not include in the analysis.Layout Window Options Menu Misc On this tab you can set miscellaneous options. This is recommended as it is more accurate analysis. If the checkbox is not checked. Include Hanger stiffness When the checkbox is checked. 37 . the hanger spring rates are added to the overall stiffness matrix. Be careful when you change this setting on an existing model because all the offsets from the previous vertical axis will be transferred to the new vertical axis. Some users prefer this as it more closely matches "hand calculations." Vertical Direction The vertical global axis for the model may be specified as Y or Z.
for any item. The specific combination that you create is saved with the model so you do not have to reset them every time. SI or Metric. but rest of the items in SI for their international customers." "All SI" and "All Metric" buttons which can set all the units to that particular choice with a single button click are available.Layout Window Options Menu Units (Ctrl+U) This is one of the commands in CAEPIPE that gives you a lot of flexibility. For convenience "All English. You can set any combination of units: English. A few consultants in the US use stiffnesses in lb. 38 ./in. All English All English units are shown below. You could do your analysis in English units and present your results to your client in SI units with the click of a button.
All Metric All Metric units are shown below.Layout Window Options Menu All SI All SI units are shown below. 39 .
9 point: Node Increment You can increase your productivity by having CAEPIPE automatically increment the node number when you model a system in CAEPIPE.Layout Window Options Menu Font You can display the text in all CAEPIPE text windows (Layout. List and Results) in a font face and size of your choice. You can turn this feature off by specifying a zero (0) increment here. The default is set to 10. the font chosen is Letter Gothic. 40 . Here.
As another example. • Finally. select those spectrums under the menu Loads > Spectrum. the Cold Spring load cases do not show up in this dialog if you have not input a "cut pipe" element in the layout. Most of the time. load cases appear in this dialog only after you input the related data. Further. you go into Load cases and check the box next to Response Spectrum.Layout Window Loads Menu Loads Menu From this menu. you can specify the load cases for analysis. 41 . For example. selecting a load case is as simple as checking the corresponding checkbox. to perform a Response Spectrum analysis. multiple expansion and operating load cases appear here only when you set multiple thermal loads under Options > Analysis > Temperature in the Layout window. you need to • First input Spectrums (under Misc menu) • Then. Load cases Click on this command to select the different load cases for analysis. For a few others.
Static seismic is an unsigned case and you will not see a sign (+ or –) in the results for this case.189 is applied only in the Z direction. This load is treated as an Occasional load.. Y and Z directions. check the box next to Static Seismic (g’s) to select this case for analysis. a Z (gload) of 0. 42 . The seismic loads are analyzed separately for X. When Piping code = None is selected. The computed results (displacements. Under menu Loads > Load cases. i. CAEPIPE applies the input gload to the piping system mass.Layout Window Loads Menu Static Seismic Load Use this load to apply static seismic loads (gloads) to the model. only an algebraic sum is performed.e. forces and moments) from each of the three load cases are combined using Absolute sum or Square root of sum of squares (SRSS) which is user specified. not +Z. This gload is applied only in the specified direction.
1. Calculate the acceleration (g’s) as 0. I = 1. I as follows: I = 1. First.3.1875 0. Guidelines from ANSI A58. Cp as 0. "Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures" are used in the example below.1.1250 2. For piping required in an emergency or piping with contents representing significant hazard to human life For other piping 3. UBC.11988.3 × Z × I 43 . based on the map below (Contiguous 48 States+Alaska/Hawaii/Puerto Rico). etc.). identify the seismic zone and its corresponding coefficient (Z).7500 0. Piping is assumed to be equivalent to equipment thus giving a force coefficient.5.Layout Window Loads Menu The gload can be calculated from any of the several sources available (ASCE A58.3750 0.0. Seismic Zone 4 3 2 1 0 Coefficient Z 1.0000 0. Determine the Importance Factor.
Y and Z directions.5. 2. element forces and support loads. and support load at the given node.45g) first and solves the case. This procedure is then applied independently to the accelerations in Y and Z directions.45 The acceleration or gload.3 × 1. Static Seismic Analysis CAEPIPE computes the inertia force (as mass × acceleration for each direction and applies it as an occasional load. In CAEPIPE. The above procedure results in three sets of solutions (displacements.45g in X. From the map above. and support loads are added to get the total displacements. element forces. In the SRSS method. calculate the design earthquake load coefficient for piping required to operate the plant. and support loads from the three X. corresponding coefficient is 1.0.45g.0 × 1. element forces and support loads) to acceleration loads in X. 3. For piping required to operate in an emergency. Y and Z accelerations are squared individually and added. two directional combination methods are available: SRSS (Square root of sum of squares) and ABS (Absolute). which are typically combined in some manner. In the ABS method. assume we applied 0. CAEPIPE applies an X acceleration (of 0. 44 . needs to be applied in the desired horizontal/vertical directions. The occasional stresses (SO ) are added to SL (Sustained stress) and shown under Occasional stresses (SL + SO ).5 = 0. element force and moment. Calculate acceleration (g’s) as 0. from the table above. 1. located in Anchorage. From the example above. seismic zone is 4. displacements. the Importance factor is 1. 0. Alaska. The square roots of these respective sums are the displacement. element forces and moments. Y and Z directions.Layout Window Loads Menu Example: For a power plant required to operate in an emergency. all absolute values of displacements.
. Y comp=1. CAEPIPE interpolates the wind load on an element from these values based on the elevation of its center. Shape factor Input a shape factor value here. "Minimum Design loads for Buildings and other Structures" for more information.1. it is not a distributed load along the element).0032 × Wind velocity2 × Shape factor where Wind velocity is in (mph).Layout Window Loads Menu Wind Load You can apply wind load to all or parts of your model. 45 . Direction Input the direction of the wind in terms of the direction cosines (examples: for wind in Z direction. pressure and velocity. Wind Pressure The wind pressure in (lb/ft2) is calculated as: Wind pressure = 0. See section on Direction in Reference. Wind Profile You need to input values for wind velocity or pressure at different elevations. the Load for it should have a "No" for Wind load. X comp=1. Z comp = 1.e. A wind profile is required for the region in which you (plan to) have the system installed. See ANSI A58. Units You can specify the units for elevation. This load is applied as a lumped (concentrated force) load at the nodes (i. To exclude an element from wind loading. Z comp=0). for wind in 45° XY plane. CAEPIPE uses a constant value for shape factor.
which are input in the spectrum table for each direction. 46 . See section on Dynamic Analysis in Reference for more information. Mode Sum Pick one of three choices. SRSS (square root of sum of squares) or Absolute. Closely spaced or Absolute. Y and Z spectrum Select a spectrum from the dropdown combo box. Direction Sum Pick one of two choices. Factor The multiplying (scale) factor for the spectrum is input here. SRSS (square root of sum of squares). See section on Dynamic Analysis in Reference for more information. X.Layout Window Loads Menu Spectrum Load The spectrum load can only be input after spectrum(s) are input (under menu Misc > Spectrums).
47 . smaller the time step.e. along with the direction of the force or moment. you may apply a scale factor.. if necessary. The total time may exceed the range of available data in the time function. higher the frequency. the time step would be less than 0. Time step The time step (time interval) the analysis is performed at should be typically no more than 10% (smaller the better) of the period of the highest frequency of interest. for a 33 Hz maximum frequency. The time function is only a forcing function.g. For example. the effect of a really heavy steam hammer could linger on for a minute. CAEPIPE then will apply these loads to compute the response of the piping system by performing a time history analysis.003 seconds. These loads are input into CAEPIPE as time functions which are later applied at the corresponding nodes of the piping system as "Time Varying Loads. The actual value of the time function at any time is found by linear interpolation between time points." Time functions (input under menu Misc > Time Functions) are a series of non dimensional values versus time. Number of time steps The time history response is calculated for a total time (seconds) of Time step × Number of time steps.. Various parameters for time history analysis are specified in the Time History Analysis Control dialog. This is how long you want to study system response. You may hand calculate these values or use a simulation program (such as a transient fluid flow program for fluid hammer analysis) to get the variation of forces or moments with respect to time at different points in the piping system.Layout Window Loads Menu Time History Load Any phenomenon that gives rise to loads that vary with time can be input into CAEPIPE for time history analysis. CAEPIPE can compute system response to that forcing function well after the forcing function ceases. e. which describe the variation of the forcing function with respect to time. and your forcing function data could span only 8s (seconds). When you input a "Time Varying Load" at a node. But. i.
Save Results checkbox Checked.rth. Example: Input: Time step = 0.05 for 5% damping.rth file for output. Damping The damping factor expressed as a percentage (not as a fraction). CAEPIPE calculates the solutions at every 0. You need to check the "Save Results" checkbox to see these time varying results which are saved in the file model. if you wanted to see results at every 100th time step (0.1s in the . 0.1s. the associated time function and a scale factor. Note however that CAEPIPE calculates the enveloped (maximums) results at every time step interval and not the output interval. 48 . Output interval: 10. only the enveloped results are available and not the variation with time. The results are saved every 0. The Time Varying Load dialog is shown below: The Time Varying Load at a node is specified in terms of its direction. Note that the .3s. For example. assuming a time step of 0. The output interval is strictly for display purpose in the results and does not affect analysis. Number of time steps: 1000. units.Layout Window Loads Menu Output interval The output interval is the multiple of time step at which you want CAEPIPE to save (and later display) results.01s. 0. and so on).01s up to 10s. If the "Save Results" checkbox is not checked. Enter 5 not 0.2s. Damping: 5%. enter 100 for output interval.rth files may be very large for large models with many time steps.001s.
If more than one load are acting on the same line. eccentricity. then just one harmonic load is input. If only one compressor is on a line. or reciprocating pumps on a pipeline. So. then apply Harmonic loads at nodes of interest. the situation must be carefully analyzed before imposing the loads.Layout Window Loads Menu Harmonic Load Various parameters for harmonic analysis are specified in this dialog. not 0. not as a fraction of critical damping (Example: For 5%. enter 5. 49 .05) Combination Modal responses are combined using one of two methods. The magnitude of the loading needs to be determined before analysis. rpm. such as from rotating equipment. You need to input percent of critical damping. or the two loads can be in the same direction. The user may be able to get more information on the harmonic loading (mass. The Harmonic Load dialog is shown below: The harmonic load can be imposed as a Force (FX/FY/FZ) at a specified frequency and phase angle.) from the manufacturer of the equipment. etc. Then. then the phase (angle) or the separation in timing of application of each harmonic load becomes important (for example. Harmonic loads can be loads from any sinusoidal loading. say +X and separated by 30 deg. Harmonic response is an unsigned case and you will not see a sign (+ or ) in the results for this case. select Harmonic under the menu Loads > Load cases for analysis. the two loads may be equal and opposite to each other thus canceling out any dynamic imbalance. After you input the data here. Choose between Root mean square (RMS) or Absolute sum (which may be too conservative). Damping This factor is applied to all the modes.phase angle).
. pumps. Coordinates (Ctrl+Shft+C) This command lists the coordinates of all the nodes (including internally generated nodes such as A. 50 . B nodes) in the model. sundry items such as opening the list screens for materials. time functions. etc. are among the commands on this menu.Layout Window Misc Menu Misc Menu A few utilities such as Check bends and connections. compressors and turbines. all items from Pumps to Soils (inclusive) are disabled. and commands to enter data for spectrums. loads. sections. When Piping code is set to None under menu Options > Analysis.
Case 1 (Incorrect modeling) An "Invalid Bend" occurs if the bend geometry is input incorrectly in the layout. You can also open the same dialogs by clicking on the header row in the Layout window or right clicking in the Type or Data column on an empty row. for 90° bends. the bend radius should be less than or equal to the shorter of the lengths (from the previous node to the bend node or from the bend node to the next node). More information about these commands is available under Layout Window in Reference. 51 . Such bends must be corrected before models can be analyzed. For example. Element types (Ctrl+Shft+T) / Data types (Ctrl+Shft+D) You can open these dialogs that contain the different elements or data items you can input at a node.Layout Window Misc Menu Straight line distance between two nodes can be found by using the menu View > Distance command (Ctrl+D) in the coordinates window. Check Bends Incorrectly and incompletely modeled bends are identified by CAEPIPE when you select this command.
Layout Window Misc Menu Case 2 (Incomplete modeling) A bend needs to be given a change in direction from the previous direction on the row below it. 52 . you get the following message for this model. When you select the Check bends command under the Misc menu. If this change is either not specified or incorrectly specified. CAEPIPE flags this bend as an invalid bend. An example follows.
To correct this. But. The bend at node 40 now turns into Z direction. When you run the same Check bends command again.Layout Window Misc Menu By studying the image and the Layout window above. and the bend at node 30 turns from Z direction into Y direction. you can see that the bend at node 20 turns from X direction into Z direction. the bend at node 40 incorrectly turns from Y direction into Y direction. you get the following message. The following screen shots show the correction. 53 . this bend needs to turn into any direction other than Y.
you will notice that even though node 50 seems to be on the header (node 10 to node 25). But 50 is not defined on the header. By studying the previous Layout window. So. 54 .Layout Window Misc Menu Check Connections Use this command to check for missing connections between pipes. there is no connection between the loop and the header. The loop begins from node 20 and goes up to node 50. it actually is not. Node 10 connects directly to node 20 which connects to node 25. can you identify what is wrong with the modeling? Check connections command will. By studying the following two figures.
you get the following message. Pumps. Beam Sections and Beam Loads These three can be found under Beam in Reference. Materials. Compressors and Turbines Please see the respective section with the same title in Reference. Corrected modeling is shown next. Beam Materials. you might want to run this command on complicated models with loops just to ensure that all such connections are properly modeled. 55 . Sections and Loads Please see the respective sections with the same titles in Reference. Notice that node 50 is now defined as part of the header from node 10 to node 25.Layout Window Misc Menu When you run the Check connections command. So.
1. When you use the first two methods. CAEPIPE will sort them later.Layout Window Misc Menu Spectrums There are three methods for inputting spectrums. You are shown the List window for spectrums. and also choose the interpolation method. You can input as many values as required. Input spectrums directly into the model Select Spectrums from the Misc menu. 2. Input spectrums directly into the model. Input spectrums from a text file. 1. The frequencies or periods do not have to be in an ascending order. 56 . 3. Create a spectrum library and load spectrums from it. you may use menu Options > Spectrum command to set the different units for the X. Start typing values into it.and the Yaxes.
with a . Be sure to save the file (it will be saved to a filename you specify. Now. You can input as many values as required. Open the saved library (menu File > Library) and input spectrums into the model from the shown list. 57 . open the CAEPIPE model that needs these spectrums. CAEPIPE will sort them later. The frequencies or periods you type in do not have to be in an ascending order.Layout Window Misc Menu 2. select menu File > New. Select Spectrum library.spe extension) using the Save command in the File menu. Create a spectrum library and load spectrums from it From the Main. Layout or Results window. Start typing values into it. The spectrum library List window is shown.
Ensure that no two spectrums share the same Name. you can input a value pair. read all text files you created one after the other. on the first line. For each spectrum. Where Abscissa units: Ordinate units: 0 = Frequency (Hz) 1 = Period (Sec) 0 1 2 3 4 = = = = = Displacement Displacement Acceleration Acceleration Acceleration 58 (inch) (mm) (in/sec2) (mm/sec2) (g’s) to 31 characters) units Ordinate units value1 Ordinate value1 value2 Ordinate value2 . CAEPIPE issues a warning should such occur. After these two lines. Now. Each spectrum should be saved to a separate text file. . The format of a spectrum text file is shown below. The spectrum text file should be in the following format: Name (up Abscissa Abscissa Abscissa . . Input spectrums from a text file This method involves creating a separate text file (in the format shown below) for each spectrum you want to input. The spectrum that is read appears on the row where the yellow highlight is placed (under the Name column). a. b. c. open the CAEPIPE model that needs these spectrums. . separated by a space. You can use the Edit menu commands to insert an empty row or delete an existing spectrum. . type units for Abscissa (Xaxis) and Ordinate (Yaxis) axes. On the second line. The steps are given below. More than one spectrum should not be input in one text file as it cannot be read into CAEPIPE. on each line. Select Read Spectrum from the File menu.Layout Window Misc Menu 3. You can input as many of these value pair lines as required. type the Name of the spectrum (up to 31 chars). .
Force Spectrums See section on Force Spectrum in Reference. . CAEPIPE uses the lowest frequency if the calculated frequency or period is lower than the spectrum table or uses the highest frequency if the calculated frequency or period is higher than the spectrum table). CAEPIPE issues a warning and uses the value corresponding to the closest frequency or period in the spectrum table (that is. you need to input the Spectrum load itself under the menu Loads > Spectrum in the Layout window. Analysis note: While analyzing the response spectrum case. .Layout Window Misc Menu Example file Test Spectrum 1 0 2 1 190 2 220 3 250 4 1932 5 1000 6 1800 . . 59 . when a mode (frequency or period) falls outside the spectrum table. Once you are done inputting the different spectrums using any one of the three methods.
input parameters for the Time History Analysis Control dialog. You must have a zero entry for the Value next to the first Time input. You can input as many timevalue pairs as required.. and then input Time Varying Loads at nodes of interest. 2.e. Usually. You can make that table as fine as you want it to be. In CAEPIPE. After you are done. Value is nondimensional. Time is measured in seconds. 1. Create a text file for each function and read it into CAEPIPE. simply start typing the timevalue pairs. For now. Input time functions directly into the model Click on menu Misc > Time functions to type in time functions. Separate forcetime histories are then input as time functions and applied as Time Varying Loads within CAEPIPE at the corresponding nodes of interest in the piping model.0. You can assign units to these Values when you input a Time varying load at a node.Layout Window Misc Menu Time functions Time functions are nondimensional (i. Input time functions directly into the model. There are two methods for inputting time functions. 1. a transient fluid flow analysis program computes forces as a function of time at all changes in directions (bends/tees) and other points of interest. a series of time versus value pairs) tables which describe the variation of the forcing function with respect to time. These forces/moments result from a transient event such as a fluid hammer. the time function you define can have any interval between two time values. Time history analysis begins at time t=0. 60 .
3 26. you need to type a Name (up to 31 characters) on the first line.2 0. You can use the Edit menu commands to insert an empty row or delete an existing time function. The format of the time function text file is shown below.1 0 0. Time Function 1 0 0 0. Ensure that no two time functions share the same Name.025 0. For each function.5 806 0. The time function that is read from a file appears on the row where the yellow highlight is placed (under the Name column).9 2480 1 2109 .Layout Window Misc Menu 2.65 0. 61 . .7 1882 0. . CAEPIPE issues a warning should such occur.8 2531 0. you need to specify the parameters in the Time History Analysis Control dialog under menu Loads > Time History. Create a text file for each function and read it into CAEPIPE Read these text files into CAEPIPE using the menu File > Read Time Function command. You can input as many timevalue pairs (one on each line) as required. type time followed by a Value (separated by a space) on the following line.4 112 0. . Once you are done inputting time functions.6 7984 0.
please see discussion under menu Loads > Time History. 62 . you need to specify Time Varying Loads at the applicable nodes in the model. MY. MZ).Layout Window Misc Menu Then. FZ) or a moment (MX. Under Units. you can specify one of several depending on whether you are applying the Values in the time function as a force (FX. For more details. Soils See Buried Piping Example in the section on Buried Piping in Reference. FY. The following figure shows the time function as a timevarying force applied in the Y direction (FY) at node 100.
will see the advantage of these hotkeys (F2 and F3). and F3 between open text windows (between Layout and List). In such a setting. List and Results) and Graphics windows. you can move focus from that window to any other window (such as Graphics or List) using a Hotkey. The windows are: • Layout • Graphics • List. one keypress (F2 or F3) will quickly move the focus to another window (without having to either minimize the one where the focus is or switch to another window through the taskbar). and • Results From any window. list. the Window menu would look like: 63 . if you moved focus to the Layout window. then the hotkey F3 would be assigned to Layout (not List as shown). graphics and results. So. Hotkey F2 will move focus between text (Layout.Layout Window Window Menu Window Menu CAEPIPE can keep up to four windows open simultaneously for your convenience for a model file. From the Layout window: From the List window: From the Graphics window: From the Results window: Note: In the above Window menu from the Results window. Users who have a small monitor and work with maximized windows for input.
You can also set the drawing size for a printer/plotter and type in a new title for the image.Graphics Window File Menu File Menu This menu has commands for printing and copying graphics images to the clipboard. and the one under the Options menu sets the font to use for Graphics display only as explained on p. 74. you can setup the printer and the graphics print page as well as select the font for printing graphics. 64 . The Font command here sets the font for printing only. Font Note that the font you select here is different from the Font selected in the Graphics Font dialog under the Options menu. Printer On the Printer tab. Print (Ctrl+P) The Print command opens the the Print Graphics dialog which allows you to select a printer and customize other print settings.
click on Close to return to the Graphics window or click on Print to send the job to the printer. you can preview it by clicking on this button.Graphics Window File Menu Preview Before you print an image. 65 . While in the Preview mode.
Here. too. as in the earlier Print dialog. you will see a different Print dialog. You can specify a filename for the graphics file. CAEPIPE can also convert other vector graphics such as nonrendered stress and stress ratio plots. Note on DXF output CAEPIPE puts only the model information including the line drawing into a DXF file in different layers. 66 . you can select a printer and customize certain print settings. Print Dialog for OpenGL Rendered Images For OpenGL rendered images. It does not put any results (like stresses or deflected shapes) to a DXF file.Graphics Window File Menu Print to File This can be a useful command to convert the line drawing (vector) graphics to other vector formats such as an Encapsulated Postscript (EPS). The resolution and image background can be set. deflected and mode shapes to the above vector formats. Windows Enhanced Metafile (EMF). AutoCAD’s DXF or HPGL’s PLT.
67 . Preview Preview the OpenGL graphics rendering by clicking on this button. Should such happen.Graphics Window File Menu Setting the resolution to High might take up a lot of system memory and slow your system down. use the Low or Medium setting.
68 . For example. There are several US and ISO sizes available.5" x 11"). you need to set the drawing size here. you may type in an image title different from the model title (in the Layout window).Graphics Window File Menu Copy (Ctrl+C) You can copy the displayed graphics image to the clipboard and then paste this image into any other program that accepts it. Drawing Size The drawing size command applies only to DXF and PLT files. The default is set to A size (Letter 8. Clicking on Reset will restore the title to the original model title. Before you generate a DXF or a PLT from menu File > Print > Print to File. you can copy the rendered view of a model and paste it into your paint or a graphics processing program so that you can use the finished image (possibly with your annotations) in a word processing program of your choice to generate a report. Plot Title For the graphics image printout (or for one copied through Copy command).
or use the arrow keys on the keyboard. if you want to see the "plan" view (Yvertical). Viewpoint (F4) Use this command to set the graphics viewpoint. Position the cross hair at the image location that you want centered and then left click on the mouse to center the whole image around that point. 69 . It can be moved around by moving the mouse. For example.Graphics Window View Menu View Menu This menu contains commands for graphics operations. Several useful buttons inside the dialog allow you to change viewpoint to a preset one. click on "Y view" button. When you select this command. Turn (Ctrl+T) Use this command to rotate the image about the horizontal or the vertical axis. the mouse pointer turns into a cross hair. Center (Ctrl+Shift+C) Use this command for centering the image around a particular location. Move the thumb on the scroll bar to rotate the image. The last used viewpoint. zoom level and area of the image are brought back into view. Previous View (F5) Use this command to display the previously viewed graphics image in the Graphics window.
70 . The Local Coordinate system can be shown for all the elements while viewing Results. Show Use this command to either display or suppress display of various items in the Graphics window. Zoom Out Use these commands to increase or decrease the magnification level for the image. Click on All or None button to select all or deselect all the items with one click. Zoom In. This feature helps in reducing clutter in the image. In addition. Hotkeys are PageUp (for Zoom in) and PageDown (for Zoom out). it enables you to display selectively one or more items in the Graphics window. Select or deselect items and click on OK or Apply (to see the effect immediately while keeping the dialog open).Graphics Window View Menu Zoom All (Ctrl+A) Use this command to view the whole model in the Graphics window.
etc. hangers. To show node numbers. 71 . select or deselect the required items and click on OK or Apply (to see the effect immediately while keeping the dialog open). valves. Click on All or None button to select all or deselect all the items with one click. limit stops. This feature is useful when you are working with a twomonitor system. etc. Redraw (Ctrl+D) Use this command to redraw the entire graphics image.Graphics Window View Menu Show Nodes Use this feature to show node numbers selectively at different locations (such as anchors. This will refresh the screen with the existing image.) to check your input or to display node numbers selectively for one or more items (anchors.) in the Graphics window.
You can use the Show and the Show Nodes commands too to show specific items and/or node numbers. Zoom in. Turn and other graphics commands on it. 72 .Graphics Window View Menu Render (Ctrl+R) Use this command to generate a realistic 3D image of the model. Zoom out. This image can be printed to a color printer. Once you have a rendered image. you can use the Zoom All.
73 .Graphics Window Options Menu Options Menu This menu contains commands to change the axes symbol location. OpenGL rendering quality and the graphics font. Changing so will also use less toner when you print a graphics image. Background The default background color for the Graphics windows is black. Axes The axes symbol can be displayed in any one of the four corners of the Graphics window or not at all. color of graphics background. It is best to set this to High unless your computer renders images noticeably slowly. You can change it to white if you like. Rendering Quality This feature allows you to set the quality of the rendered image.
Graphics Window Options Menu Font You can select any available font for graphics display here. 74 . 64. The text in the Graphics window below is shown in Impact font. Note: Font for printing graphics is selected in the Print Graphics dialog as explained on p.
spectrum library or CAEPIPE results file from here. Print (Ctrl+P) This command lets you print all model input and computed results. You can open or close any CAEPIPE model. material. check those input data items that you would like to print. This dialog has five tabs and six buttons.Results Window File Menu File Menu The File menu here is similar to the File menu in the Layout window. Model On this tab. 75 .
check the different load cases for which you want to print results. 76 .Results Window File Menu Load cases On this tab. Results On this tab. check the different results items that you want to print.
77 . Printer On this tab. you can customize your printer settings such as selecting a different printer. select the items of interest that you want to print. and the print font. By selecting a custom Adobe Acrobat Printer (if available on your system).Results Window File Menu Misc On this tab. you can generate an Adobe PDF (Portable Document Format) file that contains the whole model input and output. setting different margins.
Results Window File Menu Print Dialog Buttons Print After selecting the items you want to print. Preview Before printing. If necessary. click on Print button to send output to the printer selected under the Printer tab. 78 . and preview again. you can adjust the printer settings (under the Printer tab) to change the print font and margins. you can preview how the printed output will appear by clicking on Preview. Cancel You can click on Cancel to exit the dialog without printing.
click on the All button. After you make edits. All To select all items. which can be read by many programs such as Excel. QA Block This command shows you the QA information you input in the Layout window. Input allows you to quickly go to the model Layout window without having to go through a model Open (file) command. to make changes to it. click on this button. click on the None button. you need to go back to the Layout window and use the same command under the File menu. a few features such as Support Load Summary cannot be output to a text file. Presently. 79 . None To deselect all items.Results Window File Menu To File If you want to send all of your selected items (input and results) to a formatted text file. you need to save the model and reanalyze. As the shown information is not editable here. Export This command is selectively enabled for certain results items where the results can be exported in CSV (Comma Separated Values) format. Input A very useful command.
each of which will be shown in the same Results window. one at a time.Results Window Results Menu Results Menu You can open the list of all results by selecting Results command (Ctrl+R). Press Tab or Shift+Tab to move forward or backward through the different results items. For Support Loads. the menu shows similar to the following figure. the menu changes to show related commands for the new results item. The first set of commands is for showing the support load summary for other supports. 80 . For example. This menu may change with the displayed item. Code Compliance and Hanger Report. For Support Load summary. The second set of commands is as before. this menu shows like in the above figure for Sorted Stresses.
then by selecting the Next Load case command. The last set of commands is as before. limit stops. the menu changes to show related commands.Results Window Results Menu The first set of commands is for showing the support loads for other supports (hangers.) is for changing the load case for the displayed support. The second set of commands (Load cases. you can display forces for the Expansion load case (you can also click on the black right or left arrow). For example. For example. 81 . The first set of commands is for showing other forces (at other elements such as expansion joints and valves).) is for changing the load case for the displayed support. The second set of commands (Load cases. one at a time (you can also click on the white right or left arrow). etc. The last set of commands is as before. the title bar of the figure shows Loads on Anchors: Sustained. etc. You can change the load case to Expansion load case for this support by selecting the Next load case command (you can also click on the black right or left arrow). if the title bar of the figure showed Sustained load case. For Element forces. etc. one at a time (you can also click on the white right or left arrow).).
if the title bar of the figure showed Sustained load case. The second set of commands (Load cases.) is for changing the load case for the displayed displacements. the Results menu (Ctrl+R) will show different menus with at least one common set of commands for moving forward or backward through the different results. The last set of commands is as before. They are to move forward or backward through the available mode shape details. 82 . etc. the menu changes to show two commands specific to the new results. For Mode Shapes. The last set of commands is as before. (you can also click on the black right or left arrow). the menu changes to show related commands as follows: The first set of commands is for showing other displacements (such as minimum and maximum displacements and at other supports) You can also click on the white right or left arrow.Results Window Results Menu For Displacements. then you can show displacements for the Expansion load case by selecting the Next Load case command. So. For example. depending on the displayed results item.
Center of Gravity command is explained later in this section.Results Window View Menu View Menu This menu contains commands most of which help you to perform graphicsrelated operations. The first set of commands relates to viewing stresses graphically in the Graphics window. As with the Results menu. 83 . this menu too changes its offerings depending on the results item being viewed. The List and Find Node commands function like they do in Layout window > View menu. The first menu shown here is available from the Sorted Stresses results.
on Expansion stress. without color coding in the Graphics window as shown below. place the yellow highlight on the type of stress you want to see graphically. The Graphics window will show the color coded contour. stresses or stress ratios are plotted as numeric values. Next.. 84 . i. When you select No color coding. Then. select Color code stresses.e. for example. click on Show stresses or stress ratios button on the toolbar.Results Window View Menu Color code stresses / No color coding Displays or removes the color coded stress (or stress ratio) contour in the Graphics window. To display a color coded contour.
the View menu shows only one command to Hide (stress) ratios (such as SL/SH. this command helps by reducing the number of columns displayed. Hide Allowables Selecting this command will remove the Allowables columns from the Results display. 85 . The remaining commands are the same as before. These values are shown in the graphics window. Under the Code Compliance results display.Results Window View Menu Thresholds Use this command to display stresses (or stress ratios) over a specified stress or stress ratio value. For some codes that have too many columns. SE/SA). Graphics (F2) through Find Node (Ctrl+F) commands function like they do under the Layout window > View menu.
Results Window View Menu For the Pipe element (or Other element) forces display. As you keep scrolling through the different elements in the results display. The only item new here is a command to Show LCS (Local Coordinate system)/Hide LCS in the Graphics window for each element. The remaining commands are the same as before. 86 . the following View menu is shown. the corresponding element in the Graphics window will show a small coordinate symbol that depicts the element’s LCS.
87 . two commands to show and animate the deflected shape are shown. The remaining commands are the same as before.Results Window View Menu For Displacements results display.
two commands to show and animate the mode shape are shown. 88 . The remaining commands are the same as before.Results Window View Menu For Frequencies and Mode Shapes results display.
Results Window View Menu Center of Gravity This command displays the center of gravity and total weight of the piping system as modeled. This command can be useful when you are comparing the weight of this model with weight obtained from another source. 89 .
Reference .
An Anchor is input by typing "A" in the Data column or selecting Anchor from the Data Types dialog. After the hot load calculation. the pipe is free to move in that direction. Stiffness The stiffness may be rigid (specified by typing the letter "r" in the stiffness field). Internally. The Anchor dialog is shown. i. If it is left blank. CAEPIPE. or some value or be left blank.. there is no stiffness in that direction.e. the rigid stiffness value is set to 1×1012 (lb/inch) for translational stiffness and 1×1012 (inchlb/radian) for rotational stiffness. each direction is a degree of freedom). releases the anchors (if the anchor has releases) so that the loads are taken by the hangers rather than by the anchors (which are modeling the equipment).Anchor An Anchor is a type of support used to restrain the movement of a node in the three translational and the three rotational directions (or degrees of freedom. made unrestrained) during hanger design. where you want the hangers to take most of the weight load and reduce the load acting on the nearby equipment. the Rigid check box should be unchecked. a rigid anchor is entered (i. the released anchors 91 . during hot load calculation (preliminary sustained load case) in hanger design.. By default. To change the default settings edit the anchor (double click on the anchor or press Ctrl+D in the row which has the anchor). Any combination of directions may be released (that is. this node may be on an anchor block or a foundation. To make the anchor nonrigid. This feature is useful when hangers are used around equipment.e. Releases for Hanger Selection An Anchor by default acts in the six directions. or a location where the piping system ties into a wall or a large piece of equipment like a pump. an anchor with rigid stiffnesses in all six directions). In a piping system.
Seismic (available for B31. For those codes which do not have a provision for settlement (like B31. RCCM and EN13480 codes only) Solved as a separate internal load case and added absolutely to static seismic and response spectrum load cases. click on the Displacements button in the Anchor dialog. Any combination of translations or rotations may be released. the corresponding stiffness should not be left blank. Thermal (three displacements can be specified. specify the anchor settlement as a thermal displacement (a conservative approach). Anchors are generally released when they are close to the hangers (typically within about 4 pipe diameters). RCCM and EN13480 codes only) Applied to a separate load case called Settlement. Settlement For certain piping codes (ASME Section III Class 2. 2.1). either the vertical translation or all translations and rotations are released. 92 . ASME Section III Class 2. T2 and T3) Applied only for the Expansion and Operating load cases. To release the Anchor in a particular direction. Settlement (available under ASME Section III Class 2. The displacements at an anchor (translations and/or rotations) in the global X. This is applied to the Settlement load case. i. due to settlement of foundation).1. one each for thermal loads T1.g. There are three types of displacements which can be specified: 1. 3. A displacement can be applied only if there is a corresponding stiffness in that direction. Y and Z directions may be specified. may be specified. Typically. an anchor settlement. the corresponding check box should be checked.e. The Specified Displacements for Anchor dialog is shown... which is a single nonrepeated anchor movement (e.Anchor are restored for subsequent analysis. RCCM and EN13480). Displacements To specify displacements (anchor movements) at the anchor.
The anchor is now modified to be a flexible anchor. no releases for hanger selection and no specified displacements.e. Input the required stiffness values and press Enter or click on OK. Double click on the anchor to show the anchor dialog. The stiffness fields are grayed.e. If you need to specify a nonrigid (i.Anchor Example 1: Flexible Anchor Nodes on most large equipment are modeled as rigid anchors. The stiffness fields now become editable. i. Click on the Rigid checkbox to uncheck it. 93 .. By default the anchor has all stiffnesses rigid. flexible) anchor (for example at a pump or a nozzle to include vessel flexibility). you can input those stiffnesses by editing the anchor. noneditable and the Rigid checkbox is checked..
choose piping code as ASME Section III (1980). using the menu Options > Analysis > Code in the Layout window.Anchor Example 2: Rigid Vertical Support with Foundation Settlement Assume that you need to model a vertical support on a foundation. and the foundation has settled. Next. 94 . Next. Vertical settlement (–Y) = 6 inches. which has a provision for Settlement load case. Use ASME Section III Class 2 (1980) code for a code compliance check. You could also input thermal and seismic displacements if required. The anchor is now modified to be a rigid vertical support with a specified settlement displacement. by modifying the stiffnesses similar to Example 1 so that only a Rigid stiffness KY in the Y direction remains. create a rigid vertical support at the required node. Press "a" in the Data field to input a default anchor. First. Click on the Displacements button and type in –6 (inch) for Settlement under Y. Now the anchor is modified to act as a Vertical 2way rigid support. edit the anchor so that it acts as a vertical support only.
Z. The anchor is restored to the original state (of no releases) after the preliminary hot load calculation during hanger design. 179. The anchor is now released in the specified directions during hanger design. YY. First. Click on the check boxes for Releases for hanger selection in the required directions (X. enter an anchor for the node and then double click on it to edit it. and the hanger nearby was being designed to take most of the load as shown in the figure above. 95 . Y. XX. See Hanger Design Procedure on p. Release all directions of the Anchor so that the hanger is designed to take most of the loads and little load is taken by the turbine.Anchor Example 3: Anchor Release During Hanger Design Tobedesigned Spring hanger Turbine Node on turbine modeled as rigid anchor which is released Assume that you had an anchored node on a turbine. ZZ).
The torsional direction (local x) is determined by the preceding element. input "Rigid" for torsional stiffness.. A ball joint is input by typing "Ba" or "Ball" in the Type column or selecting Ball joint from the Element Types dialog. the following element is used to determine the torsional direction. Ball joints are free to rotate about all three axes.e. In that case a very small value (1 inlb/deg) is used internally to avoid dividing by zero. The stiffness and friction torque values may be available from the manufacturer of the ball joint or test results.Ball Joint A ball joint is a zero length element. The stiffness values may be left blank. the "From" and "To" nodes are coincident. the DX. i. Otherwise engineering judgement may be used. 96 . The Ball joint dialog is shown. If you do not want torsional rotation. The rotational stiffnesses and the friction torques are specified independently in the bending and torsional directions. Bending friction is determined by a resultant of torques in local y and z directions. The bending directions (local y and z) are orthogonal to the torsional direction (local x). Hence. DY and DZ fields in the Layout window should be left blank. Similarly bending rotation is determined by a resultant of rotations in local y and z directions. If a preceding element is not available.
there is no rotation. When rotation limit is reached.Friction Torque) Stiffness When the applied torque is less than friction torque. there is no limit).e. it is rigid).e.. Rotation limit of "None" or Blank means infinite (i. When the applied torque exceeds friction torque. Torque Applied Torque Friction Torque Stiffness (Slope) Rotation = (Applied Torque . 97 .0 (zero) means it is unable to rotate (i. the rotation is calculated as shown above.Ball Joint Rotation limit of 0. there is no further rotation irrespective of the applied torque..
