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Electromagnetics

Lecture 1
1. About lecturer
2. Course Structure
2. Why Study EM?
3. Introduction to EM
Electromagnetics Class

About lecturer
Daniele Tosi

Specialist of optical fiber sensors and optical devices. Since 2012, mainly focusing on
biomedical optics!
Research interests: biophysical fiber optic sensors (thermo-therapies, cardiovascular
urology, gastroscopy, cancer care); optical biosensors; fiber lasers for thermal
ablation; lab-in-a-fiber and its signal processing; sensors for smartphones.!
10 years of experience in academia (Italy, US, Australia, Ireland) and industry (UK)!
Currently leading the Biosensors lab at NLA!
At NU since 2014!
Published 32 journal papers and 51 international conference papers, 14/19 since 2014
when I joined NU!
Associate Editor of IEEE Sensors Journal!
Technical program committee of IEEE international conferences (Sensors 2017,
MeMeA 2016/17, ICPRE 2016). !
You can follow my research profile on ResearchGate, Scopus, Scholar

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Electromagnetics Class

Course Structure
Text Book

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Assessed Learning Outcomes

Maxwells Equations!
Understand and explain differential and integral forms of Maxwells equations and
boundary conditions!
How to solve these problems using Matlab and math!
Time-Varying Electromagnetic Fields!
Understand and explain time-varying fields and EM wave propagation!
How to solve these problems using Matlab and math!
Transmission Line!
Understand and explain transmission line theory and Smith Charts for solving
impedance matching networks!
How to solve these problems using Matlab and math!
Application of Electromagnetics!
Apply electromagnetics to problems in different fields

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What is Needed?

Math!
Phasors!
Vector Algebra & Calculus!
Differential Equations!
Programming Skills!
Matlab!
Matlab!
Matlab

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Class Information

Office Hours: Email me for an appointment!


Professor & TA Email:!
Professor: daniele.tosi@nu.edu.kz, office 3e.565!
T.A.: Diana Sadykova, dyana.sadykova@nu.edu.kz!
In the Subject, state the following: Course Number, Student Name, and Issue!
Moodle:!
I will post class updates, assignments, lab materials, and all relevant material for the course.
Please look in the Lecture folder (the other ones wont be used)!
All on Moodle (classes, data, material, assignment, solutions)!
Late Work!
3 hours to 3 days after due date: 20% Penalty!
After 3 days I will post solutions on Moodle and will not accept solutions anymore. !
Attendance!
Students need to sign attendance sheets sometimes during class.

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Assessment Criteria

Component,
Category
Percentage

Assignments 45%

Final4Exam 53%

Pre9exam 2%

100%

Grade normalization, upgrades, or rounding at my own discretion

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Lecture & Labs Schedule
Week Dates Lecture Tutorials
1 13-14 Sept Introduction - ch1 Vectors and phasors - ch1+3
2 20-21 Sept Transmission lines - ch2 Transmission lines

3 27-28 Sept Smith chart - ch2 Smith Chart

4 4-5 Oct Electrostatics - ch4 Electrostatics


5 11-12 Oct Magnetostatics - ch5 Magnetostatics
6 18-19 Oct Time varying fields - ch6 Time varying fields
7 25-26 Oct Plane waves - ch7 Plane waves
8 1-2 Nov Wave reflection and transmission - ch8 Wave RX/TX
9 8-9 Nov Waveguides and resonators - ch8 Waveguides/resonators
10 15-16 Nov Electromagnetic applications
11 22-23 Nov Review Review

