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1. Introduction and Objectives

2. A brief description of the methodologies applied.
3. Main Body of the Project:
4. Video 1
5. Video 2
6. Video 3
7. Video 4
8. Video 5
9. Video 6
10. Video 7
11. Video 8
12. Video 9
13. Video 10
14. Video 11
15. Video 12
16. Questions based on eBook
17. Questions based on Chapter 1,2 & 3
18. Social Networking

WELLS BOATING CO. is one of the most emerging leading independent boat developers in
the nation in accordance with technologically advanced facilities in the country. Our state
of the art robotic driven production is responsible for some of the most award-winning
designs available on the market today; not to mention quality that is literally "engineered

The main objective of this assignment is to learn and understand the concepts found in
Chapters 1, 2 & 3 of the e-book and of the included videos. These concepts include CE
(Concurrent Engineering), PLM (Product Life Cycle Management), CAD (Computer Aided
Design), CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) and others which relate to producing
Green and Sustainable. Quality assurance and constant improvements in terms of
functional requirements and customer satisfaction is the main concern of WELLS BOATING
CO. We will use these processes to apply Sustainable, Green CE and PLM practices to the
design and development of high quality products that are environmental sound and

DESCRIPTION OF METHODOLOGY APPLIED: Concurrent Engineering (CE) - methodology in

which various tasks are performed concurrently. It applies to product design and
development, manufacturing and other processes. The main goal of CE is to reduce time
needed to bring new products to the market.
Total Quality Management (TQM) - methodology which focuses
on continuous improvement. Elements of TQM include business improvement, quality
improvement and overall customer satisfaction.


1) What Baumer Electric does?

Baumer Electric specializes in different types of sensors including laser and vision sensors.
Also, they create sophisticated system which can measure different variations in the
systems. Baumer creates system for different industries including food, pharmaceutical
and automotive.

2) What is the most variable on the car and how Baumer solved the issue?

The biggest variable is tires, which impacts performance of the car. We have to keep track
what is going with tire during the race. The Baumer Electric uses laser measuring sensor to
keep track on tires by implementing laser sensors.

3) How the laser sensor works?

Laser sensor projects its light on the surface underneath the car. It is monitoring the height
of the car which helps to understand what happens to the tires. Tires under heat changes
expand or contract. Height difference helps to set-up car gear ratio or change tires.

4) What is the biggest challenge in designing laser sensor like that?

Designing sensor like that, engineers have to think about different road surfaces different
types of asphalts. Creating long look-up tables with different possible variables is crucial.
However, the algorithms are even more sophisticated because they have to decide which
conditions have to be picked.

5) What could be other application of this kind of the technology?

Laser sensor technology can be used in different industries. It can measure thickness of
materials, position of actuators, test solenoids or calibrate robots. The technology gives
real times updates which they can be used immediately to improve systems. It is used in
the industry measures thickness of materials, positions of actuators, test solenoids. It
gives real time updates. Another application is to calibrate robots.

VIDEO 2: BigTwin-Swift

1) What is the biggest challenge when building custom bikes?

The biggest challenge is that every motorcycle is different. Many of them have different
components and it is harder to increase quality of the product because there is not too
much repetition.

2) How companies which built custom motorcycles maintain quality of their products?

Quality is kept by extensive testing of each component, which causes that time needed to
build bikes like that is very long. All components which are not manufacturer at motorcycle
facility have to come from trusted manufactured. Also, the builders use very tight

3) What makes these motorcycles so attractive and expensive?

Besides that, they are custom built which attracts a lot of people. Manufactures use very
expensive materials and finishes stainless steel, high quality lacquers. All of that plus high
quality of product translates into very high price.

4) What kind of new features we are going to see in future of motorcycles?

New motorcycles have more and more electronic sensors and mechanism which improve
safety and comfort. One of them which we saw on the video is automatic retractable foot
rest. In next couple years, we are going to see more and more safety features for
motorcycles, such as like blind spot monitoring and similar.

5) What is the biggest challenge in terms of PLM/CE while building custom motorcycles?

The biggest challenge is to get design right at the beginning of the project. Communication
is very important. Any changes in design made during manufacturing process are very
expensive, so it is important to discuss design with customer, designers and engineers

VIDEO 3: COGNEX-Vision Inspect

1) What are four major areas covered by vision inspection?

