Cop y right © IFAC 10th Tri e nnial World C on g r ess. Munich . FRG. 19R7
SLIDING MODE POSITION CONTROL OF A DC MOTOR
P.
Feller and U.
Benz
Sll'iss F t d tm l I lIS t it utt 0/ T I'c //I /II /o g:r.
IlId ust rill l EII ,ttro llies L Ii !Jora /ol\'.
16.
ch.
di' B l'l ll' lI i' l' . ClIIOO;
l.r il il W /lIi ' . S 1l' it: t r/iilli/
Abstract. 
The sliding mode cont.rol is applied t.o t.he posit.ion cont.rol of 
a 

DC drive. 
The variable structure is realized by t.he 
commut.ation 
of 
the 

command device according to a e,tate variables feedback 
strategy. 
The 

definition of an equivalent command variable allow s 
t.o 
determine 
th e 

existence c onditions and t.he domain of t.he sliding mode 
in t.he 
stat.e space. 

The parameter design of the controller 
a 
poles assigT~ent 

method. 
The practical application to a is computed by ition control po s 
of 
a DC drive shows 

that it is also possible t o limit the int e rnal variables ( current and 

speed) . 

. Position Control . Controll e d El ec t. r ical Driv e s. SI iding Mode Control. ~:tat.e Variables Feeclbacl\ , Pol e DC Dri ve s 
Ass 
1 gnment , 
_{I} _{N}_{T}_{R}_{O}_{D}_{U}_{C}_{T}_{I} _{O}_{N} 
of 
the C'orr,mand 
u _{c}_{m} 
at 
high 

frequency in the s liding mode. 

The sliding mode control is a particular 
operation 

mode of variable structure control sy s tem s 
(Utkin . 
The development s 
i n s witchin g power 
d ev 
ices 
allow 

1977). Two commutati on pr incipl e~, ba~,ed 
on 
state 
t. o use advantageously their own commutati on 

variables feedback can be put in evidence. 
In 
the 
properties to define the variable structure 

first case, the variable structure is 
realized 
by 
( Fig. 2). A commutation strategy S(K) 
based 
on 
a 

the commutation between two different s tate variables feedbacks according to the c ommutati on 
state variables feedback determines the the command device. 
state 
of 

strategy S( K ) (Fig. 1). 

In 
this context . a pUlsation voltage converter 
can 

be 
us ed 
a 
DC motor (Sabanovic, 
1983 ) 
and 
a 

\ 
. 
3pha ,,'e motor to feed pul s a tio 
n 
in v erter 
to 
feed 
an 
inductlOn 

( Bilalovic 
, 
1983). 
^{U} max
U min
oc
^{u}
^{y}
Fig. 
1. 
Control with a variable structure depending 

on 
the 
commutation 
of 
state 
variables 

feedbacks. 

This method has the disadvantage to hardly solicit 

the command device because of the 
jump 
variations 
Fig . 2. Control with a variable structure depending
on the 
commutation of a 
switching 
command 
device. 
int.egrat.or regulat.or R by
T.
1.
(\1

y)
(3)
Ti
is t.he integrator regulator time constant and
y
the out.put. variable of the system to be controlled.
The
rowvector
.1s ^{T}
in
(1)
contains
the
feedback coefficients and kw is
t.he
state
direct
intervent.ion coefficient. of t.he reference
variable
w.
The system to be controlled can be described by
st.at.e equations
its
.?!.
~.?!. + Q u + ~v + ~w
(4 )
_{y} _{=} ~T.?!.
(5)
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} v is the disturbance variable of
_{t}_{o}
_{b}_{e}
_{c}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{l}_{l} _{e}_{d}_{.}
The command variable
the
system
u
switches
~
~*.?!. _{+}
b*
Vv
*
+ ~w
+
Q
*.
jw
..
with
^{*}
A
^{*}
b
v
b
*
w
kTb
T)
12
kTb
b
kTb
b
b
w
*
b.
^{}^{w}
k
^{w}
b
kTb
(10)
(11)
The matrix ~*
dependence of
s(.?!.)
_{=} _{O}_{.}
is singular
the
state
because
variables
of
the
linear
introduced
by
Poles assignment
Contro l of a DC tltolor
335
:B 6
1'.
Fell e r ancl
l ·.
IkllZ
where 4S _{h}
is
the
threshold
hysteresis onoff device (Fig.
of
4).
the
symmetrical
U
U max
I ...
1\
^{U} cq
A
5
T
a
T
m
0
r
a
T
a
^{0}
0
0
_{T}_{a}
0
b
s
raTa
0
0
(22)
Umin
1.1
(
b
sv
[  ~m
]
eT
_{}_{s}
[0
0
Fig.
S.
Equivalent and real
command variables.
The commutation frequency can be chosen in a
large
range.
varying either the threshold
value
the value of the state feedback vector
kT
4S _{h}
or
through
the
choice of the
factor
c
of the
poles
which
are
(16)
only
without
variation
depending
on
the
relative value of the state feedback coefficients.
APPLICATION TO POSITION CONTROL OF A DC DRIVE
state equations of the system to be controlled
The DCmotor behaviour can be described by a equation in relative values (P.u.)
state
and an output equation
(20)
(21)
The state
vector .ltg is
given by
~
=
[i
n
9] T
where i
is the armature
current.
n
the
rotating
speed and 8 the angular position of
the
shaft.
is the load tort{Ue.
The matrices
are defined by (BUhler.
1986)
~.
~
~v
and
~
where ra
and
Ta
are
respectively
the
armature
resistance and time
constant:
Tm
the
mechanical
time constant and T _{8} .
a time constant
introduced to
define 8 in relative value
(P.u.).
The
motor
is
supposed beeing excited at nominal
flux.
control structure
The sliding mode control
on Fig.
6.
structure
is
illustrated
Figure
Eo
s hows
the
cornplete position
contro l
structure with integrator regulator to avoid static
deviati on in o',teady state and with two lirniters
and Ln liJnlting resj:.ectively t he
current
speed. The limit values of these limiters
be calculated acco rding to the value
and
have
of
Li
the
to
the
feedback coefficients k i and lln' Furthermore, the
integrator regulator or both lirniters are
ha s
to
active
The integrator regulator i s variable x _{R}
be corrected
when
one
to avoid
overshoot ing.
decribed by
the
state
e
c
r
I
I
I
I






