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Salve Regina

Motet for Four Voices on the Antiphon for Compline


Music: Alexander Agricola (1446 - 1506)
Introduction: Transcription: Jordan Alexander Key
A Soprano/Tenor & Alto/Bass duet
Semi-Strong Formal
Source: Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale
MS 9126 fol. 138v-143r, "Agrico " b) ST duet: Antecedent Phrase Cadence on D

. ~ 4 w #
Superius ~ ~ & 2
7 Salve w
Sal - - - - - - - ve

~~ 4
Contratenor 7 ~ & 2
misericor...
b b
~. 3 3 ~ 3 3 ~ 3 3 4
Tenor 7 & 2
Salve
Sal - - - - - - - ve

Bass
~ ~ ~ ? 4
b2
misericor... First Duet: Soprano & Tenor
13.5 breves in length (balanced with AB duet)

ST duet: Consequent Phrase Semi-Strong Formal


Inversion of motives over same melodic contour Cadence on D
4
b b #
&
re - gi - - - - - - - - - - na

&
b
b b
& w w
j

re - - gi - - - - - - - - - - na
?b

Intro: cadential prolongation Second Duet: Alto and Bass (rst clear use of cantus rmus as point of imitation)
(bridge to second duet) - 3 breves 13.5 breves in length (balanced with ST duet)
8

& w
Sal - - - ve PoI - 5th free orid counterpoint
b b

&
mi - se - ri - cor - - - - - -
# b

& b

mi - se - ri - cor - di - ae.
contrapuntal bridge
?b

Semi-Strong Formal mi - se - ri - cor -
Cadence on D
2

12

&

#

& J
- - - - - di - - - - - - - - -

&
free orid counterpoint

?b j


- di - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Semi-Strong
Cadence on D

Most clear statement


of cantus rmus

Narration:
B PoI: at 4th (compound)
Point of Imitation in four parts with voice pairings
16 # #

&
Period I: "Vita, dulcedo" 16 breves Vi - -
two phrases seperated by "HC"
PoI: at 5th
w w w
&
- ae: Vi - - - ta, dul - - ce - -

j
& w
Vi - - ta, dul - ce - - - - - - - -

?b w
w

- ae: Vi - - - - -
PoI: Embellished imitation Strong Formal
of cantus rmus Cadence on A

Note: Notes of cantus rmus are indicated in


"Half Cadence" of the larger period the Tenor and Bass with the "upbowing" character
"Vita. dulce do"
20

& w w w
w
- ta, dul - - - - ce - - - do,
b

& J w w w

- - - - do, et spes no - - stra
# #
j
&
do,
er spes no - stra er spes
Cadential Elongation

?b


w

w w w
Strong Phrygian
- ta, dul - -
Cadence on A
- - ce - - - do,
Evasive Strong Formal
CF seems present here except the second half is transposed from the rst to compensate for the B-at Cadence on D
3
Phrase 2: "es spes notra salve" 12 breves, CF most clearly in S & T
24 Loose PoI at 4th (augmented)

& w

et spes no - - - - - stra,

b b b
& J w

et spes no - stra, sal - - - - - - -
PoI at 8th
<n> b w
& J
no - - - stra et spes no - - - - stra,
contrapuntal bridge
?
bw w
et spes no - stra, sal - - - - - -

Duet pairs: Soprano and Alto in free orid two


C part counterpoint. Tenor and Bass in melodic
canon over cantus rmus
28
# # b
&

sal - - - - - ve. Ad te cla - ma -
b
& w w
- - ve. Ad te

& w
w
sal - - - - - - - ve. Allusion to cantus rmus, however rather incomplete

?
b w J
- - ve. sal - - - contrapuntal
- bridge
- - -
Weak Formal
Cadence on D

Evasive Weak
31 Cadence on D

&
- - mus ad te cla - ma - -
b b b b
& #


J
cla - - ma - - - - - - - - - - - -

&
w
Ad te cla - ma -

? j
b w
- - ve. Ad te cla - ma - -
Point of melodic canon, however rhythms are constantly
modied to compensate for counterpoint.
4