Four key areas are dimensions and gauging, defect inspection, robot guidance and
identification. All these areas are important keep quality high. Systems which use vision
inspection have low variations.

2) How the vision system works?

Vision inspection systems take images of the parts and look at the different features of the
part. System looks at contrast of the image to analyze position of the major components
and dimensions of the part. System utilizes different algorithms to ensure that variations
are very low.

3) How the information obtained by the vision system is analyzed?

All the data collected by the system is analyzed by using statistical methods. System
automatically calculates mean, medium, standard deviation and more sophisticated
statistical tools. It helps the system to predict trends which are very helpful to avoid
building bad parts before they are built.

4) What are the biggest advantages of vision system over traditional inspection systems?

Visions inspection system is extremely fast comparing to traditional systems. Cameras can
take thousands of pictures in second, so even mass production of small parts can inspected
in highly effective manner. Another advantage is that vision systems are more precise and
require less human resources. The system automatically creates statistical data which can
be later analyzed to improve efficiency.

5) What is the future of the vision system in manufacturing?

It looks like vision systems can many different applications. A lot of manufactures start to
understand potential of vision system and try to apply them in the processes. In my
opinion, robot guidance systems is the most important application because it will allow
manufacturing robots to makes decision based on what they see they will know position,
features and identification of different elements.

Video 4 : Ford Concept Design

1) Why Concept cars could be important in business?

There are a lot of factors that push automakers to build concept vehicles. Tradition is a big
one, as is allowing engineers and stylists to think in creative ways. Concept will let
engineers to explore technological concepts and to get attention of customers and see
what the response is.

2) What is the main idea behind this Ford Concept car's design?

engineers designed this car based on their perception from American culture where the
world Big has meaning. engineers designed this car to be as tough as possible. Which could
be a metaphor from urban environment.

3) Why is better to design for specific market rather than global market?

Targeted marketing is one of the first steps in building a customer base and creating a
message for an integrated campaign in which business owners consistently push a product,
service or theme. Beside In this way you companies could give their product character and
history like Mustang car designed by Ford.

4) How Flexible manufacturing could benefit this huge industry?

By designing Flexible shop floor companies could customize their product base on their
customer needs. As result it brings customer satisfaction and profit for the company.

5) This Ford concept is emphasizing on which ISO principles?

The answer is the very first principle which is customer needs. In this concept engineers
use their American cultural perception to create such product to be able to bring
emotional connection between this design and customer.


1. How does Ford figure out its customers needs for its products?

Aside from surveys Ford actually deploys a team to follow the users of its products. Not
only does it obtain customer needs via conventional methods but its engineers are able to
provide is customers with solutions that they did not think of. Also, this can help other
groups involved with the product life cycle. These teams can provide feedback on how
customers are using the product and what things are not working as planned. So not only
can this help with product design but also product quality of an already developed product.

2. How does Ford implement collaboration in its CE practices?

Ford utilizes collaboration throughout its company including divisions of different regions
as well. For example, design groups in Japan, North America, and Europe can collaborate
and share lessons learned which can help aid the development process. Secondly designs
from one region can be used in another region as the cultures start to go through similar
changes over time. This can help speed up the time to market. For example, when a design
comes over from another region the design team can work on making modifications while
the manufacturing team is already working on assembly design.

3. What are some customer needs Ford has identified and what needs is it anticipating?

Ford has learned that there is a shift to smaller cars and providing a more cost-effective
solution for daily transportation because of the cost of fuel. Along with this there is also
the environmental goals we all have to ensure we reduce our emissions over time. Because
of this Ford has shifted to these smaller cars but still provide the luxury and options people
are used to. This a big shift, because in the past customers were accustomed to small cars
having little luxury and little performance. Ford is also anticipating what is happening
many years down the road as well. They need to understand not only what the customer
wants now but things they will need as different factors of the world will change in the
future. By preparing for these projected changes beforehand Ford puts itself in a better
position to address customer needs as they become relevant.