Beam End Releases Each end of the beam (From and To ends) can be released to simulate the type of structural support you want to model. so too should you define a separate material/section/load for a beam. The material. section and load for a beam are different from those for a pipe. 98 . CAEPIPE reports forces and moments for beam elements.Beam You can model elaborate structural support systems to support piping. See Beam orientation later in this section. etc. The Beam dialog is shown. if the structure is stiffer than the piping is. in cases where you need to account for structural flexibility. But. pinned. you can use a combination of releases to specify whether a beam end is fixed. Just as you would define a material/section/load for a pipe. Beta angle Beta angle is used to define the orientation of the beam local axes. use the Beam element to model structural support systems alongside piping systems. you may not need to model the structure at all but simply treat it as rigid (for example: input Rigid for Stiffness in Limit stop when simulating a stiff beam). Upon analysis. In simple situations. That is. A beam is input by typing "bea" in the Type column or by selecting "Beam" from the Element type dialog.
A more complete description can be entered under Description. you must define a beam material. Select Beam materials from the Miscellaneous menu in the Layout or List window. The material name can be up to three alphanumeric characters to identify the beam material. A dialog for inputting beam material is shown. 99 . Double click on an empty row to input a new beam material. A list of beam materials is shown. Poisson’s ratio (Nu). density of the material and coefficient of thermal expansion. Enter modulus of elasticity.Beam Beam material Before you input a beam element. section and load.
Beam Beam section Select Beam Sections from the Miscellaneous menu in the Layout or List window. A list of beam sections is shown. Double click on an empty row to input a new beam section. 100 .
If it is not input. Presently.Beam A dialog for inputting beam sections is shown. etc. they are used only for rendered plots of the beam. shear deflection is not included.g. Dialogs for selecting a beam section from the AISC library are shown below: The type of the beam section (e. Input of shear areas is optional. major and minor moments of inertia must be input. Please be sure to verify the properties that are shown in the fields after you select a section from the library. Input of depth and width are optional. The name can be up to three alphanumeric characters to identify the beam section. If it is not input. A more complete description can be entered in the Description field. Input of torsional inertia is optional. You can either input the data yourself or click on the Library button for a listing of different AISC Ibeams. tees. The axial area. channels. 101 . it defaults to the sum of major and minor moments of inertia. that are built into CAEPIPE... I beam W (Wide Flange) is selected from this dialog.
102 . click on OK and the section properties will be entered in the Beam section dialog.Beam Another dialog which shows various available sections for the particular beam section type is then shown. After selecting the section.
103 .Beam Beam load Select Beam Loads from the Misc menu in the Layout or List window. A list of beam loads is shown. Double click on an empty row to input a new beam load through the beam load dialog or start typing into the fields.
Beam The Load name can be up to three alphanumeric characters to identify the beam load. The additional weight is a uniform weight per unit length added to the weight of the beam. Wind load may or may not be applied to the beam element by using the check box for Wind load in the dialog or typing "Y" or "N" for Wind load in the List window. You can enter up to three temperatures depending on the Number of Thermal loads. This could for example be used to add snow load to the beam. 104 .
e. 105 . that is.e..Beam Beam orientation The Beam orientation is determined by the locations of the "From" and "To" nodes and the beta angle of the beam element. Global vertical axis is Y Beam is not Vertical Global Y local y z Z X x The local yaxis of the beam lies in the local x . i. A nonzero beta angle (measured from the reference position) rotates the local y.. vertical plane) and is in the same positive direction as the global Y axis. Major bending plane is local xy. The local coordinate system for beams can be displayed for each beam element through the List window (Ctrl+L. The local zaxis is the cross product of the local x and yaxes. Major bending plane is xy.global Y plane (i.and zaxes of the beam about the local xaxis of the beam in the counter clockwise direction. Izz = Major moment of inertia and Iyy = Minor moment of inertia. Beam is Vertical x y z local Global Y Z X The local zaxis of the beam is in the global Z direction. menu View > Show LCS [for Local Coordinate System]). select Beams. The local xaxis of the beam is always from the "From" node to the "To" node.0. Izz = Major moment of inertia and Iyy = Minor moment of inertia. The local yaxis is in the global –X direction. The reference orientation corresponds to beta = 0.
Major bending plane is xz. i. Iyy = Major moment of inertia and Izz = Minor moment of inertia.e. The local yaxis is the cross product of the local z and xaxes.e. 106 . Beam is Vertical x z local y Global Z Y X The local yaxis of the beam is in the global Y direction. Major bending plane is xz.global Z plane (i. that is. The local zaxis is in the global –X direction.Beam Global vertical axis is Z Beam is not Vertical Global Z Y y X x local z The local zaxis of the beam lies in the local x ... Iyy = Major moment of inertia and Izz = Minor moment of inertia. vertical plane) and is in the same positive direction as the global Zaxis.
As the Layout window shows. First. connect piping at nodes 20 and 30 to beam nodes 120 and 170 using limit stops. section and load in addition to pipe material. model the piping (nodes 10 to 40) and the first beam support (nodes 100 to 140).Beam Example 1: Pipe Rack using Beams Here. create the second beam support (nodes 150 to 190) using the Generate command (under Edit menu in the Layout window). section and load. you see how to use a beam element to construct a pipe rack and connect the beam to the pipe so that CAEPIPE can account for the rack’s flexibility. 107 . Then. you need to create a beam material. Finally. The procedure is simple.
Beam The "Generate" dialog is shown below: The "Limit Stop" dialog is shown below: 108 .
109 . 124.Beam The graphics is shown below: Example 2: Base Supported Bend using a Beam See Example 7 in the Bend section for modeling a base supported bend using a beam on p.
on both nodes of the bellows. The weight is the empty weight. The contents. The stiffness values. 110 . insulation and additional weight are added to the empty weight. Even if the bellows are tied. The Bellows dialog is shown. it is recommended that the pressure thrust area is input.Bellows Bellows are input by typing "bel" in the Type column or selecting "Bellows" from the Element Types dialog. pressure thrust area and weight should be taken from the manufacturer’s catalog. The pressure thrust area will impose a thrust load of: (pressure × thrust area).
Some of the items associated with a bend are shown below. An elbow comes prefabricated with a standard bend radius (short or long radius) whereas a bend is custom made from bending a straight pipe with a specified bend radius. called the near and far ends of the bend. the term Bend refers to all elbows and bends (custombent pipes).Bend In CAEPIPE. As you can see from the figure. it is not physically located on the bend. A bend is input by typing "b" in the Type column or selecting "Bend" from the Element Types dialog. 111 . CAEPIPE automatically generates the end nodes of the curved portion of the bend (nodes 20A and 20B. a bend is a curved pipe segment which turns at an angle (typically 90° or 45° from the direction of the run of the pipe. The bend end nodes (20A and 20B in the figure) may be used to specify data items such as flanges. hangers. Geometrically. forces. etc. Its only purpose is to define the bend. 20A (Near end) 10 20 Bend node (TIP) Be nd R ad iu s Bend thickness Pipe thickness 20B (Far end) 30 Node 20 is the Bend node which is at the Tangent Intersection Point (TIP).
they are used instead of the piping code specified SIFs. The Bend Material. Bend Radius The radius of a bend (measured along the centerline of the bend) can be specified as Long. double click on it or press Ctrl+T (Edit type) to bring up the Bend dialog. 112 . it is used instead of the piping code specified Flexibility Factor. Long radius is 1. If SIFs are specified. If the Flexibility Factor is specified. if specified. If User SIFs are also specified at bend nodes (A and/or B nodes).5 times the pipe OD and Short radius is equal to the pipe OD. Bend Material If the material of the bend is different from that of the adjoining pipe. Short. if specified. they will be used instead of the bend SIFs or code specified SIFs. select the Bend Material from the drop down combo box. applies only to the curved portion of the bend (node 20A to node 20B in the figure above). Bend Thickness Input the wall thickness of the bend if it is different from that of the adjoining pipe thicknesses.Bend If you need to modify an existing bend. The Bend Thickness. applies only to the curved portion of the bend (node 20A to node 20B in the figure above). SIFs The SIFs for the bend can be specified (useful for FRP bends). or User (defined) by one of the radio buttons for Bend Radius. Flexibility Factor The Flexibility Factor for the bend can be specified. CAEPIPE has long and short radii builtin for standard ANSI. JIS and DIN pipe sizes. For nonstandard pipe sizes.
load and the first node (10) are already defined. located in between the ends of the bend. hangers. It is also assumed that the bend has long radius (12") and the cursor is placed in row #3. etc. hangers. may be required in some situations to specify data items such as flanges. Note that the intermediate nodes 13 and 16 are at angles of 30° and 60° respectively from node 20A (near end). 113 . The intermediate node is specified by giving a node number and an angle which is measured from the near end of the bend (node 20A in figure). section (8" std). The intermediate nodes can be used for inputting data items such as flanges. it is assumed that the material. They illustrate some common modeling requirements. forces. forces. Up to two such nodes may be input.Bend Intermediate Nodes An intermediate node. 20A (Near end) 13 Intermediate nodes 16 30° 60° 20B (Far end) Bend Examples Some examples follow. Example 1: 90° Bend Example 2: 45° Bend Example 3: 180° Bend Example 4: Flanged Bend Example 5: Reducing Bend Example 6: Bend Supported by a Hanger Example 7: Base Supported Bend To simplify the discussion of bend modeling. etc.
The cursor moves to the next row (#4). The next Node 30 is automatically assigned. Tab to the DY column. In DY column. Enter material. type 2 and press Enter. Tab to DX. section. Node 20 will be automatically assigned and the cursor will move to the Type column. type 2. 114 . load and press Enter. This completes the bend input.Bend Example 1: 90° Bend DX = 2’0" 20 (Bend) 10 DY = −2’0" 30 Press Tab in row #3. type "B" (for Bend).
type 1. This completes the bend input.Bend Example 2: 45° Bend DX = 1’6" DX = 1’0" 20 (Bend) 10 DY = −1’0" 45° 30 Press Tab in row #3. then press Enter. Tab to the DX column. The cursor moves to the next row (#4). Enter material. Tab to DX. Tab to DY and type 1. type 1’6". 115 . section. In the DX column. type "B" (for Bend). The next Node 30 is automatically assigned. Node 20 will be automatically assigned and the cursor will move to the Type column. load and press Enter.
This completes the bend input. load and press Enter. is often used in an expansion loop to relieve thermal stresses in the piping system. In DY column. Press Enter and the cursor moves to the next row (#5). Tab to DY. Enter material. type –1’6". type "B" (for Bend). then press Enter. 116 DY = 1’6" R 1’ 0" = 1’ = 0" R . Tab to DX. Press Tab. type 1’6". Node 20 will be automatically assigned and the cursor will move to the Type column. DX = 2R). type "B" (for Bend).Bend Example 3: 180° Bend A 180° bend or Ubend. type 2. Node 30 will be automatically assigned and the cursor will move to the Type column. section. It is modeled as two 90° bends backtoback. (DX is 2’ because 8" std long radius bend has 12" radius and since these two bends are back to back. The cursor moves to the next row (#4). The next Node 40 is automatically assigned. Tab to the DY column. 10 40 DY = −1’6" 20 (Bend) DX = 2’0" 30 (Bend) Press Tab in row #3.
To input the flange at node 20A. i. Tab to Type column and type "L" for Location. in row #5. A flange may exist on one or both sides of the bend.e. the stress intensification and flexibility factors for a bend will decrease if one or both of the ends are flanged. they do not normally appear in the Layout window. type 20A for Node. Also. 20A 10 20B 30 Model the bend as in Example 1..Bend Example 4: Flanged Bend Bends are often connected to the adjacent pipe sections with flanges. it is necessary to specify input at these nodes using the Location type. Since these are internally generated nodes. 117 . This opens the Data Types dialog. Flange weight may have a significant effect on the pipe stresses. Then input flanges at nodes 20A and 20B.
click on the Library button.g. Select the Type of the flange from the dropdown combo box. The weight of the flange is automatically entered in the Flange dialog.g. Select the pressure rating for the flange (e.. 600) and press Enter. Press Enter again to input the flange.. This opens the Flange dialog. e. Repeat the same procedure for the flange at node 20B. To get the weight of the flange. Single welded slipon flange. 118 .Bend Select Flange as the data type and click on OK.
Bend The graphics is shown below: The rendered graphics is shown below: 119 .
Enter material(1). Node 20 is automatically assigned and the cursor will move to the Type column. The average OD of the two sections is (8. type "B" (for Bend). This can be done by defining an additional node which is coincident with the A node thus making the straight portion of the bend zero length.322 + 0. section (8).625". if available. type 1’4". Tab to DY. the first node (10) is already defined and the cursor is placed in row #3.625 + 4. Thk = 0. load(1) and press Enter. Thk = 0. In this particular case we want to assign the section "AVG" only to the curved portion and assign the section "8" to the straight portion. In row #2. should be input as Bend SIF. type 8". A reducing bend may be modeled using an average OD (outside diameter) and average thickness of the large and small ends of the bend. Define a Non std section with Name = AVG.2795".2795". The cursor moves to the next row (#4). Now define a 4" std pipe (OD = 4.Bend Example 5: Reducing Bend CAEPIPE does not have a reducing bend element. Double click in the Type column to edit the Bend. Press Enter to modify the Bend and return to the Layout window. Click on the User Bend Radius button and type 16 for bend radius. The stress Intensification Factor (SIF) of the reducing bend. The bend radius of the reducing bend should input as user bend radius.5625" and the average Thickness is (0. The list of sections is shown below. Press Tab.237") with Name = 4. Type 15 for Node.5625" OD 0.5) / 2 = 6.5625" and Thickness = 0. It should be noted that the section specified on the Bend row in the Layout window applies to the curved portion of the Bend (between the A and B nodes) as well as to the straight portion from the preceding node to the A node. OD = 6.5".322") with Name = 8 is already defined. Tab to DY.237) / 2 = 0. 10 DY= −8" 10 8" pipe 8" pipe 15 (20A) 16 " DY = −2’ 16 " DY = −1’4" 6. Tab to the section column 120 .2795" Thk 4" pipe = R 4" pipe 30 20 DX = 2’ R = 20B 20 DX = 2’ 30 The 8" std pipe (OD = 8.
The Layout window is shown below: The graphics is shown below: The rendered graphics is shown below: 121 . The material and load are copied from the previous row and the cursor moves to the next row(#5). type 2’. This completes the reducing bend input. Tab to section column and type 4. The next Node 30 is automatically assigned. In DX column. Tab to the DX column.Bend and type "AVG". Then press Enter. then press Enter.
type 15 for node and 45 for its angle. 122 . then click on OK. Under intermediate nodes. This creates an intermediate node 15 at 45° from the node 20A (near end of the bend) as shown in the figure above.Bend Example 6: Bend Supported by a Hanger Assume that the bend is supported in the middle by a hanger. which is in the middle of the bend. The hanger is input at node 15. The bend dialog is shown. Node 15 is created as an intermediate node on the bend as follows: Double click on the bend (in the type column of the Layout window) to edit it. 20A 10 15 45° 20B 30 Model the bend as in Example 1.
in row #5.Bend Since node 15 does not normally appear in the Layout window. 123 . Tab to Type column and type "L" for Location. it is necessary to specify data input at this node using the Location type. Click on OK to accept the default hanger and a hanger is entered at node 15. This opens the Data Types dialog. To input the hanger at node 15. the hanger dialog is shown. type 15 for Node. Click on Hanger.
To put a vertical restraint at node 20B. 30 30 20B Vertical restraint 20B 10 20A 10 20A Beam 100 Vertical Restraint Support Model the bend at node 20 as before. This will open the Restraint dialog. type 20B for node and "L" for Location. In the figure on the right the support is modeled using a beam element. 124 . In the figure on the left. Double click on Restraint. This will open the Data types dialog. the support is modeled using a rigid vertical restraint.Bend Example 7: Base Supported Bend Two examples of base supported bends are shown below.
The Layout window is shown below: The graphics is shown below: 125 .Bend Click on the Vertical button to check the Y or Z restraint (depending on the vertical axis) and click on OK.
Create a beam material. Press Enter to move to the next row. In the Data column type "a" to input an Anchor. beam section and beam load names in the Matl.Bend Beam Support Model the bend at node 20 as before. Input a beam element from node 20B to node 100. Type 20B in the Node column and "f" (for From) in the Type column to create a starting point. The Layout window is shown below: The graphics is shown below: 126 . Type 100 in the Node column and "bea" (for Beam) in the Type column. In the DY column. Sect and Load columns. type the beam length with a negative sign (since the beam is going downward from node 20B to node 100). section and load as described in the Beam section earlier in the Reference. Type the beam material.
1 piping code) are shown below. 127 . a pad thickness would be required. Some branch SIFs may require additional input. for example. Depending on the piping code different types of branch SIFs may be available. The type of the branch SIF can be selected from the Type dropdown combo box. Typical branch SIF types (for B3. in the case of a reinforced fabricated tee.Branch SIF A Stress Intensification Factor (SIF) type for a tee can be input by typing "br" in the Data column or selecting "Branch SIF" from the Data types dialog. The Branch SIF dialog is shown.
. it designates the 8 inch line as the header (or main) line with the 6 inch line designated as the branch line. when CAEPIPE finds two lines with ODs of 8 inches and 6 inches. When the header and the branch lines have the same ODs. ODbranch = 168. reduce the branch OD slightly so that the header and the branch lines are properly designated (e.4 mm. 128 . ODheader = 168. So.Branch SIF CAEPIPE differentiates between a header (run) and a branch line based on their ODs.g.3 mm).
tees). A check is made for whether skin friction is mobilized and the soil has attained the yield state. Soil modeling is based on Winkler’s soil model of infinite closely spaced elastic springs. Pick the soil name from the dropdown combo box). Define different soils using the command Misc > Soils. 4. Associate each soil type with a section (to be used for the different portions). 1." These regions are changes in directions (bends. Use this modified section for each element on the Layout window that is buried with this soil around it. This will contribute to lowering vertical deflections. After the ultimate load is reached the displacement continues without any further increase in load. The final stiffness is the true resistance offered by the soil to the pipe. The iterative process is continued till the percentage difference between displacement at each node for two successive iterations is less than 1%. 2. The initial stiffness is calculated by dividing the ultimate load by the yield displacement which is assumed to be D/25 where D is outside diameter of the pipe. then the spring is released in that direction indicating that soil no longer offers resistance in that direction. First define soils using the command Misc > Soils in the Layout or List window. you can use only one soil tied to one section and CAEPIPE will calculate appropriately. you need to subdivide long spans into smaller ones as much as possible. or where piping exits to open space. CAEPIPE presently does not discretize long sections of buried piping. 129 .e. Soil stiffness is calculated for all three directions at each node. the yield stiffness is zero. 3. create as many pipe sections as the number of soils.Buried Piping Soil in Buried piping analysis is modeled by using bilinear restraints with an initial stiffness and an ultimate load. i. If true. you will see the field Soil in the bottom right corner.. Model piping using the different sections for different portions of the model. Here is how. double click on an empty row. or piping enters the buried region. In these areas. Then. Note: For vertical sections of pipe with varying buried depths. Model is analyzed for operating (W+P1+T1) condition and the displacements in the three directions are noted. General Procedure to model buried piping 1. 2. Next. Pressure value in the load is suitably modified to consider the effect of static overburden soil pressure. tie these defined soils with pipe sections (Ctrl+Shft+S to list Sections. 3. Discretization is required near "regions of discontinuities. A future release is anticipated to provide more comprehensive soil modeling. This modified model is again analyzed and checked for yield stage. It is possible to specify different soil characteristics for different portions of the pipe model.
5. Strength is the undrained cohesive strength (Cs). Use the Highlight feature under the Section List window and place highlight on the buried piping section (see Highlight under List window>View menu. and Ks is Coefficient of horizontal soil stress. Highlight buried sections of the model in graphics If your model contains sections that are above ground and buried. See nomenclature below for more information. Pipe node 10 [model origin] is defined at (0. It is NOT a measure of the depth of the pipe’s centerline. So. For cohesive soil. Soil density and Ground level are input for both cohesive and cohesionless soils. Delta (δ) is angle of friction between soil and pipe.[5’]) deep into the soil. For cohesionless soil. the height of the soil surface is 3 feet from the global origin. The pipe centerline is calculated by CAEPIPE from the given data Two Soil types Two types of soils can be defined .Cohesive and Cohesionless. 130 .0). the pipe is buried 8’ (3’ . The Graphics window should highlight only that portion of the model that is using that specific section/soil. The Ground level is used to calculate depth of the buried section.Buried Piping Ground Level Ground level for a soil is the height of the soil surface from the global origin (height could be positive or negative). In the figure. or press Ctrl+H). Similarly for the other soil. then you can selectively see only the buried sections of piping in CAEPIPE graphics by highlighting the section that is tied to the soil.
7182 Cs + Soil density × bottom depth) Cohesionless soil: Downward load = D × (Soil density × bottom depth × Nq × dq + 0. for d > 10° .0 Calculation of Ultimate Loads The ultimate loads (per unit length of pipe for axial and transverse directions and per unit projected length of pipe for vertical direction) are calculated as shown below.0 + 0.0) tan (1. (Cs in kN/m2) ≤ 1. the angle is 25° . Clean granular sand is 30° . soil pressure = soil density × depth Undrained cohesive strength (input for cohesive soil). Different equations are used for cohesive (clayey) and cohesionless (sandy) soils.5 Cs × depth / D) Cohesionless soil: Transverse load = kp × kp × Sp × D Vertically downward direction Cohesive soil: Downward load = D × (5.25 (for loose soil) to 1. Ks is empirical in nature and may be estimated from Nq/50.Buried Piping Nomenclature D = Outside diameter of pipe Coefficient of horizontal soil stress which depends on the relative density and state of consolidation of soil.7012775 e (0. Bearing capacity factor = 0. With a mix of silt in it. Axial direction Cohesive soil: Axial load = p × D × Af × Cs Cohesionless soil: Axial load = p × D × Ks × Sp × tan δ Transverse direction Cohesive soil: Transverse load = D × (2 Cs + Sp + 1.5 Soil density × D × Nr × dr) Vertically upward direction Cohesive soil: Upward load = D × Soil density × top depth + 2 Cs × top depth Cohesionless soil: Upward load = D × Soil density × top depth 131 .0 (really compacted soil). Normal values for delta ranges between 25° – 45° (for sand).4 φ) dr = 1.98414 e (0. otherwise dq = dr = 1.00833699 Cs) Coefficient of passive earth pressure (1 + sin φ) / (1 – sin φ) Ks = Nq = φ δ = = Sp = Cs = Af = kp = = bottom depth = depth + D/2 top depth = depth − D/2 Nr = dq = (Nq – 1. Ks can vary depending on the compaction of the soil from 0.1 tan (π/4 + φ/2) × depth / D.0 Adhesion factor = 1.107311 φ) δ + 5° angle of friction between soil and pipe.
Example data: A 12" Std pipe 6’ long is buried. associated with pipe section 12B): Density = 150 lb / ft3 Strength = 100 psi Ground level = –1’ 1. Soil properties are as follows: Cohesionless (Name of soil: S1. 132 .Buried Piping Buried Piping Example Ultimate Loads and Stiffnesses computed by CAEPIPE for this example are verified later in this section. 3’ in cohesionless and 3’ in cohesive soils.394) Ground level = 3’ Cohesive (Name of soil: S2. Define soils using the command Misc > Soils.29 (calculated from Nq/50. where Nq = 14. associated with pipe section 12A): Density = 120 lb / ft3 Delta (δ) = 20° Ks = 0.
one cohesive and the other cohesionless with properties as shown in the following dialogs. Dialog for cohesionless soil: Dialog for cohesive soil: After you define the soils. 133 .Buried Piping A List window for soils will be displayed. Double click on an empty row to define a new soil. define two soils . you should see the two soils listed in the List window. For our example.
Buried Piping 2. Define pipe sections and then associate the soils with these sections. both 12"/STD pipe sections (name them 12A and 12B). Define two pipe sections. and select the correct soil in the pipe section dialog box using the Soil dropdown combo box. Soil S1 is associated with section 12A: Soil S2 is associated with section 12B: 134 .
Choose yes to view the results. pick Soil Restraints. Define the layout from 10 to 20 to 30. the first pipe element from 10 to 20 uses section 12A (Cohesionless soil type S1). Check Operating load case under Loads menu > Load cases for analysis. From the Results dialog. 135 . The numbers found here below are the ones that are verified later in this section.Buried Piping 3. The different loads and stiffnesses will be shown. Save the model and analyze. and the next pipe element 20 to 30 uses section 12B (Cohesive soil type S2).
375" Nq = Bearing capacity factor = 0.37834 since δ> 10° dq = dr = 1. Axial stiffness = 25 × 2624.75 = 36425 lb / in (CAEPIPE: 36425) Vertically downward direction bottom depth = 96" + 12.7968 lb (for 36") (CAEPIPE: 2856.88 lb (for 36") (CAEPIPE: 18577) Transverse stiffness = 25 × 18576.8) Upward stiffness = 25 × 2856.7 / 12.(5’) = 8’ (since the pipe centerline is at 5’ and ground level is at 3’).1 × tan(π/4 + φ/2) × depth / D = 2.75 × 0.2 / 12.18188) = 12.5) Transverse direction φ = δ+ 5° = 20° + 5° = 25° kp = Coefficient of passive earth pressure = (1 + sin φ) / (1 .5 × (120/1728) × 12.0239 lb /in = 18576. Sp = 120 lb/ft3 × 8 ft = 960 lb / ft2 = 6.75 = 5601.75 = 209097 lb/in (CAEPIPE: 209098) Vertically Upward Direction top depth = 96" – 12.4639 Transverse load = kp × kp × Sp × D = 2.75 × 232.18188 Downward load = D × (Soil density × bottom depth × Nq × dq + 0.0 + 0.7) Assuming yield displacement = D/25.98414 e (0.sin φ) = 2.75 × ((120/1728) × 102. length of pipe) (CAEPIPE: 1014.6667 lb/in2 Axial direction Axial load = π× D × Ks × Sp × tan δ = π× 12.6) 136 .4 φ) = 9.625" Upward load = D × Soil density × top depth = 12.5 (lb /in) (CAEPIPE: 5145.75 = 516.Buried Piping Example Verification Verification of cohesionless restraints (for pipe element 10 to 20) Sp = soil pressure = soil density × depth depth = 3’ .1861 lb/in = 1014.75 = 5145.4639 × 6.39366 Nr = (Nq – 1.625 = 79.88 / 12.0) × tan (1.6667 × 12.75"/2 = 102.7 lb (for 36") (CAEPIPE: 106640 lb) Downward stiffness = 25 × 106639.39366 × 2.5 × Soil density × D × Nr × dr) = 12.107311 φ) = 14.4639 × 2.29 × 6.7 lb (for 36".75" × (120/1728) × 89.56 lb/in (CAEPIPE: 5601.375" × 14.37834 × 2.75" × 9.35547 lb / in = 2856.18188 + 0.75"/2 = 89.3305 lb / in = 106639.7968 / 12.6667 × tan (20) = 28.
8857 lb/in = 264631.75" × ((150/1728) × 41. Pile Design and Construction Practice.75) = 9803.75 = 518886 lb / in (CAEPIPE: 518886) Vertically Upward Direction top depth = 48" – 12.K. Fourth Edition.625") = 8371.88 lb for 36" (CAEPIPE: 264632) Downward stiffness = 25 × 264631.7182×100 + (150/1728) × 54.25 lb (for 36") (CAEPIPE: 782. 1994.166667 + 1.5 / 12.8 lb/in) Transverse direction Transverse load = D × (2 Cs + Sp + 1.G.424795E3 Axial load = π× D × Af × Cs = π× 12.75" × 5.7182 Cs + Soil density × bottom depth) = 12.75 = 691985.069 lb / in = 301358. W.3) Axial stiffness = 25 × 782.75 = 590899 lb / in (CAEPIPE: 590899) References 1.16667 lb/in2 Axial direction Soil strength = Cs = 100 psi = 100 × 6.375") = 7350. Tomlinson...49 / 12.5 Cs × depth / D) = 12.25 / 12.49 lb for 36" (CAEPIPE: 301359) Upward stiffness = 25 × 301358.72982 lb / in = 782.Buried Piping Verification of cohesive restraints (for pipe element 20 to 30) Sp = soil pressure = soil density × depth depth = –1’ – (–5’) = 4’ (since the pipe centerline is at 5’ and ground level is at 3’). Second Edition.75"/2 = 54.0×100 + 4.424795E3 × 100 psi = 21.75" × (2. London: E & FN Spon.375" Downward load = D × (5. Blackie Academic and Professional.75" × (5.625" + 2×100×41. (Chapters 4 and 5).82 lb /in (CAEPIPE: 1533.5×100×48/12.476 KN/M2 Af = Adhesion factor = 1. J. Piling Engineering. M.75"/2 = 41.125 lb/in = 352912.75 = 1533.625" Upward load = D × Soil density × top depth + 2 Cs × top depth = 12. et al. 137 . Sp = 150 lb/ft3 × 4 ft = 600 lb / ft2 = 4.89476 KN/M2 = 689.5 lb for 36" (CAEPIPE: 352913) Transverse stiffness = 25 × 352912.7012775 e (0.88 / 12.3 lb /in (CAEPIPE: 691985) Vertically Downward direction bottom depth = 48" + 12. Fleming. 2.00833699 Cs) = 5.
Cold Spring load cases appear in the Loads menu (under Load cases) after a cold spring (Cut pipe element) is input into the model. The Load cases menu is shown below: 138 . The Cut pipe dialog is shown. So. Cold spring for a straight pipe is input by typing "c" in the Type column or selecting "Cut pipe" from the Element Types dialog. The amount of cut (short or long) should be positive.Cold Spring (Cut Pipe) Cold spring (cut short or cut long) is used to reduce thermal forces on equipment connected to the piping system. Select "Cut short" or "Cut long" using the radio buttons. a cold spring is used in additional sustained and operating load cases which are not used in stress calculations but are used for support loads and rotating equipment reports. Piping codes do not allow credit for cold spring in stress calculations.
Cold Spring+(W+P1+T1)] will include the effect of the Cold spring. 139 . if Cold Spring is used. the hanger loads for the Cold spring load cases [for example. However.Cold Spring (Cut Pipe) Select the desired Cold Spring load cases shown for analysis. The Hanger selection procedure does not consider the cold spring since the selection is based on the first Operating (W+P1+T1) load case.
or 2. 15 and 17 are the comment lines (light green background). 12. Two ways for putting in a comment are. Use menu Edit > Insert (Ctrl+Ins) to insert an empty row between two existing rows of data. On an empty row. select "Comment" from the Element Types dialog (Ctrl+Shft+T).Comment You can make as many comments as required anywhere in the Layout window. Rows 11. 1. Simply type "c" first (in the Node column) on an empty row. They print along with the layout data. 140 .
Upon analysis. an API 617 compressor compliance report is produced. Once you see the Compressor List window. Some of the nozzle nodes may be left blank if they are not on the compressor (e.. 141 . double click on an empty row for the Compressor dialog and enter the required information. A short description to identify the compressor may be entered for Description. The nozzle nodes must be anchors and the shaft axis must be in the horizontal plane.Compressor A compressor (like a turbine or a pump) is input by selecting "Compressors" from the Misc menu in the Layout or List window.g. extraction nodes). See Appendix B (API 617. for Compressors) for related information.
Mass" from the Data Types dialog. The concentrated mass is located at the offset (DX. seismic and dynamic loads due to concentrated masses are applied to the model. DY.Concentrated Mass A concentrated mass is input by typing "conc" in the Data column or selecting "Conc. The weight of the concentrated mass should be input for Weight. The Concentrated Mass dialog is shown. DZ) from the node. Deadweight. 142 .
Number of Hangers The number of hangers is the number of separate hangers connected in parallel at this node. The Constant Support dialog is shown. The constant support load is automatically calculated. 143 . This node must be directly above or below the hanger node.Constant Support A constant support hanger exerts a constant supporting force on the piping. Connected to Node By default the hanger is connected to a fixed ground point which is not a part of the piping system. A hanger can be connected to another node in the piping system by entering the node number in the "Connected to node" field. input it as a user hanger with zero spring rate. A constant support is input by by typing "cons" in the Data column or selecting "Constant Support" from the Data Types dialog. To analyze an existing constant support with a known load. A constant support always acts in the vertical direction.
. which are defined at nodes..Data Types Items such as anchors. which connect nodes. or press Ctrl+Shift+D to open the Data Types dialog. 144 . You may also use the command: Misc > Data types. e. Force or Force spectrum load. as opposed to items such as pipes. are input in the Data column as Data types. The Data items can be selected from the Data Types dialog which is opened when you click on the Data header in the Layout window. hangers. forces. are input in the Type column as Element types. You can select the data type by clicking on the radio button or pressing the first letter of the item. etc. press "f" for Flange.g.. etc. bends. valves.
The cosines of these angles are called Direction cosines (or global X. The axis or the orientation of an item (listed above). Compressor.70711. Y and Z components. The angles the vector makes with the X. the direction cosines or X. Turbine. Y and Z components are X comp = cos (α = 90° ) = 0. Z comp = cos (γ = 90° ) = 0. the angles are α = 45° . So. 2 and 3). Z comp = cos (γ = 90° ) = 0.Direction Direction is required for several items such as Pump. Limit Stop. Nozzle (for vessel axis). γ as the direction angles the axis of the vessel makes with global X. Y and Z components are X comp = cos (α = 45° ) = 0. Y comp = cos (β = 0° ) = 1. and α. Y and Z axes are called Direction angles. β = 0° (since axis is parallel to Y axis) and γ = 90° . the direction cosines or X. Y comp = cos (β = 45° ) = 0. First method: When you know the direction angles (see examples 1. Y and Z components used in CAEPIPE). Y and Z components. So. Y and Z axes. There are two methods of computing the X. β = 45° and γ = 90° .70711. Elastic element. Example 1: Vertical Vessel Assume a vertical vessel with axis in the Y direction. For Z vertical: X comp = 0. The angles are α = 90° . Second method: When you know the coordinates of the end points of the vector (see example 4). Skewed restraint. Y comp = 0 and Z comp = 1.0 145 . is called the direction vector which is described in terms of the vector’s global X. etc. Hinge joint. β. Example 2: Limit Stop at 45° from the Xaxis in the XY plane For a limit stop whose axis is oriented at 45° from the Xaxis in the XY plane.
the direction cosines or X.16’. g : Direction angles Assume that we have a skewed support along P1P2 (which is the direction vector) shown in the figure above.866 L L 30° g Z Z Component 60° b Y Component X a = 90° From the above figure.866 Example 4: Skewed Support Y P2 b P1 L a g X Z P1P2: Skewed support (Direction vector) L: Length of vector a. Y comp = cos (β = 60° ) = 0. Z comp = cos (γ = 30° ) = 0. β = 60° and γ = 30° . we have the angles α = 90° . Assume that the coordinates of these two points are P1 = (12’. 146 . Assuming L = 1 (or any length). Y and Z components.5.5 L Z component = L cos 30° = 0.12’. b. Let us calculate this vector’s global X. There are two methods here.0.Direction Example 3: Hinge axis at 30° from the Zaxis in the YZ plane Y Direction Cosines of Hinge Axis vector Hinge axis vector X component = L cos 90° = 0 Y component = L cos 60° = 0.12’) and P2 =(15’.14’). Y and Z components are X comp = cos (α = 90° ) = 0.
55709.37139 For information. L= (X2 − X1 )2 + (Y2 − Y1 )2 + (Z2 − Z1 )2 = 5. cos α = X2 − X1 .385 The angles α.5570922 + 0. β = 42° 1" and γ = 68° 11". let us calculate the length of the vector. Thus.3713922 = 1. the direction angles are α = 56° 8". the sum of the squares of the direction cosines must be 1. Y comp = cos β = 0. L cos γ = Z2 − Z1 L The direction cosines are X comp = cos α = 0. β and γ which the vector makes with the global X. L cos β = Y2 − Y1 .74278. cos2 α + cos2 β + cos2 γ = 0.7427822 + 0. Z comp = cos γ = 0. Y and Z axes are called the Direction angles of the vector.Direction Short method X comp = (X2 − X1 ) = (15 − 12) = 3 Y comp = (Y2 − Y1 ) = (16 − 12) = 4 Z comp = (Z2 − Z1 ) = (14 − 12) = 2 Long method First. To verify the results.0 147 . L. The cosines of these angles are called Direction cosines.0.
Once a shift near the unknown eigenvalue has been obtained. The eigenvalue separation theorem (Sturm sequence property) is used in this iteration. and the roots of equation (2) are the eigenvalues (characteristic numbers).. Thus we have an eigenvalue (characteristic value) problem. An efficient accelerated secant procedure which operates on the characteristic polynomial p(ω 2 ) = det([K] − ω 2 [M ]) is used to obtain a shift near the next unknown eigenvalue. 148 . The solution algorithm combines triangular factorization and vector inverse iteration in an optimum manner to calculate the required eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The eigenvector {an }. The eigenvalue is obtained by adding the Rayleigh quotient correction to the shift value. free not forced vibration). Each determinant evaluation requires a triangular factorization of the matrix [K]−ω 2 [M ]. we may make the substitutions {u} = {an } sin ωn t 2 {¨} = −ωn {an } sin ωn t u {F (t)} = 0 to obtain or 2 −ωn [M ]{an } + [K]{an } = 0 2 [K]{an } = ωn [M ]{an } (2) where {an } is the vector of modal displacements of the nth mode (eigenvector). {a1 }. has an arbitrary magnitude and represents the characteristic shape of that mode. These are obtained 2 in sequence starting from the lowest eigenpair ω1 . inverse iteration is used to calculate the eigenvector. which are equal to the squares of the natural frequencies of the modes.Dynamic Analysis Modal Analysis The equations of motion for an undamped lumped mass system may be written as: [M ]{¨} + [K]{u} = {F (t)} u where (1) [M ] = {u} = {¨} = u [K] = {F (t)} = diagonal mass matrix displacement vector acceleration vector stiffness matrix applied dynamic force vector If the system is vibrating in a normal mode (i.e. the eigenvalue problem is solved using a determinant search technique. In CAEPIPE.
and the remaining terms may be given any desired value. equation (2) now may be written for the nth mode as 2 [K]{φn } = ωn [M ]{φn } Let [Φ] be a square matrix containing all normalized eigenvectors such that the nth column is the normalized eigenvector for the nth mode. ωn − ωm = 0. equation (11) therefore can be written as 2 [Φ]T [K][Φ] = [ωn ] (13) 149 . Modal Equations Since the eigenvectors (modal displacements) may be given any amplitude. The eigenvectors are then said to 2 2 be normalized. We can therefore write the matrix equation so as to include all modes as follows: 2 [K]{Φ} = [M ][Φ][ωn ] (10) 2 where [ωn ] is a diagonal matrix of eigenvalues. Subtracting (6) from (5). Since ωn = ωm . equation (12) can easily be verified by expansion and follows from the orthogonality condition and the fact that [Φ] has been normalized. We now premultiply both sides of (10) by [Φ]T to obtain 2 [Φ]T [K][Φ] = [Φ]T [M ][Φ][ωn ] (11) (12) It may be shown that [Φ]T [M ][Φ] = [ I ] where [ I ] is the unit diagonal matrix. since [K] is a symmetric matrix. The left sides of equations (5) and (6) are therefore equal. [K] = [K]T . if n = m. Note that equation (7) is still satisfied since. Since [M ] is a diagonal matrix. it is convenient to replace {an } by {φn } such that {φn }T [M ]{φn } = 1 (9) The eigenvectors are evaluated so as to satisfy equation (9) and at the same time keep the displacements in the same proportion as those in {an }. we obtain 2 ([K]{an })T {am } = (ωn [M ]{an })T {am } 2 {an }T [K]T {am } = ωn {an }T [M ]T {am } or (5) (6) 2 Premultiplying (4) by {an }T n }T [K]{am } = ωm {an }T [M ]{am } {a. we may write equation (2) as 2 [K]{an } = ωn [M ]{an } 2 [K]{am } = ωm [M ]{am } (3) (4) If we postmultiply the transpose of (3) by {am }.Dynamic Analysis Orthogonality For any two roots corresponding to the nth and mth modes. 2 2 (ωn − ωm ){an }T [M ]{am } = 0 (7) (8) {an }T [M ]{am } = 0 which is the orthogonality condition for eigenvectors. [M ] = [M ]T . Also.