34


& j

- - - - - mus ex - su - - - les -
b
j
& <b> J

- - - - - - - mus ex - su - - - les - li -

& w

- - mus ex - - su - - les - li -

?b

- - - - mus ex - su - - - - - les - li -

Evasive Weak Formal Cadence on D. Appears at innitial text ending,


however lacks harmonic resolution, necessitating the need for
coda-like material on the same text provided in the next system.
Also a rhythmic cadence as it is the least rhyrhmically active point of
the period thus far
37
b b
j
&
J
- - li - - - i E - - - - vae
b b #
&
J
- - - i E - - - - - - - vae

& w w w
- i E - - - - - - vae
?
b j

- i E - - - - - - vae

Coda material for the end of the rst part, prolongating cadential
resolution and then prodviding the needed strong formal cadence
that was avoided previously. Here phrase begins as before but resolves Strong Formal
40 Cadence on D
b # #
&
J
E - - - - - - - - - - vae.
b
j j
& n
J

E - - - - - - - - - - - - vae.

& w b
w
E - - - - - - - - - - vae.
?
b J w
J
E - vae E - - - - - - vae.
5
Seconda Pars:

Trio section in point of imitation. Duet under solo cantus rmus.


D Use of Cantus rmus is less clear here, but found most clearly in the soprano,
however very freely embellished. Embellishments between the same note within Evasive Neutral
the cantus rmus are indicated with dashed slurs Cadence in A
43
4 j
& 2 w w

Ad te su - spi -
PoI at the 8th and unison
free counterpoint
4 J

w
& 2
Ad te su - spi -
free counterpoint
b
4
& 2 j w w
Ad te su - - - spi - ra - - mus
? 4
b2
Note that the opening part of this section can be easily
interpreted as in a coumpound triple meter. Rhythmic
groups are shown with slurs
Evasive Weak
Formal A-Cadence
47 #

& w w w
- ra - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

&

J


- ra - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

& j
w
su - - - - spi - - ra - - - - - - -
?b

Alto/Tenor duet in free counterpoint under Phrase structure: ABC


E soprano cantus rmus. Cantus rmus opening Weak Formal A+B = 10.5 breves
used as motivic PoI, but carried through in soprano. Cadence on C C = 10.5 breves
50

& w w w w w
w
mus, PoI at 4h and 8th ge - men - tes et en - -

w
free counterpoint

& w w J
mus, ge - men - tes et en - - - - tes et en
b
j
& w w w w j

- - - mus, ge - men - - - - tes et
contrapuntal bridge
?
b
Area of transitin with no phrase structure.
6

55

& w
w w
- - - - - tes in hac la - cri -

& J
- - - - - - - tes in hac
j

& j

en - Evasive
- Weak - - - - - - - - - - - -
Cadence on C
?b

At this point, B-at returns to common usage, essentially


modulating the mode back to D aeolian (or F Ionian) for the
resolution of the section
Weak Formal
58 Cadence on C
b b

&

- ma - - - - - - - - - - - - -

&

J
lac - cri - ma - - - - - - - - - -
b b
&
- tes J
in hac la - cri - ma - - - - - -
?
b

Intriguing that Agricola uses a weak formal cadence


here at the end of the section. Perhaps this reects the
forlorn nature of the text being set. A text that perhaps
Weak Formal hopes to not end here.
61 Cadence on D
b
j
#
& j
W W
- - - - - rum val - - le.
W W
& J
- - - - rum val - - - le.
b b b