4. What is green about Fords line of cars it plans to put in the near future?

Ford is planning to reduce the footprint of their cars both physically and environmentally.
The physical reduction in size reduces production costs which it can invest back into the
product through providing the customer with more luxurious options. The customer can
enjoy the luxuries they are used to and also see a reduction in the cost of their daily lives
for transportation. The idea of watching or following the customer closely to identify their
needs and also listening to their needs helps Ford make a product that fits the lives of the
customer well. If Ford is successful in this initiative then the customer is spending their

5. How can Ford reduce costs through collaboration and CE practices?

Ford implements CE practices which help streamline product and manufacture design
which is frontloaded so that all the issues with design are worked out early such as
manufacturability and quality. This method leads to a more cost-effective product life cycle
over time. In addition, the collaboration between design groups of different region can
help reduce the amount of work needed to bring an already developed car in another
region further reducing costs.


1. What benefits of CAM Analysis can aid the design process of an automaker?

CAM helps design teams create computer models which it can use to simulate various
tests. It gives the design team to try various scenarios and see how the parts interact.
Some of the tests include mechanical tests, performance tests, and crash clearance tests.

2. How does CAM contribute to a greener product?

The use of CAM allows companies to test different vehicle in many different ways. Its
testing capabilities leads to reduced development costs, increased employee productivity,
and minimizes warranty costs by improving quality in the car. Furthermore, it allows the
team to instill better quality in the product and analyze the product in different ways
which result in a better overall design compared with conventional CAD based designing,
clay prototyping, and real world testing. This allows the company to better utilize its
3. What other process can CAM help with in product development?

CAM can be utilized by more than just the design team early in the product life cycle. This
information can be easily passed along since it is electronic. It can be passed to the shop
floor to verify manufacturing or design issues. It can be used the quality group to review
customer complaints.

4. How important is it to create both the virtual and real prototypes to in CE based product

CAM a lead to a very good all-around virtual prototype but designers still use the clay
based prototypes for cars. There are many aesthetics related issues which might not be
easily seen in CAM and it serves as way to generally verify the CAM model.

5. How does CAM help with concurrent Eng practices?

There are many different ways the tools of CAM can be used in various parts of the
product life cycle. It can be argued that almost all of the processed involved with the PLM.
One of the more important contributions is that it serves as a communication tool and a
medium which the details of the car can be passed to the various groups. For example
design engineers can send the CAM to the manufacturing engineers to verify that it will be
possible to assemble a certain part. This can be quickly loaded by the manufacturing
engineer and verified.


1) How are industries responsible for creating damage to the ecosystem?

In recent times, there has been huge manufacturing activities going on and this causes a
lot of damage to the environment solely due to the carelessness of the manufacturers.
These factories start to dump a lot of wastes in landfills or dispose of all the chemical
waste into the water bodies, which in turn harms the underwater ecosystem. Also emission
of harmful CO2 gas is causing damage to the ozone layer leading to global warming.

2) How can the harmful effects of factories be minimized?

If we dump our waste by properly treating them, it could minimize the harmful effects.
Also if we practice recycle and reuse of wastes generated, then we can greatly reduce
waste generation. This not only conserves the environment, but also reduces the price of
the cost of the products produced.

3) How can we implement CE to improve the process in a factory?

The main objective of concurrent engineering is to manufacture products with the low
cost, reduce the lead time and mainly to reduce waste. In CE, we believe in sustainable
development with reduced waste by recycling the products and proper disposal of harmful

4) What are the effects of pollution on the aquatic life?

Whenever they factories release harmful waste onto the water bodies or whenever there
is oil spill, the aquatic life is affected the most. The aquatic animals are affected with
diseases like behavioral abnormalities and death. Also the plants that grow underwater are
affected with such activities and we lose the beautiful underwater ecosystem.

5) How can we implement the concept of CE?

In a concurrent engineering environment, teams of experts from different departments are

encouraged to work together to ensure that design progresses smoothly and that all
participants share the same, current information. The project and problem-solving
methods and the technologies utilized make up the essential elements through which
parallelism in new product design and development can be achieved.

Video 8: Harley Tribal Iron Big Twin Motor Bikes

1) Does the high quality and performance of these bikes reflect a concurrent engineering

Yes indeed, the concurrent engineering approach can be seen since early stages of the
design of such motorcycle, especially when focused on high performance, optimizing the
use of fuel and utilizing best Eco-friendly recyclable materials.

2) How can manufacture of a motorcycle be connected to green sustainability?

The manufacture of a motorcycle can be considered green sustainable because it has been
designed to have a minimum negative eco impact. The design of the product is focused in
the use of less material and as a consequence less waste. The engine has been designed to
utilize fuel more efficiently and as a consequence the carbon footprint is less. With such
important factors in play, the production will beneficiate the manufacturer, the customer,
the environment and society, not for a few years but for a long time. That symbiosis makes
the manufacture of those motorcycles green sustainable.