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Electromagnetics Labs

Assignments
Lab Grading

Component Descrip5on

Ass.41 Transmission4lines4and4Smith4chart

Ass.42 ElectrostaDc4and4MagnetostaDc

Ass.43 Smartphone4measurements

Ass.44 Plane4waves,4reecDons4and4transmissions

Ass.45 Review

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Assignment rules

A total of 5 assignments is set for the course. Each assignment will be scored 0-100 and
has equal weight.!
All assignments will be done in groups of 3 students (51 students/3 = 17 groups).
Arbitrary group selection. Same group for all assignments.!
Form groups and email the 3 students on each group to TA by Wed 20 Sept, 11 AM.!
Of the 5 assignments, only the 4 best scores will be considered. E.g. if the scores are
80/100, 50/100, 25/100, 60/100, 100/100 the total score will be (80+50+60+100)/4= 72.5!
All assignments must be submitted on Moodle only by the deadline. One student per
group will submit all relevant files, including all Matlab files, in a file called
StudentA_StudentB_StudentC.zip (or .rar)!
Some assignments are based on measurements or on a random generator, so results
must be different.!
Penalty for late submissions apply, and deadlines will not be shifted no matter what.!
After 3 days, solutions will be given for each assignment that requires so. Appeals for
grades in assignment apply only when solutions are wrong (check always) or when
some grade is missing for any reason. In this case, email.

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Cheating

Assignments are group-based, and each group must work individually.!


Two identical measurement results between two reports: both groups get zero.!
Two Matlab codes with all the same variable names: both groups get zero.!
Two random generators yielding the same result: both groups get zero.!
Two groups make the same calculation mistake: both groups get zero.

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Quality of reports

When drawing in Matlab, it is better to save figures in .eps (or .pdf), or at least in .tiff!
Use font size > 18 and line width >= 2!
Always use correct units of measurement

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Why Study Electromagnetics?
Why Study Electromagnetics?

Information
Generation
Modulation or
Coding

Carrier Wave

Channel
(Wireless or Wire)

Signal
Processing

Display or
Collector

EM Waves are Everywhere & Form the EM Waves Carry Information


Foundations of EEE about Everything in the Universe

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Introduction

Best Equations of 19th Century!


Maxwells equations were formulated around 1870!
Fundamental unification of electric and magnetic fields!
Considered the most outstanding achievement of the 19th century!
Why study EM in the 21st Century?!
In the 20th century, military defense was primary motivator!
In 21st century. almost ALL circuits (digital & analog) are distributed!
Traditional Kirchhoff's laws of lumped circuits are no longer valid!
High-speed digital and analog communications and computing!
Circuits and interconnects are no longer electrically small!
Engineers & Scientists now use computers to solve these equations!
Using computers (Matlab/C++) is a basic requirement in this course

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Military Defense Applications

World War 2!
Electromagnetics primarily used for
defense and were critical to the survival
of England and subsequent final victory !
UHF for long distance communications!
Microwave radar technologies for aircraft
detection!
Proximity Fuses for remote detonation!
Post World War 2!
Radar technologies critical for early
warning systems for nuclear weapons and
stealth aircraft!
RF Jamming countermeasures to evade
Radar

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RADAR

Wide range of Electromagnetic technologies!


Radar Site: Microwave sources, circuits, waveguides, and antenna!
Generate, transport, radiate, and receive EM waves!
Anti-Radar!
Requires deep understanding of electromagnetic scattering, backscattering, RF jamming!
Special materials and structure-shaping technologies for stealth aircraft

Simulated electric currents on a military jet fighter illuminated


by a radar beam at 100 MHz: Places with high current density
re-radiate EM energy that is detected by radar.
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High-Speed Electronics

Analog Microwave Circuits!


Processing of bandpass signals at frequencies above 700
MHz--transmission lines, couplers, circulators, filters,
matching networks, and antennas. Circuit operation is
fundamentally based on EM wave phenomena!
What about Digital Circuits?!
Is circuit operation based on EM wave phenomena?!
Can we use Traditional Kirchoffs Laws for Analysis?

The bedrock of introductory circuit analysis, Kirchoffs current and voltage laws, need to be
modified for most contemporary high-speed circuits. These must be analyzed using
electromagnetic field theory. Signal power flows are not confined to the intended metal wires
or circuit paths.

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Imaging the Human Body

Imaging of human body!