Using equations (14) and (19).Dynamic Analysis Returning now to the equation of motion (1). The participation factors for the modes are given by {Γn } = [Φ]T {M } Then the modal amplitude for the nth mode is given by (18) An = Γn u0 n (19) where u0 is the response of a single degree of freedom system having circular frequency n ωn . the displacements are given by. 2 ¨ {An } + [ωn ]{An } = [Φ]T {F (t)} (15) (16) which represents the modal equations of motion. If we now premultiply equation (1) by [Φ]T and substitute equations (14). where u us (t) is the prescribed support acceleration. we obtain ¨ [Φ]T [M ][Φ]{An } + [Φ]T [K][Φ]{An } = [Φ]T {F (t)} Substituting from equations (12) and (13) in equation (15). {u} = [Φ]{An } = [Φ]{Γn u0 } n (20) 150 . This merely states that the true modal displacements equal the characteristic displacements (eigenvector displacements) times the modal amplitude determined by the response calculations and. further that the total displacements are linear combinations of the modal values. let {u} = [Φ]{An } ¨ and {¨} = [Φ]{An } u (14) Where {An } is the modal amplitude of the nth mode. Thus the modal equations of motion may be ¨ written as 2 ¨ {An } + [ωn ]{An } = −¨s (t)[Φ]T {M } u (17) where An is the relative modal displacement for the nth mode with respect to the support. Support Motion Solutions for support motion may be obtained if {F (t)} is replaced by −¨s (t){M }.
Numerical integration with short time steps is used to calculate the response of the system. the input spectrum is interpolated (linearly or logarithmically). Mn = Γ2 n Effective modal mass is useful to verify if all the significant modes of vibration are included in the dynamic analysis by comparing the total effective modal mass with the total actual mass. response spectra are prepared by calculating the response to a specified excitation of single degreeoffreedom systems with various amounts of damping. The interpolated spectrum values are then combined for the X. only the maximum values for each mode are calculated and then superimposed (modal combination) to give total response. The abscissa of the spectrum is the natural frequency (or period) of the system. the effective modal mass for the nth mode is simply the square of the normalized participation factor. To calculate response of the piping system. Response Spectrum The concept of response spectrum. acceleration or any other quantity of interest). the process is repeated and a new maximum response is recorded. max From equation (20). in recent years has gained wide acceptance in structural dynamics analysis. When the participation factor is calculated using normalized eigenvectors as in equation (18). Stated briefly. and the ordinate. In general. However this is excessively conservative and a more probable value of the maximum response is the square root of the sum of squares (SRSS) of the modal maxima. California earthquake of 1940 is used for this purpose. This process is repeated until all frequencies of interest have been covered and the results plotted. velocity. Typically the El Centro. particularly in seismic design.Dynamic Analysis Effective Modal Mass Effective modal mass is defined as the part of the total mass responding to the dynamic loading in each mode. Since the response spectra give only maximum response. 151 . to a specified loading for all possible single degreeoffreedom systems. the maximum displacement vector for the nth mode can be calculated from the maximum response of a single degreeoffreedom system. the response spectrum is a plot of the maximum response (maximum displacement. Changing the parameters of the system to change the natural frequency. The stepbystep process is continued until the total earthquake record is completed and becomes the response of the system to that excitation. A conservative upper bound for the total response may be obtained by adding the absolute values of the maximum modal components (absolute sum). Y and Z directions (direction sum) either as absolute sum or SRSS sum to give the maximum response of a single degreeoffreedom system: u0 at that frequency. {un }max = {φn } Γn u0 n max The maximum values of element and support load forces per mode are calculated from the maximum displacements calculated per mode as above using the stiffness properties of the structure. for each natural frequency of the piping system. the maximum response.
Dynamic Analysis
The total response (displacements and forces) is calculated by superimposing the modal responses according to the specified mode sum method which can be absolute sum, square root of sum of squares (SRSS) or closely spaced (10%) modes method.
Closely Spaced Modes
Studies have shown that SRSS procedure for combining modes can significantly underestimate the true response in certain cases in which some of the natural frequencies of a structural system are closely spaced. The ten percent method is one of NRC approved methods (Based on NRC Guide 1.92) for addressing this problem.
N
R=
n=1
2 Rn + 2
Ri Rj 
where
R = Total (combined) response Rn = Peak value of the response due to the nth mode N = Number of significant modes
The second summation is to be done on all i and j modes whose frequencies are closely spaced to each other. Let ωi and ωj be the frequencies of the ith and jth modes. The modes are closely spaced if:
ωj − ωi ≤ 0.1 ωi Time History
and
1≤i≤j≤N
Time history analysis requires the solution to the equations
[M ]{¨} + [C]{u} + [K]{u} = {F (t)} u ˙
where
(21)
[M ] = [C] = [K] = {u} = {u} = ˙ {¨} = u {F (t)} =
diagonal mass matrix damping matrix stiffness matrix displacement vector velocity vector acceleration vector applied dynamic force vector
The time history analysis is carried out using mode superposition method. It is assumed that the structural response can be described adequately by the p lowest vibration modes out of the total possible n vibration modes and p < n. Using the transformation u = ΦX , where the columns in Φ are the p mass normalized eigenvectors, equation (21) can be written as
¨ ˙ X + ∆X + Ω2 X = ΦT F
where
(22)
∆ = diag (2ωi ξi ) 2 Ω2 = diag (ωi )
152
Dynamic Analysis
In equation (22), it is assumed that the damping matrix [C] satisfies the modal orthogonality condition
{φi }T [C]{φj } = 0
(i = j)
Equation (22) therefore represents p uncoupled second order differential equations. These are solved using the Wilson θ method, which is an unconditionally stable stepbystep integration scheme. The same time step is used in the integration of all equations to simplify the calculations.
Harmonic Analysis
A harmonic analysis is performed to analyze the response to sinusoidal loads. Harmonic forces can arise from unbalanced rotating equipment, acoustic vibrations caused by reciprocating equipment, flow impedance, and other sources. These forces can be damaging to a piping system if their frequency is close to the system’s natural frequency, thereby introducing resonant conditions. The equation of dynamic equilibrium associated with the response of the structure subjected to harmonic forces is:
[M ]{¨} + [C]{u} + [K]{u} = sin(ωt)F u ˙
where
(23)
[M ] [C] [K] {u} {u} ˙ {¨} u ω t F
= = = = = = = = =
diagonal mass matrix damping matrix stiffness matrix displacement vector velocity vector acceleration vector frequency of the applied force time maximum magnitude of the applied force
More complex forms of vibration, such as those caused by the fluid flow, may be considered as superposition of several simple harmonics, each with it own frequency, magnitude, and phase. A harmonic analysis uses the results from the modal analysis to obtain a solution. A single damping factor is used for all modes. First, the maximum response of each harmonic is obtained separately. Then the total response of the system is determined by combining the individual responses. The combination method may be specified as the Root Mean Square (RMS) or Absolute Sum.
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Dynamic Susceptibility
Dynamic Susceptibility feature is a screening tool for potentially large alternating stresses. The dynamic stresses are the dynamic bending stresses associated with vibration in a natural mode. In other words, the modal analysis result has been generalized to include the alternating bending stresses associated with the vibration in a natural mode. The dynamic susceptibility for any mode is the ratio of the maximum alternating bending stress to the maximum vibration velocity. This "susceptibility ratio" provides an indicator of the susceptibility of the system to large dynamic stresses. Also, the associated animated mode shapes include colorspotmarkers identifying the respective locations of maximum vibration and maximum dynamic bending stress. The susceptibility ratio and the graphics feature provide incisive insights into the reasons for high susceptibility and how to make improvements. The "Modal Analysis" output load case in CAEPIPE has been enhanced. In addition to the modal frequencies and mode shapes, you will see two new results items called "dynamic stresses" and "dynamic susceptibility." In case you do not see these two items in the results dialog, you need to activate this feature by defining an environment variable.
First method:
An environment variable "HARTLEN" needs to be declared under My Computer > Properties > Environment > Variable (HARTLEN), and its Value set to (YES). Please check with your System Admin because different versions of Windows have slightly different methods of doing it.
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Dynamic Susceptibility Second method:
Open the MSDOS Command Prompt. Type "SET HARTLEN=YES" (enter), change directory (using CD command) to where CAEPIPE program files are located, start CAEPIPE.EXE. Upon (modal) analysis, the Results dialog will display the required results (dynamic stresses and dynamic susceptibility).
Please see Appendix for a detailed technical discussion of the method with an example.
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Elastic Element
The elastic element is a general 6 × 6 stiffness matrix, with nonzero diagonal terms and zero offdiagonal terms. Use this element to model the stiffness of a component unavailable in CAEPIPE. An elastic element is input by typing "e" in the Type column or selecting "Elastic element" from the Element Types dialog.
The Elastic element dialog is shown.
The stiffnesses are in the local coordinate system defined by the directions of the local x, y and zaxes. The local yaxis should be perpendicular to the local xaxis (i.e., their dot product should be zero). The local zaxis is internally calculated as cross product of the local x and yaxes. The elastic element is not subjected to any sustained or thermal expansion loads.
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Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP)
Use of FRP pipe due to its light weight, superior corrosion resistance, temperature capabilities and mechanical strength has gained wide acceptance in many industries. Several manufacturers like FIBERCAST manufacture different types of FRP pipes and fittings and provide technical assistance to their customers from design through installation. You can model FRP material in CAEPIPE and have the program calculate deflections, forces, moments and stresses. To define the FRP material, click on "Matl" in the header row in the Layout window.
In the Material List window that is shown, double click on an empty row to input a new material.
The Material dialog will be shown.
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Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP)
The material name can be up to three alphanumeric characters. Enter description and density. You need to select "FR: Fiber Reinf. Plastic (FRP)" from the Type dropdown combo box before you click on the Properties button. The Poisson’s ratio (Nu) is the ratio of the strain in the axial direction resulting from the stress in the hoop direction. When you click on the Properties button, you are shown the table below where you enter temperature dependent properties.
FRP Material Moduli
CAEPIPE requires three moduli for an FRP material:
Shear
Axial Axial
Hoop
• Axial or Longitudinal (this is the most important one) • Hoop (this is used in Bourdon effect calculations). If this modulus is not available, use
axial modulus.
• Shear or Torsional. If this modulus is not available, use engineering judgment in putting
1/2 of axial modulus or a similar value. Note that a high modulus will result in high stresses, and a low modulus will result in high deflections. For FRP bends, a Flexibility factor of 1.0 is used unless you override it by specifying a Flexibility factor inside the bend dialog. Also for FRP bends, CAEPIPE uses a default SIF of 2.3. You can override this too by specifying UserSIFs at the bend end nodes (A and B nodes).
Stiffness matrix
The stiffness matrix for an FRP material is formulated in the following manner: The stiffness matrix for a pipe is calculated using the following terms: Axial term = L / EA Shear term = shape factor x L / GA Bending term = L / EI Torsion term = L / 2GI where L = length, A = area, I = moment of inertia E = Elastic modulus, G = shear modulus 158
Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP)
For an isotropic material, G = E / 2(1 + ν) where ν = Poisson’s ratio, For an FRP material, however, E = axial modulus and G is independently specified (i.e., it is not calculated using E and ν). The hoop modulus and FRP Poisson’s ratio are only used in Bourdon effect calculation where, Poisson’s ratio used = FRP Poisson’s ratio input x axial modulus / hoop modulus
Results
CAEPIPE calculates deflections, forces, moments and stresses. Each item can be seen under the respective title in Results. FRP element stresses can be seen, sorted or unsorted. These different stresses are computed as per formulas given towards the end of Appendix A.
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Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP)
FRP piping in Rendered graphics views is shown in golden color.
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. i. or jacketed bend nodes (C. Weight The weight should be the total weight of flanges. Gasket Diameter The gasket diameter is used in calculating equivalent flange pressure in the flange report. B nodes). if there are two flanges the weight should be the weight of two flanges.e.Flange A flange is input by typing "fl" in the Data column or selecting "Flange" from the Data Types dialog. The Flange dialog is shown. the bend flexibility and SIF are modified. D nodes). The type of the flange can be selected from the Type dropdown combo box. 161 . If flanges are located at the bend end nodes (A.
The flange pressure is an equivalent pressure calculated from the actual pressure in pipe. The above shown equation is based on the article NC3658. Every flange in a model is listed in the flange report. 162 . The equivalent flange pressure is compared with the allowable pressure. 1992 edn. it is conservatively assumed to be the internal diameter of the pipe).1 of ASME Section III Class 2. Flange Report The flange report is shown in the results. page 176. Flange Library The flange library may be accessed by clicking on the Library button of the Flange dialog.. The weight in the library is the weight of two weld neck flanges (including bolts). In many cases the allowable pressure may be conservatively set to the flange rating. the bending moment on the flange and the axial force on the flange.Flange Allowable Pressure The equivalent flange pressure is compared with the allowable pressure for the flange in the flange report. as follows: F lange P ressure = P ressure + 16 × Bending M oment 4 × Axial F orce + π × Gasket dia3 π × Gasket dia2 The Gasket diameter is at the gasket loading location (if it is not input.
The forces and moments are applied in the sustained and operating load cases. 163 . Y and Z directions are input by typing "fo" in the Data column or selecting "Force" from the Data Types dialog.Force Forces and moments in the global X. The Force dialog is shown.
relief valve and slug flow loads. DLF is the ratio of the maximum dynamic displacement divided by the maximum static displacement. The Force spectrum list appears. It is often used in place of a timehistory analysis to determine the response of the piping system to sudden impulsive loads such as water hammer. The actual force spectrum load at a node is defined using this force spectrum in addition to the direction (FX. natural frequencies. frequency. FY. FZ. units (lb. MY. It is a table of Dynamic Load Factors (DLF) vs. inlb. Note that Force spectrum is a nondimensional function (since it is a ratio) defining a curve representing force vs. Nm.Force Spectrum In force spectrum analysis. 164 . The force spectrum is a table of spectral values vs frequencies that captures the intensity and frequency content of the timehistory loads. MZ). MX. kgm) and a scale factor. ftlb. the results of the modal analysis are used with force spectrum loads to calculate the response (displacements. The Force spectrums are input from the Layout or List menu: Misc > Force spectrums. kg. N. support loads and stresses) of the piping system.
To read a force spectrum from a text file: use the List menu: File > Read force spectrum. . characters) Spectrum value Spectrum value Spectrum value .Force Spectrum Enter a name for the force spectrum and spectrum values vs frequencies table. They will be sorted in ascending order after reading from the file. . In addition to inputting the force spectrum directly. The text file should be in the following format: Name (up to 31 Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) . 165 . The frequencies can be in any order. . The Convert Time Function dialog appears. . To convert a previously defined time function to force spectrum: use the List menu: File > Convert time function. it can also be read from a text file or converted from a previously defined time function.
To apply the force spectrum load at a node click on the Data heading or press Ctrl+Shift+D for Data Types dialog. Number of frequencies and the Damping. 166 . Load" as the data type and click on OK. Input force spectrum loads at other nodes similarly. This opens the Force Spectrum Load dialog. When you press Enter or click on OK. Then input the Force spectrum name (defaults to the Time function name). Then select the force spectrum load case for analysis using the Layout menu: Loads > Load cases. Maximum frequency. Select the direction. Force Spectrum Load The force spectrum loads are applied at nodes (in Data column in Layout window).Force Spectrum Select the time function to convert from the Time function name drop down combo box. The time function is converted to a force spectrum by solving the dynamic equation of motion for a damped single spring mass system with the time function as a forcing function at each frequency using Duhamel’s integral and dividing the absolute maximum dynamic displacement by the static displacement. Select "Force Sp. units and force spectrum using the drop down combo boxes and input appropriate scale factor. At least one force spectrum must be defined before a force spectrum load at a node can be input. the time function will be converted to a force spectrum and entered into the force spectrum list. Then click on OK to enter the force spectrum load.
The force spectrum load case is analyzed as an Occasional load.Force Spectrum Note that Modal analysis and Sustained (W+P) load cases are automatically selected when you select Force spectrum load case. 167 .
DY and DZ fields. DY and DZ fields. DZ fields for this node may be left blank to have a (0. you have to designate the starting node number as a "From" node.From (Node) When you want to start a new branch line. "From" is input by typing "f" in the Type column or selecting "From" from the Element Types dialog. then they are taken as zero.0) origin or coordinates may be specified in the DX. If you are specifying a new node. If no values are specified as coordinates. This could be an existing node. The first node of a model is always a "From" node. DY. Values specified for DX. then you have to specify the coordinates for the node in the DX. DY and DZ fields to have a nonzero reference point for the model. 168 .0. The DX. DY and DZ for any other node other than a From node are interpreted as offsets (not as coordinates). in which case you do not have to specify values for the DX.
turn. pan and print are available in this window. Many commands to manipulate the image such as zoom. CAEPIPE automatically opens the Layout window and the Graphics window. 169 . The image shown above can be shown with a white background too (use menu Options > Background > White). Context Menu Rightclicking anywhere inside this window displays the context menu. When a model is opened.Graphics Window When you open a model. the Graphics window shows the view of the model when the model was last saved.
Modified or newly entered data is immediately updated in the Layout and the List windows. 170 . you can still click on an element/data item. This feature gives you more flexibility during editing your model. For example. This feature works in Render mode too. so that you see all the pertinent data at the same time. the context menu shows three commands specific to Sorted stresses (Show Stresses. Dialog boxes are opened only for elements/data that have editable data. clicking on a pipe element will not open a dialog box but will all the same synchronize the highlights in the other windows to the same pipe element.Graphics Window In addition to a few commands constantly available on this menu. you may want to zoom in on that area before clicking on a symbol. CAEPIPE automatically synchronizes the highlights in the Layout and the List windows on the row that contains the element/data item you clicked on. Show stress ratios and [set stress/ratio] Thresholds). except now the data you see presented are readonly (you cannot edit them). You can enter or modify properties inside the dialog just as if you were editing in the Layout window. For example. when Sorted stresses are shown. Editing in Graphics Window Clicking on an editable element or data item brings up the related dialog (same as that you see opened in the Layout window). other commands appear on the menu depending on the results item shown in the Results window. Sometimes when symbols are closely grouped. That way. CAEPIPE presents you the correct dialog box. When you click on any symbol. When you are viewing results.
you will see the following dialog in the window.Graphics Window When you click on a valve (as shown above). You may modify any value. 171 .
simply drag the scroll thumbs in the scrollbar and the image moves accordingly. Ctrl+A Ctrl+Shift+C Ctrl+T Ctrl+S Ctrl+N Ctrl+D Ctrl+R F2 F4 F5 Zoom All Center image around a chosen point Turn (rotate) image Show Show node numbers Redraw image Render image Move focus to Layout or List window (wherever the focus was before) Viewpoint Previous view Page Up Zoom in Page Down Zoom out Dynamic Resizing of Window Image When you resize the Graphics window. Using Scroll Thumbs When you want to move or pan the image. or Ctrl+T). If you have activated the Turn command (menu View > Turn. etc. 172 . Ctrl+C for copy image. then the scroll thumbs will rotate the image when moved. CAEPIPE will automatically resize the image proportionately.). Dynamic scaling makes it unnecessary for you to "Zoom All" every time you resize the window.Graphics Window Hotkeys You Can Use In addition to conventional MSWindows hotkeys (such as Ctrl+P for Print. you may use the following keys.
The zoomed image is shown next. The Layout and the Graphics windows are automatically updated immediately. CAEPIPE enlarges the image. showing the changes. the flashing item points out precisely the location of the element you are working on by acting as a flashing beacon.Graphics Window Graphics Synchronization with Open Text Windows The graphics image has a flashing item (such as an anchor or bend) that is synchronized at all times with the text window that has the focus. When you release the mouse button. simply use the mouse to draw a window (a box) around an area you are interested in. The Graphics and the List windows automatically show or highlight the same anchor. Graphics and List Example: Delete an Anchor or change a Material name in the List window. You are not forced to perform edits from any one given window. You get instant feedback. Simultaneous Visual Updates of Deflected and Mode Shapes Just switch between different load cases (or mode shapes) in the Results window and you will see the respective deflected/mode shape change too in the Graphics window. In complex models. Zoom Window To enlarge an area of image. Example: Move the highlight in Layout to an anchor. Dynamic Updating of Data in All Open windows: Layout. 173 .
previous view. etc. center image. 174 . you may want to select a white background and a quality of rendering (default is High). zoom. Previous view and Zoom All). HPGL plot file (PLT) and AutoCAD DXF). are available through the menus or a readily available context menu.. • Render Mode: Use this mode for realistic visualization of your model using OpenGL®.Graphics Window Menus and Toolbar The different menus in this window are explained in detail in the Menus section. Selective display of node numbers and graphic symbols makes CAEPIPE flexible and powerful (use Show and Show Nodes commands). You can change the printer font from here. In addition. Before printing a rendered image. A summary is given here. Before printing to a printer or a file. other standard graphical operations such as pan. Encapsulated Postscript (EPS). File menu: • Image can be printed to a printer or a file (formats supported are Windows Enhanced Metafile (EMF). you can change the title for the printout using the Plot Title command. View menu: • Mainly for Graphics operations (Viewpoint. viewpoint change.
Options menu: • Customize the display image by choosing a display font. In such a setting. graphics and results. The real advantage of this hotkey (F2) is for users who have a small monitor and work with maximized windows for input. Window menu: • From here. Use a combination of Show and Show Nodes commands available in the context menu (or from View menu). too. and changing the size of the toolbar icons. 175 . Help menu: • For online help. you can move the focus to the text window from which it came. repositioning the Axes symbol. F2 will move focus between text and Graphics windows. you can selectively display symbols and/or node numbers. Image can be printed. list. one keystroke (F2) will quickly move the focus to another window (without having to either minimize the one where the focus is or switch windows through the taskbar).Graphics Window Even in this mode.
i.Guide Guides are used to restrain the pipe against translation in the lateral directions. the friction force is calculated which is friction coefficient times the normal force (the vector sum of y and z reaction forces). Friction Coefficient When a friction coefficient is entered.e. displacements are restrained in the local y and z directions. 176 . a nonlinear analysis is performed. The solution converges when the displacement changes by less than 1% between successive iterations. This gap must be closed before any restraint forces can be developed. Stiffness The default stiffness is rigid which is input by typing "r" or "Rigid" in the Stiffness field. In each iteration.0. A guide restricts the translational movement normal to its axis. Gap If there is a clearance between the pipe and the guide it may be entered as a Gap. This force is applied in the local x direction opposing the axial motion of pipe. If there is no gap leave this field blank or enter it as 0.. The Guide dialog is shown. The gap is assumed to be symmetric about the guide axis. A guide is input by typing "g" in the Data column or selecting "Guide" from the Data Types dialog. A nonrigid stiffness may be entered by typing the value of the stiffness in the Stiffness field.
177 . A guide can be connected to another node in the piping system by entering the node number in the "Connected to Node" field. If a preceding element is not available.Guide Connected to Node By default the guide is connected to a fixed ground point which is not a part of the piping system. The local coordinate system (LCS) may be viewed graphically from the Guide List window by the menu: View > Show LCS. the following element is used to calculate the guide direction. Local Coordinate System (LCS) The guide direction (local x) is based on the preceding element.
" The following hanger types are available: Hanger Types ABBPBS Fee & Mason Basic Engineers Flexider (3060120) BergenPaterson Flexider (50100200) BergenPaterson (L) Fronek BHEL Hyderabad Grinnell BHEL Trichy Hydra Borrello Lisega Carpenter & Paterson Mitsubishi (3060120) Comet Mitsubishi (80160) Corner & Lada Myricks Dynax NHK (3060120) Elcen NHK (80160) Nordon NPS Industries Piping Services Piping Tech & Products Power Piping Sanwa Tekki(3060120) Sanwa Tekki(85170) Sarathi Spring Supports SSG 178 . The Hanger dialog is shown.e. A spring hanger or "To be designed" hanger is input by typing "h" in the Data column and pressing Enter or selecting "Hanger" from the Data Types dialog. manufacturer) of the hanger can be selected from the dropdown combo box "Type.Hanger A spring hanger always acts in the vertical direction. Type The type (i..
Select Hanger The hanger is selected from the manufacturer’s catalog based on the hot load and hanger travel. it is released.Hanger Number of Hangers The number of hangers is the number of separate hangers connected in parallel at this node. Calculate Hanger Travel Vertical restraints (applied in step 1) at hanger locations are removed. Connected to Node By default the hanger is connected to a fixed ground point which is not a part of the piping system. 2. 179 . Load Variation The load variation (in percent) is the maximum variation between the cold and hot loads. Vertical displacements at the hanger locations obtained from this operating load case analysis are the hanger travels. check the Short Range check box. If multiple thermal load cases are specified only the first thermal load is used for this operating load case. A hanger can be connected to another node in the piping system by entering the node number in the "Connected to node" field. This node must be directly above or below the hanger node. they are considered a specialty item and generally not used. The calculated load variation is checked against specified maximum load variation. Typical value is 25%. Hanger Design Procedure 1. Released anchors (if any) are restored. The hot loads (calculated in step 1) are applied as upward forces at the hanger locations. However. The reactions at the hanger locations from this preliminary sustained load analysis are the hanger hot loads. If any anchor is to be released (so that the hanger rather than the nearby equipment takes the sustained load). If limit stops are present. 3. The hanger load variation is calculated as: Load Variation = 100 x Spring rate x travel / Hot load. The stiffness and load capacity of each hanger are multiplied by the number of hangers to find the effective stiffness and load capacity of the hanger support at this node. The cold load is calculated as: cold load = hot load + spring rate x hanger travel. A preliminary operating load case analysis is performed. The hanger is selected such that the hot load is closest to the average of the minimum and maximum loads. The hanger for which both the hot and cold loads are within the hanger’s allowable working range and the load variation is less than the allowed load variation is selected. Then the hanger travels are recalculated using the recalculated hot loads. Calculate Hot Load Hot load is the load which balances the piping system under sustained loads. If a short range hanger is to be designed. a preliminary sustained load analysis is performed in which all hanger locations are restrained vertically. Short Range Short range hangers are used if the available space is not enough for installing midrange hangers. To calculate hot load. the hot loads are recalculated with the status of the limit stops at the end of the preliminary operating load case.
The hanger hot loads are used in the sustained and operating load cases. If "Do not include hanger stiffness" is chosen in the Analysis options: The hanger spring rates are not added to the overall stiffness matrix. 180 . Install Hangers If "Include hanger stiffness" is chosen in the Analysis options: The hanger spring rates are added to the overall stiffness matrix.Hanger 4. The hanger cold loads are used in the sustained and operating load cases.
will act together to absorb lateral deflection.e. the DX. the "From" and "To" nodes are coincident. i.. 181 . A pair of hinge joints. it is a zero length element. A hinge joint is input by typing "h" in the Type column or selecting "Hinge joint" from the Element Types dialog. A hinge is modeled by two nodes. Hinge joints are used in sets of two or three to absorb pipe movement in one or more directions in a single plane piping system. Hence. separated by a section of piping. The two nodes of the hinge joint are coincident.Hinge Joint Hinge joint is an expansion joint designed to permit angular rotation in a single plane by use of a pair of pins that pass through plates attached to the expansion joint ends. DY and DZ fields in the Layout window should be left blank. The Hinge joint dialog is shown. one on each side of the hinge joint. Hinge axis The two sides of the hinge joint shown are joined by hinge pins which are along the hinge axis shown in the figure. Hinge joints are designed to take the full pressure thrust. So.
The stiffness values may be left blank. Torque Applied Torque Friction Torque Stiffness (Slope) Rotation = (Applied Torque . Weight This is the total weight of the Hinge joint assembly. the rotation is calculated as shown above.Friction Torque) Stiffness When the applied torque is less than friction torque. If you do not want friction in the hinge joint. there is no further rotation irrespective of the applied torque. When rotation limit is reached. Rotation limit of "None" or Blank means infinite (i. Y comp and Z comp. the friction torque value may be left blank. Rotation Limit Rotation limit is an upper limit on the rotation of hinge joint in the plus or minus directions. Input the stiffness around the rotational (hinge) axis. there is no rotation. In that case a very small value (1 inlb/deg) is used internally to avoid dividing by zero. Friction Torque The hinge joint will rotate only if the external torque exceeds the friction torque. Beyond that the rotation is proportional to the rotational stiffness of the hinge joint. there is no limit).. Otherwise engineering judgement may be used. The friction torque value may be available from the manufacturer of the hinge joint or test results. Rotation limit of 0. Otherwise engineering judgement may be used. The stiffness value may be available from the manufacturer of the hinge joint or test results." for more information on specifying a direction using X comp.0 (zero) means it is unable to rotate (i.e. When the applied torque exceeds friction torque.e. 182 ." See "Direction.Hinge Joint Rotational Stiffness Also called Angular stiffness.. it is rigid). Axis direction The hinge axis is specified by the "Axis direction.
enter material. Type 40 for Node. Input bend at node 30: Type 30 for Node. Press Enter to move to the next row. Type 50 for Node. and weight of 35 lb.Hinge Joint Example Assume that we had the model shown below (shown with an exaggerated deflection) containing 6" piping with a pair of Hinge joints. section and load names. press Enter to move to the next row. 183 . Each Hinge joint has the following data: rotational stiffness of 66 inlb/degree. 3’6" for DX. Press Enter to move to the next row. 50) Magnified deflected shape Undeflected model Hinge 2 (60. Type 20 for Node. Type "h" in the Type column. Expansion Guide Anchor 10 20 30 Hinge 1 (40. enter –1’6" for DY (as the offset from node 30 to node 40). Guide for Data. This shows the hinge dialog. 2’ for DX. press Tab to move to the Type field. Type "b" and Tab to next column to enter a bend. 70) 80 90 Guide 100 Anchor Expansion The following steps describe the modeling procedure: The first node 10 is already defined as an anchor. press Enter to complete the bend and move to next row.
The Layout window is shown below: 184 . press Enter to move to next row. Input bend at node 80: type 80 for Node. type "b" for Type and Tab to next column to enter a bend. This shows the hinge dialog. This completes the hinge input. enter –1’6" for DY (as the offset from node 50 to node 60).0 for Z comp (axis direction). press Enter. Type 70 for Node. press Enter or click on OK to close the dialog. press Tab to move to Type field. Type –1’6" for DY (offset from node 70 to bend node 80).Hinge Joint Enter 66 (inlb/deg. 1. DY. 35 (lb) for Weight. Enter the hinge data as before and click on OK to move to the next row. Since there cannot be any offsets (DX. DZ) for the hinge node from the previous node. Complete the model through nodes 90 and 100 similar to steps 1 and 2 above.) for Rotational stiffness. Type "h" in the Type column. the cursor automatically moves to the next row. Type 60 for Node.
Hinge Joint The graphics is shown below: The rendered graphics is shown below: 185 .
186 . The "Hydrotest Load" dialog appears. The hydrotest load is input by pressing "h" on an empty row in the Layout window (similar to pressing "c" for a comment) or on an empty row. before putting the system in service to check for leaks. selecting "Hydrotest load" from the Element Types dialog (Ctrl+Shft+T). If you need to modify an existing hydrotest load. The hydrotest load is defined by the specific gravity of the test fluid (1. the test pressure and whether to include or exclude the insulation weight (because many times the hydrotest is performed before applying the insulation). The hydrotest load can be constant over the whole model or can be changed or even excluded in parts of the model.e.Hydrotest Hydrotest load case is used to analyze loading from a hydrostatic test which is performed by filling the piping system with a pressurized fluid (typically water). etc. the hydrotest load appears in the Layout window. The hydrotest load is applied to the rows that follow till changed by another hydrotest load. double click on the row which defines the hydrotest load to bring up the Hydrotest Load dialog. After the hydrotest load is input by pressing Enter or clicking on OK. they act as rigid vertical supports) during hydrotest.. All hangers are assumed pinned (i.0 for water).
The hydrotest load case is analyzed as a Sustained load. 187 .Hydrotest To analyze the hydrotest load case. the Hydrotest load case must be selected using the command Loads > Load cases from the Layout window.
Jacket End Cap A jacket end cap is used to rigidly connect all six degrees of freedom of the coincident nodes of a jacketed pipe (i.. the node on the core pipe and the corresponding node on the jacket pipe are tied together so that both nodes have the same displacements and rotations). A jacket end cap is input at a jacketed pipe node by typing "j" in the Data column or selecting "Jacket End Cap" from the Data Types dialog.e. 188 .
restraint). and load names are input here. 189 . section and load for core and jacket. The Jacketed Pipe dialog is shown.Jacketed Piping Jacketed piping consists of a core pipe surrounded by a jacket pipe with separate material. jacket end cap. The jacket’s material. if you had a jacket pipe from node 10 to 20. CAEPIPE generates a 10J and a 20J as jacket nodes. Internal nodes CAEPIPE generates a "J" node for jacket pipes. section and load specified in the Jacketed Pipe dialog apply to the jacket pipe while the ones mentioned on the layout row (next to offsets) apply to the core pipe. Jacketed Pipe A Jacketed pipe is input by typing "JP" under Type or selecting "Jacketed pipe" from the Element types dialog. The properties of a jacket pipe are retained until changed. support (hanger. there is no need to retype the names of the jacket properties every time you input a jacketed pipe. So. section. For example. forces on the jacket. These internally generated nodes may be used to specify data items such as a spider. The material.
The properties of a jacketed pipe are retained until changed. and load names are input here. there is no need to retype the names of the jacket properties every time you input a jacketed pipe. So. A Jacketed bend is input by typing "JB" in the Type column or by selecting "Jacketed bend" from the Element types dialog. The Jacketed Bend dialog is shown.Jacketed Piping Jacketed Bend A Jacketed bend consists of a core bend (with a straight portion) surrounded by a jacket bend (with a straight portion of jacket pipe). Jacket (properties) The jacket’s material. section. 190 .
Note that CAEPIPE does not check for interference between the core and the jacket arising out of differently specified bend radii. The core pipe (bend) has its own "A" and "B" nodes. 30C) and (30B and 30D) are coincident only if the core and the jacket pipes have the same bend radii. You need to enter them on the layout row under Material. (c) The internal area of the jacket pipe is calculated. These internal nodes may be used to specify data items such as a spider jacket end cap.Jacketed Piping Core (properties) Presently these properties are disabled. etc. Intermediate nodes You can define additional nodes on the outside jacket of a jacketed bend for locating supports. Internal nodes CAEPIPE generates "C" and "D" nodes for the Jacketed bend on the jacket at the near and far ends of the bend. Bend thickness Separate bend thicknesses may be specified for the core and the jacket bends. Bend radius Separate bend radii may be specified for the core and the jacket pipes. (b) Area is calculated by using the above diameter (a). 191 . Contents Weight The weight of the contents between the jacket and the core pipes is calculated in the following manner: (a) Twice the insulation thickness on the core pipe is added to the outer diameter of the core pipe. Split a Bend/Pipe A jacketed pipe/bend may be split by using the Split option in the Edit menu in the Layout window. the core and the jacket pipes have the same bend radii. Jacketed Reducer See modeling procedure in section on the Reducer. Use the Render feature in the Graphics window to check visually for interference. See Internal nodes below. Nodes (30A. Example: When you define a Jacketed bend from node 20 to node 30. See figure. You may also use internal nodes generated by CAEPIPE. if they are not default jacket and core section thicknesses. Usually. (d) The area (b) is subtracted from the internal area of the jacket pipe (c) and this result is further used to compute weight. 30C and 30D (nodes on jacket) are generated. Section and Load. 30A. 30B (nodes on core bend). forces. supports.
A jacket connection of the type spider at node 20B acts as an internal guide between the core pipe and the jacket pipe. Observe the spider at the far end of the bend (node 20B). restraint). supports (hanger. The nodes 20A and 20B are coincident with 20C and 20D respectively only if the core and the jacket pipes have the same bend radii. (20B. that is. 20D) and (30.Jacketed Piping Example: Jacketed Pipe/Bend The figure below shows a Jacketed pipe with a Jacketed bend (at node 20TIP). 20A. 10J). rotating and bending movement between core and jacket pipes. You may use them for specifying data items such as spiders. forces. The pipes have to be supported and connected using supports and jacket connections. 30J. Note that the core and jacket nodes are not connected even though they are coincident. 20B are internally generated nodes. The end cap at node 30 connects the core and jacket pipes rigidly. 20D. 20C). it prevents any radial movement but allows sliding. The hanger is at node 30J since it is attached to the jacket. The nodes (10. An anchor each at nodes 10 and 10J is specified. 192 . The nodes 10J. 20C. etc. 30J) are coincident. (20A.
