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SLIDING MODE POSITION CONTROL OF A DC MOTOR

P.

Feller and U.

Benz

Sll'iss F t d tm l I lIS t it utt 0/ T I'c //I /II /o g:r.

IlId ust rill l EII ,ttro llies L Ii !Jora /ol\'.

16.

ch.

di' B l'l ll' lI i' l' . ClI-IOO;

l.r il il W /lIi ' . S 1l' it: t r/iilli/

Abstract.

The sliding mode cont.rol

is applied t.o t.he posit.ion cont.rol of

a

DC drive.

The variable structure

is realized

by

t.he

commut.ation

of

the

command device according to

a

e,tate

variables

feedback

 

strategy.

The

definition of an equivalent command variable allow s

 

t.o

determine

th e

existence c onditions and t.he domain of t.he sliding mode

in t.he

stat.e space.

The parameter design of the controller

a

poles assigT~ent

method.

The practical

application to a

is computed by ition control

po s

of

a

DC drive

shows

that it is also possible t o limit the int e rnal variables ( current and

speed) .

. Position Control . Controll e d El ec t. r ical Driv e s.

SI iding Mode Control.

~:tat.e Variables Feeclbacl\ , Pol e

DC Dri ve s

Ass

1 gnment ,

I NTRODUCTI ON

of

the

C'orr,mand

u cm

at

high

frequency

in

the s liding mode.

 

The sliding mode control

is a particular

 

operation

 

mode of variable

structure control sy s tem s

 

(Utkin .

The development s

 

i n s witchin g power

d ev

ices

allow

1977). Two commutati on

pr incipl e~, ba~,ed

on

state

t. o use advantageously their own commutati on

variables feedback can be put in evidence.

In

the

properties to define the variable structure

first case, the variable structure is

realized

by

( Fig. 2). A commutation

strategy S(K)

based

on

a

the commutation between two different s tate variables feedbacks according to the c ommutati on

state variables feedback determines the the command device.

state

of

strategy S( K ) (Fig. 1).

 

In

this

context . a pUlsation voltage converter

can

be

us ed

a

DC

motor (Sabanovic,

1983 )

and

a

 

\

.

3-pha ,,'e

motor

to feed pul s a tio

n

in v erter

to

feed

an

inductlOn

 

( Bilalovic

,

1983).

U max

U min

oc

u

s

y

Fig.

1.

Control with a variable structure depending

 

on

the

commutation

of

state

variables

feedbacks.

 

This method has the disadvantage to hardly

solicit

the command device because of the

jump

variations

Fig . 2. Control with a variable structure depending

on the

commutation of a

switching

command

device.

