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Chapter 3 induction machine


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Published on Jun 25, 2011

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Semere Meresa
easy,useful &best
4 years ago

Chazza101
awesome examples!
4 years ago

Ssk Rogue at UNEMPLOYED!!!!!


Good slide..easy to understand the topic
good explanation
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Chapter 3 induction machine
1. 1. CHAPTER 3 INDUCTION MACHINE3.1 INTRODUCTION Induction motor is the common type of AC motor. Induction motor
was invented by Nicola Tesla (1856-1943) in 1888. Also known as asynchronous motor. It has a stator and a rotor mounted on
bearings and separated from the stator by an air gap. It requires no electrical connection to the rotating member. Such motor are
classified induction machines because the rotor voltage (which produce the rotor current and the rotor magnetic field) is induced in the
rotor winding rather than being physically connected by wires. The transfer of energy from the stationary member to the rotating
member is by means of electromagnetic induction. This motor is widely used by the industries because: - Rugged. - Simple
construction. - Robust. - Reliable. - High efficiency. - Good power factor. - Require less maintenance - Easy to start. - Rotates itself
without external assistant. - Less expensive than direct current motor of equal power and speed. The weaknesses of this machine are:
- Low starting torque if compared to dc shunt motor. - Speed will be reduced when load increased. - Speed cant be changed without
reducing efficiency. Small single phase induction motors (in fractional horsepower rating) are used in many household appliances
such as: - Blenders - Lawn mowers - Juice mixers - Washing machines - Refrigerators Two phase induction motors are used
primarily as servomotor in control system. 49
2. 2. Large three phase induction motors (in ten or hundreds of horsepower) are used in: - Pumps - Fans - Compressors - Paper mills -
Textile mills, and so forth.3.2 INDUCTION MOTOR CONSTRUCTION Unlike dc machine, induction machine have a uniform air
gap. Composed by two main parts: - Stator - Rotor Figure 4.1 and 4.2 show the inside of induction machine. Figure 3.1 50
3. 3. Figure 3.2Stator ConstructionThe stator and the rotor are electrical circuits that perform as electromagnets. The statoris the
stationary electrical part of the motor. The stator core of a NEMA motor is made upof several hundred thin laminations. Figure
3.3:Stator coreStator WindingsStator laminations are stacked together forming a hollow cylinder. Coils of insulated wireare inserted
into slots of the stator core. 51
4. 4. Figure 3.4:Stator windingEach grouping of coils, together with the steel core it surrounds, form an electromagnet.Electromagnetism
is the principle behind motor operation. The stator windings areconnected directly to the power source.Rotor Construction The rotor
also consists of laminated ferromagnetic material, with slot cuts on the outer surface. The rotor are of two basic types : - Squirrel cage
- Wound rotorSquirrel cage rotor It consist of a series of a conducting bars laid into slots carved in the face of the rotor and shorted at
either ends by large shorting ring. This design is referred to as squirrel cage rotor because the conductors would look like one of the
exercise wheels that squirrel or hamsters run on. Small squirrel cage rotors use a slotted core of laminated steel into which molten
aluminums cast to form the conductor, end rings and fan blades. Larger squirrel cage rotors use brass bars and brass end rings that are
brazed together to form the squirrel cage. 52
5. 5. Skewing the rotor slots help to: - Avoid crawling (locking in at sub-synchronous speeds) - Reduce vibration Squirrel cage rotor is
better than wound rotor because it is: - Simpler - More rugged - More economical - Require less maintenance Figure 3.5:Squirrel cage
Rotor Figure 3.6 : Rotor core 53
6. 6. Figure 3.7Wound rotor Has a complete set of three phase insulated windings that are mirror images of the winding on stator. Its
three phase winding are usually wye connected and ends of three rotor wires are tied to a slip rings on the rotor shaft. The rotor
winding are shorted through carbon brushes riding on the slip rings. The existence of rheostat enable user to modify the torque speed
characteristic of the motor. It is used to adjust the starting torque and running speed. The three phase rheostat is composed of three
rheostat connected in wye with a common lever. Lever is used to simultaneously adjust all the three rheostat arms. Eg: Moving
rheostat to the zero resistance position shorts the resistor and simulates a squirrel cage motor. Are rarely used because: - More
expensive than squirrel cage induction motor. - Larger than squirrel cage induction motor with similar power. - Require frequent
maintenance due to wear associates to brushes and slip ring. 54
7. 7. Figure 3.8 Wound rotor induction motor showing rheostat connections Figure 3.9:Wound rotor3.3 ROTATING MAGNETIC
FIELD When a three phase stator winding is connected to a three-phase voltage supply, three-phase currents will flow in the winding
which induce three-phase flux in the stator. These flux will rotate at a speed called as Synchronous Speed, ns. The flux is called as
rotating magnetic field. 55
8. 8. 120 f The equation is:- n s = where f = supply frequency , p = no. of poles p Rotating magnetic field will cause the rotor to rotate
the same direction as the stator flux. Torque direction is always the same as the flux rotation. At the time of starting the motor, rotor
speed is 0. The rotating magnetic field will cause the rotor to rotate from 0 speed to a speed that is lower than the synchronous speed.