• Use some graphics features (zoom all. The numbers should be numeric except when you are using internally generated nodes (A.) for analysis. allows you to create/modify the layout of your piping model. etc. 193 . • Define analysis options such as which piping code to use. In the Layout window. viewpoint.) to view the model. pipe sections and loads. click in this field and use Backspace or Delete key. the row you are working on is highlighted by the yellow highlight bar (in figure below. The following illustration names the different fields in the Layout window. you can click on Type to show Element types. D.Layout Window The window that is displayed when you open a piping model is the Layout window. Other things you can do here are: • Specify material types. # (Row Number) The first field contains the row number. The Header row with column headings (see "Clickable Header row" in the illustration) is a special row that allows you to click on it to perform a related operation. there are ten fields (columns) in the Layout window. Description of Fields (numbers in parentheses refer to numbers in the illustration above). J). C. etc. automatically incremented. Press Tab or Enter and confirm the change. Response Spectrum. • Define load cases (Sustained. It is not editable. Type in a new node number. the highlight is on the Title row). set cutoff frequency for mode extraction. (1) Node This is the node number field where you type in node numbers as you model the piping system. as the name indicates. A Layout window. Presently. as well as set units. Expansion. For example. B. To change an existing node number. set reference temperature. etc.
a valve. You can set an increment under the menu Options > Node increment command. DY. Comments print along with the layout data so you can use this feature to document the model. the offsets are: DX=5. flanges. you do not need to specify coordinates for the first From node. This could be a pipe. An element is a fitting or a component between two nodes.. When you specify values for the DX. nozzles. etc. Offsets are components of lengths of elements (exceptions are zerolength elements like a ball and a hinge joint).196 ft. SIFs. See a description later in this section under Element Types. (5) Sect (Section) Type in the section name of the pipe section you want to use for this element. For any other From row with a previously defined node number. DZ These fields are offsets (also called relative coordinates) in the three global X.Layout Window You need not enter each node number. You can specify a specialized form of a comment to input a Hydrostatic test load by pressing "h" on an empty row. DY=3 ft. the Hydrostatic load is applied to model from row 8 onwards). Y and the Z components (using basic trigonometry) and input them here. they are treated as (absolute) coordinates of the node rather than (relative) offsets from the previous node. It is automatically generated when you press Tab to move to the next field.0. node 30 on row 8 in the previous figure).0). See Data types below for how to specify an item. an expansion joint or most items listed under the Element types dialog. you do not need to enter coordinates because CAEPIPE already has the coordinates of this node (for example. The load is applied to the model from that row onwards until modified again (in the figure. For example. a bend. (6) Load Type in the load name of the load you want to use for this element. (8) Comment You can create a comment anywhere you like in the Layout window by simply pressing "c" on an empty row. hangers. The offsets can be negative depending on the way you route your piping. DY and DZ fields for the From row. (4) Matl (Material) Type in the material name of the material you want to use for this element. then calculate the X. If the model begins at the global origin (0. (7) Data Use this field to enter data items at a node such as anchors. 194 . They are measured from the previous node’s location. (2) Type This is the element type field. (3) DX. You can use this feature to annotate the model with notes. or use the Slope command to calculate the components. Y and Z directions. to specify the offsets of a 6 feet long pipe routed 30 degrees to global Xaxis (in XY plane). If the element is in a skewed direction.
sections.MOD) must be present for this operation). but also material and spectrum library files. QA Block. and F3 between open text windows. and search for a node number. Print (to file). Edit menu: • You can edit all types of data (elements. loads (also for beams). and the CAEPIPE Results files. cutoff frequency for mode extraction.Layout Window Menubar File menu: • Standard file operations with a few special ones to note . spectrum.Open Results (model file (. split elements and generate copies of existing rows. Pressure correction. one keypress (F2 or F3) will quickly move the focus to another window (without having to either minimize the one where the focus is or switch windows through the taskbar). English or a combination). F2 will move focus between text and Graphics windows. Options menu: • For setting Analysis options such as Piping code. range of rows) from here. Help menu: • For online help. and specify loads for the model such as static seismic.. Misc menu: • View model coordinates. Window menu: • From here. time functions and spectra. The real advantage of these hotkeys (F2 and F3) is for users who have a small monitor and work with maximized windows for input. supports. Loads menu: • Set the load cases for analysis. You can open not only the CAEPIPE model file. define/view materials. Metric. anchor). pumps. Recently opened file list. 195 . wind. compressors and turbines. Use Ctrl T to edit element (bend. Other functions are to open the List window (Ctrl L) by selecting one of the displayed items. time history. View menu: • Mainly for Graphics (Viewpoint. graphics and results. Reference Temperature. Remember. and customize the look of CAEPIPE by choosing a display font. you can move the focus to another window (such as Graphics or List). etc. You can change properties for groups of elements. In such a setting. Analyze (model). Ctrl D to edit Data (flange.valve). Previous view and Zoom All). set Units (SI. etc. list.
and display a dialog of List of items to show an item in the List window. there is a button to open the last opened model file (hotkey: Enter). whether all bends have the same bend radius or whether limit stops are aligned in the correct directions or how many anchors have been specified in the model and so on. F4: Opens the Viewpoint dialog which you can set for the Graphics window.Layout Window Toolbar The toolbar presently is organized into three groups: File. Specified displacements. and Print. F5: This function key restores the Graphics window to the previous graphics view. All input data can be viewed through this command. • Window operations are (move focus to) Graphics window. This is not available from other windows. F2: This key moves the focus to and from the Graphics window. Pumps. Turbines. List (Ctrl+L) List is a powerful feature that helps you see itemized lists of information in the model. Compressors. For example. Materials. List window. you can view all element and data types specified in the model. Branch nodes. for example. • Graphics operations are Viewpoint and Zoom all. This is a useful tool to verify information. Window and Graphics operations. F3: This key moves focus to and from the List window. Sections and Loads. • File operations are New (model). Open (a model). 196 . Nozzle stiffnesses. Hotkeys You Can Use You can use following hotkeys in the Layout window: Home End Ctrl+Home Ctrl+End Arrow keys F2 F3 Move cursor to the first character in a field Move cursor to the last character in a field Top of model End of model Move highlight one row/field at a time Graphics window List window Tab Move cursor from field to field (left to right) Shift Tab Same as Tab but right to left Page Up Move highlight up one page Page Down Move highlight down one page Delete/BkSp Delete characters Ctrl+Insert Insert an empty ro w Ctrl+X Delete a row F1 Help Other hotkeys listed under menus Function Keys F1: Opens online help. In the very first window (when you start CAEPIPE). Save (model). Threaded joints. etc. list Coordinates of the nodes of the model.
Layout Window This command is "intelligent" in that the list dialog shows only those items that exist in the model. 197 . List can display as small a list as in the first figure below or as comprehensive a list as shown in the next figure. Consequently.
Layout Window Element types How to input an Element To input an element in a new row. Comment and Hydrostatic test load but need to be input from here anyway. V for valve.) Beam Bellows Ball joint Cut pipe (Cold spring) Elastic element From Hinge joint Jacketed pipe Jacketed Bend Location Miter Bend Pipe (you don’t have to type this because a Pipe is the default element type) Reducer Reducer Rigid element Slip joint Valve 198 . either right click in the Type field of the row or leftclick on Type (in the Header row) to display the Element types dialog (or press Ctrl+Shft+T). You can type the first letter or first few letters (example: Be for bend." Some of these are strictly not elements such as From. M for miter. Select the element you want from this dialog to insert into the model. Shortcut keys for Element types b (Tab) ben bea bel ba c e f h j jb l (L) m P r (Tab) re ri s v Bend Bend (no Tab required. Location. All of these have keyboard shortcuts. Any of these can be input for "Type. etc. You do not have to necessarily open this dialog to input any of these. Notice the different types of elements available.) to input an element type. and typing "ben" moves the cursor over to the DX field.
each element name appears under the Type field. confirm the change.Layout Window Once input. To change the element type. An existing element type (say. Note: A pipe has no editable property. How to change the Element type If you wanted to change a Valve element to an Elastic element. So. leave the element type field blank for that row. for a Bend. Notes: 1. then you have to do the following: Move the highlight bar to the row which contains the Valve (or click once on Valve). you are shown Edit Bend and List Bends as the choices. A pipe element is the default element type. 3. 2. or Assuming the highlight is on the Valve row. The Valve changes to an Elastic element after you confirm the change. a bend) cannot be changed to a Location type. The only exception is the Pipe element which is indicated by a blank (see the first annotated figure in this section). Mouse: Right clicking on the element gives you applicable choices. or use the mouse to specify another element by clicking on Type in the header row. and Ctrl+T would do nothing. The field under Type is blank on the row that contains Node 30 signifying a pipe. you can erase (use Backspace or Delete key) the existing element and specify a new one (using an accelerator key). For example. How to change Element properties From the keyboard: Press Ctrl+T (from anywhere on the row) to edit the element. click on Type (in the header row) to display the Element types dialog and then select Elastic element from it. 199 . Delete the word "Valve" and press "E".
etc.) Concentrated Mass Concentrated Mass Constant Support Flange Flange Force Guide Hanger (to be designed) Hanger (to be designed) Harmonic load Jacket end cap Limit stop Nozzle Restraint (2way). or • Right click in the Data column. Branch connection. type one of the following keys (under Shortcut keys) that will automatically enter the respective Data type (press Ctrl D to position the cursor in this field): Mouse: To open the Data types dialog.Layout Window Data types How to input a Data item When you want to input a support.. Shortcut keys for Data types a br c (Enter) conc cons f (Enter) fl fo g h (Enter) han har j l (L) n r (Enter) ro s (Enter) Anchor (rigid) Branch SIF (Welding tee. Z below Rod hanger Skewed restraint 200 . or. or • Select Misc menu >> Data Types. Keyboard: Press Ctrl+Shift+D to open the Data types dialog to select an item. an SIF. Y. use the mouse or the keyboard (several key accelerators are available to make your job easy) to open the Data types dialog and select an item from it. etc. see also X. • Left click on Data (in the header row). at a node. a restraint. a flange.
Note: A Threaded Joint has no editable property. and pick Nozzle and confirm the change. . Notes: 1. create an intermediate node for the Bend or Jacketed Bend and then specify a data item at the new node using Location type. and then selecting Anchor from it). To delete. press "a" in the Data field to input an Anchor (you do not have to go through the longwinded mouse method of clicking on Data in the header row to display the Data types dialog. 201 . You cannot create an intermediate node for a miter bend. click on Anchor. and does not exist physically on the element. You can delete an existing data item at anytime: .Right click on the item and select Delete Item 2b. flanges. You cannot specify a data item for a Bend. Instead. with the cursor placed on the row for which you need to change the Anchor. a Miter Bend or a Jacketed Bend. Keyboard: Press Ctrl+D (from anywhere on the row) to edit the item. etc.Use the Delete or the Backspace key to erase the item and press Enter. Alternately. click on Data on the header row. A deletion (whether a row or a field entry) cannot be undone. 2a. or use the mouse to specify another data item by clicking on Data in the header row. you are shown Edit Anchor. Mouse: Right clicking on the item gives you applicable choices. as the node number is a tangent intersection point. and Ctrl D would do nothing. A deletion cannot be undone. and select "Delete Anchor. Example: For an Anchor. delete the word "Anchor" and then type "n" or right click on the Anchor. Before you change an existing Data type (Anchor). How to change the Data type Assume that you wanted to change an Anchor to a Nozzle. How to edit the Data item’s properties To edit properties for anchors. For example." Alternately. you can erase (use Backspace or Delete key) the existing item and type a new one (accelerator). you have to delete it. to change the data type.Layout Window Shortcut keys for Data types (Continued) sk sn sp th t (Enter) ti u (Enter) user s w x y z Skewed restraint Snubber Spider Threaded joint Time varying load Time varying load User hanger User SIF Weld X restraint (2way) Y restraint (2way) Z restraint (2way) Notice the different types available.
you are shown the following context menus.. For example. for example.g. Delete Anchor or List Anchors). Insert. 202 . Sect or Load column to see the respective context menu. You can perform any listed action that more than often is a shortcut (e.Layout Window Context Menus Context menus (right click menus) can be found everywhere in CAEPIPE. Right clicking on DX/DY/DZ shows you. or a Bend. Split (an element ) and (specify) Slope for an element. Right click in the Matl. Delete (rows). when you right click on an Anchor.
The node can move freely within the gap. friction force will act opposing movement in the plane normal to the limit stop direction. 203 . Limit Stop Node Lower Limit Upper Limit Direction (vector) A limit stop is input by typing "l(L)" in the Data column or selecting "Limit Stop" from the Data Types dialog. After the gap closes. If friction is specified. after a limit is reached.Limit Stop Limit stops (and Line Stops) prevent a node from moving beyond a certain distance in a certain direction. a limit stop acts as a rigid or flexible restraint resisting further movement of the node in the specified direction.
the upper limit is positive and the lower limit is negative. The algebraic value of the upper limit must be greater than the lower limit. are the gaps present on either side of the node.25". If you have connected the limit stop node to another node. This friction force is displayed in results under Limit stop support loads. Y and Z components. If there is no gap at all. The gap is measured from the undeflected position of the node. it is possible to have a positive lower limit or a negative upper limit. then that limit should be left blank (as in the case of a 1way vertical support.125". If a particular limit does not exist (that is. Typically. and the gap to the rear of the limit stop node is called the lower limit. a friction force will oppose the movement in the plane normal to the limit stop direction when the gap is closed. The gap in front of the limit stop node in the direction of the vector is called the upper limit. When zero is entered. In some situations. the direction must not be input. and it is oriented from the connected node to the limit stop node.Limit Stop The Limit Stop dialog is shown. a node can move freely on that side of the node). For example. Press the "Vertical" button to set the direction to vertical. Limits Also called Gaps. It is calculated from the locations of the connected node and the limit stop node. Friction coefficient If friction coefficient is specified. then the corresponding limit should be explicitly input as zero. 204 . the limit stop acts as a oneway restraint in that direction. lower limit= –0. then unless the connected node is coincident with the limit stop node. upper and lower. These limits. upper limit = –0. Direction The direction in which the limit stop is oriented must be specified in terms of its global X. the upper limit should be blank).
If a friction coefficient is specified. If the lower or upper limit is reached. The maximum friction force is the product of Lo w 205 er Li m it U pp er Limit Stop Node Li m it . and you wanted to change all of those friction coefficients to the same value. See "Direction" above for information about how the direction is calculated depending on whether the connected node is coincident or not with the limit stop node. Stiffness The default is set to Rigid stiffness. leave the "Connected to Node" blank. the following procedure is used for convergence. the corresponding reaction force is calculated. use the Change command under Edit menu. ct io n ire D Connected Node Solution procedure Limit stops require a nonlinear iterative solution. Connected to Node A limit stop node can be connected to another node. During gap and friction calculations. If the limit stop node is connected to an external fixed point (Ground point). the relative displacements of the limit stop node are calculated with respect to the connected node.Limit Stop If you had several limit stops with friction coefficients specified. Other values may be input.
The solution converges when the displacement varies by less than 1% between successive iterations. The status of the limit stops for the first operating case (W+P1+T1) is used during dynamic analysis. If the limit is reached in the first operating case. Limit stops are included in dynamic analysis. No Upper limit (blank). Friction coefficient = 0. Direction vector of the limit stop is vertical along +Y axis.Limit Stop friction coefficient and the reaction force.3.3 for friction coefficient (this acts in the XZ plane which is perpendicular to the direction of the limit stop). then the limit stop is treated as a rigid twoway restraint in the direction of the limit stop. Example 1: Vertical 1way restraint Assume that you have a vertical 1way support with the following data: Upper limit = None.000 for Lower limit. The limit stop dialog will be shown. Enter 0. press "Vertical" button.000 for Y comp (vertical)). In the limit stop dialog. type "l(L)" in the Data column. 206 . Model the pipe up to the Limit stop node 30. The data is automatically entered (0. 1. Lower limit = 0. At node 30.
When you start a new model file. Press Tab in the Node column which puts the node number 20 automatically.Limit Stop Example 2: Pipe Slide/Shoe Assembly Y Z Y X Shoe Gap 0. Press Tab in the Node column which puts the node number 30 automatically. leave lower limit blank. Type 5’ for DX. Tab to Data column and type "l(L)" to open limit stop dialog. Type 5’ for DX. 207 . node 10 and an Anchor are automatically input. section and load names. one in each direction. Direction as (X comp = 1.5" Gap 0. Input line stop with gap (0. Friction coeff=0. press Enter to move cursor to next empty row. enter material.5") along X axis (Notice that this is a oneway restraint.5" Guide Gap 0. press Enter. press Enter. there is only one stop block along +X). Z comp = 0).25" Figure not to scale The assembly is modeled using three limit stops. Type Upper limit 0.3. Y comp = 0.5".
25".0. Y comp = 1. Direction (X comp =0.3. choose Limit stop from the Data Types dialog. Z comp = 1). Y comp = 0. Lower limit = –0. press Tab to move to Type field. press Enter. Type 30 for Node. 208 . Friction coeff=0. type Upper limit = 0.Limit Stop Create a limit stop in the Y direction. Type 30 for Node. type "L" for Location. type "L" for Location. Friction coeff=0. press Tab to move to Type field. Create a limit stop in the Z direction. Direction (X comp =0. choose Limit stop from the Data Types dialog. in the Limit stop dialog. press Enter.3. in the Limit stop dialog. type Upper limit = 0. Z comp = 0). Lower limit = 0.5".25".
Limit Stop The Layout window is shown below. 209 . The Graphics window is shown below.
Press Enter to go to the next row. the direction should be left blank. press Enter.625" OD X 10 20 8" 0.608". In this case the top pipe deflects 1.375" the pipes will touch.e.625") / 2 = 0. When you start a new model file.608 – 1. Input the Connecting Node as 40.e.233 = 0.625" OD The gap between the bottom of the top pipe and the top of the bottom pipe is 8" − (6. choose Limit stop from the Data Types dialog.116" = 0. there are two 300" long cantilever pipes separated by 8" between center lines.233". This situation can be modeled using a limit stop connecting the free ends of the pipes. start with node 30 of Type "From" at DY = –8" and make it an anchor. press Enter to move cursor to next empty row.Limit Stop Example 3: Limit stop Connected to Another Node As shown in the figure below.908" and the bottom pipe will deflect 1.116" at the free ends.375". The relative deflection between them will be 1.375". leave the Upper limit blank and input Lower limit = 0.116" free deflection because additional load is imposed on it by the top pipe when they touch. Type 300" for DX. the top pipe will deflect 1. type "L" for Location. in the Limit stop dialog.792". Type 20 for Node. For the bottom pipe.908" free deflection because it is resisted by the bottom pipe. less than the 1. On the next row enter node 40 with DX = 300" and 8" section.625" + 8.. This however is not possible because when the relative deflection exceeds 0. The direction is implicitly from node 40 to node 20. 210 .. press Tab to move to Type field. i. Y 6. If both pipes were free to deflect. Press Tab in the Node column which puts the node number 20 automatically. more than the 1. i. The difference between the deflections is 1.908" – 1. Since this limit stop connects two nodes.375" 30 40 300" Figure not to scale 8. 6" section and load names. enter material. node 10 and an Anchor are automatically input. Enter the limit stop at node 20.375" as expected. The bottom pipe deflects 1.
Limit Stop Alternatively the limit stop could be specified at node 40 connected to node 20. The direction now would be from node 20 to 40. Both these cases will give identical results. The Graphics is shown below.375" since the direction is now reversed compared to the previous case. The limits would still be no upper limit and lower limit = 0. Limit stop connected to another node LimitStop03 Y Z X 10 30 20 40 211 . The Layout window is shown below.
Thermal case.. Each load allows up to three operating conditions for Temperature and Pressure. 212 . pressure. Load cases are analysis cases (Sustained case. click on Load in the Header row in the Layout window (or select Loads under the Misc menu. To define a new load. Also the wind load can be turned "on" or "off" on parts of the model selectively using Load.g. additional weight (e. T2/P2. T3/P3) are available which correspond with the three operating load cases for each element. Depending on the number of thermal loads specified (under Options > Analysis > Temperature).Load Load is used to apply temperature. The load has a name which is specified in the Load column for a row in the Layout window to associate a load with an element. due to snow load) on the piping system. This load is not to be confused with Load cases found under the Loads menu in the Layout window. This opens a List window that displays all loads. contents weight. hotkey: Ctrl+Shift+L). Operating case.). etc. Either you can start typing the load data directly here into the fields or double click on an empty row to enter data through a dialog. up to three temperature/pressure load sets (T1/P1.
2. Negative pressures may be specified. The other quantities looked up using these three temperatures are the thermal expansion coefficient (alpha) and the temperaturedependent modulus. For example. this is useful when you have part of a pipeline exposed to wind and the remaining part inside a building. 3 Type up to three operating temperatures. Temperature 1. (Total weight = Length x Additional weight per unit length). specified under Options > Analysis > Pressure]. The maximum of the three temperatures is the Design temperature which is used to look up the corresponding allowable stress (Sh) for the material. Additional weight The value you enter here is taken as weight per unit length of the element and the total weight is added to the weight of the pipe. you should have two Load sets. It can be changed later if you wish. Specific Gravity Type in the specific gravity of contents inside the pipe. Specific gravity is with respect to water. the wind load (entered as a separate load under Loads menu) is applied to this element. 213 . The load set with the wind load is applied to those elements that are affected by wind. This is used to calculate the weight of the contents which is added to the weight of the pipe. 3 Type up to three operating pressures which correspond with the three operating temperatures above. 2 and 3. For example. Pressure 1. The maximum of the three pressures is the Design pressure which is used to calculate the pressure stress term [P D/4t or P d2 /(D 2 − d2 ). When you press Y(es). Wind load Type Y(es) or N(o) to apply or not apply the wind load for this element. The default is Y(es). Specify gauge pressures for Pressures 1. too. In such a case. 2. all data the same except that one has Wind load and the other does not.Load Load Name Type in an alphanumeric name (up to three characters) in this field. this could be used to apply the weight of the snow on the pipe.
The global coordinate system is indicated by upper case X. 214 . The local zaxis is the cross product of the local x and yaxes. Global vertical axis is Y Element is not Vertical Global Y local y z Z X x The local yaxis of the element lies in the local x . Element is Vertical x y z local Global Y Z X The local zaxis of the element is in the global Z direction. the "local x" axis is along the element. from the "From" node to the "To" node.Local Coordinate System For a straight element (such as a pipe or a beam).e. The local yaxis is in the global –X direction. vertical plane) and is in the same positive direction as the global Y axis. the local coordinate system is indicated by lower case x. The local coordinate system may be displayed graphically (for beams and guides in the input processor and for all the elements in the output processor) by selecting the "Show LCS (Local coordinate system)" option from the View menu.. If such an element does not exist. the following element is used. For a node location such as a guide. y and z letters. Y and Z letters. the local axes are based on the previous connected element. The local y.global Y plane (i. In CAEPIPE.and zaxes are calculated differently depending on whether the vertical direction is Y or Z and also depending on whether the element is in the vertical direction.
Element is Vertical x z local y Global Z Y X The local yaxis of the element is in the global Y direction.Local Coordinate System Global vertical axis is Z Element is not Vertical Global Z Y y X x local z The local zaxis of the element lies in the local x . The local zaxis is in the global –X direction.global Z plane (i.. vertical plane) and is in the same positive direction as the global Zaxis. 215 .e. The local yaxis is the cross product of the local z and xaxes.
The local yaxis is along the radius and points to the center of curvature. the local x axis is along the tangent from the "From" node to the tangent intersection point. The local zaxis is the cross product of the local x.and yaxes. Similarly. The local zaxis is cross product of the local x. The local yaxis is along the radius and points to the center of curvature. at the "To" node.and yaxes. To Tangent Intersection x (axial) z (outofplane) y (inplane) x (axial) From Center of Curvature y (inplane) z (outofplane) 216 . at the "From" node.Local Coordinate System Local Coordinate System for a Bend For a bend. the local xaxis is along the tangent line from the tangent intersection point to the "To" node.
217 .. fx fy my fz mz From my fx. mz fz fy To mx.e. forces and moments are positive in the positive local axes directions at the "To" node and they are negative in the positive local axes directions at the "From" node. Note that positive directions at the "From" node are reversed compared to the positive directions at the "To" node. follow strength of materials conventions. i.Local Coordinate System Element Forces and Moments The sign conventions for the element forces and moments in the local coordinate system. mx Positive sign conventions for local forces and moments are shown at the "From" and "To" nodes of an element.
type in 350 (for FY). and second when it was repeated (row 7) to apply the external force on it. Nodes are internally generated by CAEPIPE for bends (A. B nodes. Select Force. The Data types dialog is opened automatically when you press "L". Row 4 contains the Hanger as external data whereas row 7 contains Force as the external data.g. first when it was defined for the first time (row 4). each row in the Layout window allows only one data item to be inserted under the Data field.g. e. press "L" for Location. C. In the above window. Observe the following sample Layout window which shows how to model these data. Another use for Location is when you want to input a data item at an internally generated node.. e. In other words. Example 1: Hanger and Force at the same node Assume that you had a Grinnell Hanger and a vertical force of 350 pounds at node 20. press Enter. Additional data items can be input only through Location.. See Example 2 under Limit stop. For example. 20A) and Jacketed pipes/bends (J. By design. 218 . D nodes. you cannot use Location on an undefined node. you may want to input a force at an existing hanger (see Example 1 below) or three limit stops (in different directions) at one node. observe that node 20 appears twice in the Node field. 10J). press Tab to move highlight to the Type column. Ensure that the node you use for Location has already been defined on an earlier row or defined earlier as an intermediate node for a bend or is an internally generated node.Location Use Location (press "L" in the Type field or pick Location from the Element types dialog) to input more than one data item at a node. Row 7 is modeled in the following manner: Type 20 for Node.
219 . node 20B (which is on the core pipe). Example 3: Bend supported by a Hanger See Example 6 in the Bend section for an example of using Location at an intermediate node on p. 3. CAEPIPE internally generates the J node on the jacket. There is a spacer (spider) at the far end of the bend. There is a hanger at node 30J since the hanger is connected to the Jacket. since it is the node on the core pipe). CAEPIPE generates the C and D nodes on the jacket.Location Example 2: Data at internally generated nodes Let us take the example given under Jacketed pipe/bend. Node 10J is the starting Jacket node which is anchored (node 10 is separately anchored. Node 30 has an end cap The following sample Layout window contains all these data as Location data. 2. There are four data items in this example. 4. For the Jacketed Bend. 122. We know that for a Jacketed pipe. Remember that the bend has a jacket on the outside. 1.
Define a Material inside a CAEPIPE model From the Layout window. we suggest that you create your own material library for your company or if needed for a particular piping system project and share it with your team members. For the sake of convenience. Once you define and name a material type. Ctrl+Shift+M). There are two ways in which you can define materials: 1. click on "Matl" on the header row (or select Materials from the Misc menu. a jacketed bend. The List window for materials is shown. you specify the name on the Layout window under the column "Matl". For jacketed piping.Material A material can be specified in CAEPIPE for all piping including outside jacket.one for the core pipe (on the Layout window). you must specify two materials . The material you specify for a bend. By picking a material from an existing material library. By defining a material inside the CAEPIPE model. and the other for the jacket pipe in its own dialog. bends (jacketed and miter) and beams (beam material is discussed under the section on Beams). or 2. 220 . and for a miter bend applies only to that specific element on that input row. let us see how to create a material inside a model and how to create or modify a material library. Below. The material name you specify on the layout applies to the piping element on that row.
for the Swedish and Norwegian codes. This window contains additional columns for Tensile strength and instead of a single Joint factor. has a column for Tensile strength and the temperature dependent properties have an additional column for fCR (allowable creep stress). you can edit inside both panes . Type of material. While entering the temperaturedependent material properties. After you are done entering properties for one material. be sure to press Enter when the cursor is in the left pane. Density. the following window is displayed. 221 . For example. You can insert. you do not need to necessarily enter temperatures in an ascending order. Coefficient of thermal expansion [Alpha].Material In the Material List window. and the codespecific Allowable stress) as a function of Temperature. The European (EN13480) code. Poisson’s ratio (nu) and Joint factor and the right pane contains material properties (usually modulus of Elasticity. delete and edit any material (see under Edit menu). These panes may change depending on the piping code chosen. it has Longitudinal and Circumferential joint factors.the left pane contains Name. to move it to the next row so you can start entering the next material. CAEPIPE will sort the entries later. Description.
For the European (EN13480) piping code. Input through dialogs (shown below for some but not all piping codes). the Material dialog has Longitudinal and Circumferential joint factors and a Tensile strength field.Material To Input a New Material You can input a new material in three ways: 1. Start typing directly into the fields in the Materials List window. the Material dialog has a single Joint factor and a Tensile strength field. 2. For the Swedish and Norwegian piping codes. 222 .
Material
3. Pick a material from an existing material library (supplied with CAEPIPE or your own). Click on the Library button on the toolbar to open the library:
(or select Library command under the File menu):
You will have to open a library file first if it was not previously opened.
You can select a material from the library by double clicking on it or highlighting it and clicking on OK.
223
Material
Name Material name can be specified using up to three alphanumeric characters. Description A description for the material can be input using up to 31 characters. Type The Types of material are shown below. AL AS CA CC CS FR FS NA SS TI for for for for for for for for for for Aluminum Austenitic Stainless Steel Copper alloys annealed Copper alloys cold worked Carbon Steel Fiber Reinforced Plastic piping Ferritic steel Nickel alloys 800, 800H, 825 Stainless Steel Titanium
These material types are used in calculation of the Y factor for allowable pressure at high temperatures for certain piping codes. Swedish and Norwegian piping codes also use it for calculating allowable expansion stress range. These codes also need tensile strength. For Fiber Reinforced Plastic piping, you need to select the material type "FR" to enter FRP material properties. More information can be found under the section Fiber Reinforced Plastic. Density Density of the material is used to calculate weight load and also mass for dynamic analysis. Nu The Poisson’s ratio (Nu) defaults to 0.3 if not input. Joint factor The joint factor is the longitudinal weld joint factor used in the calculation of allowable pressure. For Swedish and Norwegian piping codes, a circumferential joint factor is also input which is used in the calculation of longitudinal pressure stress. Tensile strength For Swedish, Norwegian and European (EN13480) piping codes, tensile strength is used in the calculation of the allowable expansion stress range. For Stoomwezen piping code, tensile strength is used in the calculation of hot allowable stress.
224
Material To create or modify a material library
CAEPIPE offers you flexibility in creating your own material libraries (user defined libraries). That way, you do not feel restricted by the offered choices in materials and can continually keep updating the material libraries with your own materials. To create a library: From the Main window, select File > New and click on Material Library.
A List window for materials is shown.
You must select a piping code first, using the menu command Options > Piping code, before you start entering properties. You can, as before, start typing directly into the fields, or enter properties through a dialog. The only difference is that materials in the library do not have names whereas those in a model have names. After you are done entering materials, you must save to a material library file by using the File > Save command.
225
Material
Give the file a suitable name. The file will be saved with a .mat extension.
Should you need to change the piping code, then you need to update all materials’ properties (in this library) according to the new code. Better yet, please create a new library for the new code.
Frequently, this issue confuses users and they end up using material properties that come from one code under another code (Example: A53 Grade B, common to B31.1 and B31.3, is used by mistake under the wrong code. Note that this material has different allowable stresses under the two codes!).
Therefore, please make sure that you use correct properties from the correct piping code and that the correct code is set under Options (Analysis > Piping code) menu in the Layout window. CAEPIPE comes with two libraries  B31.1 material library (B311.mat) and B31.3 material library (B313.mat). When inside a CAEPIPE model, you can open any library and pick a material from it. Make sure that the proper library is chosen, especially between B31.1 and B31.3 libraries because they have significantly different allowable stresses. Also verify the properties in these libraries before you use them.
226
Missing Mass Correction
In dynamic analysis using modal superposition, usually an approximate solution is obtained because only a limited number of modes is considered. (For seismic analysis, typically all modes up to 33 Hz). The errors in pipe displacements and stresses are usually small because they are affected relatively little by high modes. The error in support loads may be substantial because the influence of high modes on support loads can be important. In stiff piping systems with few low frequency modes, stresses may also be affected significantly. Using limited number of modes results in some mass of the system being ignored. The distribution of this "missing mass" is such that the inertia forces associated with it will usually produce small displacements and stresses. However these forces will often produce significant support loads, and in stiff systems can produce significant stresses. A correction can be made by determining the modal contributions to the mass of the system and obtaining the "missing mass" as the difference between these contributions and the actual mass. The inertial force vector for the nth mode is given by
2 {Fn } = −[M ]{¨n } = ωn [M ]{φn }An u
(1)
where
[M ] {¨n } u ωn {φn } An
= = = = =
diagonal mass matrix acceleration vector circular frequency mass normalized eigenvector modal displacement for mode n
For X seismic excitation,
An = {φn }T [M ]{rx }
a Snx Sa = Γnx nx 2 2 ωn ωn
(2)
where {rx } = displacement vector due to a unit displacement in the X direction a Snx = spectral acceleration for the nth mode for excitation in the X direction Γnx = mass participation factor in the X direction for mode n Let
m N
= number of modes used in the analysis = total number of modes
If it is assumed that the higher modes: m+1 through N are in phase and have a common a spectral acceleration Sox (conservatively taken as the maximum spectral acceleration after the mth mode), the total inertial force contribution of these higher modes (also known as "Rigid body force" or "Left out force") is
N R a {Fx } = Sox [M ]
{φn } Γnx
(3)
n=m+1
227
Missing Mass Correction
It can be shown that
N m N
{rx } =
n=1
{φn } Γnx =
n=1
{φn } Γnx +
{φn } Γnx
(4)
n=m+1
Substituting from (4) for the summation in (3),
m R a {Fx } = Sox [M ] {rx } − n=1
{φn } Γnx
(5)
Note that there will be missing mass inertia forces in the Y and Z directions, in addition to the X direction, for X excitation. The missing mass force vectors for the Y and Z directions are similarly calculated. The response to each of these three force vectors is calculated and these additional response vectors are combined with the responses of the first "m" modes. The above described method is based on the following technical paper by Powell. Powell, G.H. "Missing Mass Correction in Modal Analysis of Piping Systems." Transactions of the 5th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology. August 1979: Berlin, Germany
228
Miter Bend
Miter bends are typically used when space limitations do not allow the use of regular bends (elbows), or when a miter is more economical to use than a regular bend. Miters are not fittings. They are fabricated from pipe, to requirements. "The use of miters to make changes in direction is practically restricted to lowpressure lines, 10inch and larger if the pressure drop is unimportant..." (Sherwood 1980). See figure below for Miter bend parameters.
S q
r
In this figure,
r = mean radius of pipe S = miter spacing at center line θ = onehalf angle between adjacent miter axes (≤ 22.5° )
Before modeling a miter bend, you should determine whether it is closely or widely spaced.
Closely Spaced Miter
A miter bend is closely spaced when S < r (1 + tan θ).
S q R
r
A closely spaced miter bend is input as a single miter bend element. The Bend Radius (R) is calculated as: R = 0.5 S cot θ.
229
Miter Bend Widely Spaced Miter
A miter bend is widely spaced when S ≥ r (1 + tan θ).
R
S
R
q
R R
r
A widely spaced miter bend is modeled with as many miter bend elements as there are miter cuts. The Bend Radius (R) is calculated as: R = 0.5 r (1 + cot θ). A miter bend is input by typing "m" in the Type column or selecting "Miter bend" from the Element types dialog.
The Miter bend dialog is shown.
230
Miter Bend
Bend Radius The bend radius (R) depends on the type of miter (Closely or Widely spaced). It is calculated as explained previously and input in this field. Bend Thickness Input the wall thickness of the miter bend if it is different from that of the adjoining pipe thicknesses. The Bend Thickness, if specified, applies only to the curved portion(s) of the equivalent bend(s) of the miter bend. Bend Material If the material of the miter bend is different from that of the adjoining pipe, select the Bend Material from the drop down combo box. The Bend Material, if specified, applies only to the curved portion(s) of the equivalent bend(s) of the miter bend. Flexibility Factor The Flexibility Factor for the miter bend can be specified. If the Flexibility Factor is specified, it is used instead of the piping code specified Flexibility Factor. Closely spaced To specify the miter bend as closely spaced, click on the "Closely spaced" radio button. Widely spaced To specify the miter bend as widely spaced, click on the "Widely spaced" radio button.
Parameters for 90° Miter Bends
The parameters (dimensions) for 90° miter bends (with 2, 3, 4 miter cuts) in terms of dimension (A), mean pipe radius (r) and number of miter cuts (N) are shown in the following table. Use the table to determine whether the miter bend is Closely spaced or Widely spaced, and if it is Widely spaced and has 2, 3 or 4 miter cuts, to calculate the dimensions B, C, D, E and R (equivalent miter bend radius) before modeling it. A closely spaced miter requires only the miter bend radius (same as dimension A shown in the figures). Dimensions for Widely spaced miters only N S Closely spaced if B C D E R 2 0.828427 A A < 1.707107 r 0.414214 A 0.585786 A 1.707107 r 3 0.535898 A A < 2.366025 r 0.267949 A 0.464102 A 2.366025 r 4 0.397825 A A < 3.013670 r 0.198912 A 0.367542 A 0.281305 A 0.152241 A 3.013670 r N = Number of miter cuts Half angle θ = 90° /(2N) The following pages show the details of how dimensions B, C, D and E were calculated, and are provided only for your information. The above table is important for your modeling requirements. For miters with more than 4 cuts, you have to calculate the required dimensions similar to those shown on the following pages. The next table outlines the modeling procedure for either miter type. 231
Closely spaced miter. See Example 2 Widely spaced miter. S < r ( 1 + tan θ) substituting for S. radius. R = 0.366025 r 232 . 2A tan θ < r (1 + tan θ) A < 1. C.Miter Bend Miter Modeling Procedure Closely Spaced Miter Any number of cuts Model miter as a single Closely spaced miter with Bend radius as dimension A. radius.828427 A B = A tan θ = 0.267949 A C = 2 A tan θ cos 2θ = 0.366025 r Bend radius.414214 A C = 2 A tan θ cos 2θ = 0.707107 r Bend radius. C. 2A tan θ < r (1 + tan θ) A < 2.5 r ( 1 + cot θ) = 2. D and E. B.464102 A Closely spaced A 15° 30° 30° 15° B C The miter is Closely spaced if. Model this miter as 2 Model this miter as 3 Model this miter as 4 widely spaced miters widely spaced miters widely spaced miters with R as the bend with R as the bend with R as the bend radius. B and C from above table.5° 45° 22.5° B Closely spaced The miter is Closely spaced if. Calculate offsets Calculate offsets of nodes using B and C. Determine Miter Type Widely Spaced Miter 2 cuts 3 cuts 4 cuts Calculate R. D and E from above taCalculate R.5 r ( 1 + cot θ) = 1. R = 0. ble.707107 r Three Miter Cuts (N=3) B C B B θ = 90° / ( 2 x 3 ) = 15° S = 2 A tan θ = 0.5 S cot θ = A Widely spaced A R = 0.535898 A B = A tan θ = 0.5° S = 2 A tan θ = 0. of nodes using B. S < r ( 1 + tan θ) substituting for S.5 S cot θ = A Widely spaced A R = 0.585786 A C A 22. Two Miter Cuts (N=2) B C θ = 90° / ( 2 x 2 ) = 22. See Example 1.
