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Electromagnetics 1

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Lecture 1

1. About lecturer

2. Course Structure

2. Why Study EM?

3. Introduction to EM

Electromagnetics Class

About lecturer

Daniele Tosi

Specialist of optical fiber sensors and optical devices. Since 2012, mainly focusing on

biomedical optics!

Research interests: biophysical fiber optic sensors (thermo-therapies, cardiovascular

urology, gastroscopy, cancer care); optical biosensors; fiber lasers for thermal

ablation; lab-in-a-fiber and its signal processing; sensors for smartphones.!

10 years of experience in academia (Italy, US, Australia, Ireland) and industry (UK)!

Currently leading the Biosensors lab at NLA!

At NU since 2014!

Published 32 journal papers and 51 international conference papers, 14/19 since 2014

when I joined NU!

Associate Editor of IEEE Sensors Journal!

Technical program committee of IEEE international conferences (Sensors 2017,

MeMeA 2016/17, ICPRE 2016). !

You can follow my research profile on ResearchGate, Scopus, Scholar

3

Electromagnetics Class

Course Structure

Text Book

5

Assessed Learning Outcomes

Maxwells Equations!

Understand and explain differential and integral forms of Maxwells equations and

boundary conditions!

How to solve these problems using Matlab and math!

Time-Varying Electromagnetic Fields!

Understand and explain time-varying fields and EM wave propagation!

How to solve these problems using Matlab and math!

Transmission Line!

Understand and explain transmission line theory and Smith Charts for solving

impedance matching networks!

How to solve these problems using Matlab and math!

Application of Electromagnetics!

Apply electromagnetics to problems in different fields

6

What is Needed?

Math!

Phasors!

Vector Algebra & Calculus!

Differential Equations!

Programming Skills!

Matlab!

Matlab!

Matlab

7

Class Information

Professor & TA Email:!

Professor: daniele.tosi@nu.edu.kz, office 3e.565!

T.A.: Diana Sadykova, dyana.sadykova@nu.edu.kz!

In the Subject, state the following: Course Number, Student Name, and Issue!

Moodle:!

I will post class updates, assignments, lab materials, and all relevant material for the course.

Please look in the Lecture folder (the other ones wont be used)!

All on Moodle (classes, data, material, assignment, solutions)!

Late Work!

3 hours to 3 days after due date: 20% Penalty!

After 3 days I will post solutions on Moodle and will not accept solutions anymore. !

Attendance!

Students need to sign attendance sheets sometimes during class.

8

Assessment Criteria

Component,

Category

Percentage

Assignments 45%

Final4Exam 53%

Pre9exam 2%

100%

9

Lecture & Labs Schedule

Week Dates Lecture Tutorials

1 13-14 Sept Introduction - ch1 Vectors and phasors - ch1+3

2 20-21 Sept Transmission lines - ch2 Transmission lines

5 11-12 Oct Magnetostatics - ch5 Magnetostatics

6 18-19 Oct Time varying fields - ch6 Time varying fields

7 25-26 Oct Plane waves - ch7 Plane waves

8 1-2 Nov Wave reflection and transmission - ch8 Wave RX/TX

9 8-9 Nov Waveguides and resonators - ch8 Waveguides/resonators

10 15-16 Nov Electromagnetic applications

11 22-23 Nov Review Review

10

Electromagnetics Labs

Assignments

Lab Grading

Component Descrip5on

Ass.41 Transmission4lines4and4Smith4chart

Ass.42 ElectrostaDc4and4MagnetostaDc

Ass.43 Smartphone4measurements

Ass.44 Plane4waves,4reecDons4and4transmissions

Ass.45 Review

12

Assignment rules

A total of 5 assignments is set for the course. Each assignment will be scored 0-100 and

has equal weight.!

All assignments will be done in groups of 3 students (51 students/3 = 17 groups).

Arbitrary group selection. Same group for all assignments.!

Form groups and email the 3 students on each group to TA by Wed 20 Sept, 11 AM.!

Of the 5 assignments, only the 4 best scores will be considered. E.g. if the scores are

80/100, 50/100, 25/100, 60/100, 100/100 the total score will be (80+50+60+100)/4= 72.5!

All assignments must be submitted on Moodle only by the deadline. One student per

group will submit all relevant files, including all Matlab files, in a file called

StudentA_StudentB_StudentC.zip (or .rar)!

Some assignments are based on measurements or on a random generator, so results

must be different.!