If the rotor speed is equal to the synchronous speed, there will be no cutting of flux and rotor current equals zero. Therefore, it is not
possible for the rotor to rotate at ns.3.4 SLIP AND ROTOR SPEED Slip is defined as : ns n s= ns where ns = synchronous speed in
rpm n = rotor speed in rpm Slip can also represented in percent. The frequency of the rotor, fr is: f r = sf where s = slip f = supply
frequencyExample 1Calculate the synchronous speed of a 3-phase induction motor having 20 poles when it isconnected to a 50 Hz
source.Solution 120 f 120(50)ns = = = 300rpm p 20Example 2 56
9. 9. A 0.5 hp, 6-pole induction motor is excited by a 3 phase, 60 Hz source. If the full-loadspeed is 1140 rpm, calculate the
slip.Solution 120 f 120(60)ns = = = 1200rpm p 6 n n 1200 1140s= s = = 0.05 = 5% ns 1200Example 3The 6-pole,wound-rotor
induction motor is excited by a 3-phase, 60 Hz source. Calculatethe frequency of the rotor current under the following conditions:(i) at
standstill(ii) motor turning at 500 rpm in the same direction as the revolving field(iii) motor turning at 500 rpm in the opposite
direction to the revolving field(iv) motor turning at 2000 rpm in the same direction as the revolving fieldSolutionns = 120f / p =
120(60/6) = 1200 rpm(i) n=0 ns n 1200 0s= = =1 ns 1200fr = sf = 1 x 60 = 60Hz(ii) n = +500 ns n 1200 500s= = = 0.583 ns
1200fr = sf = 0.583 x 60 = 35 Hz(iii) n = -500 ns n 1200 (500)s= = = 1.417 (s>1 motor is operating as a brake) ns 1200fr = sf =
1.417 x 60 = 85 Hz 57
10. 10. (iv)n = +2000 ns n 1200 2000s= = = 0.667 ns 1200fr = sf = -0.667 x 60 = -40 Hz (-ve means that the phase sequence of the
voltages inducedin the rotor winding is reversed)Example 4A 3-phase, 4 pair of poles, 400kW,400V,60Hz induction motor is 780 rpm
full-loadspeed. Determine the frequency of the rotor current under full load condition.Solutionf rotor = sf 120 f 120(60)n s= = =
900rpm p 8 ns n 900 780s= = = 0.133 ns 900 f r = sf = 0.133(60) = 8Hz3.5 PER-PHASE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF THREE-
PHASE INDUCTIONMOTORThe per-phase equivalent circuit of a three-phase induction motor is just like a single phase
transformer equivalent circuit. The difference is only that the secondary winding is short-circuited unlike in thetransformer it is open-
circuited as a load is to be connected later.Complete Equivalent Circuit For Induction Machine Referred To The Stator Circuit 58
11. 11. I1 R1 X1 I2 X2 1,0k Rm Xm R2 1,0m V input 1,0m 1,0k 1,0m s Figure 3.10The subscript 1 is refering to the stator side while 2
is referring to the rotor sideR1, X1, R2, Rm , Xm are value perphaseInput Power, Pin = 3V1I1cosStator copper loss, Pscl =
3I12R1Core Loss, Pcl = 3V12/Rm (always neglected because too small)Power across the air-gap, Pag = 3I22R2 /s = Pin - Pscl -
PclRotor copper loss, Prcl = 3I22R2Mechanical power/gross output power/converted power, P mech = Pag Prcl = 3I22R2 /s -
3I22R2 = Pag (1-s)Net power output, Poutput = P mech P friction & windage lossFor Torque: 60 Pm Pm Pag Tmechanical / induced
= Tm = = = 2n wr ws 60 P0 Pout Toutput / load = To = = 2n wr 59
12. 12. 3(Vsup ply p ) 2 R2Tstarting = ws [ (R 1 + R2 ) 2 + (X1 + X 2 )2 ] 3(Vsup ply p ) 2 1Tmax = 2 ws [ 2 R1 + R1 + ( X 1 + X 2 )