&
b W
- - -
- - - - - rum val - - - - le.
?b

7
Tertia Pars:
F Introductory Point of Imitation at the 5th on F and B-at Phrase I = 8.5 breves
65

& w

Ei - a er - go ad - vo -
Weak Neutral cadence in A

&

Ei - a er - go Ei - a er - - - go, ad -
Melodic PoI at 4th, altered rhythm

& w

Ei - a er - go,

?b w

Section with three phrases of equal length Ei - a er - go

Weak Formal
69 Cadence in D
b
& j j

- ca - - - - - ta no - stra, il - - los tu -
slightly embellished imtation

& j
J
vo - ca - ta no - - - - - - - - stra,

&
W
ad - vo - ca - ta no - - stra, il -
Phrase II = 8.5 breves

?
#

b J
ad - vo - ca - ta no - - - stra, il - los

While not a clear melodic phrase,


Weak Formal this section is 8.5 breves until the
Cadence in F next clear cadence
73
<b> b
j
&

j
- - - os tu - - - - - - os mi - se - ri -
b b b

&

j

il - los tu - - - os mi - - se - ri - cor - des

w w
b

b
b b
&
J
los tu - - - - - os mi - se - ri - cor - -
b
? b

J J
tu - os mi - se - ri - cor - - des mi - se - ri - cor -
Cantus Firmus deteriorates at end of phrase
New PoI on the full
8
Point of Imitation motive takes material from CF of "oculos" with free
the end of the "oculos" section of the Cantus Firmus Alto voice
77 G

& j

Semi-Strong o
cor - des o - - cu - los -
PoI at 4th Cadence in B-at


PoI at 5th b b


& b b
o - cu - los o - - - - cu - los o -
b b b
&
- - - des PoI at 5th

? b
b J w
- des o - - - cu - los
This is an interesting moment of imitation as it does not merely limit itself to starting
pitches of the unison, 5th, or 8th, but rather spans a sequence of descending fths.
This part could be seen as a transition through PoI in sequence to the next section.

Evasive Weak
Cadence in C
81
b j
& w w w

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Here the imitation is doubled at the tenth and slightly embellished
b
& bw w
- - - - - - - - - - - - - cu - los

& w
w
o - - - cu - los
?b

w w
o - - - - - - - - cu - los

Section of 4-part PoI


H followed by free counterpoint
Cantus Firmus not clearly used. Either this is a free section
or Agricola is using a lesser known version of the chant
Semi-Strong Formal
Cadence in C Section divided into three sections of seven breves
85

& w
- - - - - cu - los ad nos


& b b J
as nos con - ver - - te
b
& w
J
o - - - - cu - los ad
?b

ad nos con - ver - te
9
Evasive Weak
D-Cadence
89
j

&
b
con - - - - ver - - te
b

& b

con - ver - - - te con - ver - -
# b

&
nos con - ver - - - - te

?b j
J
con - - - - ver - - - te

Strong Phrygian
92 A-Cadence
b
& b
J b
J

con - ver - - - - - -

j
&
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
b

& b

?
b w
con - - - - - - - ver - - - -

Extended Formal Cadence in D


95
# U
& w W
- - - - - - - te.
b j U
& b w
- - - - - - - te.
U
&
w
con - - - - ver - - te.
?b w
U
w
w
- - - - - - - - - - - - - te.
10 Quarta Pars:

I Notice how Jesus is at the


center of the piece.194 to 164
98 J
U
& w w w w
w
Et Je - sum, be - - ne - di -

w w w U
w
& j
w
Et Je - sum, be - ne - di - - - - -

U CANON FACIE AD FACIEM ("Canon face to face," meaning by mirroring or inversion)

& w w w w
Et Je - sum, U
? b w BENEDICTUM CANON IN TENORE ("Benedictum canon in tenor," meaning the source material for canon is in tenor)

w w w
Tenor and Bass canonic reduction
Et Je - sum,

Semi-strong Formal
Cadence in C SS Formal Cadence in D Evasive Cadence on G
102
# #
& w w w
w w w
- - - ctum fru - - - - - - - ctum

& J w # # w
j

- - - ctum fru - - - - ctum fru -

&
w w
Notice here the transposition of the tune into a new hexachord. The
be - ne -
descent from 4 to 1 is clear however, and the intervals are perserved
?b