3) How is seen in the video the use of PLM with CE approach?

Companies which actually utilize such a great tools and methods are leaders in technology
and customer satisfaction. The time to market of such companies is less, the design is high
end and the performance is hard to compete with. Those products or motorcycles have
studies in aerodynamics, safety and efficiency. Allowing the customer to go above and
beyond his expectations.

4) Is the design and manufacture of the motorcycles carried out with PLM with a
concurrent engineering approach?

The overall design and manufacture of such high performance motorcycles has been in fact
shorten by the use of product life cycle management in combination with concurrent
engineering, and as a result considerable time from design stage to customer use.
Furthermore, savings in storage, transport, space and resources are a result of it. And such
savings have an impact in the environment due to all the fuel and material not used .

5) Do the manufacturers of the motorcycles use Eco-friendly materials?

Such a big companies as Ducati, Honda and Harley Davidson are focused in an Eco -friendly
production using recyclable materials and more efficient engines for their motorcycles.
Changes like that impact the environment directly with less carbon footprint and
biodegradable materials.


1) What are the compromises associated with lowering the cost of a product?

When one focuses on lowering the price of a product, the quality usually suffers. The
company spends less time checking fewer units as it rushes to produce as massively as
possible. Also, less money is spent on quality control. So products that leave the facility
may not even be good for the well-being of a customer.

2) Why parts don't function?

Parts of a machine don't work because the manufacturer did not check the product before
it left the facility. They may also fail because the process used to build the products is very
manual. Manual production will mean that there will be great variability in the output and
some products will work while others fail.

3) Why do companies export the manufacturing of their products?

Companies export the manufacturing of their products because of the huge cost savings. If
a company can save money on their operational costs, they can pass that savings
onto their customers. Because customers will buy their more cost effective product, the
company will be leading in the market.

4) What are the cost to the manufacturer for low-cost products?

Since quality has been reduced in the production of the product, the manufacturer will
lose credibility. His products will be known as very low costing goods, but also low quality
goods. His reputation will be tarnished by his lousy products and it will be hard to build a
more positive report with customers later on even if the quality of his products improves.

5) What customer service measures that the I-Beam roller company take?

There are almost no steps taken by this company to ensure the satisfaction of its
customers. Dr.Ranky explained that the only thing to do is return the product to
the manufacturer, which is a lengthily process that is not even worth the effort. Otherwise,
there is nothing done by the company to ensure customer satisfaction.

Video 10: Mini- Body

1) How can using robots implement all the welding results in the highest quality of car?

The manufacturer or producer can ensure the higher level of accuracy by allowing robots
to perform the welding. As we see in the system, the weld are the foundation of the
vehicle and with using robots, the human error will be removed from this part of the
manufacturing process. This will help to reduce the costs and enhance the quality of the

2) How the use of laser cameras can increase the quality of manufacturing process?

By using these laser cameras we can make sure that the geometry of the assembled car is
absolutely correct and the final operation does not have defects which shows us the high
level of quality in final product. These laser cameras also can be helpful for inspection of
the vehicle to find the problems in the manufacturing process and correct them as soon as

3)How does the ability of quickly replacing robotic parts can increase productivity?

The weld arms used on the robots are stored next to the production line. These parts can
be easily removed and replaced by the expert engineers and come back to the line within
less than half an hour. This will reduce the time of the production and allows the broken
arm to be fixed offline.

4) What is the concept of working in groups?

It means to improve the quality workers and managers work together as a team. The
workers have the opportunity to make changes if required. This concept will value workers
input to improve the processes involved in manufacturing.

5) What are some areas of waste in the Mini assembly process?

The Mini assembly process has many manual aspects that rely on human accuracy for
quality. The manual aspect of the system requires the line to move slower which reduce
the production time. The most important factor in this assembly process is that if
something attached incorrectly leading to rattles or improper seals can create rework also
leading to waste.


1) What does Novel Company does?

NOVEL Company designs and creates tools for children which familiarize them with
mechanical design. The toys are copies of real time tools such as wrenches, screw drivers,
gears and kitchen sets. They are all kids friendly because they are made from plastic and
large enough that they cant be swallowed.

2) What are the new exciting toys which are introduced to the market?