<')+ 
l
I
L _{n}


,
I
I
Fig.
6.
Sliding
mode
control
structure
of
the
angular positi on.
Control of a DC Motor
_{3}_{3}_{7}

L. 
BelU 

comparison 
is 
made 
out 
of 
limitation 
working 

(linear behaviour ), 
for 
a 
similar 
switching 

[ 51 
frequenc y of the in ve rter and taking 
into 
account 

the same requirements on the ripple 
of 
the 
current 

1 2 
reference value (same smoothing filter 
on speed 

o 120.50 0.25 1.0 0.5 _{I} ':"' / 
\ 
measurement ancl restriction o n the c hoice o f the k _{n} 

coefficient). 
For the same damping 
criterion. 
the 

sliding mode control is a little faster than state 

t 
[5l 
co ntrol ( 10% shorter rise 
time). 

•• 

These results prove that the sliding 
mode 
control 

can be successfully applied to fast systems such as 

electrical drives and is particularly well 
adapted 

o ~~=_+_4~~~4_~~1 .: [5l 
to drives fed by onoff power devices. 

_{o} 0.2 0.4 
0.6 
0 . 8 

Fig. 8. Responses for a step variation of " 
Bc ~ith 

limitations (m _{r} u [PUl l1.2 
I). 
REFERENCES 1Ickermann J . (1977) Entwurf 
dur'c h 

o 1.2 i I 
Regelungstechnik. 
Bd. 
25. 
Nr. 
6. 
S. 
Pol vorgabe . 17 3179 und 

Nr . 
7, 
S. 
2092 15. 

Bilalovic F •. 
Sabanovlc 11 •. 
Music 
0,. 
!zosimov D.B. 

(1983) 
Current Inver ter:. 
in thl1. ~Ud.iffi Mode .£ 
9.£ 


Induction 
Motor , 
Proceeding 
IF1IC 
Symposium 

0.05 
Lausanne. Control in Power Electronics and 

Electrical Dri ves. 
Pergarnon Press . 
Oxford. 
p . 

o 
139144. 

B1.thler H. (1986 ) E.~~lage 
R.3 
L 
m.Qg.~ @ 
c.U.li!sement. 

Presses Poly techniques Romandes. Lausanne . Blthler H. (1985) Regelung mit Gle.it.zustfinden. 
59. 

Fig. 9. Transient phen omenon illustrating a slidlng 
Tagung der SGA (Sch weizerische Gesel l schaft fur 1Iutomatik. Zurich). 

mode leaving. 
Buhler H.(1983 ) Reglages 
echantillonnes. 
vol. 
2. 

Trait.ement 
clans 
l'espace 
cl'et.at. 
Presses 

Polytechniques Romandes. 
Lausann e . 

Sabanovic 11 .. 
Iz os irnov D.B .. 
Bilal ov ic F .. 
Music O. 

(1983) 
Sliding Mode in Controlled Motor Dri ves. 

Proceeding IF1IC Symposium Lausanne. 
Contro l 
in 

Power Electroni cs and 
Electrical 
Drives. 
Because of the similar approach. a comparison 

a 
cascade position state 
control 
(superposed 

current. speed and i nteresti ng . 
position co ntroller s) 
is 

From a 
theoretical p o int of 
vie~ . a 
pole assignment 

meth od 
is us ed in 
both case. 
For the 
sliding 
mode 

control, a fourth 
oroer global system is taken into 

account ~hen the system is decomposed in subsystems 

for 
the 
cascade 
s tate 
co ntr o l . 
the sy nthesis 

consists in successive deSigns of three lo~er order 

circuits 
(2nd and 
3rt! or der ) . 

From a 
practical 
point 
of view. 
both control 

methods 
allow to 
limit internal variables (c urrent 

and speed), The dynamic behaviour of 
each control 

circuit has been compared in a co ncrete case. 
The 
Pergamon Press, Oxford. p. 13 31 38.
utkin V.I.(1977) Variabl e ~tructure Syste ms ~ith Slidl r~ Modes. IEEE Transact.i on . Vol. 1IC 22.
No .
2,
p.
212222.