P. Feller and C. HellZ SLIDING MODE CONTROL WITH STATE between u ma )! and u
P. Feller and
C.
HellZ
SLIDING MODE CONTROL WITH STATE
between u ma )! and u min according to the
commutation
VARIABLES FEEDBACK
strategy s(~)
Commutation strategy
u
for
s(.?!.)
> 0
(6)
Figure
3
~,hows the
variable
structure
with
a
u
,
0
for s(~)
switching command device and a commutation strategy
based on a state variables feedback with
integrator
regulator.
v
For the theoretical description.
we assume t.hat.
in
the sliding mode.
the command variable
u
switches
y
between u ma )! and
u min at.
an
infinite
frequency.
In
~~~~
that. case,
the working point describes a trajectory
on the commutat.ion hyperplane
given
by
s(.?!.)
= O.
Therefore. S(.?!.)
O.
From (1)
to
(4)
we obt.ain
(7)
w o-- -------[K,.,)-~O{)---_{
..
At. infinite
frequency,
the command variable
u
can
be replaced by
its rnean value ueG'
t.he
equivalent
command variable,
which
is
a
continuous
variable.
By
(7)
we
can
write
(Buhler.
1986 )
Fig.
3.
Basic
structure
with
state
variables
feedback and integrator regulat.or.
(8 )
+
b
v
+
b
w)
-v
-w
Similarly to the
state
control.
the
cornmutat.ion
strategy is given by
kTg
-t
0
is
a necessary
condit.ion
for
t.he
sliding
mode existence,
With
this
interpretation.
the
(1)
condition for t.he appearance of t.he sliding mode is
where
(9)
)(
-s
(2)
Introducing
(8)
the
state
equation
(4),
we
lTJ
with
.?!.S
the
state
vector
of
the · system
to
be
obtain the state equation in slidIng mode
controlled S and )!R a stat.e variable describing t.he

int.egrat.or regulat.or R by

T.

1.

(\1

-

y)

(3)

Ti

is t.he integrator regulator time constant and

y

the out.put. variable of the system to be controlled.

The

row-vector

.1s T

in

(1)

contains

the

feedback coefficients and kw is

t.he

state

direct

intervent.ion coefficient. of t.he reference

variable

w.

The system to be controlled can be described by

st.at.e equations

its

.?!.

~.?!. + Q u + ~v + ~w

(4 )

y = ~T.?!.

(5)

where v is the disturbance variable of

to

be

controll ed.

The command variable

the

system

u

switches

~

~*.?!. +

b*

-Vv

*

+ ~w

+

Q

*.

jw

..

with

*

A

*

b

-v

b

*

-w

(1

(1

( 1

1

kTb

E ~

T)

12

1

kTb

b

~T) Ev

1

kTb

b

~T)

b

--w

*

b.

-w

k

w

b

kTb

(10)

(11)

The matrix ~*

dependence of

s(.?!.)

= O.

is singular

the

state

because

variables

of

the

linear

introduced

by

Poles assignment

Contro l of a DC tltolor

335

For continuous or' sampling state controller design, the state feedback coefficients can be determined by a
For continuous or' sampling state controller design,
the state feedback coefficients can be determined
by a poles assignment method (Ackermann. 1977:
The sliding
mode
does
not
exist
on
the
whole
commutation hyperplane s(~) = O.
The
sliding
mode
domain is limited by u eq = u lim w~th u lim =
or-
~ax
Buhler.
1983).
This method can also
be
applied to
From (8).
the state
vector
on
these
~
limi ts
u min .
sliding mode controller design.
is
given by
The dynamic behaviour in sliding mode is determined
by the characteristic equation
(17)
Of course,
the commutation strategy
pes)
= det(sl -
~*)
=
sn
+
a
n-1
+ a
(18 )
+
0
n-1 s
.
.
.
1 s
+ a O =
( 12
)
has also to be satisfied.
The poles are
linked to
the
coefficients by
a i
Looking at
(17),
we
can
notice
t.hat
the
poles
(13 )
values.
the maximum values of the system
variables
.
w,
W, v) and t.he coefficient kw
act
on
these
with
n,
the degree of
the system .
limits and therefore act
mode domain.
on
the
size
of
the sliding
With
a linear transformation
'it
=
~
~
,
the
state
equation in sliding mode (4)
is transformed to
the
control
canonical
form
(BUh ler . 1983).
After a
rather
long development
( Buhler.
1986).
the
For
the
theoretical
s tudy.
the
commut.ation
transformation matrix ,~ is given by
frequency was supposed
infinite.
In
a
practical
real ization,
the
commutation
is
T
e
hysteresis on-off device.
rea li zed
Therefore .
by
a
the
commutation
frequency
becomes
finite.
Figure
4
shows the trajectory of a second order system
with
E
(14 )
an entrance
in the sliding
mode and
figure
5
shows
the relation
between
the
equivalent
command
T
n- 1
e
A
variable u eq and the pulsed real
one
c.
u
where gT is an auxiliary row-vector defined by
o ...
0
1 ]
(15)
~n-1 .12 ] is the commandabi li ty
~
=
[.12
~
.12
matrix.