Notice here the orid outline of the original tune that was stated before:
the descent from 4 to 1 and then ascent back to 4 and descent again to 1
Here, the alto part is clearly the last to be composed against the canon, as
it is the most free and virtuosoic, lling in the contrapuntal gaps in the texture.
Clearly this sections was successively composed, rather than simultaneously
107
j #
j
&
fru - - - - ctum ven - - - - - - -

j
& b j j w b

j
J
- ctum ven - - - - - - - - - tris ven -

& w w w w w
w w
di - - - ctum fru - ctum
?
b w w w w w w
be - ne - di - - - ctum
Evasive Strong
Evasive Weak Cadence on D
Cadence on D
At this point the upper two parts seem to be more freely composed and less derivative
from the cantus rmus fragement. This is very much in the style of 15th century successive
contrapuntal writing in the style of Ockeghem. 11
111
#
& b


tris fru - - ctum ven - - -

j #
& b w w

- - - - tris fru - - - - ctum ven -

& w w w
w
ven - - tris tu -
? w
bw w w w
fru - ctum ven - -
Evasive D-Cadence Weak Formal
Cadence in G
Cadential prolongation: Two evasive cadences on D in close relation,
the dierence being the harmonic nature of their deception

115
b
j
& w
tris tu - - - - - - - - - i ven - -
b b b b b
j j b j
&
- - - - tris tu - - - - i ven - -

& w w w w
w w w
- - - - - - - - - - - i,
? w w w
bw w w w
Evasive Neutral
tris tu - - - - - - - - - - -
Cadence in D

Semi- Strong Formal


Cadence on D
119
#
& j
w W
- tris tu - - - - - - - - i.
b b

& j
w W
- tris tu - - - - - - - i.

& w W b

?
bw w w W
- - i.
12

Quinte Pars:
K
123
b b
& j

No - - - - - bis
b b

&
No - - -

&b
w
No - - - - - - - - - - - bis
b
?b b

No - - - - - - -

Weak Formal Weak Formal


Cadence on G Cadence on C
127
#
j
&

post hoc ex - si - - -
b b b b b b

& J
- - - - - - - - - - bis post

&b

post hoc ex - - si -
? b b b



- - - - - bis post hoc post

Strong Formal
Cadence on C
L
130

&
w w
- - li - um o - - - - - sten - -

w
&
hoc ex - si - - - - - - li - um

&b
w

- li - um o - - - sten - - - - -
? j
b J
hoc ex - si - - - - - - li - um
Note that Agricola held o the rst strong
candence for the end of the rst text phrase
13
Weak Formal
Cadence on C Evasive Weak Cadence on B-at
133 M b b
j
&
J
b
J
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
b

& b
ex - si - - - - - - - - - - li - um

&b


- - - de o - sten -

?
b
ex - si - - - - - - li - um

Extensive and blatant use of melodic sequence. Notice the melodic sequence is approached by an ascent to D and then an embellished descent
It is perhaps toying with the idea of species of back to D. In fact, that upper D is the apex of this section - also playing with octave species? The
fths and fourths as dening modal regions. only note not cadenced on in this section is E.

Formal Cadence in F
Evasive Neutral Evasive Strong Cadence on G (embellished/prolonged)
136 Cadence in A
j j
& # n j
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
b b b
&
J J
o - - - sten - - - - - de o - -

&b

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
?
b


o - sten - - - - - - - de

An extremely ambigious and odd cadence, rst cadencing on D, but modally nalizing on G. The D cadence
is in the old DuFay/Ockeghem Flemmish style with the lower third embellishment in the expanding sixths (this
occurs between the soprano and the tenor). The Alto and Bass elide the D cadence by both resolving to B-at.
They then expand the cadence oridly and resolving to G in a leading-tone/descending 5th fashion.