A miter is Closely spaced if A < 2.25° S = 2 A tan θ = 0.366025r. determine the type of miter (Closely or Widely spaced) before modeling it. click on Ok. type "m" under the Type column. section and load names. Finish the miter bend: type 30 for Node and 10" for DY. Look up Summary of Miter parameters.281305 A E = 2 A tan θ sin 2θ = 0. 2A tan θ < r (1 + tan θ) A < 3. 5° 22 . t = 0. enter material. this is a Closely spaced miter. select Closely spaced. node 10 and an Anchor are automatically input. 11. Hence.5 r ( 1 + cot θ) = 3. This condition is true for r = 4. press Enter. Dimension A = 8".322" Mean pipe radius. 233 . for N = 3.5 S cot θ = A Widely spaced R = 0.25° 22.1515".013670 r Bend radius. First. Type 10" for DX.1515".152241 A Closely spaced The miter is Closely spaced if. Look up table (Miter modeling procedure). S < r ( 1 + tan θ) substituting for S. R = 0. Number of miter cuts = 3.625".Miter Bend Four Miter Cuts (N=4) B C D E E D A θ = 90° / ( 2 x 4 ) = 11. thickness.397825 A B = A tan θ = 0.625 .013670 r 11. Construct miter bend: type 20 for Node (simply pressing Tab puts this node number automatically for you). r = (8. for an outline of the modeling procedure.198912 A C = 2 A tan θ cos 2θ = 0. type 8" for bend radius.5 ° C 5° 22. See 3cut miter figure. press Enter to move cursor to next empty row. Steps for Example 1 Create From node: When you start a new model file.25° B A Example 1: Closely Spaced Miter Example Data: Pipe OD = 8.367542 A D = 2 A tan θ sin 4θ = 0. press Enter.322) / 2 = 4.0.
Number of miter cuts = 3.5692" 10 20 B 30 A 15° 30° 30° 15° 50 A 40 B C It is essential to determine the type of miter (Closely or Widely spaced) before modeling it. r = (8.1515". Dimension A = 12". namely. t = 0.322" Mean pipe radius. B C B A = 12" B = 3.322) / 2 = 4.625". 234 .2154" C = 5. dimension A (see next figure). Look up table (for Miter modeling procedure) for an outline of the modeling procedure. thickness. Pipe OD = 8.0.625 .Miter Bend Example 1: Closely Spaced Miter 10 10 MITER1 Y 20 Z X 10 Length (inch) 30 Example 2: Widely Spaced Miter Let us assume the same data as in Example 1 (Closely spaced miter) with only one change.
press Enter. press Enter.5692" Offsets of node 50 from 40: DX = 0" (because node 50 is on the vertical axis). After calculating B. Construct second miter bend: type 30 for Node (simply pressing Tab puts this node number automatically for you).8225" for bend radius.8225".8225" for bend radius.8225" for bend radius. start to build the model in CAEPIPE as shown in Example 1 but with different data (bend radius = 9. 5. select Widely spaced.1515". type 9. enter material. Finish the miter bend: type 50 for Node and 3.Miter Bend Determine miter type Look up table. and offsets as shown above).5692" DY = B = 3. Calculate Offsets Offsets of node 20 from 10: (First miter cut) DX = B = 3. Dimension B = 0.5692" for DX. type "m" under the Type column.464102 × A = 5. C and R (Equivalent miter bend radius) can be calculated for N = 3 cuts. Type 5. Offsets of node 30 from 20: (Second miter cut) DX = C = 5. Type 3. Construct first miter bend: type 20 for Node (simply pressing Tab puts this node number automatically for you). type 9. Hence. click on Ok.2154" Now.1515". Construct third miter bend: type 40 for Node (simply pressing Tab puts this node number automatically for you). Summary of Miter parameters. press Enter to move cursor to next empty row.2154" for DX. press Enter. select Widely spaced.366025 × r = 9. select Widely spaced. click on Ok.2154" for DX. this is a Widely spaced miter. C and R. Dimension C = 0. Calculate required dimensions With r = 4.5692" See previous figure. This miter bend has to be modeled as a series of 3 miters.366025r.2154".2154" DY = 0" (because node 20 is on the horizontal axis). press Enter.2154" DY = C = 5. R = 2. type 9. observe in this table that dimensions B. type "m" under the Type column. 3.8225". click on Ok. select Widely Spaced miter. DY = B = 3. Equivalent miter bend radius. Next. This condition is false for r = 4. section and load names. 235 . for N = 3. 30 and 40 (the 3 nodes correspond with the 3 miter cuts).2154" for DY. type "m" under the Type column. Steps for Example 2 Create From node: When you start a new model file. Type 3.2154" for DY. let us now calculate the offsets of nodes 20.5692" for DY. A miter is Closely spaced if A < 2. node 10 and an Anchor are automatically input.267949 × A = 3.2154" Offsets of node 40 from 30: (Third miter cut) DX = B = 3.
2154 50 Lengths(inch) Sherwood. San Francisco: Syentek Books Co. David. Whistance. First Edition (revised)..4308 Z MITER2 X 30 3 Miter cuts 6.4308 40 3. and Dennis J. R.Miter Bend Example 2: Widely spaced miter (3 cuts) Y 10 3.. 1980 236 .2154 20 Miter spacing. THE "PIPING GUIDE" A Compact Reference for the Design and Drafting of Industrial Piping Systems. S 6.
and renumber nodes for a range of rows (under Edit menu). y and z directions) and three rotational (about x. This feature can be helpful for verifying correctness of the input.Node A Node refers to a connecting point between elements such as pipes.g. Nodes not only act as connect points for elements but also act as locations for providing supports or applying restraints/external forces and moments to the piping system. Each node has six static degrees of freedom. specify a "Node increment" for automatic node numbering (under Options menu).. on the other hand (e. A and B nodes (e. the node has to be of type "From" or should have an asterisk (*) at the end of it (e. In these cases. 237 . You can list all coordinates by selecting Coordinates under Misc menu (or click on the Node header or right click on any node number). the number for the node is followed by a letter such as A/B/C/D/J. fix the location of a point in space). reducers. expansion joints and so forth. Occasionally. C and D.e. In the Layout window. the node numbers are typed in the Node field. a node has a numeric designation. The starting node in a piping network is always a node of type "From" which is usually anchored. Specifying coordinates The values typed in the DX.. 20*). All of these alphanumeric nodes are internally generated.. DY and DZ fields on the Layout window are interpreted as offsets from the previous node.g. y and z axes). 10J. 20A. J. 20B) designate the near and far ends of a Bend node (see section on Bend). valves. DY and DZ fields are interpreted as absolute coordinates of the node rather than offsets from the previous node. 10C. If it is required to specify absolute coordinates for a node (i. the numbers entered in the DX. Any or all of them may be restrained.. An asterisk (*) for a "From" node is ignored too.g. A node number may be typed as an integer or an integer followed by one of the letters A/B/C/D/J. In the Layout window. Usually. three translational (in x. If the coordinates for a particular node are duplicated the second set of values is ignored. you can search for a node by using the "Find node" command (under the View menu). Use "Location" type to specify more than one data item at a node (See section on Location). 10D) designate a Jacket pipe and a Jacket bend (see section on Jacketed Piping).
The solution is converged when the displacement is within 1% of previous displacement. 5. It either the upper or lower limit is reached for the first operating case. Typically the upper limit is positive and the lower limit negative. If the limit is not reached. In some situations it is possible to have a positive lower limit or a negative upper limit. is used. the stiffness matrix and the load vector are reformulated because both of these depend on the solution (displacements) from the previous iteration. the support load at the limit stop is calculated by: (resolved displacement . Buried piping. slip joints. The upper limit should be algebraically always greater than the lower limit. the limit stop is treated as a rigid twoway restraint in the direction of the limit stop. If the gap is closed. 2. In dynamic analysis. Friction in limit stops. If the gap is open. a node can move unrestrained in that direction). the displacements at the limit stop node are resolved along the limit stop direction.e. If the displacement exceeds the upper limit or is less than the lower limit the gap is closed otherwise it is open. Rotational limits in ball and hinge joints. guides. hinge joints and ball joints. high stiffness ( 1×1012 lb/inch) along with a force = gap x high stiffness are applied in the direction of the limit stop at the node. Rod hangers as one way restraints. the status of the limit stops for the first operating case (W+P1+T1). no stiffness or force is applied due to the limit stop at the node. that limit should be left blank. the hot loads are recalculated with the status of the limit stops at the end of the preliminary operating load case. Gaps in limit stops. The upper and lower limits are along the direction of the limit stop and measured from the undeflected position of the node.Nonlinearities There are several types of nonlinearities in CAEPIPE: 1. An iterative solution is performed when nonlinearities are present. 4. If a particular limit does not exist (i. the upper and lower limits and optionally a friction coefficient. 3. 238 . 6. Then the hanger travels are recalculated using the recalculated hot loads. then it is treated as having no restraint. During hanger design. The limit stop in this case acts like a specified displacement. After the solution has converged and if the gap is closed. Limit stop Limit stops are input by specifying direction. If a gap does not exist then the limit should be explicitly input as zero.. The resolved displacement is compared with the upper and lower limits. Tie rods with different stiffnesses and gaps in tension and compression.gap distance) x high stiffness. Solution Procedure At each iteration. At each iteration. guides.
entering friction torque for hinge joint and entering bending and/or torsional friction torque for ball joint. Also let ky = equivalent friction stiffness which is assumed to be zero for first iteration. Friction in Guide A guide is modeled by adding high stiffnesses perpendicular to the direction of the pipe. The iterations are continued till the displacement x is within 1% of displacement from the previous iteration. entering friction force and/or friction torque for slip joint. If friction is included in dynamic analysis. The stiffness of these fictitious restraints is estimated from the results of previous iteration. The friction force is y * ky. The iterations are continued till the displacement y is within 1% of displacement from the previous iteration. The displacements at the guide node are resolved in the direction of the guide. Also let kx = equivalent friction stiffness which is assumed to be zero for first iteration. If y is non zero or y * ky > maximum friction force then ky = maximum friction force / y otherwise ky = high stiffness ( 1×1012 lb/inch) [This is the case of no sliding] In the next iteration the equivalent friction stiffness is added to the stiffness matrix. If the gap is closed. Friction in Limit Stop If the gap is not closed there is no normal force and hence no friction. The normal force in the guide is calculated by the vector sum of the local y and z support loads. The displacement of the limit stop node is resolved into a plane normal to the limit stop direction (let us call this resolved displacement: y). Friction is modeled using variable equivalent stiffnesses (fictitious restraints) in CAEPIPE.Nonlinearities Friction Friction is specified by entering coefficient of friction for limit stop and guide. The friction force is x * kx. Maximum friction force is friction coefficient * normal force. Let us call this displacement: x. The maximum friction force is friction coefficient * normal force. the values of the equivalent stiffnesses from the first operating case are used in modal and dynamic analyses. If x is non zero or x * kx > maximum friction force then kx = maximum friction force / x otherwise kx = high stiffness ( 1×1012 lb/inch) [This is the case of no sliding] In the next iteration the equivalent friction stiffness is added to the stiffness matrix. the normal force (limit stop support load) is calculated as explained above. 239 .
the resultant of the local y and z directions is used. Also let kx = equivalent friction stiffness which is assumed to be zero for first iteration. To node) for the hinge joint are resolved in the direction of the hinge axis. Maximum friction torque = friction torque + hinge stiffness * x. Otherwise a procedure similar to the one used for hinge joint is used. Friction is mathematically modeled by using equivalent stiffnesses. Let us call this relative displacement: x. Also let kx = equivalent friction stiffness which is assumed to be zero for first iteration. For the bending case. Friction in Dynamic Analysis Friction is optional in dynamic analysis. Let us call this relative rotation: x. Similar technique is used for friction torque (using rotations instead of translations). If friction is included in dynamic analysis.Nonlinearities Friction in Slip Joint The relative displacements (From node. The iterations are continued till the displacement x is within 1% of displacement from the previous iteration. The iterations are continued till the displacement x is within 1% of displacement from the previous iteration. If x is non zero or x * kx > friction force then kx = friction force / x otherwise kx = high stiffness ( 1×1012 lb/inch) [This is the case of no sliding] In the next iteration the equivalent friction stiffness is added to the stiffness matrix. the values of the equivalent stiffnesses from the first operating case are used. 240 . Friction in Ball Joint For a ball joint friction in bending (transverse) and torsional (axial) directions is treated independently. Friction in Hinge Joint The relative rotations (From node. If x is non zero or x * kx > maximum friction torque then kx = maximum friction torque / x otherwise kx = high stiffness [This is the case of no sliding] In the next iteration the equivalent friction stiffness is added to the stiffness matrix. To node) for the slip joint are resolved in the direction of the slip joint.
For example. or • Accept the misconvergence (maximum misconvergence is reported. 100% in the above dialog). Accept or Exit if there is nonconvergence. or • Exit the analysis processor completely.Nonlinearities Misconvergence During the iterative solution procedure for nonlinearities. SET CPITER=10000 will change the number of iterations to 10000 before showing the dialog: Continue. You have three options: • Continue the iterative procedure for 500 more iterations to see whether the solution converges. a misconvergence is reported in the following manner. 241 . An environment variable "CPITER" may be defined to change number of iterations from the default 500.
Nozzles transmit the shell (vessel) flexibility to the piping system and hence included in piping stress analysis. circumferential (Kyy).Nozzle Nozzles are integral attachments of vessels (such as a storage tank) which connect with external piping. The six components of the forces and moments at the nozzlevessel interface are: P = Radial load VC = Circumferential load VL = Longitudinal load MC = Circumferential moment MT = Torsional moment ML = Longitudinal moment Of the six components of stiffnesses. The remaining three are assumed to be rigid. and longitudinal (Kzz). and a nozzle attached to a cylindrical shell with a flat bottom and close to the flatbottom. CAEPIPE calculates the nozzle stiffnesses (local flexibility components) according to WRC 297 and API 650 guidelines. only three stiffnesses. zzl No n ick s es eO D L2 Nozzle N z oz le Th L1 MT ML (z V Sh C ea r) P MC VL r) ea Sh (y Cylindrical Vessel Ve s se lO D Ve s se lT hic k ne ss The coordinate system is as shown in the figure. 242 . Two types of nozzles can be modeled: A nozzle attached to a cylindrical vessel relatively far from the ends of the cylinder. axial (Kx). are computed. See Appendix D for the procedures.
existing nozzle). L1.e.Nozzle A nozzle is input by typing "n" in the Data column or selecting "Nozzle" from the Data Types dialog. Thk: Thickness of the nozzle. Vessel OD: Outside diameter of the vessel. The Nozzle dialog is shown. Thk: Thickness of the vessel. Vessel axis direction The orientation of the vessel axis in terms of its global X. Y and Z components are entered here.. Nozzle OD: Outside diameter of the nozzle. L2: Distances from the nozzle to the nearest stiffening ring. tubesheet or the vessel end. Note that the Displacements button is disabled." 243 . See example under "Specifying a Direction. It is only enabled after the nozzle is input (i.
Nozzle FlatBottom Tanks For a nozzle on a flatbottom tank and close to the flatbottom. Vessel OD Vessel Thickness Nozzle 2a (Nozzle OD) VC ML P MT L Nozzle Thickness VL MC FlatBottom Tank A slightly modified Nozzle dialog is displayed. All the input fields are the same as before except: 244 . check the Flatbottom tank checkbox.
There are three types of displacements which can be specified: 1. RCCM and EN13480 codes only) Applied to a separate load case called Settlement. T2 and T3) Applied only for the Expansion and Operating load cases. ASME Section III Class 2. 3.005 and 0. check this box. which is a single nonrepeated movement (e. Settlement (available under ASME Section III Class 2. Reinforcing pad If the nozzle is reinforced. This is applied to the Settlement load case. 245 . one each for thermal loads T1. 2. may be specified. RCCM and EN13480). See Appendix D for the procedure. Seismic (available for B31. due to settlement of foundation). L/Nozzle OD ratio must be between 1. a settlement.5. Figures D3 through D14. See graphs in Appendix D. axial.1. Stiffness Calculation Here again. specify the settlement as a thermal displacement (a conservative approach). Thermal (three displacements can be specified. The flatbottom tank nozzles are subject to the following limitations (API 650): Limitations Nozzle OD/Vessel OD ratio must be between 0. You will see a dialog similar to one shown below.04. Displacements Displacements (translations and/or rotations) in the global X.g. RCCM and EN13480 codes only) Solved as a separate internal load case and added absolutely to static seismic and response spectrum load cases. Y and Z directions may be specified for nozzles (for thermal.1).Nozzle L L is the distance from the flatbottom to the nozzle centerline. only three stiffnesses. For those codes which do not have a provision for settlement (like B31.. Click on the Displacements button. circumferential and longitudinal are computed according to API 650 guidelines.0 and 1. settlement and seismic cases). Type in specified displacements and press Enter. Settlement For certain piping codes (ASME Section III Class 2.
Input the nozzle data in the dialog. Then type "n" in the Data column to input the nozzle. select Nozzle Stiffnesses.5 in. To replace the anchor by a nozzle.0 in.Nozzle Example 1: Nozzle on a cylindrical vessel Assume the following data: Vessel OD = 1800 in. then select Delete Anchor. The nozzle/vessel data may be edited here (double click to edit). Elastic modulus for vessel material = 28×106 psi. 246 . Vessel Thickness = 1. Nozzle Thickness = 0. The Layout window looks like the following: The graphics is shown next. L1 = L2 = 1200 in. In the List dialog. Nozzle OD = 26 in. Nozzle Stiffnesses The three stiffnesses computed can be viewed using the List command (Ctrl+L in the Layout window). right click on the Anchor in the Data column. The following window is displayed. The Nozzle dialog will be shown. The first node (10) is already defined as an anchor.
247 . The three nozzle stiffnesses computed can be viewed as before by using the List command (Ctrl+L) and selecting Nozzle Stiffnesses.Nozzle Example 2: Nozzle on a flatbottom storage tank Assume the following data: Vessel OD = 1800 in.5 in. No reinforcing pad on the vessel. enter a Nozzle by typing "n" and provide the required data. Create the pipeline till the nozzle node. Check the Flatbottom tank checkbox. Nozzle OD = 26 in. Nozzle Thickness = 0. The Layout window looks like the following. Elastic modulus of the vessel material = 28×106 psi.0 in. The graphics is shown next. At the nozzle node. Vessel Thickness = 1. L = 36 in.
See Appendix B (API 610. 248 . double click on an empty row for the Pump dialog and enter the required information. Two types of pumps can be modeled: Horizontal or Vertical inline. Once you see the Pump List window. an API 610 pump compliance report is produced. Upon analysis.Pump A pump (like a turbine or a compressor) is input by selecting "Pumps" from the Misc menu in the Layout or List window. for Pumps) for related information.
. −280−290−300. the "center is defined by the pump shaft centerline and a vertical plane passing midway between the four pedestals. The nozzle nodes on the pump must be made anchors and the shaft axis must be in the horizontal plane. Suction and Discharge nodes are required. The discharge side begins at node 200. −90−100 → PUMP ← 200−210− . 249 . the center is defined for pumps with two support pedestals by "the intersection of the pump shaft centerline and a vertical plane passing through the center of the two support pedestals. See section on specifying a Direction for information on Xcomp/Ycomp/ Zcomp. A pump may be modeled in the following manner: Consider the network below consisting of two pipe segments connected by a pump. . Make nodes 100 and 200 anchors so that equipment loads can be calculated. 10−20−30− . You must enter coordinates for the center of the pump (this is required only for horizontal pumps). A similar method applies to turbines and compressors too. A different dialog is shown for vertical inline pumps. . ." See Appendix B for illustrative figures. The nozzle locations (top. side or end) should be specified for each suction and discharge nodes.Pump Type a short description to identify the pump in Description. The suction side of the pump ends at node 100. Only Description." For pumps with four support pedestals. According to API 610.
The cone angle. the eccentricity as shown is between the two axes of the ends of the reducer. A reducer (concentric or eccentric) is input by typing "re" in the Type column or selecting "Reducer" from the Element Types dialog. See example 2 later in this section. a. See figures below. Cone angle OD1 Thickness1 20 30 OD2 Thickness2 (a) Concentric Reducer Eccentricity 20 30 (b) Eccentric Reducer. An eccentric reducer is used when it is required to keep the top or bottom of the line level. otherwise the reducer is called Eccentric. α.Reducer A reducer is used to join a larger pipe to a small pipe. is as shown in the following figure. The larger end (at node 20) has the outside diameter and thickness as OD1 and Thickness 1 (Thk1) with the smaller end (at node 30) having OD2 and Thickness 2 (Thk2). Eccentricity is (ID1 − ID2) / 2. observe that the two ends of the reducers are of different diameters. 250 . In case of the eccentric reducer. Nomenclature same as in (a) An eccentric reducer’s eccentricity is modeled by a change in offsets of the "To" node (node 30 in Figure (b) above). A reducer is Concentric when the axes at the reducer ends are collinear. In the figures below.
OD2. Thk2 These are the crosssection properties at the two ends of the reducer. SIF Calculation For B31. as mentioned above. additional input is required which affects the calculation of SIF.1.1. EN 13480. the cone angle is not used. Thk1. OD1 and Thk1 contain preceding section’s outside diameter and thickness. ASME Section III Class 2. Swedish and Norwegian For these codes. The Section1 and Section2 buttons can be used to quickly input OD and Thk values from previously defined sections. the maximum value of the SIF (2. RCCM. By default. OD1. ASME Section III Class 2. If the cone angle is not input. For these codes. OD stands for outside diameter and Thk stands for thickness. For Swedish and Norwegian piping codes. if the cone angle is left blank. the cone angle (if input) is used to calculate the SIF. It is used to calculate SIF at the ends of the reducer for certain piping codes (B31. Swedish and Norwegian). RCCM.0) is used. but different values may be typed here. Cone angle This angle is shown in Figure (a).0) is used. For all other piping codes.Reducer The Reducer dialog is shown. the maximum value of the SIF (2. Knuckles if the reducer is with knuckles check this box. 251 .
322". Calculate the average of Thk1 (thickness at the large end) and Thk2 (thickness at the small end) of the reducer. enter material.625". press Tab to move to the Type field. type 1 (ft. specify delta which is the mismatch (difference in mean radii across the weld at the smaller end of the reducer).) for DX. are calculated using the actual dimensions at each end. Thk1=0. Insert a jacketed pipe at that location which has the calculated average OD and thickness. then a value of 1. Press the "Section 2" button to select the section at "To" node. however. delta is not used. stiffness. OD2=4. press Enter.5". Weight.237". If the reducer is with knuckles. 252 . note that the preceding 8" section properties are already displayed for OD1 and Thk1). For other codes. type "Re" (to open the Reducer dialog box. contents weight and insulation weight are based on the average diameter (of OD1 and OD2) and average thickness (of Thk1 and Thk2). Thk2=0. 8"/STD and 4"/STD. Stiffness and Stress Calculation The properties such as weight of the reducer.0 is used. Jacketed Reducer A jacketed reducer may be modeled in the following manner: Calculate the average of OD1 (large end of the reducer) and OD2 (small end of the reducer). The stresses at each end. Create two sections.Reducer Delta If the reducer is without knuckles. 8" section and load names. Create a new pipe section with these parameters. The first node (10) is already defined. Example 1: Concentric Reducer To model a concentric reducer as shown in Figure (a) with the following data: 8"x4" reducer. OD1=8. If the code is not specific about a reducer’s SIF. Complete pipe run till node 20: type 20 for Node. Press Enter to move to the next row. Input reducer: Type 30 for Node.
press Enter. type 11" for DX (reducer’s length) and press Enter.5" for OD2 and 0. Press Enter again on Layout to move to the next row. Press OK. Concentric Reducer Example1 Y Z X 10 20 30 40 253 . Now you are asked if you want to change section. 4. Type 40 for Node. press Yes. 1 (ft. Highlight the 4" section and press Enter.Reducer Highlight the 4" section and press OK.) for DX.237" for Thk2 will be entered in the Reducer dialog. "Select Section" dialog will be shown.
press Enter. type 11" for DX (reducer’s length along X axis).322". Thk2=0. "Select Section" dialog will be shown. then press Enter.958" which is modeled as change in elevation. OD2=6. Highlight the 6" section and press OK. Press Enter to move to the next row. type "Re" (to open the Reducer dialog box. Press the "Section 2" button to select the section at "To" node. Create two sections. OD1=8.28" for Thk2 will be entered in the Reducer dialog. type 12" for DX.625". Thk1=0. 8"/STD and 6"/STD. Press OK. Input reducer: Type 30 for Node. note that the preceding 8" section properties are already displayed for OD1 and Thk1). eccentricity = (ID1 − ID2) / 2 = 0.28". Complete pipe run till node 20: type 20 for Node. press Yes. press Tab to move to the Type field. enter material.625". 6. 254 .958" for DY (this is the eccentricity). Highlight the 6" section and press Enter.Reducer Example 2: Eccentric Reducer To model an eccentric reducer as shown in Figure (b) with the following data: 8"x6" reducer. 0. Press Enter again on Layout to move to the next row.625" for OD2 and 0. The first node (10) is already defined. Now you are asked if you want to change section. 8" section and load names.
The graphics is shown below: 255 . 12" for DX.Reducer Type 40 for Node. press Enter.
Alternately. Use the check boxes to apply the restraint for a particular direction. A restraint is input by typing "re" in the Data column or selecting "Restraint" from the Data Types dialog. Click on the vertical button for a rigid vertical restraint.Restraint This support type is a convenient way to specify a translational twoway rigid restraint in the global X. 256 . Y and Z directions. Rigid restraint has stiffness of 1×1012 (lb/inch). This is most commonly used to specify a rigid 2way vertical restraint. simply typing "X" or "Y" or "Z" inputs a restraint in the respective direction. The Restraint dialog is shown.
257 . the highlight in the Graphics window is automatically synchronized to the corresponding node number (or element). You can view any detail in these windows but cannot modify any data. it is helpful to be aware of the following: • The name of the results item and the load case (if applicable) are always shown in the title bar of the Results window. in which you can view every computed result for the piping model. Select an item to see it. To modify the input data. • Synchronized highlight: When you move the highlight to a node number (or an element) in the Results window.res) from the File menu in the Main. the Results window opens. you are shown the following dialog in which you click on Yes or No to view the computed results. When you view results. A dialog listing the different results for a model is shown below.Results Window The Results window is opened either after analysis of a model or by opening a results file (. This window displays results in an organized fashion conducive to easy understanding of the results. you must open the Layout window in input mode (by selecting menu File > Input). Upon successful completion of model analysis. The other windows (Layout and List) may be opened from here in readonly mode. When you click on Yes. Layout or Results windows.
e. • In some items. the menu commands in Results and View menus change. you might see more choices within a topic. Element forces. you will notice left and right black arrows. you can change over to other supports [like limit stops. You might also see the Other Supports dialog from Support Loads results. you can change the load case. you can view graphics simultaneously with results (and input). in some other results. or move backward by using Shift Tab.). you will notice left and right white arrows. Also. i. • Changing Toolbar and Menus: As you move forward or backward through the results. Similarly. By clicking on these arrow buttons (or pressing the corresponding arrow keys on the keyboard). you might see the Other Forces dialog from Pipe Forces results. Depending on the model configuration. • Simultaneous graphics: As you know. By clicking on these arrow buttons (or pressing the corresponding arrow keys on the keyboard with the CTRL key). etc. the toolbar changes with the displayed result.. or if you press Shift+Tab. etc. hangers. 258 . They contain commands that are relevant to the displayed result.Results Window • One key navigation: By merely pressing the Tab key. you will see Time History results (or whichever is the last item on the list). In this window. while viewing Support loads. For example. you will see Code compliance. Support Loads. or by clicking on the cyan colored arrows (left and right). restraints. if you press Tab from Sorted Stresses.]). the display order of results is circular. you can display results for other related items (for example. you can move forward through the different results one at a time (Sorted stresses. Code Compliance.
A few screenshots of Results window with the different results items are shown next. 259 . See next figure. A total of four columns (1.Results Window Each results item has a context menu as shown in the sorted stresses window. SA. SH+SA and 3. notice the results that are shown for each element (highlight is on element 19. nodes 120 and 122). For sorted stresses. Rightclick to see what the context menu offers. Thresholds and Hide Allowables. In the window below.0SC) are removed when you Hide Allowables thereby allowing you to reduce the amount of information presented. you are shown Show stresses. Sorted stresses shows stresses at nodes sorted by stress ratios. Code Compliance The stresses are displayed on an element basis.5SH. Show stress ratios. The resulting actions of the first three commands apply to the Graphics window and the last one applies to the Results window.
You can change the load case by pressing the left or right black arrow key.Results Window Branch Connection Stresses Branch connection stresses are available for only a few piping codes such as ASME Section III. Hanger Report Flange Report 260 .
This example model has several cold spring operating load cases and hence you see the left and right black arrow keys. 261 .Results Window Rotating Equipment Reports The rotating equipment reports are produced for all Operating load cases. The left and right white arrow keys advance (or go back) to the next (or previous) rotating equipment report. Soil Restraints Soil restraints are shown when you have buried piping.
support load summaries are available for the four supports shown.Results Window Support Load Summary This gives you a summary of several combinations of different load cases by showing the algebraically minimum and maximum loads. 262 . when you click on the left or right white arrow. Then. Support loads on all the supports in the model are shown in the next window. This table can be of use to a support designer. Here. The supports at which a load summary is available can be shown by clicking on the Other Supports button (immediately to the left of the left white arrow button). Select the support from the list of available supports. The window first shows loads for anchors. CAEPIPE shows you loads at different supports. if present.
Select the type.Results Window You can find out which other supports are in the model by clicking on the Other Supports button (immediately to the left of the left white arrow button). When you click on this button. 263 . the list of available support types is shown.
264 . For a support type. the support loads can be shown for all load cases by clicking on the black right/left arrow or simply press arrow keys on the keyboard.Results Window Support Loads Support Loads are shown for all support types. A list of load cases can be shown by clicking on the Load cases button.
should you want to return to pipe forces in local coordinates.Results Window Element Forces Forces and moments on all pipe elements are shown next. you can display forces and moments for them too by clicking on the Other Forces button on the toolbar. So. the forces and moments are shown in global coordinates and the button changes in the same location to a Local forces button. When you select Global forces. If you had nonpipe elements such as a valve. 265 . hotkey: F7). Forces and moments can be shown in global coordinates by clicking on the Global forces button (or selecting Global Forces command from the Results menu. simply click again at the same location on the Local forces button.
266 . displacements at flexible joints (if any) by clicking on the Other displacements button and selecting the item of interest (or by clicking on the left/right white arrows). Click on the black left/right arrow to show displacements for other load cases. Also. you can show Minimum/Maximum displacements. You can show animated deflected shape by clicking on Show animated deflected shape button in the toolbar.Results Window Sorted FRP Stresses Displacements Displacements for all load cases can be shown (operating load case shown here).
You can show minimum/maximum displacements for other load cases by clicking on the black arrows.) is shown under Flex joints. 267 . hinge. etc. Displacements at other supports can be shown (limit stops shown here). ball.Results Window Displacements in local coordinates for all flexible joints (bellows. Minimum/Maximum displacements for each load case can be shown (Sustained load case shown below).
you can show graphically the mode shape or animate it by clicking on the appropriate button. modal participation factors and modal mass fractions is shown next. 268 . As in the earlier window.Results Window Frequencies A list of natural frequencies. You can show each frequency’s mode shape graphically or animate it by clicking on Show mode shape or Show animated mode shape button in the toolbar. periods. Each frequency’s mode shape detail is shown in the next window.
269 .Results Window Dynamic Susceptibility Please see section by that name in Reference and also Appendix E.
you are shown a list of supports in the model from which you need to select one. you are shown the following dialog from which you need to select an item.Results Window Time History For time history results. Then. 270 .
You can export time history results to a comma separated values (.Results Window Once you select a support from the list. then you are shown the time history at that location. 271 .csv) file that can be read by a spreadsheet program such as MSExcel (see menu File > Export).
Results menu This is one of the menus that changes with the displayed result. Show forces.Zoom all Move focus to Graphics window Move focus to Layout. exit. printing. forces. support. Menus and Toolbar These items are explained in detail under Menus. etc.g. A summary is given here. displacement) Previous item of same type Find node List Units Graphics .Previous view Show list of Other supports.to have all four windows open at the same time to enhance your understanding of the model results. print. etc. File menu Contains mainly file operations including starting a new model. there are several hotkeys (in addition to MSWindows keys for open. List or Results window (wherever the focus was before) Graphics . and opening another Results file. At all times. it contains commands for • Display list of Results • Move forward to Next Result (Tab key) • Move backward to Previous Result (Shift+Tab key) 272 .List and Layout .Results Window Hotkeys You Can Use For keyboard operations.) to make you more productive.Set Viewpoint Graphics . displacements in global/local coordinates Open Other Windows You can open the remaining text windows from here . Use the Window menu to open the other windows.. etc. Tab (Shift) Tab Right Arrow Key Left Arrow Key Ctrl+Right Arrow Key Ctrl+Left Arrow Key Ctrl+F Ctrl+L Ctrl+U Ctrl+A F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 Next results item Previous results item Next load case or mode shape Previous load case or mode shape Next item of same type (e. displacements.
Any change here in units or font will affect all text windows. An example of the changes: When Sorted Stresses are displayed. because of a lower monitor resolution). in addition to the above. the following commands: • Other supports • Next Support • Previous Support • Load cases • Next Load case • Previous Load case All of the above commands appear on the toolbar. the menu displays.Results Window An example of the additions to the Results menu: When Support Loads are displayed. Window menu You can move focus to other windows. in addition to the above. But the change in units is not saved when you close the Results window (they will be saved when you change units in input mode and save the model). Options menu You can change units or font from the options menu. This menu. the following commands: • Show stresses in the Graphics window • Show stress ratios in the Graphics window • Set stress or stress ratio thresholds (to display stresses or stress ratios that are above a specific threshold value). Help menu For online Help. View menu Commands for graphics operations are available from here. F2 is used to move between text and Graphics windows. the menu displays. 273 . and F3 is used to move focus between open text windows. changes with displayed results. like the Results menu. This is helpful to those when you work with maximized windows (perhaps. You do not have to move focus to the Graphics window to execute these commands.
Thermal expansion of the rigid element is calculated using the coefficient of thermal expansion from the material and temperatures from the load. To this weight. and 1×1012 (inchlb/rad) in rotational directions (bending and torsional) are used. type zero for weight and ensure that the corresponding Load set (specified on the Layout window) used for this element does not have any Additional weight specified. The Rigid element dialog is shown. 274 .Rigid Element A rigid element is input by typing "ri" in the Type column or selecting "Rigid element" from the Element Types dialog. weightless element. Wind load is calculated using the section properties. To model a rigid. It is applied as a distributed load along the length of the rigid element. the Additional weight from Load is added. Material density does not affect the weight of the rigid element. Weight The only required input is weight. The stiffnesses of 1×1012 (lb/inch) in translational directions (axial and shear). Contents and insulation weight are not used.
.e. no vertical restraint is used in dynamic analysis. A hanger can be connected to another node in the piping system by entering the node number in the "Connected to node" field. A rod hanger is input by by typing "ro" in the Data column or selecting "Rod Hanger" from the Data Types dialog. a rigid vertical restraint is used in dynamic analysis.Rod Hanger A rod hanger is a rigid oneway vertical support. 275 . one rod hanger without a connected node is input. the status of the rod hanger from the first operating case (W+P1+T1) is used. i. By default. The rod hanger node is rigidly supported against downward movement and is able to move freely in the upward direction. if the rod hanger is in tension in the first operating case. In dynamic analysis. This node must be directly above the hanger node. This data (Number of hangers. A rod hanger always acts in the vertical direction. Connected node) may be edited in the Rod Hanger dialog. Number of Hangers The number of hangers is the number of separate hangers connected in parallel at this node. Connected to Node By default the hanger is connected to a fixed ground point which is not a part of the piping system. That is. the rod hanger is rigid in tension (downward movement) and has no stiffness in compression (upward movement). If the rod hanger is in compression in the first operating case.
e. it functions as a nonlinear oneway restraint. One can confirm this by studying vertical displacement (Y or Z) at the support for the first operating case (which will be 0 or positive).. Rod hanger results are included in the hanger report which reports results for the first operating case (W+P1+T1).Rod Hanger A rod hanger in CAEPIPE functions as a limit stop. It simply means that there is liftoff at the hanger location for the first operating case. You can find reports for other operating load cases under Support Loads > Other Supports > Rod Hangers. Liftoff (i. The zero spring rate often confuses users. 276 . The rod hanger offers no resistance in +Y direction. zero spring rate and a zero or positive operating condition displacement) indicates that the support may not be needed and could be removed. It is rigid in Y direction and fully flexible in +Y direction (in a Yvertical system). that is. a rod hanger’s spring rate may be shown either as Rigid or zero. In the hanger report.