2 ] R2Maximum Slip: S max = 2 R1 + ( X 1 + X 2 ) 23.6 POWER FLOW OF AN INDUCTION MOTOR P CONV = P MECH
PAG=(3I22R2)/s =PAG-PRCL = Pin-PSCL-PCL PRCL=3I22R2 PSCL=3I12R1 PCL= = sPag 3V12/RM Figure 3.11 60
13. 13. Example 5A 10 poles, 50 Hz, Y connection 3-phase induction motor having a rating of 60kW and415V. The slip of the motor is 5%
at 0.6 power factor lagging. If the full load efficiencyis 90%, calculate:(i) Input power(ii) Line current and phase current(iii) Speed of
the rotor (rpm)(iv) Frequency of the rotor(v) Torque developed by the motor (if friction and windage losses is 0)Solution Pout(i) =
Pin Pout 60kWPin = = = 66666.7W 0.9 VL(ii) Y connection, I = IL, V= 3P in =3VIcos= 3VLIL cos Pin 66.67 kWIL = = =
154.59 A 3VL cos 3 (415)(0.6)I = IL=154.59 cos 1 0.6 = 154.59 53.13 A 120 f 120(50)(iii) n s = = = 600rpm p 10 ns n
s= ns n = n s (1-s) = 600 (1-0.05) = 570 rpm(iv) fr = sf = 0.05(50) = 2.5Hz Pm Pout 60kW(v) T = = = = 1005.2 Nm wm 2nm / 60
2nm / 60 Or 2f 2f ws= = = 62.83rad / s p/2 5 wm = ws(1-s) = 62.83(1-0.05) = 59.69 rad/s 60kWT= = 1005.2 Nm 59.69rad / s 61
14. 14. Example 6A 3-phase, delta connection, 4 pole, 440V, 60 Hz induction motor having a rotor speed1200rpm and 50kW input power
at 0.8 power factor lagging. The copper losses and ironlosses in the stator amount to 2kW and the windage and friction losses are
3kW.Determine:(i) Net output power(ii) Efficiency(iii) Input currentSolution(i) ns = 120f/p = 120(60)/4 = 1800 rpm ns n 1800
1200 s= = = 0.33 ns 1800 P input(to stator) P input rotor /Pag Pmech=Pout rotor P out net =50kW =50kW-2kW =(48-16)kW =(32-
3)kW =48kW =32kW =29kW P stator losses P rotor losses P wind and fric =2kW =s(P input rotor) losses = 0.33(48kW) =3kW
=16kW P net output = 29kW Pout 29kW(ii) = = = 58% Pin 50kW(iii) connection Pin = 3V p I p cos Pin 50kW Ip = = = 47.35
cos 1 0.8 = 47.35 36.87 A 3V p cos 3( 440)(0.8) I L = 47.35 3 = 82 A 62
15. 15. Example 7A 3-phase induction motor, delta connection,5 pair of poles, 60 Hz is connected to a440V source.The slip is 3% and the
windage and friction losses are 3kW. Theequivalent circuit perphase referred to the stator circuit is:- R1 = Stator resistance = 0.4 X1
= Stator leakage inductance = 1.4 R2 = Rotor resistance = 0.6 X2 = Rotor leakage inductance = 2 Rm = no-load loses
resistance = 150 Xm = magnetizing reactance = 20Calculate:(i) Input power(ii) Speed of the rotor(iii) Mechanical power(iv)
Developed torque(v) EfficiencySolution 0.4 j1.4 j2 I1 I260Hz, 1.0m 1.0k440v, V2 1.0k 1.0m 1.0m 10 S j20
R2/s=0.6/0.03=20poles, (i) P in =3VIcos V = 440V 20 j ( 20 + 2 j ) Z total = 0.4 + 1.4 j + = 9.45 + 11.45 j 20 j + 20 + 2 j V 440
I1 = = = 18.87 22.86 j = 29.64 50.46 A Ztotal 9.45 + 11.45 j Pin = 3(440)(29.64)cos(-50.460) = 24907.5W 120 f 120(60)(ii) ns
= = = 720rpm p 10 ns n s= , ns n = ns(1-s) , n = 720(1-0.03) = 698.4 rpm 63
16. 16. (iii) Pm = 3(I22R2/s I22R2) V2 = 440 I1Z1 = 440 (18.87-22.86j)(0.4+j1.4) = 400.45-17.27j V V 2 400.45 j17.27 I2 = = =
19.74 j 2.84 = 19.94 8.19 A Z2 20 + j 2 0.6 Pm = 3 [19.942 - 19.942(0.6)] = 23140.5W 0.03 Pag Pm(iv) T dev =
= ws wm Pag = 3I22R2/s = 3(19.94)2(0.6)/(0.03) = 23856.2W 2f 2 (60) ws = = = 75.4rad / s p 2 5 23.856.2 T = = 316.4 Nm 75.4