Maxwells equations solutions of the interaction of
EM waves with complicated material geometries!
Medical Imaging:!
Magnetic Resonance Imaging: EM waves between
12-120 MHz used to detect hydrogen inside human
tissues!
Spectrographic MRI: Detect sodium and glucose
concentrations inside human tissues!
Computational Tomography: Three dimensional X-
Rays!
Tumor detection: Uses backscattered microwaves to
detect tumor inside breast (much safer than existing
X-Ray mammograms)

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In-fiber SPR
SPR: surface plasmon resonance!
When an evanescent wave propagating in a thin
metallic film matches (resonates) with the wave
propagating at the boundary of a dielectric/
conductor bond (glass/metal)!
The resonance condition chances according to
the surrounding layer (refractive index)!
Biosensors!
If we functionalize a dielectric, such as a glass
or plastic fiber, with bioreceptors (green), we
can make a biosensor!
Bioreceptors catch cells under analysis (red),
which alter the SPR conditions!
Turning chemical labs into fibers: http://
spectrum.ieee.org/biomedical/devices/how-
were-shrinking-chemical-labs-onto-optical-
fibers

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What is Electromagnetics?
Fundamental Forces of Nature

Nuclear Force: Strength = 1!


Strongest of the four forces!
Range limited to subatomic scales (nuclei)!
Electromagnetic Force: Strength = 10-2!
Exists between all charged particles!
Range is dominant in microscopic systems (atoms and molecules)!
Weak-interaction Force: Strength = 10-14!
Interactions involving radioactive elementary particles!
Gravitational Force: Strength = 10-41!
Weakest of the four forces!
Range in dominant in macroscopic systems (solar system, galaxies, black holes)

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Electric & Magnetic Fields
Electric Field Flux
What is a field?!
Any physical quantity that has different values at
different points in space!
Scalar field: Temperature!
Velocity field: Flowing Liquid!
Vector field: Electromagnetics!
Field has a net outward flow (or flux)!
Flux = (average normal component) x
(surface area)! Magnetic Field Circulation
Field circulates around some loop!
Circulation = (average tangential component)
x (distance around)!
Flux and Circulation can describe all
Electromagnetic laws

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Electromagnetic Laws

First Law: Flux of Electric Field!


Flux of E through any closed surface = (the net charge inside)/(dielectric constant)!
Second Law: Circulation of Electric Field!
Circulation of E around C = d/dt(flux of B through S)!
For any surface S (not closed) whose edge is curve C!
Third Law: Flux of Magnetic Field!
Flux of B through any closed surface = 0!
Fourth Law: Circulation of the Magnetic Field!
c2(circulation of B around C) = d/dt(flux of E through S)
+ (flux of electric current through S)/(dielectric constant)!
c2: Shows that magnetism is a relativistic effect of electricity

The rest of the course is the derivation and application of


these four laws

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Gravitational Forces & Fields

Force exerted on mass 2 by mass 1

Gm1m2
Fg12 = R12 2
(Newtons)
R12

Fg12 = 1m2

Gm1
1 = R 2 (N / kg)
R

Gravitational field induced by mass 1

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Electrical Forces

Coulombs Experiments!
Two like charges repel each other; two
charges of opposite polarity attract each
other!
The force acts along the line joining the
charges!
The strength is proportional to the product
of the magnitudes of the two charges and
inversely proportional to the square of the
distance between them

Force exerted on charge 2 by charge 1

q1q2
Fe12 = R12 (Newtons)
4 0 R12
2

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Electric Field in Free Space

If any point charge q is present in an


electric field E (due to other charges),
the point charge will experience a force
acting on it equal to Fe = qE

q
E = R (V / m)
4 0 R 2

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0 = 8.854 10 (F / m)
= Permittivity of free space

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Electric Field inside Material