Then. You define each section by typing in requisite properties and giving it a name. Section name Type an alphanumeric name (up to 3 characters long) in this field. thickness of pipe. Double click on an empty row to define a new section. corrosion allowance.Section A Section denotes the crosssectional properties of a pipe used to build a piping model. insulation and inside lining. You will be presented with a List window that lists all defined sections in the model. Each section needs several properties such as outside diameter (or Nominal Dia. Click on "Sect" on the Header row or select Sections from the Misc. you type this name under the Section field on the Layout window. The section dialog will be shown. 277 .).
corrosion allowance is used for reducing the section modulus and axial area only for calculating sustained and occasional stresses. click on the appropriate radio button.8. for some piping codes (B31. DIN or JIS). If you would like to change to a different database (JIS or DIN). Corrosion Allowance The corrosion allowance reduces the wall thickness of the pipe. Upon selection.Section Nominal Dia. DIN (Deutsche Industrie Norm) and JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard). CODETI. in which case you may enter the Outside diameter and Thickness of the nonstandard pipe. you are shown the list of pipe sizes that pertains to the selected database (ANSI. Reduced thickness = (1 − Mill tolerance/100) × nominal thickness − Corrosion allowance 278 . Schedule There are three pipe sizes’ databases builtin for your convenience. It is used to calculate the allowable pressure for the pipe. The default is ANSI. Canadian Z183 and Z184).5. When you click on the dropdown combo box for pipe sizes. This becomes useful for defining those pipe sizes that are not listed. the pipe thickness (while calculating allowable pressure) is = 0. Note that each database allows you a nonstandard definition (Non std in the pipe sizes list). if the mill tolerance is input as 12. CAEPIPE populates the correct OD and Thickness. B31. ANSI pipe sizes go from 1/8" to 48".875 x nominal thickness. Mill Tolerance The mill tolerance (in percent) is also used to reduce the wall thickness of the pipe while calculating allowable pressure.1 (1967). Additionally. DIN goes from 15 to 1600 and JIS goes from 8A to 1500A. B31. Select the required nominal pipe size and schedule (wall thickness). They are the ANSI (American National Standards Institute).5. B31.3.4. For example. B31.
See figure. CAEPIPE has the ability to model these protective coatings inside the pipe. CAEPIPE accounts for lining thickness by reducing the pipe’s internal diameter by twice the lining thickness. The insulation density and insulation thickness are used to calculate the insulation weight which is added to the weight of the pipe. Both have respective thicknesses and densities. While calculating the weight of the fluid/gas inside the pipe. Highlight the desired insulation material and then press Enter.Section Insulation Type the pipe insulation density and thickness here. Lining is on the inside of the pipe. Click on the Insulation button for the insulation library. or enter your own. 279 . The insulation density is entered on the section property dialog. Insulation is around and outside of the pipe. Lining Insulation Pipe Lining is different from insulation. Lining Linings are used to prevent internal corrosion that might occur during transportation of a gas or fluid.
You can also use this to model vertical/horizontal supports.Skewed Restraint A Skewed Restraint is a support which resists translation along or rotation about the specified direction at a node. sway struts and similar supports. This support can be oriented in any direction. Rigid Sway Strut assembly Y X Z 50 Pipe A skewed restraint is input by typing "sk" in the Data column or selecting "Skewed restraint" from the Data Types dialog. 280 . Use this restraint to model sway braces. You have to either calculate the stiffness or use a manufacturer supplied stiffness for the support you want to model. The figure below shows an application.
Type Translational: Use this type to restrain translation along the specified direction. and it is oriented from the skewed restraint node towards the connected node. You can calculate the stiffness in the following manner: Assume a 2. In order to be able to calculate the direction. the relative displacement of the skewed restraint node is calculated with respect to the connected node. It is calculated from the locations of the skewed restraint node and the connected node. Connected to node If the skewed restraint node is connected to an externally fixed point (ground). 4 E J The rotational stiffness is GJ/L = × = 1./rad.lb.. dia. π (2.925 lb. As an illustration. The translational (axial) stiffness is AE/L = Direction If you have no "connected to node. leave the "Connected to node" blank.727 in.135. If you have connected the skewed restraint node to another node. See section on specifying a Direction. A skewed restraint node can be connected to another node that must not be coincident with the skewed restraint node.5 in. the skewed restraint node and the connected node must not be coincident.Skewed Restraint The Skewed Restraint dialog is shown. Y and Z components." the direction in which the skewed restraint is oriented must be specified in terms of its global X. assume that you had a rod (in tension only) which you were modeling as a skewed restraint. ν is the Poisson’s ratio and J is polar moment of inertia. then the direction must not be input./in. Stiffness Type in the translational or rotational stiffness of the support. rod 2 feet long. where G is the 2(1 + ν) L shear modulus. modulus of elasticity of rod material = 30×106 psi.5)2 × 30×106 / 24 = 6. Rotational: Use this type to restrain rotation about the specified direction. 281 .843. Note that during skewed restraint force calculations.
As can be seen from the figure. Type 894 for Stiffness. The translational stiffness of the sway braces is given as 894 lb. Position highlight on this row. Enter the skewed restraint dialog similar to the first skewed restraint except in this case type 1 for Z comp. Select Skewed restraint by clicking on it to open the skewed restraint dialog. Second support (left): type 50 for Node on an empty row. the node is 50. the orientation of the sway braces (sway struts in the figure) are at 45° from the X. type 1 for Y comp and –1 for Z comp. 282 . In this case. if not. This will open the Data types dialog. press Tab to move to next field. press "l(L)" for Location. press Enter./in. Ensure that Type is set to Translational.Skewed Restraint Example: Modeling a Sway Brace Assume that we need to model two sway braces in the same arrangement as shown in the figure at the beginning of this section. First support (right): Type "sk" in the Data column to open the skewed restraint dialog box. press Enter. click on the Translational radio button.and Yaxes. We will model the support on the right first and then the support on the left. The following steps describe the modeling procedure: Create node (on pipeline) where support is required.
Skewed Restraint The Layout window is shown below: The graphics is shown below: The rendered graphics is shown below: 283 .
Slip Joint
The slip joint allows for axial (through telescopic action) and torsional movement between adjacent pipes. Slip joints, susceptible to lateral buckling due to internal pressure, may become less effective when subjected to small bending loads. Proper guiding to prevent buckling and keeping the two telescopic parts concentric are therefore necessary. A Slip Joint is input by typing "s" under the Type column or by selecting "Slip joint" from the Element types dialog.
The Slip joint dialog is shown.
The required data for a slip joint can usually be obtained from the slip joint manufacturer. A slip joint will have axial deflection or rotation only when the external forces exceed the friction force or friction torque respectively. If the pressure thrust area is input, a thrust load of: Pressure x Thrust area on both nodes of the slip joint will be imposed. The weight is the empty weight. The contents, insulation and additional weight are added to the empty weight. A slip joint is rigid in lateral directions. See the section on Nonlinearities for related information.
284
Snubber
A snubber provides translational restraint in a specified direction for seismic and dynamic cases only. A snubber is input by typing "sn" in the Data column or selecting "Snubber" from the Data Types dialog.
The Snubber dialog is shown.
The stiffness defaults to Rigid, however a stiffness may be input for flexible snubbers. See section on specifying a Direction for information on X comp, Y comp, Z comp.
285
Spider
A spider (also called a spacer) is used to connect the coincident nodes of a jacketed pipe (i.e., the node on the core pipe and the corresponding node on the jacket pipe). The spider acts as an internal guide. At the spider location, the local xaxis is calculated along the pipe direction. The spider connects the local y and z translations for the core and jacket nodes. It prevents any radial movement but allows sliding, rotating and bending movement between core and jacket pipes. No gap is allowed between the core pipe and the spider. See section on Jacketed pipe for related information. A spider is input at a jacketed pipe node by typing "sp" in the Data column or selecting "Spider" from the Data Types dialog.
286
Supports
CAEPIPE provides many support types, which enable you to model available support hardware. These support types are grouped under the Data types menu (See section on Data Types).
Anchor
An anchor can be modeled as a flexible/rigid support which by default restrains the three global translations and three global rotations at the applied node (six degrees of freedom). Use this to model all anchor blocks, and nodes where piping connects to equipment (pumps, compressors, turbines, etc.).
Restraint
A restraint is a twoway rigid support which restrains the translations (negative and positive directions) along the specified global directions. You can apply a restraint in all the three directions at the same time.
Skewed Restraint
This is a flexible twoway support which can be oriented in any direction. Use this support either to resist translational movement along or rotational movement about (as in a pipe sleeve which resists nonaxial rotation) the specified direction. Use this to model rigid/flexible sway struts and sway braces.
Hanger, User hanger, Rod hanger, Constant support
These are vertical supports only. Use a Hanger when you want to design a variable spring hanger(s) for your piping system (there are 30+ hanger catalogs builtin to CAEPIPE for your convenience). Use a User hanger when you want to analyze hangers in an existing piping system. Use a Rod hanger for a rod hanger assembly. Use a Constant support to design a constant support or a constant effort hanger.
"Bottomedout" Springs
To analyze this situation, use a spring hanger and a limit stop at this node. Type in the maximum allowable hanger travel for one of the limits of the limit stop. Once the hanger traverses the maximum distance allowed, the limit stop becomes active.
287
Supports Guide
A Guide is a rigid/flexible restraint which resists lateral pipe movements (in directions perpendicular to the axis of the pipe). You can specify a gap, if required, inside the guide. A friction coefficient is optional. Use a Guide to model Ustraps, UBolts, pipe guide assemblies, pipe slides and similar supports.
Limit stop
A Limit stop is a nonlinear restraint. It can be oriented in any direction, and a gap can be specified on both sides of the pipe. A limit stop allows free movement for the distance of the gap and then acts as a rigid or flexible restraint. A Line Stop is a support that restricts axial movement of pipe. This support can be modeled using a Limit stop with its direction oriented along the pipe’s axis. Use this support to model pipe slide assemblies, pipe skirts and similar arrangements. See section on Limit stop for an example. A Limit stop can be used to model supports for pipe racks where vertical downward movement is restricted and upward movement is not. See Example of pipe rack modeling in the Beam section. Refer to the respective CAEPIPE support term in Reference for a detailed explanation on it.
288
Tie Rod
Tie rod is a nonlinear element with different stiffnesses and gaps in tension and compression. It can be used to model tie rods in bellows, chains, etc. The force vs. displacement relationship for a tie rod is shown below.
Force
Compression gap
Tension stiffness
Compression stiffness
Displacement Tension gap
When the tie rod is in tension, and the displacement is greater than the tension gap, tension stiffness is used. If the displacement is less than the tension gap, zero stiffness is used. Similarly when the tie rod is in compression, and the displacement is greater than the compression gap, compression stiffness is used. If the displacement is less than the compression gap, zero stiffness is used. A Tie rod is input by typing "t" in the Type column or selecting "Tie rod" from the Element Types dialog.
The Tie Rod dialog is shown.
A tie rod can be made "Tension only" by setting the compression stiffness to zero. Similarly it can be made "Compression only" by setting the tension stiffness to zero. Both Tension and Compression stiffnesses cannot be zero. If there is no tension or compression gap, leave it blank or specify it as zero. 289
Turbine
A turbine (like a pump or a compressor) is input by selecting "Turbines" from the Miscellaneous (Misc) menu in the Layout window. CAEPIPE, upon analysis, produces a NEMA SM23 turbine compliance report. See Appendix B (NEMA SM23, for Turbines) for related information.
Once you see the Turbine List window, double click on an empty row for the Turbine dialog and enter the required information.
290
Turbine
A short description to identify the turbine may be entered for Description. The nozzle nodes must be anchors and the shaft axis must be in the horizontal plane. Some of the nozzle nodes may be left blank if they are not on the turbine (e.g., extraction nodes). See specifying a Direction for information on how to specify X comp/Y comp/ Z comp for Shaft axis.
291
User Hanger
User defined hangers may be used for analyzing existing hangers. A user hanger is input by typing "u" in the Data column and pressing Enter or selecting "User Hanger" from the Data Types dialog.
The User Hanger dialog is shown.
Spring Rate The spring rate is required. For a constant support user hanger, input the spring rate as zero. Number of Hangers The number of hangers is the number of separate hangers connected in parallel at this node. The stiffness and load of each hanger are multiplied by the number of hangers to find the effective stiffness and load of the hanger support at this node. Hanger Load Input the hanger load, if known. Otherwise, leave it blank and CAEPIPE will calculate the load. Hanger Load The hanger load may be specified as hot or cold using the Load type radio buttons. Connected to Node By default the hanger is connected to a fixed ground point which is not a part of the piping system. A hanger can be connected to another node in the piping system by entering the node number in the "Connected to node" field. This node must be directly above or below the hanger node. 292
3) may be required. For example. 293 . Depending on the piping code. etc. nonstandard tee/branch connection.User SIF User SIF (Stress Intensification Factor) may be used to specify SIF at a node where there is normally no SIF (i. Note that a User SIF is applied to all elements that come together at this node. A User SIF is input by typing "user s" in the Data column or selecting "User SIF" from the Data types dialog. To override the calculated SIF. CAEPIPE calculates the SIF according to the piping code. non bend or non tee node) or to override calculated SIF at the node. specify a User SIF. The corresponding dialog will be shown. The User SIF could be used for any component for which you need to input an SIF value nonright angle tees. It could also be used to override calculated SIF values. either a single value (B31. in the case of a bend or tee. flanges.1) or both inplane and outofplane values of SIF (B31..e.
Valve A Valve is input by typing "v" in the Type column or selecting "Valve" from the Element Types dialog.. the thickness of the pipe section is multiplied by Thickness multiplier in the calculation of the valve stiffness). is treated as a concentrated weight offset from the center of the valve. if specified. DY. DZ in Layout is adjusted to match the valve length. Weight The weight is the empty weight (without contents.). 294 . the DX. Length If the valve length is input. Typical value for Thickness multiplier is 3 which is the default value if left blank. the valve length is calculated from DX. If the valve length is left blank. etc. The Valve dialog is shown. Additional weight.e. This weight is applied as a uniformly distributed load along the length of the valve. Thickness X The thickness multiplier (Thickness X) is used for stiffness calculation (i. DY. DZ input in Layout. insulation.
D. The weight of the insulation is the weight calculated from the section O. + 2 × Thk × Multiplier The moment of inertia is based on the new O. For a thin walled pipe. Typical value for insulation weight multiplier is 1. Note that the weight given in the library is the weight of a weld end gate valve. − 2 × Thk Then a new O.D. = O. as calculated above.D. and the section thickness. weight of insulation calculated from the insulation thickness of the pipe section is multiplied by Insulation weight X). = I. and insulation thickness and insulation density (from section properties) multiplied by the insulation weight multiplier. Valve Library The valve library may be accessed by clicking on the Library button of the Valve dialog.Valve Insulation weight X The insulation weight multiplier (Insulation weight X) is used if the valve has additional insulation compared to adjacent pipe (i.D. The weight of the contents of the valve is based on the I.D.D.D. the flanges at the two ends must be separately input using the Flange data type.D. is calculated as: New O. I. 295 . Thickness multiplier and Inertia multiplier are approximately the same. Additional weight The additional weight is a concentrated weight which may be specified at an offset from the center of the valve..e. and Thk x Multiplier.75 which is the default value if left blank. Calculation of Moment of Inertia: The internal diameter of the valve is calculated from the section O. If the valve is flanged. This may be used to model the valve operator.D.
In results.2SH). 296 . you need to calculate the relief valve force and input it at the valve node as a Force (CAEPIPE treats it as a sustained load). 0. Sometimes.Valve Angle/Relief Valve Angle and relief valves which have the outlet pipe at some angle (typically 90° ) from the inlet pipe may be modeled by two valves one after the other and at that angle.. input a dummy gload (e. Then. you may have to ignore the excessive Sustained stress at the relief valve due to the input Force. Analysis note: For a relief valve. Examine the occasional stress with respect to the occasional allowable (1. The total weight of the actual valve must be divided between these two modeled valves. not the Sustained allowable (SH).g.001g) and select Static Seismic for analysis. look at the occasional stresses which include the effects of Sustained and Occasional loads.
Butt weld and Tapered transition require the input of weld mismatch. 297 . you could specify the SIF for it using the User SIF data type. Mismatch is the difference in the mean radii across the weld. The SIF for a weld is calculated according to the selected piping code. and a Tapered transition. If you have an unlisted weld type. The Weld dialog is shown. Four types of welds are available: Butt.Weld A Weld at a node is input by typing "w" in the Data column or selecting "Weld" from the Data types dialog. Fillet. The type of the weld should be selected from the "Type" dropdown combo box. Concave Fillet.
Appendix A Code Compliance .
the allowable pressure is calculated from equation (C3.2. the allowable pressure is calculated from equation (C3.B31. P = where SEtm (R − r) r(R − r/2) r = mean radius of pipe = (Do − tn )/2 R = equivalent bend radius of the miter For widely spaced miter bends.2) of 104. should be included in corrosion allowance) Nominal pipe thickness Outside diameter Inside diameter 0.1 (2001) Allowable Pressure The calculation of allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is based on equation 4 of 104.1) of 104.3.1.4 (Pressure coefficient) Y = d if Do /tm < 6 (d + Do ) For closely spaced miter bends. P = where SEt2 m √ r(tm + 1.25 tan θ rtm ) θ = miter half angle 299 .3.3.3. P = where 2SEtm Do − 2Y tm P S E tm = = = = tn Do d Y = = = = Allowable pressure Allowable stress Joint factor (input as material property) tn × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance (Any additional thickness ("A" in the actual code equation).
in the menu Options > Analysis on the Code tab. the allowable stress range may be calculated as SA = f [1.75iMA 0. weight and other sustained mechanical loads) is calculated from equation 11 of 104. SLO = where P Do 0.25Sh ) allowable stress at cold temperature stress range reduction factor from Table 102.25Sc + 0.2(C) When Sh is greater than SL .8.1 SL = where P Do 0.1 as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (SL ) and stress due to occasional loads (SO ) such as earthquake or wind.3.75iMA + ≤ Sh 4tn Z P Do tn i MA Z Sh = = = = = = = maximum pressure outside diameter nominal wall thickness stress intensification factor. Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently.2Sh 4tn Z Z MB = resultant moment due to occasional loads Expansion Stress The stress (SE ) due to thermal expansion is calculated from equation 13 of (104. effective section modulus hot allowable stress Occasional Stress The stress (SLO ) is due to occasional loads is calculated from equation 12 of 104.1 (2001) Sustained Stress The stress (SL ) due to sustained loads (pressure.75iMB + + ≤ 1.75i.8.0 resultant bending moment due to sustained loads section modulus. for reduced outlets.25(Sc + Sh ) − SL ] This is specified as an analysis option: "Use liberal allowable stresses".3).8. SE = where iMC ≤ SA Z MC SA Sc f = = = = resultant moment due to thermal expansion f (1. shall not be less than 1. The product 0.B31. 300 .
1 (2001) 301 .B31.
B31.1 (2001) 302 .
1 (2001) 303 .B31.
B31.1 (2001) 304 .
2(d) SL = where PD + 4tm (ii Mi )2 + (io Mo )2 ≤ Sh Z P D tm ii io Mi Mo Z Sh = = = = = = = = = maximum pressure outside diameter minimum wall thickness inplane stress intensification factor out of plane stress intensification factor inplane bending moment out of plane bending moment section modulus hot allowable stress Occasional Stress The stress (SLO ) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (SL ) and stress due to occasional loads (SO ) such as earthquake or wind. SLO = SL + (ii Mi )2 + (io Mo )2 ≤ 1. including mechanical.B31.3.1. corrosion.2.2Sh Z 305 . and erosion allowances t× (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance nominal pipe thickness outside diameter Inside diameter Pressure coefficient from Table 104.1). weight and other sustained mechanical loads) is calculated from 102.1.2(a)2 Sustained Stress The stress (SL ) due to sustained loads (pressure. P = where 2SEtm D − 2Y tm P S E tm = = = = = t = D = d = Y = allowable pressure allowable stress joint factor (input as material property) minimum required thickness. Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently (102.1 (1967) Allowable Pressure The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from 104.3.
B31.25(Sc + Sh ) − SL ] This is specified as an option (Use liberal allowable stresses) in the menu Options > Analysis on the Code tab. effective section modulus f (1.1 (1967) Expansion Stress The stress (SE ) due to thermal expansion is calculated from (119.3. the allowable stress range may be calculated as SA = f [1. SE = where 2 2 S b + 4 St ≤ S A Sb St Z SA Sc f = = = = = = resultant bending stress = (ii Mi )2 + (io Mo )2 /Z torsional stress = Mt /2Z uncorroded section modulus. 306 . for a branch. When Sh is greater than SL .25Sc + 0.4).2(c).6.25Sh ) allowable stress at cold temperature stress range reduction factor from Table 102.
1 (1967) 307 .B31.
1 For closely spaced miter bends. the allowable pressure is calculated from 304.B31. P = where 2SEtm D − 2Y tm P S E tm = = = = = t = D = d = Y = allowable pressure allowable stress joint factor (input as material property) minimum required thickness. weight and other sustained mechanical loads) is calculated from 302. including mechanical and corrosion allowances t × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance nominal pipe thickness outside diameter Inside diameter Pressure coefficient from Table 304.5(c) SL = where PD + 4tm (ii Mi )2 + (io Mo )2 ≤ Sh Z P D tm ii io Mi Mo Z Sh = = = = = = = = = maximum pressure outside diameter minimum wall thickness inplane stress intensification factor out of plane stress intensification factor inplane bending moment out of plane bending moment section modulus hot allowable stress 308 .2.25 tan θ rtm ) θ = miter half angle Sustained Stress The stress (SL ) due to sustained loads (pressure. P = where SEtm (R − r) r(R − r/2) r = mean radius of pipe = (D − t)/2 R = equivalent bend radius of the miter For widely spaced miter bends.3.2.3 (1999) Allowable Pressure The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from 304.3. P = where SEt2 m √ r(tm + 1.1.1.
33Sh Z Expansion Stress The stress (SE ) due to thermal expansion is calculated from (319. 309 .4).25Sh ) allowable stress at cold temperature stress range reduction factor from Table 302. the allowable stress range may be calculated as SA = f [1.B31.3.4.25(Sc + Sh ) − SL ] This is specified as an option (Use liberal allowable stresses) in the menu Options > Analysis on the Code tab.5.3. When Sh is greater than SL . for a branch.6). effective section modulus f (1. SE = where 2 2 Sb + 4 St ≤ SA Sb St Mt Z SA Sc f = = = = = = = resultant bending stress = (ii Mi )2 + (io Mo )2 /Z torsional stress = Mt /2Z torsional moment uncorroded section modulus. SLO = SL + (ii Mi )2 + (io Mo )2 ≤ 1. Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently (302.25Sc + 0.3 (1999) Occasional Stress The stress (SLO ) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (SL ) and stress due to occasional loads (SO ) such as earthquake or wind.
3 (1999) 310 .B31.
3 (1999) 311 .B31.
3 (1999) 312 .B31.
B31.3 (1999) 313 .
SL = where PD + 4tm (ii Mi )2 + (io Mo )2 ≤ 0. including mechanical and corrosion allowances t × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance nominal pipe thickness outside diameter Sustained Stress The stress SL due to sustained loads (pressure. P = where 2SA tm D P SA E tm = = = = = t = D = allowable pressure allowable stress = 0. Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently.3.3(a) as the sum of stress due to sustained loads SL and stress due to occasional loads (SO ) such as earthquake or wind.1. weight and other sustained mechanical loads) is calculated from 402.4 (1998) Allowable Pressure The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from 404.3.75SA Z P D tm ii io Mi Mo Z = = = = = = = = maximum pressure outside diameter minimum wall thickness inplane stress intensification factor out of plane stress intensification factor inplane bending moment out of plane bending moment section modulus Occasional Stress The stress SLO is calculated from 402.2(d).B31.80 yield strength Z 314 . SLO = SL + (ii Mi )2 + (io Mo )2 ≤ 0.72 × E × yield strength joint factor (input as material property) minimum required thickness.
4(c). SE = where 2 2 Sb + 4 St ≤ 0.4 (1998) Expansion Stress The stress (SE ) due to thermal expansion is calculated from 419.6. for a branch.72 yield strength Sb St Mt Z = = = = resultant bending stress = (ii Mi )2 + (io Mo )2 /Z torsional stress = Mt /2Z torsional moment uncorroded section modulus. effective section modulus 315 .B31.
B31.4 (1998) 316 .
B31.4 (1998) 317 .
33Sh Z 318 . including mechanical and corrosion allowances t × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance nominal pipe thickness outside diameter Inside diameter Pressure coefficient 0.3.2(d). P = where 2SEtm D − 2Y tm P S E tm = = = = = t = D = d = Y = = allowable pressure allowable stress joint factor (input as material property) minimum required thickness. Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently (502.1.1. SLO = SL + (ii Mi )2 + (io Mo )2 ≤ 1. SL = where PD + 4tm (ii Mi )2 + (io Mo )2 ≤ Sh Z P D tm ii io Mi Mo Z Sh = = = = = = = = = maximum pressure outside diameter minimum wall thickness inplane stress intensification factor out of plane stress intensification factor inplane bending moment out of plane bending moment section modulus hot allowable stress Occasional Stress The stress (SLO ) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (SL ) and stress due to occasional loads (SO ) such as earthquake or wind.B31.4 for t < D/6 = d/(D + d) for t ≥ D/6 Sustained Stress The stress (SL ) due to sustained loads (pressure.5 (1992) Allowable Pressure The allowable internal pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from 504. weight and other sustained mechanical loads) is calculated from 502.3.3).
for a branch.25Sc + 0. When Sh is greater than SL .B31.2.5). 319 . effective section modulus f (1.25Sh ) allowable stress at cold temperature stress range reduction factor from Table 502.4. SE = where 2 2 S b + 4 St ≤ S A Sb St Mt Z SA Sc f = = = = = = = resultant bending stress = (ii Mi )2 + (io Mo )2 /Z torsional stress = Mt /2Z torsional moment uncorroded section modulus.25(Sc + Sh ) − SL ] This is specified as an option (Use liberal allowable stresses) in the menu Options > Analysis on the Code tab.3.5 (1992) Expansion Stress The stress (SE ) due to thermal expansion is calculated from (519. the allowable stress range may be calculated as SA = f [1.
5 (1992) 320 .B31.
5 (1992) 321 .B31.
5 (1992) 322 .B31.
B31.5 (1992) 323 .
1.75 S F T Z maximum pressure outside diameter minimum wall thickness inplane stress intensification factor out of plane stress intensification factor inplane bending moment out of plane bending moment section modulus Expansion Stress The stress (SE) due to thermal expansion is calculated from 833.72 yield strength Sb St Mt Z = = = = resultant bending stress = (ii Mi )2 + (io Mo )2 /Z torsional stress = Mt /2Z torsional moment uncorroded section modulus. including mechanical and corrosion allowances = t × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance t = nominal pipe thickness D = outside diameter F = construction type design factor E T (input under menu Options > Analysis on the Code tab.4(b) and (c).2. etc. for a branch.8 (1995) Allowable Pressure The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from 841. seismic or wind.) = longitudinal joint factor (input as material property) = temperature derating factor Stress due to Sustained and Occasional Loads The sum of longitudinal pressure stress and the bending stress due to external loads. SE = where 2 2 Sb + 4 St ≤ 0. P = where 2Stm F ET D P = allowable pressure S = yield strength tm = minimum required thickness.B31. such as weight of pipe and contents.. 2 2 SL = PD + 4tm (ii Mi ) + (io Mo ) Z SLO = SL + P D tm ii io Mi Mo Z = = = = = = = = (ii Mi )2 + (io Mo )2 ≤ 0. is calculated according 833. effective section modulus 324 .
the longitudinal pressure stress.B31.8 (1995) Total Stress The sum of the expansion stress SE . and the longitudinal bending stress due to sustained and occasional loading SLO should not exceed the specified minimum yield strength according to 833.4. SE + SLO ≤ yield strength 325 .
B31.8 (1995) 326 .
8 (1995) 327 .B31.
SL = where P D 0. Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently. effective section modulus Sh = hot allowable stress Occasional Stress The stress (SLO ) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (SL ) and stress due to occasional loads (SO ) such as earthquake or wind from Equation 10 of NC3652.0 2 2 2 MA = resultant bending moment due to sustained loads = MX + MY + MZ Z = section modulus.4 for t < D/6 = d/(D + d) for t ≥ D/6 Sustained Stress The stress (SL ) due to sustained loads (pressure. for reduced outlets.75iMA + ≤ Sh 4t Z P D t i = = = = maximum pressure outside diameter nominal wall thickness stress intensification factor.2. Class 2 NC (1980) Allowable Pressure The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from Equation 5 of NC3641.1.75i. SLO = SL + where 0. The product 0. shall not be less than 1.75iMB ≤ 1.ASME Section III. weight and other sustained mechanical loads) is calculated from Equation 9 of NC3652. P = where 2SEtm D − 2Y tm P S E tm = = = = = t = D = d = Y = = allowable pressure allowable stress joint factor (input as material property) minimum required thickness.2Sh Z MB = resultant moment due to occasional loads 328 . including mechanical and corrosion allowances t × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance nominal pipe thickness outside diameter Inside diameter Pressure coefficient 0.
Class 2 NC (1980) Expansion Stress The stress (SE ) due to thermal expansion is calculated from Equation 11 of NC3652.25Sc + 0. ST E = SL + SE ≤ Sh + SA 329 .25Sh ) allowable stress at cold temperature stress range reduction factor from Table NC3611. weight. SE = where iMC ≤ SA Z MC SA Sc f = = = = resultant moment due to thermal expansion f (1.3.2(e)1 The stress due to pressure. other sustained loads and thermal expansion is calculated from Equation 13 of NC3652.2.ASME Section III.
ASME Section III. Class 2 NC (1980) 330 .
Class 2 NC (1980) 331 .ASME Section III.
Class 2 NC (1980) 332 .ASME Section III.
5Sh 2t Z B1.1. weight and other sustained mechanical loads) is calculated from Equation 8 of NC3652. SLO = SL + B2 where MB ≤ 1. for reduced outlets.8Sh Z MB = resultant moment due to occasional loads 333 . SL = B1 where PD MA + B2 ≤ 1. effective section modulus hot allowable stress Occasional Stress The stress (SLO ) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (SL ) and stress due to occasional loads (SO ) such as earthquake or wind from Equation 9 of NC3653. Class 2 NC (1986) Allowable Pressure The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from Equation 5 of NC3641. Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently. B2 P D t MA Z Sh = = = = = = = primary stress indices from NB3680 maximum pressure outside diameter nominal wall thickness 2 2 2 resultant bending moment due to sustained loads = MX + MY + MZ section modulus. P = where 2SEtm D − 2Y tm P S E tm = = = = = t = D = d = Y = = allowable pressure allowable stress joint factor (input as material property) minimum required thickness. including mechanical and corrosion allowances t × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance nominal pipe thickness outside diameter Inside diameter Pressure coefficient 0.4 for t < D/6 = d/(D + d) for t ≥ D/6 Sustained Stress The stress (SL ) due to sustained loads (pressure.1.ASME Section III.
SE = where iMC ≤ SA Z i MC SA Sc f = = = = = stress intensification factor resultant moment due to thermal expansion f (1. 334 .2.25Sh ) allowable stress at cold temperature stress range reduction factor from Table NC3611.75i shall not be less than 1. other sustained loads and thermal expansion is calculated from Equation 11 of NC3653.0.2(c).25Sc + 0. Class 2 NC (1986) Expansion Stress The stress (SE ) due to thermal expansion is calculated from Equation 10 of NC3653.ASME Section III. ST E = P D 0. weight.75iMA iMC + + ≤ S h + SA 4t Z Z 0.2(e)1 The stress due to pressure.
ASME Section III. Class 2 NC (1986) 335 .
ASME Section III. Class 2 NC (1986) 336 .
ASME Section III. Class 2 NC (1986) 337 .
1.4 for t < D/6 = d/(D + d) for t ≥ D/6 Sustained Stress The stress (SL ) due to sustained loads (pressure.5Sh 2t Z B1.8Sh Z MB = resultant moment due to occasional loads 338 . Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently.ASME Section III. including mechanical and corrosion allowances t × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance nominal pipe thickness outside diameter Inside diameter Pressure coefficient 0. effective section modulus hot allowable stress Occasional Stress The stress (SLO ) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (SL ) and stress due to occasional loads (SO ) such as earthquake or wind from Equation 9 of NC3653. weight and other sustained mechanical loads) is calculated from Equation 8 of NC3652. for reduced outlets. B2 P D t MA Z Sh = = = = = = = primary stress indices from NB3680 maximum pressure outside diameter nominal wall thickness 2 2 2 resultant bending moment due to sustained loads = MX + MY + MZ section modulus. SL = B1 where PD MA + B2 ≤ 1. Class 2 NC (1992) Allowable Pressure The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from Equation 5 of NC3641. SLO = SL + B2 where MB ≤ 1.1. P = where 2SEtm D − 2Y tm P S E tm = = = = = t = D = d = Y = = allowable pressure allowable stress joint factor (input as material property) minimum required thickness.
other sustained loads and thermal expansion is calculated from Equation 11 of NC3653. 339 .25Sc + 0. SE = where iMC ≤ SA Z i MC SA Sc f = = = = = stress intensification factor resultant moment due to thermal expansion f (1.75iMA iMC + + ≤ S h + SA 4t Z Z 0. ST E = P D 0.ASME Section III.2(c). weight.25Sh ) allowable stress at cold temperature stress range reduction factor from Table NC3611.0. Class 2 NC (1992) Expansion Stress The stress (SE ) due to thermal expansion is calculated from Equation 10 of NC3653.75i shall not be less than 1.2(e)1 The stress due to pressure.2.
Class 2 NC (1992) 340 .ASME Section III.
Class 2 NC (1992) 341 .ASME Section III.
ASME Section III. Class 2 NC (1992) 342 .
P = where fe √ X(1 + 0.4.9 × proof stress at room temperature plus rupture stress at design temperature.9 × proof stress at design temperature. Hot stresses are due to pressure. P = where 2f etf D − 2tf P f e tf = = = = = D = allowable pressure allowable stress joint factor (input as material property) minimum required thickness. Maximum value is lower of 1) 0. Maximum value is 0. ASME B31. 2) 0. Sustained stresses are due to pressure. If these are to be evaluated.BS 806 (1986) Allowable Pressure The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from 4. other sustained mechanical loads. including mechanical and corrosion allowances nominal pipe thickness × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance outside diameter The allowable pressure for miter bends is calculated from 4. thermal and cold pull loadings.2(4). Occasional stresses (which are due to seismic.11. dynamic or wind loadings) are not calculated. 343 .2.1 code should be used according to Inquiry Case 806/2 : November 1986 to BS 806 : 1986.4(10). weight and other sustained mechanical loads. deadweight. Expansion stresses are due to thermal (including specified displacements) and pressure loadings.9 × proof stress at room temperature plus 0.6427 tan α X) α = miter angle X = (D − tf )/2 tf Stresses Stresses are calculated according to 4. Maximum value is the rupture stress at design temperature.8 × proof stress value or rupture stress value in hot condition.
4.4.4) The combined stress fC on straight pipes and bends including miter bends is calculated from (28).11.11. FC = where 2 F 2 + 4fS F = greater of fT or fL fT = transverse stress (4.2) The transverse pressure stress on both straight pipes and bends excluding miter bends is calculated from (29).11.5p 2t 1 + 0. The transverse bending stress on bends including miter bends is calculated from (31) r I where (Mi FT i )2 + (Mo FT o )2 d t p Mi Mo FT i FT o r I D α = = = = = = = = = = = inside diameter thickness pressure inplane bending moment outofplane bending moment inplane transverse stress intensification factor outofplane transverse stress intensification factor mean radius of pipe moment of inertia outside diameter miter angle 344 .11.4.5p 2t The transverse pressure stress on miter bends is calculated from (30) pd + 0.BS 806 (1986) Stresses on Straight Pipes and Bends (4.11. pd + 0.4) Transverse Stress fT (4.6427 tan α d+t 2t The transverse bending stress on straight pipe is zero.2) = fL = = fS = transverse pressure stress + transverse bending stress longitudinal stress (4.4.3) longitudinal pressure stress + longitudinal bending stress torsional stress (4.
4.5) The combined stress at a branch junction is calculated from (36) fCB = where 2 2 fB + 4fSB fB = transverse pressure stress at the junction plus nondirectional bending stress fSB = torsional stress at the junction 345 .11.4) The torsional stress for both straight pipes and bends including miter bends is calculated from (35).11. r I where (Mi FLi )2 + (Mo FLo )2 FLi = inplane longitudinal stress intensification factor FLo = outofplane longitudinal stress intensification factor Torsional Stress fS (4.4. fS = Mt where d + 2t 4I Mt = torsional moment Stress at Branch Junction (4.11.BS 806 (1986) Longitudinal Stress fL (4. d + 2t 2I 2 Mi2 + Mo The longitudinal bending stress on bends including miter bends is calculated from (34).3) The longitudinal pressure stress on both straight pipes and bends including miter bends is calculated form (32) p d2 4 t(d + t) The longitudinal bending stress on straight pipe is calculated from (33).