Poutput 23140.5W 3kW(v) = = = 81% Pin 24901.5WExample 8A 3-phase induction motor, wye connection, 60 Hz is connected
to a 220V source.Theslip is 5% and rotor speed is 855 rpm. The equivalent circuit perphase is:- R1 = Stator resistance = 0.4 X1 =
Stator leakage inductance = 1 R2 = Rotor resistance = 0.8 X2 = Rotor leakage inductance = 3.5 Rm = no-load loses resistance
= 150 Xm = magnetizing reactance = 10Calculate:(i) Number of poles(ii) Input power(iii) Mechanical power(iv) Developed
torque(v) Efficiency 64
17. 17. Solution 0.4 j1 j3.560Hz, 1.0m 1.0k220V, 1.0k 1.0m 1.0m S j10 R2/s=0.8/0.05=16 Y(i) n = 855rpm s = 0.05 ns = 120f/p
ns n s= , sns = ns n , n = ns sns ns = ns(1-s) n ns = 1 s 855 = = 900rpm 1 0.05 ns = 120f/p 120 f 120(60) p= = = 8 pole ns
900rpm(ii) Pin = 3V L I L cos (16 + j 3.5)( j10) Z total = 0.4 + j1 + = 4.05 + j 7.9 16 + j 3.5 + j10 220 3 I1 = = 6.53 j12.73 =
14.3 62.84 A 4.05 + j 7.9 Pin = 3 (220)(14.3)(cos 62.84) = 2487.36W(iii) Pm = 3(I22R2/s I22R2) 220 V2 = I1Z1 3 220 =
(6.53-j12.73)(0.4+j1) 3 = 111.68-1.438j V V 2 111.68 j1.438 I2 = = = 6.64 j1.54 = 6.8 13 A Z2 16 + j 3.5 65
18. 18. 0.8 Pm = 3 [6.82 - 6.82(0.8)] = 2108.54W 0.05 Pag Pm(iv) T dev = = ws wm Pag = 3I22R2/s 2f 2 (60) ws = = =
94.25rad / s p 2 4 T = (3I22R2/s) / ws =[3(6.8)2(0.8)/(0.05)] / 94.25 = 23.55Nm Poutput 2108.54(v) = = = 0.85 = 85% Pin
2487.363.7 TORQUE SPEED CHARACTERISTICS Figure 3.12There are 3 regions involve in a 3-phase induction motor:-(i)
Braking/Plugging Braking process occurs at s>0(positive slip). In this case the motor acts as a brake where it rotates in opposite
direction respect to the rotor.(2<slip<1). 66
19. 19. (ii) Motoring Motoring is the region where induction motor acts as a motor. Slip is reducing from 1 into 0. Slip equals to 0 at
synchronous speed,ns.(1<slip<0).(iii) Generating Generating region is a region where motor acts as a generator. During this time the
slip is negative. At this time, the motor acts as a generator.(slip<0)3.8 DETERMINATION OF CIRCUIT MODEL PARAMETERThe
parameter of the equivalent circuit can be determined from the results of a:- No load test- Blocked rotor test-.DC testThe blocked rotor
test:- To determine X1 and X2- When combines with DC test, it also determines R2- Test is performed by blocking the rotor so that it
cannot turn and measuring the line voltage, line current and three phase power input to the stator- Connection for the test is shown in
Figure 4.13 Figure 3.13 Basic circuit for blocked rotor test and no load testThe no load test:- To determine magnetizing reactance, Xm,
and the combined core, friction and windage losses (these losses are essentially constant for all load condition)- The connection for the
no load test are identical to those shown in Figure 12- However, the rotor is unblocked and allowed to run unloaded at rated voltage
and rated frequency 67
20. 20. DC test:- To determine R1- Accomplished by connecting any two stator leads to a variable voltage DC source as shown in Figure
4.14.- The DC source is adjusted to provide approximately rated stator current, and the resistance between two stator leads is
determined from voltmeter and ammeter reading Figure 3.14 Basic circuit for DC testExample 9The following test data were taken on