Penalty for late submissions apply, and deadlines will not be shifted no matter what.!

After 3 days, solutions will be given for each assignment that requires so. Appeals for

grades in assignment apply only when solutions are wrong (check always) or when

some grade is missing for any reason. In this case, email.

13

Cheating

Two identical measurement results between two reports: both groups get zero.!

Two Matlab codes with all the same variable names: both groups get zero.!

Two random generators yielding the same result: both groups get zero.!

Two groups make the same calculation mistake: both groups get zero.

14

Quality of reports

When drawing in Matlab, it is better to save figures in .eps (or .pdf), or at least in .tiff!

Use font size > 18 and line width >= 2!

Always use correct units of measurement

15

Why Study Electromagnetics?

Why Study Electromagnetics?

Information

Generation

Modulation or

Coding

Carrier Wave

Channel

(Wireless or Wire)

Signal

Processing

Display or

Collector

Foundations of EEE about Everything in the Universe

17

Introduction

Maxwells equations were formulated around 1870!

Fundamental unification of electric and magnetic fields!

Considered the most outstanding achievement of the 19th century!

Why study EM in the 21st Century?!

In the 20th century, military defense was primary motivator!

In 21st century. almost ALL circuits (digital & analog) are distributed!

Traditional Kirchhoff's laws of lumped circuits are no longer valid!

High-speed digital and analog communications and computing!

Circuits and interconnects are no longer electrically small!

Engineers & Scientists now use computers to solve these equations!

Using computers (Matlab/C++) is a basic requirement in this course

18

Military Defense Applications

World War 2!

Electromagnetics primarily used for

defense and were critical to the survival

of England and subsequent final victory !

UHF for long distance communications!

Microwave radar technologies for aircraft

detection!

Proximity Fuses for remote detonation!

Post World War 2!

Radar technologies critical for early

warning systems for nuclear weapons and

stealth aircraft!

RF Jamming countermeasures to evade

Radar

19

RADAR

Radar Site: Microwave sources, circuits, waveguides, and antenna!

Generate, transport, radiate, and receive EM waves!

Anti-Radar!

Requires deep understanding of electromagnetic scattering, backscattering, RF jamming!

Special materials and structure-shaping technologies for stealth aircraft

by a radar beam at 100 MHz: Places with high current density

re-radiate EM energy that is detected by radar.

20

High-Speed Electronics

Processing of bandpass signals at frequencies above 700

MHz--transmission lines, couplers, circulators, filters,

matching networks, and antennas. Circuit operation is

fundamentally based on EM wave phenomena!

What about Digital Circuits?!

Is circuit operation based on EM wave phenomena?!

Can we use Traditional Kirchoffs Laws for Analysis?

The bedrock of introductory circuit analysis, Kirchoffs current and voltage laws, need to be

modified for most contemporary high-speed circuits. These must be analyzed using

electromagnetic field theory. Signal power flows are not confined to the intended metal wires

or circuit paths.

21

Imaging the Human Body

Maxwells equations solutions of the interaction of

EM waves with complicated material geometries!

Medical Imaging:!

Magnetic Resonance Imaging: EM waves between

12-120 MHz used to detect hydrogen inside human

tissues!

Spectrographic MRI: Detect sodium and glucose

concentrations inside human tissues!

Computational Tomography: Three dimensional X-

Rays!

Tumor detection: Uses backscattered microwaves to

detect tumor inside breast (much safer than existing

X-Ray mammograms)

22

In-fiber SPR

SPR: surface plasmon resonance!

When an evanescent wave propagating in a thin

metallic film matches (resonates) with the wave

propagating at the boundary of a dielectric/

conductor bond (glass/metal)!

The resonance condition chances according to

the surrounding layer (refractive index)!

Biosensors!

If we functionalize a dielectric, such as a glass

or plastic fiber, with bioreceptors (green), we

can make a biosensor!

Bioreceptors catch cells under analysis (red),

which alter the SPR conditions!

Turning chemical labs into fibers: http://

spectrum.ieee.org/biomedical/devices/how-

were-shrinking-chemical-labs-onto-optical-

fibers

23

What is Electromagnetics?

Fundamental Forces of Nature

Strongest of the four forces!

Range limited to subatomic scales (nuclei)!

Electromagnetic Force: Strength = 10-2!

Exists between all charged particles!

Range is dominant in microscopic systems (atoms and molecules)!