One of the most exciting toys which are introduced to the market are robotic sets and toys.
Many of them use renewable energy principles such as solar power. They help children to
understand mechanics and simple electronics. They are very inspiring for children and
hopefully many of children will decide to purse career of scientists and engineers.

3) How new generation of toys can win the fight against computer games?

New generation of toys brings a lot of automation which is very exciting for children.
Computer games are not allowing all the senses to be used in the process. Toys can be
touched, build and modified which is a great experience.

4) How toys companies implement sustainable green PLM features to their products?

Most of the toys are made from recyclable materials such as plastics. Toys companies try
to cut their costs by improving processes which are eco-friendly and very efficient. Also,
toys companies make a lot of surveys and research to make sure that toys are cost
effective and safe.

5) What is the future of the toys?

Toys have to become even greener than they are right now. Many manufacturers should
think about biodegradable or highly recallable materials. Toys will become more
innovative, and learning experience should be one of the most important features of every
toy. Many toy companies already use green PLM methods to improve their processes, and
they will continue to do that.

VIDEO 12: Peter Schmitt

1)What is the difference between CAD, CAM, and CAE?

Compputer Aided Desing (CAD) helps you design the product you want according to your
vision. Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) helps you define manufacturing processes
before creating the factory. Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) helps you define the
elements of the design so that the concept can be materialized.

2) What is PLM?

Product Life cycle management is supplying attractive products to the market at the right
time at the right price with reliable processes. It is important that the timing is perfect, to
maximize the profitability of the product. The correct management of the materials
involved in its creation is important to its successful execution.

3) What does Dassault Catia systems provide its customers?

Catia systems are a single framework, from design to simulation, that allows their
customers define the methods of creating their products. The system has modules for
designers, engineers, and manufacturers. Everyone involved in the process can access all
the files created and modified be others in the process.

4) Why should customers use simulation?

Customers who use simulation can realize a huge cost savings. Simulation allows one to
mock the manufacturing process for only a few thousand dollars. This is compared to the
millions of dollars that would be spent building the factory, gathering the resources, and
then finally testing the manufacturing process. So, a company can possibly save millions of
dollars per year to create the products their customers want.

5) Why is simulation better than physical creation?

The first reason is because of the huge cost savings associated with simulation. Apart from
this, simulation can offer detailed analysis of the manufacturing process that a physical
model would take a lot of time to gather. The physics, mathematics, and statistics of the
physical structures are programmed into Catia as well as how they move and interact with
one another.

Questions Based on eBook

1) What are CE and PLM?

Concurrent Engineering (CE) concept unites all functions of a company in to a team for
designing, manufacturing, marketing and distributing a product in an integrated optimal
approach. In general, CE concentrates on increasing quality, reducing of leading time,
cutting waste and create a green workflow from the simultaneous integration of many
processes from design to manufacture and assembly.
Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is the process by which the lifecycle of a product is
managed from start to finish of the product. It will focus on identifying the customers
desire, design and development of the product, manufacturing, through transportation to
its end use.

2) What are the differences between CE and PLM?

The CE is a design management system concerned with the workflow that allows processes
to be carried out in parallel rather than simultaneously. It deals with making the processes
more efficient to reduce the lead-time and the waste.
The PLM concentrates on following the life of the product being manufactured from
conception through disposal. It will consider with creating and managing all of the product
data and information that affects the product from start to end. It serves as a
communication point between engineering, marketing and manufacturing.

3) What is green sustainable PLM?

It provides the functionality to integrate information, tools and processes necessary to

ensure flexibility, reduce regulatory risks, and decrease the leading time to market without
negatively impacting profits. Companies can move from reacting to flexibility issues to
proactively designing flexibility into products and improve sustainability. Green sustainable
PLM can help to decrease the cost and the waste.

4) What is digital design and manufacturing and why is this such a huge opportunity?

Digital design and manufacturing is an initiative to provide solutions that support effective
collaborative manufacturing process planning between designs and manufacturing
disciplines. Digital manufacturing incorporates integrated tool suites that utilize the
product definition and support visualization, simulation and other analysis necessary to
optimize product and manufacturing processes design. It also supports ergonomic and
human factor analysis to make as perfect the manufacturing processes. This will help
companies to lower their cost, improve the product quality, increase the efficiency and
decrease the time.

5) How is digital design integrated with digital manufacturing in PLM?