Polarization of atoms change the


electric field (replace 0 with )

q
E = R (V / m)
4 R 2

= Permittivity of material

Electric flux density in a material

D = E (Coulombs / m ) 2

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Magnetic Field

Electric charges/fields can be isolated; magnetic poles always come in pairs

Magnetic field induced by a current in a long wire

0 I
B = (Tesla)
2 r
0 = 4 10 7 (H / m)
= Magnetic permeability of free space

Electric & Magnetic fields are connected through the


speed of light Right-Hand Rule
1
c= = 2.99 10 8 (m / s)
00

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Static vs. Dynamic

Static conditions: charges are stationary or moving at


constant velocity
Three Branches of Electromagnetics

Branch Condition Field Quantities (Units)

Electrostatics Stationary Charges Electric field intensity E (V/m)


q/t = 0 Electric flux density
D = E

Magnetostatics Steady Currents Magnetic field intensity H (A/m)


I/t = 0 Magnetic flux density B (T)
B = H

Dynamics Time-Varying Currents E, D, B, and H


(Time-Varying Fields) I/t 0 (E, D) coupled to (B, H)

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Constitutive parameters of materials

Parameter Units Free-space value

Electrical permittivity F/m 0

Magnetic permeability H/m 0

Conductivity S/m 0 for dielectric


for conductor

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Electromagnetic Waves
Traveling Waves
Waves carry energy!
Waves have velocity!
Many waves are linear: they do not affect the passage of other waves & pass through them!
!
Transient waves: caused by a sudden disturbance!
Continuous periodic waves: repetitive source

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Sinusoidal Waves in Lossless Media

A medium is lossless if it does not attenuate the wave


amplitude of the wave traveling inside or on its surface

2 t 2 x
y(x,t) = A cos + 0 (m)
T
y = height of wave
x = distance
A = amplitude of wave
T = time period
= spatial wavelength
0 = reference phase

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Phase Velocity

y(x,t) = A cos (x,t) (m),


where
2 t 2 x
(x,t) = + 0 (radians)
T

Select a fixed height (y0) and track its position


and speed, then:

2 t 2 x
y0 = y(x,t) = A cos
T
2 t 2 x 1 y0
= cos = constant
T A
2 2 dx
=0
T dt
dx
up = = (m / s)
dt T
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Wave Frequency & Period

The frequency of a sinusoidal wave, f, is


the inverse of its time period T:
1 2 t 2 x
f= (Hz) y(x,t) = A cos + 0
T T
2
= A cos 2 ft x

1
f= & up = up = f = A cos( t x)
T T

Angular Velocity = 2 f (rad / s)


(radian frequency)
2
Phase Constant = (rad / m)
(wavenumber)

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Direction of Wave Travel

y(x,t) = A cos ( t x ) Wave traveling in +x direction

y(x,t) = A cos ( t + x ) Wave traveling in -x direction

+x direction: if coefficients of t and x have opposite signs

-x direction: if coefficients of t and x have same signs

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Phase Lead and Lag

y(x,t) = A cos ( t x + 0 )

+: Phase lead in time

-: Phase lag in time

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Wave Travel in Lossy Media

y(x,t) = Ae x
cos ( t x + 0 )

Attenuation factor

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Example: Sound Wave in Water
Given: Sinusoidal sound wave in + x-direction in water
Wave Amplitude: A=10 N/m2
max(p(x,t)) at t = 0; x = 0.25 m
f = 1 kHz, up = 1.5 km/s
Solve: p(x, t)
max(p(x,t))2at2t2=20;2x2=20.252m

2 2 p(0.25,0) = 10 (N / m 2 ),
1 p(x,t) = A cos t x + 0 (N / m 2 )
f= T
T 4
2 10 = 10 cos 0.25 + 0
3
up = = 10 cos 2 [ f = 10 ]t
3
+ 0
T 1.5

=
up
4 = 10 cos + 0
3
f = 10 cos 2 10 3 t x + 0
3
(0 / 3) = cos 1 (10 /10)
0 = / 3

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p(x,t) = 10 cos 2 10 3 t x + (N / m 2 )
3 3