Weak-interaction Force: Strength = 10-14!

Interactions involving radioactive elementary particles!

Gravitational Force: Strength = 10-41!

Weakest of the four forces!

Range in dominant in macroscopic systems (solar system, galaxies, black holes)

25

Electric & Magnetic Fields

Electric Field Flux

What is a field?!

Any physical quantity that has different values at

different points in space!

Scalar field: Temperature!

Velocity field: Flowing Liquid!

Vector field: Electromagnetics!

Field has a net outward flow (or flux)!

Flux = (average normal component) x

(surface area)! Magnetic Field Circulation

Field circulates around some loop!

Circulation = (average tangential component)

x (distance around)!

Flux and Circulation can describe all

Electromagnetic laws

26

Electromagnetic Laws

Flux of E through any closed surface = (the net charge inside)/(dielectric constant)!

Second Law: Circulation of Electric Field!

Circulation of E around C = d/dt(flux of B through S)!

For any surface S (not closed) whose edge is curve C!

Third Law: Flux of Magnetic Field!

Flux of B through any closed surface = 0!

Fourth Law: Circulation of the Magnetic Field!

c2(circulation of B around C) = d/dt(flux of E through S)

+ (flux of electric current through S)/(dielectric constant)!

c2: Shows that magnetism is a relativistic effect of electricity

these four laws

27

Gravitational Forces & Fields

Gm1m2

Fg12 = R12 2

(Newtons)

R12

Fg12 = 1m2

Gm1

1 = R 2 (N / kg)

R

28

Electrical Forces

Coulombs Experiments!

Two like charges repel each other; two

charges of opposite polarity attract each

other!

The force acts along the line joining the

charges!

The strength is proportional to the product

of the magnitudes of the two charges and

inversely proportional to the square of the

distance between them

q1q2

Fe12 = R12 (Newtons)

4 0 R12

2

29

Electric Field in Free Space

electric field E (due to other charges),

the point charge will experience a force

acting on it equal to Fe = qE

q

E = R (V / m)

4 0 R 2

12

0 = 8.854 10 (F / m)

= Permittivity of free space

30

Electric Field inside Material

electric field (replace 0 with )

q

E = R (V / m)

4 R 2

= Permittivity of material

D = E (Coulombs / m ) 2

31

Magnetic Field

0 I

B = (Tesla)

2 r

0 = 4 10 7 (H / m)

= Magnetic permeability of free space

speed of light Right-Hand Rule

1

c= = 2.99 10 8 (m / s)

00

32

Static vs. Dynamic

constant velocity

Three Branches of Electromagnetics

q/t = 0 Electric flux density

D = E

I/t = 0 Magnetic flux density B (T)

B = H

(Time-Varying Fields) I/t 0 (E, D) coupled to (B, H)

33

Constitutive parameters of materials

for conductor

34

Electromagnetic Waves

Traveling Waves

Waves carry energy!

Waves have velocity!

Many waves are linear: they do not affect the passage of other waves & pass through them!

!

Transient waves: caused by a sudden disturbance!

Continuous periodic waves: repetitive source

36

Sinusoidal Waves in Lossless Media

amplitude of the wave traveling inside or on its surface

2 t 2 x

y(x,t) = A cos + 0 (m)

T

y = height of wave

x = distance

A = amplitude of wave

T = time period

= spatial wavelength

0 = reference phase

37

Phase Velocity

where

2 t 2 x

(x,t) = + 0 (radians)

T

and speed, then:

2 t 2 x

y0 = y(x,t) = A cos

T

2 t 2 x 1 y0

= cos = constant

T A

2 2 dx

=0

T dt

dx

up = = (m / s)

dt T

38

Wave Frequency & Period

the inverse of its time period T:

1 2 t 2 x

f= (Hz) y(x,t) = A cos + 0

T T

2

= A cos 2 ft x

1

f= & up = up = f = A cos( t x)

T T

(radian frequency)

2

Phase Constant = (rad / m)

(wavenumber)

39

Direction of Wave Travel

40

Phase Lead and Lag

y(x,t) = A cos ( t x + 0 )

41

Wave Travel in Lossy Media

y(x,t) = Ae x

cos ( t x + 0 )