With a similar development as for the state cont.rol
design
(Buhler,
1983).
ar -e linked
wit.h
t.he
Cl i
the feedback
coe ff i ci ent.s
coefficients k i
by
T _
k
-
c[a 1
a
(16)
a
1]~
2
n - 1
Because A* is singular,
one pole
has
to
be assigned
to zero and a coefficient.
the
factor
c
can
be
Fig.
4.
chosen freely.
The remaining poles
(n-1
poles)
can
Slidirq mode trajectory for a second
system.
order
be
chosen
freely
(real
or
complex
conjugate).
Faster are these po le s.
smaller is the sliding mode
By
a
calculation of the on-
and
off-ti me
of
the
domain.
Therefore.
t.hese poles have
to
be
chosen
command device
(Blmler,
1986 ) .
we
obtain the
value
from
case t.o case according to
the
application
to
of the commutation frequency fc
ensure the
sliding
mode
in
the
whole desired
working range.
(1.1
-
1.1
)
(1.1
-
u
max
eg
min )
eq
(19)
f
c
1.1
-
1.1
.
max
m~n

:B 6

1'.

Fell e r ancl

l ·.

IkllZ

where 4S h

is

the

threshold

hysteresis on-off device (Fig.

of

4).

the

symmetrical

U

U max

I ...

1\

U cq

A

-5

T

a

T

m

0

r

a

T

a

0

0

0

Ta

0

b

-s

raTa

0

0

(22)

Umin

1.1

(

b

-sv

-[ - ~m

]

eT

-s

[0

0

1]

Fig.

S.

Equivalent and real

command variables.

The commutation frequency can be chosen in a

large

range.

varying either the threshold

value

the value of the state feedback vector

kT

4S h

or

through

the

choice of the

factor

c

of the

poles

which

are

(16)

only

without

variation

depending

on

the

relative value of the state feedback coefficients.

APPLICATION TO POSITION CONTROL OF A DC DRIVE

state equations of the system to be controlled

The DC-motor behaviour can be described by a equation in relative values (P.u.)

state

and an output equation

(20)

(21)

The state

vector .ltg is

given by

~

=

[i

n

9] T

where i

is the armature

current.

n

the

rotating

speed and 8 the angular position of

the

shaft.

mr

is the load tort{Ue.

The matrices

are defined by (BUhler.

1986)

~.

~

~v

and

~

where ra

and

Ta

are

respectively

the

armature

resistance and time

constant:

Tm

the

mechanical

time constant and T 8 .

a time constant

introduced to

define 8 in relative value

(P.u.).

The

motor

is

supposed beeing excited at nominal

flux.

control structure

The sliding mode control

on Fig.

6.

structure

is

illustrated

Figure

Eo

s hows

the

cornplete position

contro l

structure with integrator regulator to avoid static

deviati on in o',teady state and with two lirniters

and Ln liJnlting resj:.ectively t he

current

speed. The limit values of these limiters

be calculated acco rding to the value

and

have

of

Li

the

to

the

feedback coefficients k i and lln' Furthermore, the

integrator regulator or both lirniters are

ha s

to

active

The integrator regulator i s variable x R

be corrected

when

one

to avoid

overshoot ing.

decribed by

the

state

e

c

r

I

I

I

I

-

-

-

-

-

-

--<'-)+- -

l

I

L n

-

-

-,

I

I

Fig.

6.

Sliding

mode

control

structure

of

the

angular positi on.

Control of a DC Motor

337

the hysteresis on-off device. This threshold is 1 ( e - e) (23) T. c computed
the hysteresis on-off
device.
This
threshold
is
1
( e
-
e)
(23)
T.
c
computed according to
(19)
to
impose
the
maximum
~
frequency f
= 4
kHz.
cmax
where Ti is the integrator regulator time constant.
The state vector ~ describing
the
complete
system
By
(27).
the state feedback coefficients can now be
becomes
calculated
to
obtain
= 0.1 ,
k
= 8.33 .
k i
n
kO = 92.6,
kR = 17.1.
n
0
(24)
The direct
intervention
coefficient
kw
of
the
The complete open loop
reference variable 0
system is now
described
c is experimentally
chosen
at
by
the state equation
=
45
to
obtain
the
fastest
step
response
k 101
without overshooting.
i
h.
~
+
.12
u
+ ~r~
+ .!2w 8 c
(25)
The two
following
figures
show
r esults
obtained
where
.
with a numeric simulation.
Responses of the current
.12.
~
are the
matrixes
(22)
~.
extended with x R .
i. the speed n and the position 0 for a step
.!2w
o
variation of the reference variable
0c
are
~
i f:.
due
to
( 23)
:
= [0
0
illustrat e d
on
Fig.
7
and
Fig.
8.
respectively
without
and
with
limitations
of
the
internal
variables i and n.
After computation
of the transformation
matrix
~
by
(15)
and
(14).
the
state
feedback
vector
kT
= [k i
kO
kRJ
is
given by
(16).
For this
k n
Practical results
fourth order s yst em.