3 m = 1.5.7 = 2.8r2 r1 r1 t1 (b) for branch junctions where either r2/r1 and t2/t1 are greater than 0.11.5Z1 2 1 (r2 /t2 )2 t1 /r1 mean radius of main pipe mean radius of branch pipe thickness of main pipe thickness of branch pipe Nondirectional Bending Stress at Branch Junction (4. 4. equal to: (a) for branch junctions where both r2/r1 and t2/t1 are less than or equal to 0.2415 for d /d > 0.1(6)) For the branch pipe.7 2.8 + 2.1(6)) outofplane branch stress intensification factor (Fig.BS 806 (1986) Transverse Pressure Stress at Branch Junction (4.2042 for d /d ≤ 0.5.11. 4.3) For the main pipe. the bending stress is calculated from (40) r1 I where (Mi Bi )2 + (Mo Bo )2 r1 I Mi Mo Bi Bo = = = = = = mean radius of main pipe moment of inertia of main pipe inplane bending moment outofplane bending moment inplane branch stress intensification factor (Fig.3 m m Z1 r1 r2 t1 t2 0.11.11.5Z1 2 1 = = = = = = 0.2) The transverse pressure stress at branch junction is calculated from (37) pm where d 1 + ta 2 ta d1 ta p m = = = = mean radius of main pipe minimum thickness of main pipe design pressure stress multiplier. the bending stress is calculated from r2 I where (Mi Bi )2 + (Mo Bo )2 r2 = mean radius of branch pipe 3 3 I = calculated from πr2 Bo t2 or πr2 t1 whichever gives the lower value 346 .
shall not be less than 1. σ1 = where P Do 0.25) (R/Do + 0.11 or 6. due to pressure.21).7 2×f ×z×e Do − e (1 − a2 ) (1 + a2 ) P =f ×z× where P Do Di f z e a = = = = = = allowable pressure pipe outer diameter pipe inner diameter allowable stress according to chapter 5 in EN 13480 joint factor. eint = e where (R/Do − 0.5 nominal pipe thickness x (1 .25) R = Radius of bend Sustained Stress The stress σ1 . see chapter 4.11 and 6.75i.corrosion allowance) = 1− 2×e Do For pipe bends the maximum allowable pressure is calculated from equation 6.7 P = For Do /Di > 1.0 resultant bending moment due to sustained loads section modulus allowable stress at maximum temperature 347 .75 i MA + ≤ fh 4 en Z P Do en i MA Z fh = = = = = = = maximum pressure outside diameter nominal pipe wall thickness stress intensification factor.mill tolerance/100 .13 depending on the ratio between inner and outer diameter. The product 0.3. For Do /Di ≤ 1.13 using modified values of pipe wall thickness eint at the intrados of the bend. weight and other sustained mechanical loads is calculated from equation (12.EN 13480 (2002) Allowable Pressure The allowable pressure for straight pipes is calculated from equation 6.
2 is used for occasional loading.25fh ) Eh/Ec U = stress range reduction factor taken from table 12. e.41).3. due to sustained.3.3.31) as the sum of the stress due to sustained loads and the stress due to occasional loads such as earthquake or wind. In CAEPIPE k = 1.25fc + 0. due to thermal expansion and alternating loads.75 i MA 0.42) may be used.1.75 i MA i MC + + ≤ fh + fa 4 en Z Z Additional Conditions for the Creep Range For piping operating within the creep range. σ5 = P Do 0. 348 .31.3. equation (12. σ3 = where i MC ≤ fa Z MC = resultant bending moment due to thermal expansion and alternating loads. σ2 = where P Do 0. the stress.51) below. fc = allowable stress at minimum temperature fh = allowable stress at maximum temperature Ec = elastic modulus at minimum temperature Eh = elastic modulus at maximum temperature If the conditions in equation (12. seismic displacements.75 i MA 0.75 i MB + + ≤ k fh 4 en Z Z MB = resultant bending moment due to occasional loads k = 1.EN 13480 (2002) Occasional Stress The stress σ2 . fa = allowable stress range = U (1. σ4 = P Do 0..If the occasional load is acting more than 10% of any 24 hour operating period the load must be treated as normal sustained loading.3.41) is not met. Expansion Stress The stress σ3 .3. σ5 .2 if the occasional load is acting less than 1% in any 24 hour operating period. due to occasional loads is calculated from equation (12.g. is calculated from equation (12. thermal and alternating loadings shall satisfy equation (12.75 i MC + + ≤ fCR 4 en Z 3Z where fCR = allowable creep stress value calculated according to section 5.
σ6 = where i MD ≤ 3f Z MD = resultant moment from a single nonrepeated anchor movement f = allowable stress at room temperature 349 . σ6 . is calculated from equation (12.61).EN 13480 (2002) Stresses due to a Single Nonrepeated Support Movement The stress. from a single nonrepeated support movement.3.
flexibility and stress intensification factors and section moduli of piping components and geometrical discontinuities Piping component and geometrical disconuities characteristics for general cases. and out of plane and in plane bending of the piping system shall be in accordance with Tables H.3.52 0. Table H.EN 13480 (2002) EN 134803:2002 (E) Issue 1 (200205) Annex H (normative) Flexibility characteristics. particular connections.9 h 5 6 h2 3 l < r (1 + tan ) with (l = 2 R tan ) R.9 h 2 3 4 d o di4 32 do 3 Closely spaced mitre bend 4R en 2 dm 1. flexibility and stress intensification factors and section moduli for general cases N° Designation Sketch Flexibility characteristic h 1 Flexibility factor kB 1 Stress intensification factor i 1 Section modulus Z 1 straight pipe 2 plain bend 4R en 2 dm 1.1 — Flexibility characteristics.65 h 0.1 to H.
l cot 2 (to be continued) 350 .
EN 134803:2002 (E) Issue 1 (200205) EN 13480 (2002) N° Designation Sketch Flexibility characteristic h Flexibility factor kB Stress intensification factor i Section modulus Z 4 Single mitre bend or widely spaced mitre bend 4R en 2 dm 1.52 0.9 h 5 6 h2 3 with l r (1 + tan ) R.
9 Header : 4 d o di4 32 do h 23 7 as above. 2. however.9 Nozzle d m en 3 2 with epl en h 23 2 d ex 4 m.0 en do/100 ( in deg.8en dm 1 0. 9 butt weld en 5mm and 0.1en 1 1.1 n 1 1.b resp.5epl 5 2 1 0.8 (to be continued) 351 . weldedin or extruded nozzle 2en dm 1 0.0 en < 5mm and e > 0.b 8 forged weldedin tee with en and en.b as connecting wall thickness 8.) e2 e1 6 tee with weldedon. d m 1 cot 4 5 forged weldedin reducer Shape conditions : 60° 1 0.5 100 do e n 12 max.9 with ex as smaller value of h2 3 ex1 = en and ex2 = i en. with additional reinforcing ring 2 en 0.
3 + Section modulus Z 4 d o di4 32 do 10 15° wall thickness transitions do +3.1 352 .EN 13480 (2002) EN 134803:2002 (E) Issue 1 (200205) Table H.6 0.1 (concluded) N° Designation Sketch Flexibility characteristic h 30° Flexibility factor kB Stress intensification factor i 1.0036 en (without circumferential weld at transitions = 0) d 1 max 1.9 11 concave shape with continuous transition to pipe smaller value of fillet welds at setin connections 1 1.3 4 d o di4 32 do and 12 2 do a 4 1 2.
25(D/d) + 0. effective section modulus hot allowable stress Occasional Stress The stress (SLO ) is calculated as the sum of the stress due to sustained loads (SL ) and the stress (SO ) due to occasional loads such as earthquake or wind from Equation 9.75 k1 MA + ≤ f2 4 Teff zC W p zC k1 MA W f2 = = = = = = maximum pressure joint efficiency of circumferential weld (input as material property) stress intensification factor.6 0.6 for 1.75k1 shall not be less than 1.0 for D/d < 1.0 Sustained Stress Stress (SL ) due to sustained loads (pressure.Norwegian (1983) Allowable Pressure The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from Equation 6.0 resultant bending moment due to sustained loads section modulus. p= where 2 f zL Teff D m − Teff p f zL Teff D d m = = = = = = = = = allowable pressure allowable stress joint efficiency of longitudinal weld (input as material property) nominal pipe thickness × (1 – mill tolerance/100) – corrosion allowance outside diameter inside diameter pressure coefficient 1.32.75 k1 (MA + MB ) + ≤ 1.3. for reduced outlets.33. Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently. weight and other sustained mechanical loads) is calculated from Equation 9.6 ≤ D/d ≤ 2.2 f2 4 Teff zC W MB = resultant bending moment due to occasional loads 353 . SL = where pD 0. SLO = where pD 0. The product 0.
367Rm are disregarded and Sr is selected as smaller of Sr and Sr . k1 MC ≤ Sr W SL + SE ≤ f2 + Sr where MC Sr fr R1 R2 f1 f2 Rm = = = = = = = = resultant bending moment due to thermal expansion. where Sr = 1. SE = Alternatively.267Rm smaller of f2 and 0.1. Equation 9.267Rm and 0.17R1 + 0. fr (1.34.20f2 Sr = 290fr − f2 354 .17f1 + 0.367Rm allowable stress at cold condition allowable stress at hot condition tensile strength at room temperature At moderate temperatures (up to 370º C) for carbon steel. the limits 0.35 may be used.17R2 ) stress range reduction factor taken from Table 9. low alloy steel and chromium steel (specified as CS material type) and up to 425º C for austenitic stainless steel (specified as AS material type). smaller of f1 and 0.Norwegian (1983) Expansion Stress The stress (SE ) due to thermal expansion is calculated from Equation 9.
Norwegian (1983) 355 .
Norwegian (1983) 356 .
Norwegian (1983)
357
Norwegian (1983)
358
Norwegian (1983)
359
Norwegian (1983)
360
Norwegian (1990) Allowable Pressure
The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from Equation 6.3.
p=
where
2 f zL Teff D m − Teff
p f zL Teff D d m
= = = = = = = = =
allowable pressure allowable stress joint efficiency of longitudinal weld (input as material property) nominal pipe thickness × (1 – mill tolerance/100) – corrosion allowance outside diameter inside diameter pressure coefficient 1.0 for D/d < 1.6 0.25(D/d) + 0.6 for 1.6 ≤ D/d ≤ 2.0
Sustained Stress
Stress (SL ) due to sustained loads (pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical loads) is calculated from Equation 10.7.
SL =
where
pD 0.75 k1 MA + ≤ f2 4 Teff zC W
p zC k1 MA W f2
= = = = = =
maximum pressure joint efficiency of circumferential weld (input as material property) stress intensification factor. The product 0.75k1 shall not be less than 1.0 resultant bending moment due to sustained loads section modulus, for reduced outlets, effective section modulus hot allowable stress
Occasional Stress
The stress (SLO ) is calculated as the sum of the stress due to sustained loads (SL ) and the stress (SO ) due to occasional loads such as earthquake or wind from Equation 10.8. Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently.
SLO =
where
pD 0.75 k1 (MA + MB ) + ≤ 1.2 f2 4 Teff zC W
MB = resultant bending moment due to occasional loads
361
Norwegian (1990) Expansion Stress
The stress (SE ) due to thermal expansion is calculated from Equation 10.9.
SE =
k1 MC ≤ Sr W
Alternatively, Equation 10.10 may be used.
SL + SE ≤ f2 + Sr
where
MC Sr Sr Sr fr f1 f2 Rs
= = = = = = = =
resultant bending moment due to thermal expansion. smaller of Sr and Sr
1.25f1 + 0.25f2 fr Rs − f2
stress range reduction factor allowable stress at cold condition allowable stress at hot condition permissible extent of stress for 7000 load cycles for different materials Rs is determined by material type as follows: Material Type RS Carbon and low alloy steel Austenitic stainless steel Copper alloys, annealed Copper alloys, cold worked Aluminum Titanium CS AS CA CC AL TI 290 400 150 100 130 200
The stress range reduction factor fr depends on the number of thermal cycles (NE). For moderate high temperatures (<= 370º C for carbon, low alloy and chromium steel and <= 425º C for austenitic stainless steel), fr is calculated from
f r = (7000/NE )0.2
NE > 100 (i.e., fr ≤ 2.34)
At higher temperatures, Sr shall not be greater than fr (1.25R1 + 0.25R2 ) and fr shall not be greater than 1.0. where
R1 = smaller of f1 and 0.25Rm R2 = smaller of f2 and 0.25Rm Rm = tensile strength at room temperature
362
Norwegian (1990)
363
Norwegian (1990)
364
Norwegian (1990)
365
Norwegian (1990) 366 .
Norwegian (1990) 367 .
Norwegian (1990) 368 .
Norwegian (1990) 369 .
Norwegian (1990) 370 .
Norwegian (1990) 371 .
Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently.0 2 2 2 MA = resultant bending moment due to sustained loads = MX + MY + MZ Z = section modulus. effective section modulus Sh = hot allowable stress Occasional Stress The stress (SLO ) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (SL ) and stress due to occasional loads (SO ).75i. SLO = SL + where 0.75iMA + ≤ Sh 4t Z P D t i = = = = maximum pressure outside diameter nominal wall thickness stress intensification factor. The product 0. SL = where P D 0. such as earthquake or wind from Equation 10 of C 3654.4 for t < D/6 = d/(D + d) for t ≥ D/6 Sustained Stress The stress (SL ) due to sustained loads (pressure. shall not be less than 1. for reduced outlets.1.2Sh Z MB = resultant moment due to occasional loads 372 . including mechanical and corrosion allowances t × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance nominal pipe thickness outside diameter Inside diameter Pressure coefficient 0. P = where 2SEtm D − 2Y tm P S E tm = = = = = t = D = d = Y = = allowable pressure allowable stress joint factor (input as material property) minimum required thickness.75iMB ≤ 1. weight and other sustained mechanical loads) is calculated from Equation 6 of C 3652.RCCM (1985) Allowable Pressure The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from Equation 2 of C 3641.
2. other sustained loads and thermal expansion is calculated from Equation 8 of C 3653. weight. ST E = SL + SE ≤ Sh + SA 373 .2.25Sc + 0.3 The stress due to pressure. SE = where iMC ≤ SA Z MC SA Sc f = = = = resultant moment due to thermal expansion f (1.25Sh ) allowable stress at cold temperature stress range reduction factor from Table C 3653.RCCM (1985) Expansion Stress The stress (SE ) due to thermal expansion is calculated from Equation 7 of C 3653.
RCCM (1985) 374 .
RCCM (1985) 375 .
RCCM (1985) 376 .
CODETI (1995) Allowable Pressure The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from P = where 2SEtm D − 2Y tm P S E tm = = = = = t = D = d = Y = allowable pressure allowable stress joint factor (input as material property) minimum required thickness. P = where SEt2 m √ r(tm + 1.25 tan θ rtm ) θ = miter half angle Sustained Stress The stress (SL ) due to sustained loads (pressure. including mechanical and corrosion allowances t × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance nominal pipe thickness outside diameter Inside diameter Pressure coefficient For closely spaced miter bends. weight and other sustained mechanical loads) is calculated from SL = where PD + 4tm (ii Mi )2 + (io Mo )2 ≤ Sh Z P D tm ii io Mi Mo Z Sh = = = = = = = = = maximum pressure outside diameter minimum wall thickness inplane stress intensification factor out of plane stress intensification factor inplane bending moment out of plane bending moment section modulus hot allowable stress 377 . the allowable pressure is calculated from P = where SEtm (R − r) r(R − r/2) r = mean radius of pipe = (D − t)/2 R = equivalent bend radius of the miter For widely spaced miter bends.
for a branch.25(Sc + Sh ) − SL ] This is specified as an option (Use liberal allowable stresses) in the menu Options > Analysis on the Code tab.3.CODETI (1995) Occasional Stress The stress (SLO ) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (SL ) and stress due to occasional loads (SO ) such as earthquake or wind. SLO = SL + (ii Mi )2 + (io Mo )2 ≤ 1.3Sh Z Expansion Stress The stress (SE ) due to thermal expansion is calculated from SE = where 2 2 Sb + 4 St ≤ SA Sb St Mt Z SA Sc f = = = = = = = resultant bending stress = (ii Mi )2 + (io Mo )2 /Z torsional stress = Mt /2Z torsional moment uncorroded section modulus.25Sh ) allowable stress at cold temperature stress range reduction factor from Table C.25Sc + 0.7 When Sh is greater than SL . the allowable stress range may be calculated as SA = f [1.2. effective section modulus f (1. Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently. 378 .
CODETI (1995) 379 .
CODETI (1995) 380 .
8 yield strength at 20º C + 0.67 yield stress at temperature 0.Stoomwezen (1989) Sustained Stress The stress (SL ) due to sustained loads (pressure.75iMB ≤ 1.44 tensile strength at 20º C 0.75i.2 x 0. SLO = SL + where 0. weight and other sustained mechanical loads) is calculated from SL = where P (D − t) 0.67 rupture stress) Cf = stress range reduction factor 381 .000 hours at temperature) Occasional Stress The stress (SLO ) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained loads (SL ) and stress due to occasional loads (SO ).67 rupture stress (after 100. shall not be less than 1.0 2 2 2 MA = resultant bending moment due to sustained loads = MX + MY + MZ Z = section modulus.2Sh Z MB = resultant moment due to occasional loads Expansion Stress The stress (SE ) due to thermal expansion is calculated from SE = where iMC ≤ SA Z MC = resultant moment due to thermal expansion SA = smaller of: Cf (0.such as earthquake or wind.75iMA + ≤ Sh 4t Z P D t i = = = = maximum pressure outside diameter nominal wall thickness stress intensification factor. effective section modulus Sh = hot allowable stress: smaller of: 0. for reduced outlets.8 yield strength at 20º C + 0. Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently.13 hot yield strength) Cf (0. The product 0.
Stoomwezen (1989) 382 .
0 resultant bending moment due to sustained loads section modulus.2σtn 2 4 seff zC Wy MB = resultant bending moment due to occasional loads 383 .37. SL = where pmax Dy 0. Wind and earthquake are not considered concurrently. effective section modulus hot allowable stress Occasional Stress The stress (SLO ) is calculated as the sum of the stress due to sustained loads (SL ) and the stress (SO ) due to occasional loads such as earthquake or wind from Equation 9.0 Sustained Stress Stress (SL ) due to sustained loads (pressure.75 k1 MA + ≤ σtn 2 4 seff zC Wy pmax zC k1 MA Wy σtn 2 = = = = = = maximum pressure joint efficiency of circumferential weld (input as material property) stress intensification factor.6 for 1.6 0.3.6 ≤ Dy /Di ≤ 2.75 k1 (MA + MB ) + ≤ 1. for reduced outlets. SLO = where pmax Dy 0.38.0 for Dy /Di < 1. weight and other sustained mechanical loads) is calculated from Equation 9.75k1 shall not be less than 1. p= where 2 σtn zL seff Dy m − seff p σtn zL seff Dy Di m = = = = = = = = = allowable pressure allowable stress joint efficiency of longitudinal weld (input as material property) nominal pipe thickness × (1 – mill tolerance/100) – corrosion allowance outside diameter inside diameter = Dy − 2seff pressure coefficient 1.25(Dy /Di ) + 0.Swedish (1978) Allowable Pressure The allowable pressure for straight pipes and bends is calculated from Equation 6. The product 0.
the limits 0. k1 MC ≤ Sr Wy SL + SE ≤ σtn 2 + Sr where MC = Sr = f = σ1 = σ2 = σtn 1 = σtn 2 = Rm = resultant bending moment due to thermal expansion. smaller of σtn 1 and 0.267Rm and 0.Swedish (1978) Expansion Stress The stress (SE ) due to thermal expansion is calculated from Equation 9. stress range reduction factor taken from Table 9. Equation 9. SE = Alternatively.43. where Sr = 1. f (1.367Rm are disregarded and Sr is selected as smaller of Sr and Sr .17σ1 + 0.17σtn 1 + 0.367Rm allowable stress at cold condition allowable stress at hot condition tensile strength at room temperature At moderate temperatures (up to 370º C) for carbon steel.39.40 may be used.17σ2 ) from Equation 9.20σtn 2 Sr = 290f − σtn 2 384 .1.267Rm smaller of σtn 2 and 0. low alloy steel and chromium steel (specified as CS material type) and up to 425º C for austenitic stainless steel (specified as AS material type).
Swedish (1978) 385 .
Swedish (1978) 386 .
is calculated from (5. therefore it is conservatively taken the same as the sustained stress allowable.Z183 (1990) Allowable Pressure The allowable pressure is calculated from 5.3.2).3.1. input as material property T = temperature derating factor for steel pipe (from Table 5.3) D = outside diameter Sustained Stress The stress (SL ) due to sustained loads (pressure.5) SL = where PD M +i ≤ S F LJ T 4t Z P D t i M Z S F L J T = = = = = = = = = = = maximum pressure outside diameter minimum wall thickness stress intensification factor resultant bending moment due to sustained loads corroded section modulus specified minimum yield strength design factor location factor joint factor temperature derating factor Occasional Stress The stress (SLO ) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained and wind loads (SL ) and stress due to occasional loads (SO ).6.8 for steel pipe (from 5.1) J = joint factor (from Table 5.2. such as earthquake.2.3) L = location factor (from Table 5. P = 2 S t F L J T /D where P = allowable pressure S = specified minimum yield strength t = minimum wall thickness = nominal wall thickness × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance F = design factor = 0. weight and other sustained mechanical loads) and wind loads. The allowable stress for occasional stress is not given in the code. SLO = SL + i where M ≤ S F LJ T Z M = resultant bending moment due to occasional loads 387 .
72 S T Sb St Mb Mt Z = = = = = resultant bending stress = iMb /Z torsional stress = Mt /2Z resultant bending moment due to expansion loads torsional moment due to expansion loads uncorroded section modulus 388 . SE = where 2 2 Sb + 4 St ≤ 0.Z183 (1990) Expansion Stress The stress (SE ) due to thermal expansion is calculated from (5.3.3).6.
Z183 (1990) 389 .
Z183 (1990) 390 .
P = 2 S t F L J T /D where P = allowable pressure S = specified minimum yield strength t = minimum wall thickness = nominal wall thickness × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance F = design factor = 0.3) L = location factor (from Table 5.2.1.2).19.4.3.3) D = outside diameter Sustained Stress The stress (SL ) due to sustained loads (pressure. SLO = SL + i where M ≤ S F LT Z M = resultant bending moment due to occasional loads 391 . is calculated from (5. The allowable stress for occasional stress is not given in the code.5) SL = where M PD +i ≤ S F LT 4t Z P D t i M Z S F L T = = = = = = = = = = maximum pressure outside diameter minimum wall thickness stress intensification factor resultant bending moment due to sustained loads corroded section modulus specified minimum yield strength design factor location factor temperature derating factor Occasional Stress The stress (SLO ) is calculated as the sum of stress due to sustained and wind loads (SL ) and stress due to occasional loads (SO ).1) J = joint factor (from Table 5. weight and other sustained mechanical loads) and wind loads. input as material property T = temperature derating factor for steel pipe (from Table 5. such as earthquake.8 for steel pipe (from 5.3.Z184 (1992) Allowable Pressure The allowable pressure is calculated from 5. therefore it is conservatively taken the same as the sustained stress allowable.
19.3).Z184 (1992) Expansion Stress The stress (SE ) due to thermal expansion is calculated from (5. SE = where 2 2 Sb + 4 St ≤ 0.72 S T Sb St Mb Mt Z = = = = = resultant bending stress = iMb /Z torsional stress = Mt /2Z resultant bending moment due to expansion loads torsional moment due to expansion loads uncorroded section modulus 392 .3.
Z184 (1992) 393 .
Z184 (1992) 394 .
FRP Stress Fiber Reinforced Plastic Pipe Stress PD Hoop stress: SH = 2tm Longitudinal stress: SL = Torsional stress: ST = Shear stress: SSH = PD F + + 4tm A (ii Mi )2 + (io Mo )2 Z Mt 2Z SL − S H 2 2 + Mt 2Z 2 SL + SH + SSH 2 SP Maximum shear stress: SS = max . SSH 2 √ 2 2 SL + SH Octahedral shear stress: SO = + 3 SSH 3 2 Maximum principal stress: SP = where 2 P = pressure D = outside diameter tm = minimum thickness = nominal thickness × (1 − mill tolerance/100) − corrosion allowance ii = inplane stress intensification factor io = out of plane stress intensification factor Mi = inplane bending moment Mo = out of plane bending moment Mt = torque Z = section modulus F = axial force A = cross section area 395 .
Appendix B Rotating Equipment Reports .
397 . 1995) for Pumps The allowable nozzle forces and moments for pumps are taken from Table 21 of the eighth edition of API 610.API 610 API 610 (Eighth Edition.
398 .API 610 The coordinate systems and nozzle orientations for various pump configurations are shown next.
API 610 399 .
API 610 Criteria for Piping Design The criteria for piping design are taken from Appendix F of the API 610. 400 .
API 610 401 .
API 610 402 .
API 610 403 .
API 610 404 .
API 610 405 .
API 610 406 .
) For values > 9" (b) The components of these resultants shall not exceed: FX = 50DC FY = 125DC FZ = 100DC where MX = 250DC MY = 125DC MZ = 125DC FX FY FZ MX MY MZ = = = = = = horizontal component of FR parallel to the turbine shaft vertical component of FR horizontal component of FR at right angles to the turbine shaft horizontal component of MR parallel to the turbine shaft vertical component of MR horizontal component of MR at right angles to the turbine shaft 407 . exhaust and extraction forces (lb) MC = combined resultant of inlet. exhaust and extraction nozzles resolved at the centerline of the exhaust nozzle must not exceed the following two conditions: (a) These resultant should not exceed: 2FC + MC ≤ 250DC where FC = combined resultant of inlet.lb) De = nominal pipe size (inches) of the connection up to 8" in diameter = (16 + Dnom )/3 If the size is greater than 8" 2. exhaust and extraction nozzles up to a value of 9" in diameter = (18 + Equivalent diameter) / 3 (in.lb.NEMA SM23 NEMA SM23 (1991) for Turbines There are two types of allowables. 1. Allowables for each nozzle and 2. Allowables for each Nozzle The resultant force and the resultant moment at any connection must not exceed 3FR + MR ≤ 500De where FR = resultant force at the nozzle (lb) MR = resultant moment at the nozzle (ft. Combined Allowables for the Turbine The combined resultants of the forces and moments at the inlet.) DC = diameter (in inches) of a circular opening equal to the total areas of the inlet. 1. exhaust and extraction moments (ft. Combined allowables for each turbine.
NEMA SM23 Y: Vertical Fy My Mz Fx Fz Mx X: Parallel to turbine shaft Z: Perpendicular to turbine shaft 408 .
85. 409 .API 617 API 617 (Sixth edition. 1995) for Compressors API 617 analysis is the same as NEMA SM23 analysis except that all the allowable values are increased by a factor of 1.
Appendix C Import / Export .
mod) will be created and then shown in the Layout window which can be further modified or analyzed. The text file may be created using a text editor and should have the extension: .mbf) and then click on the Import button. 411 . select the menu command File > Import from the Main window. The text file may also be created for an existing model using the Export command from the Layout window. The batch file will be read and the corresponding model file (. To import a model.mbf (model batch file).Import CAEPIPE can import a model created using a text file (batch file). The Import Model dialog is shown. Select the model batch file (.
1 (1967) ANSI B31.1 USAS B31. OPTIONS Hanger design HGRA HGRB HGRC HGRD HGRE HGRF HGRG HGRH HGRI HGRJ HGRK Grinnell BergenPaterson Fee and Mason Basic Engineers Power Piping Nordon Carpenter and Paterson NPS PTP Corner and Lada Elcen Piping code B311 B31167 B313 B314 B315 B318 ASME ASME86 BS806 EN13480 NORWEGIAN RCCM SWEDISH STOOMWEZEN ANSI B31.8 ASME Section III. Except for the heading the start of each section is indicated by a keyword. Class 2 (1980) ASME Section III. Only the first will be used as Title in the CAEPIPE model.Import The input data is given in the following order. Class 2 (1986) British code European code Norwegian code French code Swedish code Dutch code 412 .3 ANSI B31. Keyword OPTIONS MATERIAL PIPE LAYOUT SEISMIC WIND Data Heading Program options Material properties Section properties Layout data Seismic load Wind load Heading Any number of heading lines may be given.4 ANSI B31.5 ANSI B31. The data for that section follow. Only the first three characters of the keyword are significant.
7E+6.283.28.5E+6.0.0E+6.70.9800 ALU. [circ. .9.200.38E6.82E6.10000 ALU.300. [allowable stress (N/mm2)].1.1.9000 ALU. English units First line: Name. [yield stress (psi)]. Density (lb/in3). joint factor].60E6.3E+6.250.330.20000 A53.400. [circ. Poisson’s ratio. . joint factor] Following lines: Name.02E6.6. Temp (F).28.20E+6.12.Import Units SI Metric units (default is English units) RAD Radians for angles (default is degrees) Vertical Axis Z Vertical axis is Z (Default is Y) OPTIONS Example OPTIONS HGRA.27.12.9. [Long.27. [yield stress (N/mm2)].10000 ALU.28E6. Poisson’s ratio. E (kN/mm2).67E6.0. alfa (mm/mm/C).9. Temp (C).13.500.13. alfa (in/in/F).00 A53.12E6.8E+6.3E+6.80E+6.300.20000 A53.. .6.70.098.. . The values in square brackets ( [.18900 ALU.6. E (psi).20000 A53. [rupture stress (N/mm2)] .12.95E6.25E6. [rupture stress (psi)] . Density (kg/m3). Metric units First line: Name.joint factor] Following lines: Name.29.] ) are optional. [allowable stress (psi)]. MATERIAL Example (English units) MATERIAL A53.9.07E6.60E+6.B311.6. [Long.0.300. joint factor].RAD MATERIAL Name is Material Name (up to 3 characters).200.10.7.40E+6.150.0.20000 A53.00 ALU.6600 413 .
which may be input in any order.2 LAYOUT The piping layout is entered as a (keyletterdata) pair.g. The pairs are separated by commas.5.M5.0.KI.JR. A data line which contains only continued comments (from the previous line) is acceptable. Insulation Thk (inch) Metric units Name.KA.X1’6.CT=650.625. A list of keyletters follows: F T L K M P J X Y Z B C From node To node Location node Code for node Material number Pipe (Section) property number Joint code X offset Y offset Z offset Bend radius Comments (separated by commas) LAYOUT Example (English units) LAYOUT F10.0.Import PIPE (Section properties) Section properties are input as follows for pipe sections: Note: Name is Section Name (up to 3 characters).0. Insulation density (lb/ft3).CWGT=250 414 . English units Name.0..0 for 2" NPS) Thk must be an actual numerical value and not a schedule. Insulation Thk (mm) PIPE Example (English units) PIPE 8. OD (inch). OD (mm).11. Thk (inch).6. Mill tolerance (%).0.P=500 T20.B20 T30.8. Thk (mm).2 6. Mill tolerance (%).0.X10’81/2.11.P12. input 2. The exceptions to this convention are the comments which must always appear last. Insulation density (kg/m3). OD must be actual OD and not Nominal pipe size (e.Z8 T40.625.0.125 and not 2.0. Corrosion allowance (mm). Corrosion allowance (inch).28.
Location node is used to input additional data at a node when the node has more than one data item such as a hanger/force. Y and Z The offsets May be entered in combination of feet.Import F (From) From node is specified. The X.375 in 415 . The following codes may be used: Code A I H T S W F E M (Material) Description Anchor Tangent intersection (To node only) Hinge (To node only) Welding Tee Sweepolet Weldolet Fabricated Tee Extruded Tee T (To) L (Location) K (Code) A material is retained until altered. Y and the Z fields are taken as coordinates rather than offsets from the previous node. inches and fractions of an inch for English units and mm for Metric units. Example: (English units) Entry 10 10’8 or 108 0’8 or 08 10. etc. The stiffnesses of the expansion joint should be entered using an ES comment and the pressure thrust area should be entered using the TA comment. To node is specified. When a new branch is started. Another material should be entered only when there is a change. A pipe (section property) is retained until altered.5 1’63/8 or 163/8 Value 10 ft 10 ft 8 in 8 in 10 ft 6 in 1 ft 6. the first node of the branch is specified as a "From" node. Another section property should be entered only when there is a change. This is a "To" node from the previous "From" node or the previous "To" node (but not from the previous "Location node"). X. The weight of the expansion joint should be entered using a WGT comment. Code R D E V Description Rigid Reducer Expansion Valve P (Pipe) J (Joint Code) The weight of a rigid joint or a valve should be entered using a WGT comment.
For example. the comment is continued on the next line.25 Constant support spring Example: CS=2: Two constant support springs Concentrated weight (lb or kg) Use only for concentrated weight.1.DISY=0. or rad. or kg) Use only for valve.1.1.0) or DIS(0. Example: AMB=80 Additional weight for valve (lb.0) DX=0.25 Direction vector Example: DV(1. A line temperature can be entered as comment and is retained until changed.25.0. The comments are as follows: AMB Ambient or reference temperature (F or C) Default is 70 F.0) Expansion joint stiffnesses Axial(lb/in or N/mm) Lateral(lb/in or N/mm) Torsional(inlb/deg or inlb/rad or NM/deg or NM/rad) Example: ES(1000.25 or DISX=0. Example: D(0.DY=0. Example: AWGT=100 Cone angle for reducer (deg.200) AWGT CONE CRTCH CS CWGT D or DIS DV ES 416 . If the last comment is followed by a comma.2. Multiple comments may be entered separated by commas.1. C (Comment) The comment section allows entry of data related to a particular node or element.Import B (Bend Radius) The bend radius (inch or mm) is entered only if a tangent intersection has been specified.25.) Crotch radius for an extruded tee (inch or mm) Example: CRTCH=1. The default is the long radius for the current section. a pipe end specified as a hinge would have the rotational spring constant and the direction vector entered in the comment section.5000.0. Example: CWGT=200 Specified displacements (Inch or mm) Note: Entry of zero is ignored and not treated as a specified displacement.
lb.0).1.3 Maximum load variation (%) in hanger design Default is 25%./deg. MU=0.0) Limit stop LS(M1.0. or mm) M2=allowable movement in positive direction (inch or mm) Example : LS(1.Import F or FIXD Translational restraint Example: FIXD(1.75. where Type Description WN SO DW SW FW LJ TH Weld neck flange Single welded slip on Double welded slip on Socket welded Fillet welded Lap joint Threaded FIXR FLANGE Example: FLANGE=TH (Threaded flange) FOR Force (lb or N) Example: FOR(100.1) : Restrain X and Z translations FIXDX=1 or FX or FIXDX Rotational restraint Example: FIXR(0.1.0) : Restrain Y rotation.0.5.lb.FORZ=200 Free anchor during hanger design Example: FREE: Free all directions FREEY: Free Y direction Guide Translational stiffness (lb/inch or N/mm) Example: K=500.0.0.100.5).2.25) Rotational stiffness (in. FIXRY=1 or FIXRY FLANGE = Type. or in.1.0) or MOMX=200.3 FREE G K KR LS MLV MOM MU 417 .2.DV(1.0.DV(1.M2) M1=allowable movement in negative direction (in. or Nm/deg or Nm/rad) Example: KR=1200. DV(0. MOMY=100 Friction coefficient Example: MU=0. Example: MLV=30 Moment (ftlb or NM) Example: MOM(200.5./rad.200) or FORX=100.
2300) : Constant support Variable spring hanger Example : VS.3 Temperature (F or C) Example: T=650 Pressure thrust area for bellows (in2 or mm2).25 Pressure (psig or bar) Example: P=500 Specified rotation (deg or rad) Note: Entry of zero is ignored and not treated as a specified rotation.0.1540) US(1. Example: OFFSET(0.5.0. flange.3 Thickness at from end for reducer (inch or mm) Thickness at to end for reducer (inch or mm) Uniform load (lb/ft or Kg/m) Example: U=200 User defined spring hanger US(No. Y offset./inch or N/mm). Example: TA=12.ROTZ=0. spring rate(lb.0) Thickness of reinforcement for fabricated tee (inch or mm) Example: PAD=0.) (lb or kg) Example: WGT=50 PAD P or PRES ROT SG SIF T or TEMP TA THK1 THK2 U or UNIF US VS WGT 418 .25) ROTX=1. hot load(lb. etc.of hangers.5.600.0. or N)) Examples: US(2. Example: ROT(1.8 Stress intensification factor at node Example: SIF=1.18. Z offset). VS=2: two variable spring hangers Weight of an item (ball joint.25 Specific Gravity Example: SG=0.Import OD1 OD2 OFFSET Outer diameter at from end for the reducer (inch or mm) Outer diameter at to end for reducer (inch or mm) Offset of concentrated weight from node or additional weight of valve from the center of valve (inch or mm) OFFSET(X offset.
P8.38E6.Y6’0". X.3 g’s in X and Z directions.7.60E6.28.KI.20000 A53.KI.MA53.0.Z6’0".6.Z6’0" T50.Z Static equivalent seismic loads in g’s.0) T80.0.0.0.CDIS(0.30 WIND 100.600.5.7.11.0.SG=0.000.625.20000 A53.000.25.29.000 Example: An example of a model batch file (.1.0.0.600.26.0.18900 A53. SEISMIC Example: Static seismic loads of 0.600.P=200.X6’0" T70.1.650.8.0.7.0.7E+6.2 6.400.300.6. Z components of wind direction.1.0.X2’0". WIND 100.20000 A53.000. Shape factor (defaults to 0.KA.0.23E6.6.0.OFFSET(0.7E+6.00.0.0) F30 T60.mbf file) is shown below: Sample problem OPTIONS HGRA.25 and 0.CWGT=200.2 LAYOUT F10.70. Y.500.KA.27.6.0.17000 PIPE 8.26.17300 A53.28.28.Import SEISMIC X.6.CVS=1.5.18.300.30 WIND Wind velocity (MPH or m/s).Y.B313 MATERIAL A53.MLV=25 T40.1E+6.B18.3E+6.KA T20.200.P6. SEISMIC 0.6).3E+6. WIND Example: A wind load of 100 mph in the X direction.8E+6.CT=600.000 419 .07E6.X9’0".AWGT=50.27.0.0.0.00.283.33E6.11.0.8 T30.82E6.25.0.20000 A53.0.B12.JV.02E6.000.00 A53.5E+6.625.X6’0" SEISMIC 0.
select the menu command File > Export from the Layout window. The Export Model dialog is shown.Export CAEPIPE can export a model to a text file with the extension . To export a model.mbf (model batch file). 420 . The text file may be edited using a text editor. Click on the Export button and the batch file will be written. The edited text file may be read back into CAEPIPE by using the Import feature.
Appendix D Nozzle Stiffness Calculations .
circumferential (Kyy). e zzl No ne ss OD L2 Nozzle z No zle T k hic L1 MT ML (z V Sh C ea r) P MC VL r) ea Sh (y Cylindrical Vessel Ve s se lO D Ve s se lT hic kn es s The coordinate system is as shown in the figure. Figure D1 is used to calculate the axial stiffness coefficient and Figure D2 is used to calculate circumferential and longitudinal stiffness coefficients. are used to calculate nozzle stiffness coefficients for Nozzles on cylindrical vessels. Several graphs are given at the end of this appendix. The remaining three are assumed to be rigid.Nozzle Stiffness Calculations There are six stiffnesses at the nozzlevessel interface as shown in the following figure. The first two. 422 . The stiffness coefficients are obtained by interpolating logarithmically from these graphs. axial (Kx). Only three out of the six are calculated and the other three are assumed to be rigid. only three stiffnesses. Figures D1 and D2. and longitudinal (Kzz). The six components of the forces and moments at the nozzlevessel interface are: P = Radial load VC = Circumferential load VL = Longitudinal load MC = Circumferential moment MT = Torsional moment ML = Longitudinal moment Of the six components of stiffnesses. are calculated.