Attenuation factor

42

Example: Sound Wave in Water

Given: Sinusoidal sound wave in + x-direction in water

Wave Amplitude: A=10 N/m2

max(p(x,t)) at t = 0; x = 0.25 m

f = 1 kHz, up = 1.5 km/s

Solve: p(x, t)

max(p(x,t))2at2t2=20;2x2=20.252m

2 2 p(0.25,0) = 10 (N / m 2 ),

1 p(x,t) = A cos t x + 0 (N / m 2 )

f= T

T 4

2 10 = 10 cos 0.25 + 0

3

up = = 10 cos 2 [ f = 10 ]t

3

+ 0

T 1.5

=

up

4 = 10 cos + 0

3

f = 10 cos 2 10 3 t x + 0

3

(0 / 3) = cos 1 (10 /10)

0 = / 3

4

p(x,t) = 10 cos 2 10 3 t x + (N / m 2 )

3 3

43

Example: Lasers

Given: E-field of a Laser beam traveling

through atmosphere (x is distance from

source in meters) & attenuation is due to E(x,t) = 150e 0.03x

cos(3 1015

t 10)7

x (V / m)

absorption by atmospheric gases:

Solve: a) Direction of wave travel; b) the wave velocity; and c) the wave amplitude at x = 200 m

a) Direction of wave travel: x and t have opposite signs, so wave traveling in +x direction

b) Wave velocity: u p =

3 1015 c: velocity of light in free space

=

10 7

= 3 10 8 (m / s)

44

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

c

=

f

45

Wavelength

c

= [m]2

f

Physical dimension of the wave

Question 2: is this table flat?

46

Numerical Analysis

Matlab Basics Review

Matlab Files!

Naming Conventions!

xxxx.m: Matlab File!

fnxxxx.m: Function File!

Variables: Variable Type + Name of Variable:!

intInteger; dblDouble; boBoolean; strStructure; arArray;

vcVector; scScalar!

Help: >> help topic!

Semicolons:!

Use ; after each statement to hide output!

No ; displays output of command (good for debugging)!

Plots/graphs!

Always label and use titles; grid on preferred!

Linewidth, marker type, to distinguish. Increase font!

Matlab Architecture!

Vector Notation (Try to design programs that use vector notation)!

Much faster than index notation {for m = 1:step:N}!

Capital Letters indicate vectors!

Lower case Letters indicate scalars

48

Vector notation

Example!

I want to plot sin(2*pi*x*y), x,y ranging from -1 to 1

49

Matlab Vector Operations

vcB = [B1 B2 B3];

vcC = [C1 C2 C3];

vcRange = [-N:step:N];

!

vcAdd = vcA + vcB;

vcSub = vcA - vcB;

vcIdxMult = vcA .* vcB;

vcIdxPowers = vcA.^2;

!

scDot = dot(vcA,vcB);

scCross = cross(vcA,vcB);

!

scV = dot(vcC, cross(vcA,vcB));

!

[Dx Dy Dz] = gradient(vcA);

50

Matlab Graphical Analysis

plot

quiver

quiver3

meshgrid

contour

surf

polar

!

subplot

title

axis

grid on

xlabel, ylabel, zlabel

hold on, hold off

51

Matlab Graphical Analysis

s = seconds, S = siemens

ms = milliseconds, Ms = Megaseconds

kHz = kiloHertz, KHz = Kelvin * Hz

kg = kilograms, Kg = Kelvin * grams

Fm = Farad*meters, F/m = farad/meter

nm = nanometers; Nm = Newton*meters

!

k = 1e3; M = 1e6; G = 1e9; T = 1e12

m = 1e-3; = 1e-6; n = 1e-9; p = 1e-12

!

Note: \mu = ; \Delta = ; \Lambda = lambda =

52

Matlab Coordinate Systems

y

Cartesian2to2Cylindrical r = x 2 + y 2 ; = tan 1 ; z = z [phi,r,z]=cart2pol(x,y,z)

x

y

= x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ; = tan 1

x

[phi,psi,rho]=cart2sph(x,y,z)

Cartesian2to2Spherical

x 2

+ y 2 (psi = pi/2 - theta)

= tan 1

z

Spherical2to2Cartesian

z = cos (psi = pi/2 - theta)

53

Summary

Homework & Review

Matlab!

Either get the student edition of Matlab from T.A. or find a computer lab with Matlab!

Alternatives, open source: freemat, octave, scilab (my favourite)!

Homework!

Chapter 1: 1.1, 1.2, 1.9, 1.16, 1.21, 1.29

55

Lecture 1 Summary

56

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