a 7.5hp, four pole, 208 V, 60 Hz Y connecteddesign A induction motor having a rated current of 28A.DC test : Vdc = 13.6V Idc = 28
ANo-load test: Vt = 208 V f = 60 Hz Ia = 8.12 A P in = 420 W Ib = 8.2 A Ic = 8.18 ALocked rotor test: Vt = 25 V f = 15 Hz Ia = 28.1
A P in = 920 W 68
21. 21. Ib = 28 A Ic = 27.6 ASketch the per-phase equivalent circuit for this motor.SolutionFrom the DC test, VDC 13.6VR1 = = =
0.243 2 IDC 2( 28.0 A)From the no-load test, 8.12 A + 8.2 A + 8.18 AIL = = 8.17 A 3 208V = = 120V 3 120VZ= = 14.7 = X 1 +
X 2 8.17 APscl = 3I12R1 = 3(8.17A)2(0.243) = 48.7WPag = Pin Pscl = 420W- 48.7W = 371.3WFrom the locked-rotor test, 28.1A
+ 28 A + 27.6 AIL = = 27.9 A 3 V 25 3Z= = = 0.517 I 27.9 APin = 3VLIL cos Pin 920W = cos-1 = = 40.4 3VLIL 3
(25V )(27.9 A)R1 + R2 = 0.517(cos 40.4) = 0.394 69
22. 22. DC test, R1 = 0.243, R2 = 0.394 0.243 = 0.151At 15 Hz, X = 0.517(sin 40.4)=0.335 60 HzAt 60 Hz, X = (0.335) =
1.34 = X1 + X2 15HzFor class A induction motor, this reactance is assumed to be divided equally between therotor and stator, X1 =
X2 = 0.67 Xm = 14.7 -0.67 = 14.033.9 STARTING OF INDUCTION MOTOR(i) Direct On Line Starter(DOL)- A widely-used
starting method of electric motors.- The simplest motor starter.- A DOL starter connects the motor terminals directly to the power
supply.- Hence, the motor is subjected to the full voltage of the power supply.- Consequently, high starting current flows through the
motor.-This type of starting is suitable for small motors below 5 hp (3.75 kW).- Most motors are reversible or, in other words, they
can be run clockwise and anti- clockwise.- A reversing starter is an electrical or electronic circuit that reverses the direction of a motor
automatically.- Logically, the circuit is composed of two DOL circuits; one for clockwise operation and the other for anti-clockwise
operation.- It takes a starting current 6(six) times the full load current.- For large motor the high starting current causes voltage drop in
the power system which may trip other motors in the systems.(ii)Star-Delta Starter- For star-delta connection the motor windings are
connected in star during starting.- The connection is changed to delta when the motor starts running.- The starting current and starting
torque of DOL started and start-delta connected motorsare as follows:Example:DOL -6I and 2TStar-delta - 2I and 2T/3 70
23. 23. - Thus it can be seen that the starting current and starting torque are both reduced.- The motor should be capable to start at such
reduced torque with load.- The Star Delta starter can only be used with a motor which is rated for connection in delta operation at the
required line voltage(iii)Autotransformer starter- An Auto transformer starter uses an auto transformer to reduce the voltage applied to
a motor during start.- The auto transformer may have a number of output taps and be set-up to provide asingle stage starter, or a
multistage starter.- Typically, the auto transformer would have taps at 50%, 65% and 80% voltage, enabling the motor to be started at
one or more of these settings.- As the motor approaches full speed, the auto transformer is switched out of the circuit 71
24. 24. Tutorial 31. A 3 phase induction machine 373kW, 6 poles is connected to a 440V, 50 Hz, has a fullload speed of 950 rpm. If the