we obtain
Practical results measured
on
a
fully
real-time
kT
= c[a 1
((2
1)
((3
(26)
~
analog simulator confirm simulation results
illustrated
on Fig.
7
and
Fig.
8.
Figure
9
shows
and expli c i ty
the command variable u and the
current i
during
a
transient phenomenon where the
system
leaves
the
k
c
ra
Ta
1
k
c
ra
n
Ta
Tm
a 3
0 . 6
0.4
kO
c
ra
Ta
Tm
TO
((2
(27)
0 .2
t
[5 l
, .
o
The
charac t eristic equation depends on the assigned
po l e s
by
(S-P 1 ) s-P 2 )
(s-P 3 ) (s-P 4 )
."
t
[ 5 ]
2
o
+
~
s
+
a O
(28)
u 2 s
For
this application . the DC motor
parameters
are
t
[5 ]
,-
r a
0.0 2.
Ta = 0.05
s .
Tm = 0 . 5
s ,
TO
= 0.2
s.
o
0 . 0 3
0. 0 6
0 . 09
0.12
0.1 5
Ti
0.01
s
and the power device
is
characterized
= ±
1.2.
by u lim
Fig.
7.
Responses for a step variation of
0c
out
of
The desired working range
is defined
by
-2
(
i
{
2.
limitations (m r = 0).
-1
(
n
(
1
and
-1
(
mr
(
1.
For
the
following
a s signed poles
Pl
= O.
P2
= P3
= P4
= -55.5.
a
sliding mode working is
guaranteed
in
the
whole
sliding mode domain.
We can remark
that the
system
desired domain.
moves during
1.1
ms
with
u
to
reach
the
= u max
commutation hyperplane where it
begins
to
slide
The factor
c
= 100
(26)
is arbitrarily
chosen
to
again.
obtain a realizable value 6s h for the threshold
of
  • 338 ~ !ia [pu1

 
  • P. F e ller ,\11(\

L.

BelU

 

comparison

is

made

out

of

limitation

working

(linear behaviour ),

for

a

similar

 

switching

 

[ 51

frequenc y of the

in ve rter and taking

 

into

account

 

the same requirements on the ripple

of

the

current

-1

-2

reference value (same smoothing filter

on

speed

o 12

0.50

0.25

1.0

0.5

I ':"' /

 

\

 

measurement ancl restriction o n the c hoice o f the k n

coefficient).

For

the same damping

 

criterion.

the

sliding mode control is a little faster than

state

t

[5l

co ntrol ( 10% shorter rise

time).

 

••

 

These results prove that the sliding

 

mode

control

can be successfully applied to fast systems such as

electrical drives and is particularly well

adapted

o

~~=-_+--_4--~~--~--4_--~--~1 .: [5l

to drives fed by on-off power devices.

o

0.2

0.4

0.6

0 . 8

Fig.

8.

Responses for a step variation of "

Bc ~ith

 

limitations (m r

u

[PUl l

1.2

I).

REFERENCES

1Ickermann

J . (1977)

Entwurf

 

dur'c h

 

o

-1.2

i

I

 

Regelungstechnik.

Bd.

25.

Nr.

6.

S.

Pol vorgabe . 17 3-179 und

Nr .

7,

S.

209-2 15.

 
 

Bilalovic F •.

Sabanovlc 11 •.

 

Music

0,.

!zosimov D.B.

 

(1983)

Current

Inver ter:.

in thl1. ~Ud.iffi Mode

9.£

  • 0.10 ~ ~~~

Induction

Motor ,

Proceeding

IF1IC

 

Symposium

0.05

Lausanne. Control in Power Electronics and

Electrical Dri ves.

Pergarnon Press .

Oxford.

p .

o

139-144.

 
 

B1.thler H. (1986 ) E.~~lage

 

R.3

L

m.Qg.~ @

c.U.li!sement.

Presses Poly techniques Romandes. Lausanne . Blthler H. (1985) Regelung mit Gle.it.zustfinden.

59.

Fig.

9.

Transient phen omenon illustrating a slidlng

 

Tagung der SGA (Sch weizerische Gesel l schaft fur 1Iutomatik. Zurich).

mode leaving.

Buhler H.(1983 ) Reglages

echantillonnes.

vol.

2.

 

Trait.ement

clans

l'espace

cl'et.at.

Presses

Polytechniques Romandes.

Lausann e .

 

Sabanovic 11 ..

Iz os irnov D.B ..

Bilal ov ic F ..

Music O.

 

(1983)

Sliding Mode in Controlled Motor Dri ves.

Proceeding IF1IC Symposium Lausanne.

Contro l

in

Power Electroni cs and

 

Electrical

Drives.

Because of the similar approach.

a comparison

 

a

cascade

position

state

control

(superposed

current. speed and i nteresti ng .

position

co ntroller s)

is

From a

theoretical p o int of

vie~ . a

pole assignment

meth od

is

us ed in

both case.

For the

sliding

mode

control, a fourth

oroer global system is taken into

account ~hen the system is decomposed in subsystems

for

the

cascade

s tate

co ntr o l .

the

sy nthesis

consists in successive deSigns of three lo~er order

circuits

(2nd and

3rt!

or der ) .

From

a

practical

point

of

view.

both

control

methods

allow to

limit internal variables

(c urrent

and speed),

The dynamic behaviour of

each

control

circuit has been compared in a co ncrete

case.

The

Per-gamon Press, Oxford. p. 13 3-1 38.

utkin V.I.(1977) Variabl e ~tructure Syste ms ~ith Slidl r~ Modes. IEEE Transact.i on . Vol. 1IC- 22.

No .

2,

p.

212-222.