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Example: Lasers
Given: E-field of a Laser beam traveling
through atmosphere (x is distance from
source in meters) & attenuation is due to E(x,t) = 150e 0.03x
cos(3 1015
t 10)7
x (V / m)
absorption by atmospheric gases:
Solve: a) Direction of wave travel; b) the wave velocity; and c) the wave amplitude at x = 200 m

a) Direction of wave travel: x and t have opposite signs, so wave traveling in +x direction


b) Wave velocity: u p =

3 1015 c: velocity of light in free space
=
10 7
= 3 10 8 (m / s)

b) Wave amplitude (x = 200m): A = 150e0.03[ x=200] = 0.37 (V / m)

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The Electromagnetic Spectrum

c
=
f

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Wavelength

c
= [m]2
f
Physical dimension of the wave

Question: is this table flat?


Question 2: is this table flat?
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Numerical Analysis
Matlab Basics Review
Matlab Files!
Naming Conventions!
xxxx.m: Matlab File!
fnxxxx.m: Function File!
Variables: Variable Type + Name of Variable:!
intInteger; dblDouble; boBoolean; strStructure; arArray;
vcVector; scScalar!
Help: >> help topic!
Semicolons:!
Use ; after each statement to hide output!
No ; displays output of command (good for debugging)!
Plots/graphs!
Always label and use titles; grid on preferred!
Linewidth, marker type, to distinguish. Increase font!
Matlab Architecture!
Vector Notation (Try to design programs that use vector notation)!
Much faster than index notation {for m = 1:step:N}!
Capital Letters indicate vectors!
Lower case Letters indicate scalars

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Vector notation
Example!
I want to plot sin(2*pi*x*y), x,y ranging from -1 to 1

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Matlab Vector Operations

vcA = [A1 A2 A3];


vcB = [B1 B2 B3];
vcC = [C1 C2 C3];
vcRange = [-N:step:N];
!
vcAdd = vcA + vcB;
vcSub = vcA - vcB;
vcIdxMult = vcA .* vcB;
vcIdxPowers = vcA.^2;
!
scDot = dot(vcA,vcB);
scCross = cross(vcA,vcB);
!
scV = dot(vcC, cross(vcA,vcB));
!
[Dx Dy Dz] = gradient(vcA);

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Matlab Graphical Analysis

plot
quiver
quiver3
meshgrid
contour
surf
polar
!
subplot
title
axis
grid on
xlabel, ylabel, zlabel
hold on, hold off

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Matlab Graphical Analysis

Indicate units on each chart:


s = seconds, S = siemens
ms = milliseconds, Ms = Megaseconds
kHz = kiloHertz, KHz = Kelvin * Hz
kg = kilograms, Kg = Kelvin * grams
Fm = Farad*meters, F/m = farad/meter
nm = nanometers; Nm = Newton*meters
!
k = 1e3; M = 1e6; G = 1e9; T = 1e12
m = 1e-3; = 1e-6; n = 1e-9; p = 1e-12
!
Note: \mu = ; \Delta = ; \Lambda = lambda =

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Matlab Coordinate Systems

Transforma5on Equa5ons Matlab

y
Cartesian2to2Cylindrical r = x 2 + y 2 ; = tan 1 ; z = z [phi,r,z]=cart2pol(x,y,z)
x

y
= x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ; = tan 1
x
[phi,psi,rho]=cart2sph(x,y,z)
Cartesian2to2Spherical
x 2
+ y 2 (psi = pi/2 - theta)
= tan 1
z

Cylindrical2to2Cartesian x = r cos ; y = r sin ; z = z [x,y,z]=pol2cart(phi,r,z)

x = sin cos ; y = sin sin [x,y,z]=sph2cart(phi,psi,rho)


Spherical2to2Cartesian
z = cos (psi = pi/2 - theta)

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Summary
Homework & Review

Matlab!
Either get the student edition of Matlab from T.A. or find a computer lab with Matlab!
Alternatives, open source: freemat, octave, scilab (my favourite)!
Homework!
Chapter 1: 1.1, 1.2, 1.9, 1.16, 1.21, 1.29

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Lecture 1 Summary

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