139 # #

& W W W
- - - - - de.
b b b #
& b j w W
- sten - - - - - - - - - - de.

& b
J W W W
n
- - - - - de.
? <n> j j
b w W
o - sten - - - - - - - - de.
14

Sexte Pars:
N
143

&


b b
&
J
O
&
O
?b j

O Weak Phrygian Cadence on A Strong Phrygian
Cadence on A

Evasive Phrygian Strong Formal


Cadence on A Cadence in C
146

& J
J
O cle - - - - - -
b
& w
J
cle - - - - mens O
W
& J J
w
cle - - - - - - - - -
?
b
cle - - - - - - - - - -

Srrong Formal Cadence in A


150 Evasive Cadence on C
#
& w W
J
- - - - - - - - - - - mens.

w W W
&
cle - - - - - - mens.

& w w w w W
- - - - - - - mens.

? w
b w w W
- - mens cle - - - mens.
Here, you can see a reduction of the tenor and bass lines. The tenor part is
clearly a version of the CF while the bass is mirroring the tenor 15

Septima Pars: The soprano line and alto line


combines here, make a large form
statement of the CF (follow carrot Weak Neutral
O markers) Cadence in A
154

& W W W W
O

& J

O
&
Clearly the alto part here is in
reference to the Cf as well.
?b

158
3 3 3

3

& j

pi - - - - - - - a

3
& W w W w
J
pi - - - - a

&

?
b

Evasive Weak
D-Cadence
162
3
3 3 #
& j

O
3 3 3
&
O

& w W
O
?b
w W
O
16
Note that there are a number of melodic and loose rhythmic
P duet imitations here between the alto and soprano at the octave
165
b b b

&
pi - - - - - - - a


& b b

pi - - - - - - a

& W w w w
pi - - - - - -
?
bW w w w
pi - - - - - -

168
j j
&

O pi - - - - - - - - a

& j
pi
- - - - a pi - - - a
b
& W W
- - - - a pi - - - a.
?
bW W
- - - - a pi - - - a.
Strong Phrygian A-Cadence Strong Phrygian A-Cadence

This section is ususual in that there is no strong formal cadence on D. Furthermore there is not even a
strong formal cadence on any tone. This section is certainly not stand-alone, and must be harmonically
171 progressive and unresolved in nature, relating to that which came before and that which comes after.
3
&
J w 2
W
O pi - - - - - - - a.

3
&
J
W 2
O pi - - - - - - - - a.
3
& W W W 2

? 3
bW W W 2
17

Octava Pars:
Q
174
3
& 2
O

3
& 2
O

3
& 2
O
? b23

O dul - cis

Weak Formal
Cadence on D
178
#
& j

dul - - - - cis dul - - - - - - - - -
b b j
j
& b
dul - - - cis dul - - - - - - - - -

& j

dul - - - - - - - - - - cis O

?b

O dul - - - cis O dul - -

Weak Formal
181 Cadence on F
j
&
- cis Ma - ri - a O dul -
b b
j
&
- - - - - cis Ma - - ri - - - - -

&

dul - - - cis Ma - - - ri - - - -

?b

- - - cis Ma - - - ri - - a
18

184 Evasive Neutral D-Cadence


j j
&

- - - cis Ma - ri - - - a Ma - -
b
& b

-a O dul - - cis Ma - ri - - - - a


& j

- - - a O dul - - - cis Ma - -
?
b

O dul - cis Ma - ri - - - - - - - - - -

Strong Formal
Cadence on D
187
j
#
& w w
- ri - - - - - - - - a.
b
& w w
Ma - - - - ri - - a.
j
& w w
- ri - - - - - - - - a.
?b w w

- - - - - - - - a.

This piece's use of both heavy four-part imitative textures with hidden and canonic
CF statements in the tenor and bass, show Agricola's use of both successive techniques
of the 15th century and simultaneous techniques of the 16th century, making this piece
a stylistic bridge and sythesis at the beginning of the 16th century.