machine is comprised of 6 poles, calculate the frequency ofthe rotor current during full load.2. Determine the synchronous speed of a
six pole 460V 60 Hz induction motor if thefrequency is reduced to 85 % of its rated value.3. A 4 pole induction machine is supplied
by 60 Hz source and having 4% of full loadslip. Calculate the rotor frequency during:(i) Starting(ii) Full load4. A 3-phase induction
motor, delta/star connection, 2 poles, 50 Hz is connected to a 410Vsource .The rotor speed is 2880 rpm and the windage and friction
losses are 600 W. Theequivalent circuit perphase referred to the stator circuit is:- R1 = 0.4 X2 =2 X1 =2 Rm = 150 R2 =2
Xm = 20Calculate:(i) Input power(ii) Air-gap power(iii) Mechanical power(iv) Developed torque/torque induced(v) Efficiency5. A
440V, 50Hz, 10 pole, delta/Y connected induction motor is rated at 100kW. Theequivalent parameter for the motor are: Rs = 0.08 /
phase RR = 0.1 / phase X s = 0.3 / phase X R = 0.2 / phase X m = 6 / phase Rc = At full load condition , the friction and
windage losses are 400W, the miscellaneouslosses are 100W and the core losses are 1000W. The slip of the motor is 0.04.(i) Calculate
the input power(ii) Calculate the stator copper loss(iii) Calculate the air gap power(iv) Calculate the converted power(v) Calculate the
torque induced by the motor(vi) Calculate the load torque(vii) Calculate the starting torque(viii) Calculate the maximum torque and
slip(ix) Calculate the efficiency of the motor 72
25. 25. 6. Squirrel cage and wound rotors are the two common types of rotor used ininduction machines. Give four(4) advantages of
squirrel cage rotor.7. A 4 pole induction machine is supplied by 50 Hz source and having 4% of full loadslip. Find the rotor frequency
during:(i) Starting(ii) Full load8. A 3-phase, Y-connected, 50 Hz, 4 pair of poles, induction motor having 720 rpm fullload speed. The
motor is connected to a 415 V supply. The machine has the followingimpedances in ohms per phase referred to the stator circuit: R1 =
0.2 X1 = 2.0 R2 = 0.9 X2 = 4.0 Xm = 60 If the total friction and windage losses are 200 W,(i) Find the slip, s.(ii) Find the
input power, Pin.(iii) Find the air gap power, Pag.(iv) Find the mechanical power, Pm.(v) Find the torque induced by the motor,
ind.(vi) Find the efficiency of the motor.9. Induction machine is a common type of AC machine. State three weaknesses of
theinduction machine.10. A 3-phase, delta-connected, 50 Hz, 2 pair of poles, induction motor having 1455rpm full load speed. The
motor is connected to a 415 V supply. The machine has thefollowing impedances in ohms per phase referred to the stator circuit: R1 =
0.2 X1 = 0.6 R2 = 0.9 X2 = 0.4 Xm = 20 If the total friction and windage losses are 1000 W, calculate:(i) Slip(ii) Input
power, Pin(iii)Air gap power, Pag(iv) Mechanical power, Pconv(v) Torque induced by the motor, ind(vi)Efficiency of the motor11.
A 3-phase, Y-connected, 6 poles, 415 V, 50 Hz induction motor having a rotor speed950 rpm. The input power is 100 kW at 0.85
power factor lagging. The copper and ironlosses in the stator are 4 kW and the windage and friction losses are 4 kW. Determine
theoutput power of the motor. 73
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