(2) Longitudinal Stiffness (Kzz ) Kzz = γ × ET 3 where γ = stiffness coefficient read from Figure D2. marked Circumferential moment MC are used to find β. 4. The bottom three curves in Figure D2. marked Longitudinal moment ML are used to find γ . The top two curves in Figure D2. (3) 423 .Nozzle Stiffness Calculations Nomenclature D d T t λ = = = = = mean diameter of vessel outside diameter of nozzle thickness of vessel thickness of nozzle (d/D) D/T √ Λ = L/ DT L = unsupported length of cylinder √ √ = 8L1 L2 /( L1 + L2 )2 L1 = distance from nozzle center line to vessel end L2 = distance from nozzle center line to vessel end E = modulus of elasticity of vessel material Axial Stiffness (Kx ) Kx = α × where α = stiffness coefficient read from Figure D1.95ET 2 √ D Λ (1) Circumferential Stiffness (Kyy ) Kyy = β × ET 3 where β = stiffness coefficient read from Figure D2.
Figures D3 through D14. Vessel OD Vessel Thickness Nozzle 2a (Nozzle OD) VC ML P MT L Nozzle Thickness VL MC FlatBottom Tank As before.Nozzle Stiffness Calculations Calculation of Nozzle stiffnesses for Nozzles on Flatbottom tanks This procedure is similar to the previous one. Six are for "with reinforcing pad (on vessel)" with the other six for no reinforcing pad on the vessel. 424 . The stiffness coefficients are obtained using the appropriate graph. only three stiffnesses are calculated as the other three are assumed to be rigid. and longitudinal (Kzz ). circumferential (Kyy ). twelve graphs are given at the end of this appendix. The ones that are calculated are axial (Kx ). For Nozzles on flatbottom tanks.
(5) Longitudinal Stiffness (Kzz ) Kzz = KL × E × (2a)3 where KL = longitudinal stiffness coefficient. (4) Circumferential Stiffness (Kyy ) Kyy = KC × E × (2a)3 where KC = circumferential stiffness coefficient.Nozzle Stiffness Calculations Nomenclature R = Mean radius of vessel t = thickness of vessel 2a = outside diameter of nozzle Axial Stiffness (Kx ) Kx = KR × E × (2a) where KR = axial stiffness coefficient. The graphs for stiffness coefficients follow: (6) 425 .
Nozzle Stiffness Calculations Figure D1: Stiffness coefficient for axial load on nozzle 426 .
Nozzle Stiffness Calculations Figure D2: Stiffness coefficients for moment loads on nozzle 427 .
0) Figure D4: Stiffness coefficient for circumferential moment (with reinforcing pad) (L/2a = 1.Nozzle Stiffness Calculations Figure D3: Stiffness coefficient for axial load (with reinforcing pad) (L/2a = 1.0) 428 .
5) 429 .0) Figure D6: Stiffness coefficient for axial load (with reinforcing pad) (L/2a = 1.Nozzle Stiffness Calculations Figure D5: Stiffness coefficient for longitudinal moment (with reinforcing pad) (L/2a = 1.
5) Figure D8: Stiffness coefficient for longitudinal moment (with reinforcing pad) (L/2a = 1.Nozzle Stiffness Calculations Figure D7: Stiffness coefficient for circumferential moment (with reinforcing pad) (L/2a = 1.5) 430 .
0) Figure D10: Stiffness coefficient for circumferential moment (no reinforcing pad) (L/2a = 1.0) 431 .Nozzle Stiffness Calculations Figure D9: Stiffness coefficient for axial load (no reinforcing pad) (L/2a = 1.
0) Figure D12: Stiffness coefficient for axial load (no reinforcing pad) (L/2a = 1.Nozzle Stiffness Calculations Figure D11: Stiffness coefficient for longitudinal moment (no reinforcing pad) (L/2a = 1.5) 432 .
Nozzle Stiffness Calculations Figure D13: Stiffness coefficient for circumferential moment (no reinforcing pad) (L/2a = 1.5) Figure D14: Stiffness coefficient for longitudinal moment (no reinforcing pad) (L/2a = 1.5) 433 .
Appendix E Dynamic Susceptibility Method .
That is to say. The “Dynamic Susceptibility” analysis. CANADA Summary The output of the “Modal Analysis” load case in CAEPIPE has been enhanced. Hartlen. That is to say. Discovery of a problem is then followed by an ad hoc effort to assess. diagnosis and correction. The dynamic susceptibility for any mode is the ratio of the maximum alternating bending stress to the maximum vibration velocity. At the design stage. provides a new analytical tool to assist the piping designer at any stage. which is the foundation of the stress per velocity approach for "susceptibility screening" of vibration modes. the kinetic energy at zero displacement and maximum system velocity must equal the stored elastic energy at zero velocity and maximum displacement. Typically. Ontario. the method allows the designer to quickly identify and correct features that could lead to large dynamic stresses at frequencies likely to be excited. from preliminary layout to resolution of field problems. the piping designer does not have the specific requirements. and the corresponding potential energy stored in elastic stresses. could potentially cause large dynamic stresses. T. after a fatigue failure or degradation of pipe supports.Dynamic Susceptibility Method The “Dynamic Susceptibility” Method for Piping Vibration A Screening Tool for Potentiallylarge Alternating Stresses Dr. it now includes two new outputs called “dynamic stresses” and “dynamic susceptibility” . the method provides quick and incisive support to efforts of observation. diagnose and correct as required. the modal analysis result has been generalized to include the alternating bending stresses associated with the vibration in a natural mode. The susceptibility ratio and the graphics feature provides incisive insights into the reasons for high susceptibility and how to make improvements. an incisive analytical tool for “screening” the vibration modes of a system. Furthermore. The dynamic stresses are the dynamic bending stresses associated with vibration in a natural mode. it reveals which features of the system layout and support are responsible for the susceptibility to large dynamic stresses. 1 Dynamic Susceptibility: New Analytical Tool Available for Vibration of Piping When addressing vibration issues. Where problems are encountered in the field. This “susceptibility ratio” provides an indicator of the susceptibility of the system to large dynamic stresses. mode by mode. assessment. The key analytical step is to determine. R. This new feature is illustrated by application to the CAEPIPE “Sample problem” system. Plant Equipment Dynamics. now included in CAEPIPE. nor the analytical tools and technical references typically available for other plant equipment such as rotating machinery. Also. This implies a fundamental relationship between vibration velocity and dynamic bending stresses. if excited. CAEPIPE’s Dynamic Susceptibility feature utilizes the “Stress per Velocity” method. the associated animated mode shapes include colorspotmarkers identifying the respective locations of maximum vibration and maximum dynamic bending stress. In addition to the modal frequencies and mode shapes. The technical foundation of this method lies in an underlying fundamental relationship between the kinetic energy of vibratory motion. measurement. This ratio will lie in a lower “baseline range” for 435 . piping vibration problems only become apparent at the time of commissioning and early operation. the ratio of maximum dynamic stress to maximum vibration velocity. It readily identifies which modes.
naturalmode number and vibration frequency. susceptible branch connections.Dynamic Susceptibility Method uncomplicated systems such as classical uniformbeam configurations. and to illustrate by application to the standard CAEPIPE “Sample problem” system. the stress / velocity ratio will increase due to typical complications such as threedimensional layout. This is the basis of the Stress / Velocity method of analysis and it’s implementation as the “dynamic susceptibility” feature in CAEPIPE. Stated simply. Since the strain energy and kinetic energy are respectively proportional to the squares of stress and velocity. Provided the spatial distributions are sufficiently similar.1 Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy. automatically and quickly finds these modes and quantifies the susceptibility. the larger the σ / v ratios for some modes. including specialpurpose color animation. integrated over the structure. This technical note is to present and explain the “dynamic susceptibility” outputs now included in the modal analysis load case. However. Furthermore. v. it follows that dynamic stress. the underlying energy. ie harmonic functions. The Stress / Velocity method. changes of crosssection and susceptible branch connections. the general susceptibility of a system to large dynamic stresses can be assessed by determining the extent to which the σ / v ratios for any mode exceed the baseline range. the rms or maximum stress will still be directly related to the rms or maximum vibration velocity. the kinetic and potential energies are distributed over the structure in accordance with the respective modes shapes. the kinetic energy at maximum velocity and zero displacement must then be stored as elastic (strain) energy at maximum displacement and zero velocity. large unsupported masses. implemented in CAEPIPE as the Dynamic Susceptibility feature. For idealized straightbeam systems.equality holds true. the spatial patterns of the mode shapes will depart from the idealized harmonic functions. For more complex systems. For real systems. etc. highdensity contents in thinwalled pipe. the ratio σ / v is dependent primarily upon material properties. (density ρ and modulus E) . consisting of thinwalled pipe and with no contents. Thus. σ. System modes with large stressvelocity ratios are the potentially susceptible modes. insulation or concentrated mass. The more “unfavorable” the system layout and details. helps to identify which details of layout and support are responsible for the large stresses. System details causing the ratios to increase would include the threedimensional layout. 436 . For real continuous systems of course. for vibration at a system natural frequency. discrete heavy masses. for idealized pure beam systems the stressvelocity ratio will depend primarily upon material properties.2 The “Screening” Approach As stated above.and is remarkably independent of systemspecific dimensions. and the stressvelocity ratios accordingly increase above the theoretical minimum or baseline value. 2. and whether these modes are known or likely to be excited. will be proportional to vibration velocity. by determining which particular modes have the high ratios. changes of cross section. the atrisk vibration frequencies and mode shapes are identified for further assessment and attention. Vibration Velocity and Dynamic Stresses The underlying theoretical basis for the Stress / Velocity method is a deceptively straightforward but universallyapplicable relationship between kinetic energy and potential (elastic) energy for vibrating systems. Evaluation of the results. 2 Underlying Fundamental Basis of the Method 2.
Dynamic Susceptibility 437 . and into how to make improvements. are recognized as a "warning flag. in rank order of decreasing magnitude.2 Specific Implementation in CAEPIPE The Stress / Velocity method has been implemented as additional analysis and output of the CAEPIPE modal analysis. Others are presented as being applicable only to the first mode of simple beams. Mode shape tables of dynamic bending stress and vibration velocity are searched for their respective maxima. These outputs will assist the designer through a morecomplete understanding of the system’s dynamic characteristics. are overly conservative for many systems. They provide incisive quantified insights into how specific details of components. in order to cover the worst case scenarios. layout and support could contribute to large dynamic stresses.1 General Approach The Dynamic Susceptibility method is essentially a post processor to fully exploit the modal analysis results of the system. 3. the table also includes the node locations of the maxima of vibration amplitude and bending stresses." Large values indicate that some feature(s) of the system make it particularly susceptible to large dynamic stresses in specific modes. The dynamic susceptibility method turns this apparent limitation into a useful analytical tool! Specifically. well above the baseline values. tabulated along with the conventional mode shape of vibration magnitude. Some. In addition to modal frequencies and s/v ratios. The modal analysis load case now includes additional outputs and features as follows: Dynamic Stresses This output provides the "mode shapes" of dynamic bending stresses. there are real and perceived limitations on the use of screening acceptance criteria based upon a single value of vibration velocity. With the dynamic susceptibility output selected. leading to the misconception that the stress / velocity relationship does not apply at all to higher modes. In any case. That ratio is the basis for assessing the susceptibility to large dynamic stresses.Dynamic Susceptibility Method 2. in psi / ips. large stress / velocity ratios. Larger values indicate higher susceptibility associated with specific details of the system.3 Relation to Velocitybased Vibration Acceptance Criteria There are various general and applicationspecific acceptance criteria based upon vibration velocity as the quantity of record. This output is a table of s/v ratios. 3 What the Dynamic Susceptibility Method Does 3. the animated graphic display of the vibration mode shape includes the added feature of color spot markers showing the locations of maximum vibration and maximum dynamic bending stress. mode by mode. Dividing the maximum stress by the maximum velocity yield the “σ/v ratio” for each mode.
they assist the designer to assess and reduce susceptibility to large dynamic stresses if necessary. are of arbitrary magnitude. 438 . Rather. Thus the vibration velocities and dynamic stresses employed in the analysis. and no attempt to calculate actual dynamic stresses. although directly related to each other. is based entirely upon the system’s dynamic characteristics per se. Thus the dynamic susceptibility results do not factor directly into a passfail code compliance consideration.Dynamic Susceptibility Method 4 What the Dynamic Susceptibility Method Does Not Do Directly The Stress / Velocity method of assessment. There is no computation of the response to a prescribed forcing function. in order to meet whatever requirements have been specified. and it’s implementation in CAEPIPE as dynamic susceptibility.
5 Hz to mode 12 at 192 Hz. by reference to the dynamicsusceptibility table and the animated graphic display of mode shape. very similar horizontal and vertical modes appear in pairs. ie modes 3 & 4 and 7 & 8. In two instances.Dynamic Susceptibility Method 5 Illustrative Example of the Dynamic Susceptibility Analysis The “dynamic susceptibility” feature of CAEPIPE will be illustrated here by application to the standard CAEPIPE Example system. resulting in a reportingout for 12 modes. 439 . The modal analysis was performed for frequencies up to 200 Hz. The frequencies range from mode 1 at 14. Results will be considered here in the order of decreasing susceptibility. The relevant features of this system can be readily identified and understood.
The designer’s interpretation here is that. Mode 2: 20. 440 . Notice also that there is a stronger localized curvature on approach to the valve body.2 Effects associated with the valve (local rigidity to bending.1 Axial movement of long pipe run (large added mass in motion) From the dynamic susceptibility table.99 Hz 10 Z Y X 20 30 30 40 20 40 60 70 80 60 70 80 50 50 The susceptibility for modes 7 & 8.8 Hz. node 50. note that the maximum dynamic bending stresses are at the anchored point. modes 7 & 8 at 129 and 133 Hz.78 Hz 10 Z Y X 20 30 40 60 70 80 50 From the animated graphic display. since there cannot be any curvature of the rigid valve itself. This can be seen from a close look at the animated graphic. these are associated with effects of the valve. is attributable to the rigidity of the valve element within an otherwise flexible pipe run.17 Hz 10 Z Y X Mode 8: 132. that feature of layout accounts for the high susceptibility. and modes 3 & 4 at 27. Note also that the dominant motion is a “Z” motion of the straight run between nodes 20 and 40 (ie in effect an axial motion of that run as a rigid body).8 and 31. Notice that these relatively high frequency modes feature a reversal of bending curvature along the run between nodes 30 and 80. The designer’s interpretation here is that the vertical rise from node 50 to node 40 is effectively a cantilevered beam with an effective large added mass at the tip. Mode 7: 129. the top of the list is mode 2 at 20. As will be shown here. 5.2 Hz. respectively 594 and 589 psi / ips. there must be a more concentrated curvature of the adjacent pipe. having a dynamic susceptibility of 649 psi / ips.Dynamic Susceptibility Method 5. and added mass) The nexthighest values of susceptibility are for the two pairs of modes.
these modes feature a large amplitude vibration at the valve. Mode 3: 27. show progressively decreasing "intermediate to low" values of susceptibility at respectively 456. 47. 5. resulting in elevated dynamic stresses. 383 and 339 psi / ips. with frequencies of 14. The kinetic energy of this added mass must be stored as strain energy in the flexing (ie spring) element.41 Hz 10 Z Y X 20 30 60 70 80 50 Mode 6: 52.5.51 Hz 10 Z Y X Mode 5: 47. respectively 521 and 526 psi / ips.4 and 52. Mode 1: 14.5 and 6.42 Hz 10 Z Y X 50 40 60 30 20 40 70 80 20 30 40 60 70 80 50 441 .75 Hz 10 Z Y X Mode 4: 31.4 Hz.3 Beam modes with "moderate" added mass effects of adjacent spans Modes 1. is associated with the more straightforward "concentrated mass" effect of the valve.Dynamic Susceptibility Method The dynamic susceptibility of modes 3 & 4.23 Hz 10 Z Y X 20 30 30 20 40 60 70 80 40 60 70 80 50 50 From the animated graphic.
Consequently. it can be seen that this is not really a "bending" mode. and 6. Notice that these modes. involve varying degrees of the influence of effective added mass of adjacent spans. and correspondingly short wavelengths. 5.4 Modes approaching the "simplebeam baseline" behavior Modes 10. 1. Consequently. In effect. 5. 11 and 12 have significantly higher frequencies. rather. at 138 Hz.05 Hz 10 Z Y X 20 30 20 30 60 40 60 40 70 80 70 80 50 Mode 12: 191.Dynamic Susceptibility Method Reference to the animated graphics shows that these modes involve predominantly transverse vibration (as contrasted with the prominent axial movement of mode 2) and involve little participation at the valve (which accounted for the elevated susceptibility of modes 7 & 8 and 3 & 4). the spring effect for this mode is an axial stretching of the run between nodes 80 and 30. 164 to 192 Hz. that the low susceptibility ratio has in effect "flagged" this mode as "not a bending mode". that in itself provides the designer additional insight into system characteristics and behavior. For these modes. From the animated display." with little or no effect from connected spans or the valve.85 Hz 10 Z Y X 50 Mode 9: 138. this mode lies outside the intended application of the dynamic susceptibility approach.99 Hz 10 Z Y X Mode 11: 173. the susceptibility ratios range from 256 to 272 psi / ips. with a susceptibility of only 104 psi / ips. is clearly an exception. Mode 10: 163. well below the baseline level. 442 .66 Hz 10 Z Y X 20 30 30 20 40 60 40 70 80 60 70 80 50 50 NOTE: Mode 9. Notice however. These values are approaching the baseline values for uncomplicated mode shapes of the pipe section and pipe contents of this system. the vibration pattern tends to be transverse beam vibration "within the span. the bending stresses are low. as reflected in the abnormal susceptibility ratio. and of length of the cantilevered span contributing most to stiffness.
Reference to the dynamic susceptibility results can help assure that the modes of most potential concern are well covered by the minimum set of practicallyachievable measurements. An experienced designer. This information allows identification of other parts of the system. might view the results as obvious. the locations of the respective maxima in dynamic stress and vibration velocity. by the colorspotmarkers. with dynamic stresses comparable to the identified maximum. provides quantified insights into the stress versus vibration characteristics of the system layout per se. the designer can then make changes to improve the design. or could be focused on particular frequencies where excitation is likely to occur. the dynamic susceptibility table identifies specific modes that are susceptible to large dynamic stresses for a given level of vibration. the method will do the same job.4. On identifying high susceptibility. It is important to note that this method is based upon the dynamicstress versus vibrationvelocity characteristics of the system per se. automatically and directly. Furthermore.5 Summary Comment As per paragraphs 5. The larger the stress / velocity ratio. This of course is a relatively simple system.1 At the Design Stage At the design stage. with some appreciation of dynamics. the mode shape of dynamic stresses to go along with the conventional mode shape of vibration. modespecific acceptance criteria can be readily established to avoid the restrictions of generally overconservative guideline type criteria. if any.1 to 5. the dynamic susceptibility module can assist the designer to achieve a system layout that will meet the requirements and criteria. ie in effect. the “dynamic stresses” table provides the distribution of dynamic stresses around the system. 7.. the dynamic susceptibility method has incisively identified the key features of the Sample model. Locations for measurement of vibration or dynamic strain can be selected based upon knowing the locations of the maxima and the distribution of vibration and dynamic stress. Acceptance Testing The dynamic susceptibility feature can also contribute to planning acceptance testing and associated measurements where these are undertaken whether by formal requirement or by choice. while providing assurance that any highlysusceptible situations are identified and addressed.2 Commissioning. supports. with respect to potentially large dynamic stresses. stress raisers. the dynamic susceptibility feature allows the designer to quickly determine whether the system may be susceptible to very large dynamic stresses. The animated modeshape display identifies. There is no need to specify a forcing function and perform a response calculation and stress / fatigue analysis.Dynamic Susceptibility Method 5. However. In particular. where such analysis is a requirement. is causing susceptibility to large dynamic stresses. 443 . Review of these animated plots will reveal the offending pattern of motion. This could be a broad look at all frequencies. and provide immediate insight into what features of the system are responsible for the large dynamic stresses. the stronger the indication that some particular feature of layout. etc. implemented in CAEPIPE as the “Dynamic Susceptibility” feature. 7 Suggested Applications and Associated Benefits 7. However. mass distribution. on any larger or more complex system for which nothing is obvious! 6 Summary of “Dynamic Susceptibility” Analytical Capability The stress / velocity method. Finally.
Velocity and Sound. 444 . 8 Information for Reference The Stress /Velocity method for screening piping system modes was developed and brought to the attention of SST Systems by Dr. G197. Canadian Electrical Association Project. Correlation of Vibratory Stress. Maximum Stresses in Beams and Plates Vibrating at Resonance. measurement. it is an incisive analytical tool to help the designer understand the stress / vibration relationship.3 Troubleshooting and Correction As mentioned earlier. ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry. Montreal. v84. R Elmaraghy et al. Norton. F. Normally. pp149155. March 1988 5.A Review. assessment. After modelling the system.Dynamic Susceptibility Method 7. The stress / velocity method. Hartlen. n1.D. References 4 and 5 deal with application to piping. Feb 1982 4. June 1994. the proposed solution options can be modeled and evaluated to make sure they will achieve the required improvement. the subsequent steps can be highly focused on specific frequencies and locations. However. and the expected detaildependent variations for real systems. the optimum measurements. 7. References 1. The dynamic susceptibility module can contribute very effectively in these situations. 1962 3. the universality for idealized systems. and troubleshooting and correction.T Hartlen of Plant Equipment Dynamics Inc. 1960 2. when vibration and/or fatigue problems are recognized at start up or early operation.4 General The dynamic susceptibility module does not apply directly to meeting code or other formal stress analysis requirements. and systemspecific acceptance criteria. Correlation Between Dynamic Stress and Vibration Velocity in Complex Piping Systems. However. Acoustically Induced Structural Vibration and Fatigue . complete theoretical rigor is beyond the scope of this note. J. References 1. Michael P. is fundamentally theoretically sound. and obtaining the dynamic susceptibility results. It is not uncommon for there to be some uncertainty about what to measure and what is acceptable. It can be used for design. there is typically an ad hoc program of observation. Canada. a few key references are provided. For users who may wish to independently examine and validate the underlying theoretical fundamentals. E. JASA. The background material provided here is intended to provide only a concise summary of the underlying fundamentals. assess the situation and to decide how to modify the design if necessary. Equally or more importantly.E Ungar. The CEA research projects reported in References 3 and 4 were initiated and guided by Dr. diagnosis and correction. 32(9) 11231128. Tulk. Stress and Strain Limits on the Attainable Velocity in Mechanical Systems.V Hunt. Third International Congress on Airand Structureborne Sound and Vibration. Canadian Electrical Association Project G521. approximate frequency and pattern of vibration are known to some extent from observation and/or a few measurements. 2 and 3 deal with fundamentals. the overall symptoms. although not yet widely known and applied. planning acceptance tests. R.
111. 35 pressure stiffening. 287 Bourdon effect. 214 local elastic. 112. 115 90° bend. 31. 151 acceleration. 131 B B31. 10. 92 stiffness. 293 stresses. 16.1 code. 422. 91 displacements.5 code. 338 automatic save. 91 angle valve. 112. 52 intermediate nodes. 333 ASME (1992) code. 104 AISC library. 49. 425 beam. 314 B31. 87. 34. 289 bend. 260 branch line. 114 base supported. 423. 328 ASME (1986) code. 200 nonstandard. 104. 103 local coordinate system. 92 releases for hanger selection. 343 buried piping. 98 load. 397 API 617 report. 295 analyze. 266 mode shape. 44 spectral. 124 flanged.4 code. 111 thickness. 6 axes local beam. 122 flexibility factor. 158 branch connection. 127 BS 806 code.8 code. 120 tangent intersection point. 12 anchor. 73 axial force. 324 ball joint. 120 supported by a hanger. 98 end releases. 5. 51 long radius. 98 additional weight. 105 material. 128.3 code. 419 export. 411 example. 113 invalid. 227 vector. 152 additional weight. 111 check. 35 radius.Index A absolute sum. 240 rotation limit. 130 nomenclature. 196 branch SIF. 162 axial stiffness. 111. 213. 299 B31. 51 examples. 112 material.1 (1967) code. 318 B31. 268 ANSI pipe sizes. 156 symbol location in graphics. 98 local coordinate system. 148 acceleration vector. 411 C center. 129 ground level. 112 SIF. 305 B31. 116 45° bend. 168 branch nodes. 96 batch file. 110 tie rods. 42. 69 center of gravity. 112 bottomedout springs. 100 bellows. 296 animated deflected shape. 96 displacements. 89 445 . 242 ASME (1980) code. 242. 409 API 650. 117 reducing. 112 short radius. 308 B31. 99 orientation. 112 pressure correction. 267 friction. 129 general procedure. 110 displacements. 112 incomplete. 420 import. 97 stiffness. 113 180° bend. 105 section. 117. 278 API 610 report. 101 beta angle. 91 settlement. 267 stiffness.
286 core properties. 168. 54 circumferential joint factor. 198 EMF file. 143 as user defined hanger. 153 modal analysis. 241. 13 effective modal mass. 152 effective modal mass. 13 menu. 154 EPS file. 237 copy graphics. 156 elastic modulus. 198 cutoff frequency. 213 DIN pipe sizes. 179 skewed restraint. 220. 41. 213 temperature. 265 in local coordinate system. 151 analysis. 148. 224 circumferential stiffness.Index change. 49 time history. 36 edit data. 250. 292 coordinates. 84 comment. 242. 140 compressor. 174 exit. 148 modal equations. 193. 422. 46 displacement vector. 92 nozzle. 265 element forces and moments in global coordinate system. 36. 154 environment variable. 179 pressure. 138 color coded stresses. 112. 191. 151 support motion. 324 hanger. 36. 189. 149 participation factors. 191 corrosion allowance. 281 constant support. 156 stiffness. 81. 159 element types. 275 hanger. 179 cold spring. 423. 221. 141 concentrated mass. 66. 240 harmonic analysis. 66. 138. 101 delete. 111 element forces. 188. 245 446 . 251 connected node. 152 dynamic susceptibility. 148 elastic element. 174 EN 13480 code. 48 data types. 154 method. 425 closely spaced modes. 51 connections. 149 orthogonality. 435 E earthquake. 151 response spectrum. 142 cone angle. 152 displacements anchor. 347 environment variable BOURDONP. 420 D damping harmonic load. 195 drawing size. 18 check bends. 30. 205. 68 core pipe. 26 DXF file. 148 eigenvector normalized. 278 cut pipe. 145 direction sum. 14 density. 259 CODETI code. 174 dynamic analysis. 272 export model. 68 duplicate last row. 152 code compliance. 151 friction. 217 element stresses FRP. 377 cold load. 87 animated. 87 deflection shear. 150 time history. 148 closely spaced modes. 33 elbow. 50. 224 design factor. 34 CPITER. 227 eigenvectors. 144. 278 direction. 241 dynamic susceptibility. 154 HARTLEN. 151 eigenvalues. 66. 200 deflected shape. 13 type.
49 damping. 240 guide. 268 closely spaced. 161 allowable pressure. 238. 130. 276 rod. 178. 158 miter bend. 158 stiffness matrix. 239. 49 harmonic response. 162 rating. 7. 176 gap. 177 stiffness. 182 rotation limit. 74 rendering quality. 163 force spectrum. 152 frequency circular. 240 friction torque. 284 from (node). 267 example. 40. 200 travel. 179 constant support. 36. 227 cutoff. 37 graphics background. 179 stiffness. 21 447 . 11. 49 hinge joint. 178 catalog. 176 local coordinate system. 176 friction. 260 type. 296 gasket diameter. 179. 395 global axes. 157 flexibility factor. 169 guide. 158 SIF. 239 hinge joint. 158 moduli. 240 friction coefficient. 49 frequency. 214 forces. 179 hot load. 288 friction force. 436 friction. 179 load variation. 273 force.Index F fiber reinforced plastic (FRP). 15 coordinate system. 182 rotational stiffness. 161 library. 165 load. 239 friction coefficient. 153 harmonic load. 73 graphics window. 238. 112 FRP. 179 connected node. 178 user. 182. 176 H hanger. 284 friction torque. 260. 162 report. 239 slip joint. 161 generate. 275 short range. 28 flange. 176. 42. 182 G gload. 77 text. 74 printer. 49 phase angle. 157 FRP Stress. 204. 265 origin. 239. 195. 287 type. 204. 6. 179 to be designed. 49 combination. 64 printer. 166 read from a text file. 150. 182 axis direction. 231 font graphics. 240 in dynamic analysis. 179. 181 angular stiffness. 59. 292 harmonic analysis. 176. 165 frequencies. 178 number of. 203. 73 font. 13. 164 convert time function. 96. 143 design procedure. 168 FRP. 287 cold load. 161 Weight. 36 natural. 7. 183 friction. 158 find node. 179 report. 6. 194 vertical axis. 182 Weight. 240. 182 displacements. 161 flexibility factor bend. 162 gasket diameter. 239 ball joint. 179 manufacturer. 240 limit stop. 162. 162 equivalent pressure.
190 jacketed bend. 213 snow. 195 loads menu. 193 left out force. 189 jacketed piping. 13 installation. 177 for a pipe. 5 file menu. 195 file menu. 34. 279 list. 64 file menu. 27. 75 K knuckles reducer. 212 additional weight. 220 jacket properties. 187 print results. 112. 105 for a Bend. 13. 195 main window menus. 191 JIS pipe sizes. 238 lining. 190 jacketed reducer. 4 graphics window menus. 224 circumferential. 213 load cases. 195 misc menu. 138 force spectrum. 213 wind. 195 view menu. 190 internal nodes. 224 menus. 225 define. 224 M material. 224 select from library. 224 input. 238 solution procedure. 113 internal nodes. 218 logarithmic interpolation. 5 help menu. 191 J jacket end cap. 27 load. 42 448 . 69 layout window menus. 151. 220 density. 223 type. 213 static seismic. 186 load case. 279 weight multiplier. 411 input material. 195 options menu. 63. 31 limit stop. 214 element forces and moments. 216 for a guide. 278 joint factor. 217 location. 217 for a beam. 279 density.Index hydrotest. 221. 29. 425 I import model. 76 loads acceleration. 224 description. 213 specific gravity. 186 load. 279 thickness. 41. 423. 191 jacketed pipe. 227 liberal allowable stresses. 44 force spectrum. 111. 164 thermal. 41 local coordinate system. 224 pressure stress. 214 local forces. 50. 239 nonlinearities. 189 internal nodes. 295 intermediate nodes. 220 create library. 251 L layout window. 41 cold Spring. 195 window menu. 8 results window menus. 9 edit menu. 64 options menu. 224 longitudinal. 422 long radius. 189 jacketed bend. 203 friction. 224 longitudinal stiffness. 2 insulation. 112. 222 name. 166 hydrotest. 242. 422. 213 pressure. 195 help menu. 416 longitudinal joint factor. 188 jacket pipe. 73 view menu. 187 temperature. 9. 222 insert.
213 pressure correction for bends. 422 NRC Guide 1. 240 limit stop. 278 misconvergence. 229. 76 misc. 66. 224 postscript. 191 list coordinates. 151 peak pressure factor. 68 PLT file. 35 pressure stiffening in bends. 34 previous view. 227 number of thermal cycles. 241 number of iterations. 75 load cases results. 425 circumferential stiffness. 42. 66 printer. 67 results. 231 closely spaced. 245 settlement. 77 font. 231 bend radius. 268 participation factors. 231 modal analysis. 238 misconvergence. 293 pipe. 361 nozzle. 247 longitudinal stiffness. 36. 227. 150. 174 Poisson’s ratio. 46 modulus cold. 64. 246 on a flatbottom storage tank. 248 N NEMA SM23 report. 288 pipe slide/shoe assembly. 242. 239 hinge joint. 66. 151. 75 preview. 268 phase angle harmonic load. 27. 240 friction. 242. 231 bend thickness. 34 period. 231 widely spaced. 207 piping code. 28 internal. 242 axial stiffness. 32. 29 plot title. 422. 36 miter bend. 11.92. 278 nonlinearities. 66. 29 other element forces. 174 pressure gauge. 241 missing connections. 11. 173 mode sum. 213 negative. 288 pipe sleeve. 238 ball joint. 231 flexibility factor. 245 449 . 423. 167 options menu. 148 modal displacements. 64. 65. 33. 242. 237 nominal diameter. 54 missing mass correction. 232 parameters. 35 pressure stress. 227 include. 362 number of thermal loads. 34. 231 modeling procedure. 69 print. 77 pump. 229 bend Material. 80 view menu. 242. 88. 76 model. 245 stiffness calculations. 287 pipe slide assembly. 422 stiffness coefficients. 47 O occasional load. 422 displacements. 422. 33 example on a cylindrical vessel. 238 nonstandard branch connection. 244 reinforcing pad. 44. 425 on a cylindrical vessel. 242 on a flatbottom tank. 423. 241 slip joint. 104. 237 specifying coordinates.Index file menu. 33 elastic. 237 find. 83 mill tolerance. 75 results menu. 49 pipe skirt. 239 guide. 240 types. 353 Norwegian (1990) code. 212 number of time steps. 278 Norwegian (1983) code. 82. 77 to file. 86 P pad thickness. 407 node. 422. 423. 127 participation factor. 33 hot. 230. 149 mode shapes. 425 coordinate system. 152 number of modes.
158 reducer. 284 slope. 275 stiffness. 297 sign conventions. 46 R RCCM code. 72 rendering quality. 278 settlement anchor. 70 show nodes. 256 stiffness. 280. 36. 162. 254 jacketed. 274 rod hanger. 251 delta. stiffness and stress calculation. 111. 71 reducer. 45 shear area. 260 hanger. 212. 71 SIF bend. 112 branch. 279 mill tolerance. 6 schedule. 83. 151. 274 stiffness. 217 skewed restraint. 252 eccentric. 281 translational. 73 renumber nodes.Index Q QA block. 251 stresses. 46 mode sum. 252 knuckles. 261 response spectrum. 46 direction sum. 250 example. 278 name. 256 results window. 170. 416 regenerate. 258. 16 rotation limit ball joint. 281 direction. 261 sorted stresses. 32. 201. 41. 284 friction torque. 278 section modulus. 250 example. 251 SIF. 281 slip joint. 97 hinge joint. 252 eccentric. 213 snubber. 278 DIN pipe sizes. 281 type. 92 nozzle. 278 lining. 260 rotating equipment. 101 short radius. 196 automatic. 257 rigid body force. 250 concentric. 274 weight. 227 rigid element. 104. 80. 252 weight. 259. 252 cone angle. 279 JIS pipe sizes. 26 releases for hanger selection. 91 relief valve. 285 stiffness. 193. 277 ANSI pipe sizes. 254 example concentric. 245 restraint. 251 user. 293 weld. 278 nonstandard. 277 nominal diameter. 281 stiffness. 296 render. 284 friction. 200 FRP. 280 connected node. 273 specific gravity. 213 spectrum. 59. 245 shape factor. 281 example: sway brace. 252 reference temperature. 127. 285 soil restraints. 12 section. 284 pressure thrust area. 282 rotational. 278 insulation. 101 deflection. 275 rotate. 278 schedule. 278 corrosion allowance. 19 report flange. 195. 372 redraw. 250. 240 friction force. 278 450 . 15 snow load. 112 show. 182 S save.
148. 84 FRP. 92. 80. 293 V valve. 294 library. 30 static seismic analysis. 292 user SIF. 46 spectrums. 296 calculation of moment of inertia. 288 ustrap. 158 Stoomwezen code. 287 skewed restraint. 96 bellows. 381 stress range reduction factor. 280 snubber. 264 support motion. 252 sorted. 42. 143. 287 limit stop. 85 tie rod. 159 liberal allowable.Index spectrum library. 294 451 . 39 SI. 292. 290 turn. 295 length. 295 relief. 418 SRSS. 292 stiffness. 31. 288 restraint. 238. 42 stiffness anchor. 362 thermal loads. 170 sustained. 287 anchor. 288 hangers. 239 FRP. 262 support loads. 289 user hanger. 287 sway struts. 182 include hanger stiffness. 56 spider. 278 support load summary. 111. 294 additional weight. 285 tie rod. 289 time history. 276. 179. 292 as constant support. 44. 292 valve. 286 split. 180. 415 fabricated. 150 supports. 196. 275 skewed restraint. 278 reducer. 224 thermal cycles. 280. 75. 287 Swedish code. 245 thickness X (multiplier). 179 hinge joint. 14 spring rate. 280. 91 ball joint. 83. 48 time history load. 127 welding. 294 threaded joint. 287 guide. 48 output interval. 200. 195 spectrum load. 47 title plot. 288 units. 422 reducer. 110 elastic element. 212. 44 static seismic load. 287 sway brace. 415 tensile strength. 38 English. 201. 151 static analysis. 292 spring rate. 44. 37. 37 limit stop. 274 rod hanger. 296 stiffness. 32 stresses color coded. 9. 32. 415 tee extruded. 56 spectrum library:files. 47 time step. 201 thresholds. 156 guide. 216. 37. 252 restraint. 415 SIF. 176 hanger. 153. 295 angle. 46. 295 insulation weight X. 68 turbine. 38 Metric. 256 rigid element. 383 sweepolet. 41. 69 U ubolt. 415 T tangent intersection point. 31 occasional. 152. 242. 289 stiffness. 282. 294 stiffness matrix. 152 damping. 292 load. 205 nozzle. 39 user hanger.
387 Z184 code. 45 shape factor. 224 Z Z183 code. 96. 294 weight. 69 wind profile. 213 direction.Index thickness X. 173 W weld. 45 wind pressure. 70 in. 45 452 . 391 zero length element. 27. 297 weldolet. 45 WRC 297. 70 window. 181 zoom all. 415 wind load. 294 velocity vector. 242 Y Y factor. 152 view previous. 45. 69 viewpoint. 27. 70 out.
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