Digital design is integrated with digital manufacturing in PLM because a product starts with
the design phase before manufacturing process. It provides solutions that support effective
collaborative manufacturing process planning between designs and manufacturing
disciplines. It allows the information that was learned during the digital design stage to be
transferred and used by digital manufacturing step of the project.
6) What is frontloading, and why is it critical to understand this process?

Frontloading is the process that all of the information about the product is preloaded into
the system. This information includes drawings, tooling and parametrically controlled
models is created before the product is well defined. It helps the company to visualize the
actual manufacturing or assembly process in the designing stage. Therefore, they are able
to reduce the cost by making design changes early in the process. In this step, design
engineers can control for feasibility of how actual assembly is going to check out. It will
reduce the number of changes and errors in the future of the process and also reducing
the time and this is the reason why it is critical and important to understand the process.

Questions based on Chapter 1,2 & 3

Chapter 1

1) What is the difference between traditional approach and TQM approach?

Total quality management has changed the traditional management style forever. It wa s a
very radical movement those days. Some of these changes are radical even today. Few of
these changes are discussed below.

Traditional approach focused on internal activities. Products or services provided by

organization were assumed to be good in quality, if this organization has done its
best in producing that product or service. But in TQM, the ultimate decider of the
quality is the customer.
Traditionally people thought bad quality products are due to the workers who do
not perform their job correctly. One of the major differences between TQM and
traditional style is the assignment of the responsibility of the quality to the
TQM is an organization wide movement. All the organization has to be in unity to
apply TQM principles. TQM, unlike traditional management calls for high amount of
team working.
TQM believes in quality assurance rather than checking. Quality is inbuilt to the
system, so that products are assured to be in good quality.
Unlike in traditional management style, in TQM decision making is based on facts
and figures. Therefore problems are identified correctly, and solutions are well
TQM depends on cyclic thinking and is continuous. Therefore improvements are
small, stable and continuous in nature. This is also known as Kaizen.

2) How can we reduce the product lifecycle cost using green CE / TQM approach?

We understand that product is designed initially by understanding the customer

requirements, then using CAM/CAM software to design the product, and finally
manufacture on the machines. Here we usually generate a lot of waste. Waste are either
caused due to bad quality products, leading to rework or dispose, or not having a green CE
focus. If we start applying TQM principles in our manufacturing systems, and instead of
generating waste, if we start to recycle those scraps, then we can reduce the produce life
cycle cost greatly. Also we can reduce the environmental effect that are caused from such
activities and work towards the conservation of environment.

3) What is TQM and what are its prime focus?

Total quality management (TQM) is an integrated a set of management practices designed

to improve quality at every level. It is set to ensure the organization consistent ly meets or
exceeds customer requirements. TQM places strong focus on:

Produce quality work the first time

Focus on the customer

Have a strategic approach to improvement
Improve continuously
Encourage mutual respect and teamwork

4) Why is green sustainable CE/ PLM important?

Recently, due to overuse of resources and improper waste disposals, there have been
adverse effects on the environment. Excess emission of co2 gas is also leading to global
warming which ultimately lead to adverse effects on us. Hence sustainability is increasingly
becoming a corporate and social responsibility of every manufacturer around the
worldwide. The increasing political and social demand for a more sustainable society,
coupled with emerging global legislation is affecting the way in which products need to be
designed, manufactured, used and also disposed off.
This calls for sustainability to be created as an end-to-end continuous improvement
program and monitor the entire enterprise planning, product development process and
end-of-life. The value from the green CE and PLM system will come in terms of bringing
discipline in the greener global product design, greener manufacturing processes & proper
waste disposal.

5) What is brainstorming? What are the rules for brainstorming in CE?

Brainstorming is a process for generating creative ideas and solutions through intensive
and freewheeling group discussion. Every participant is encouraged to think aloud and
suggest as many ideas as possible, no matter seemingly how outlandish. Analysis,
discussion, or criticism of the ideas is allowed once the brainstorming session is over and
evaluation session begins.
Basic rules for a brainstorming session are:

Identify the objective of the session and topics to focus on.

Encourage more ideas and note down the most applicable ones.
Build on the ideas of others and stay on topic.
Once the ideas are noted down, allocate responsibility for the task.
Finally review the ideas and check if the objective has been achieved.

Chapter 2

1) What are the eight quality management principles on which international and the US
standards are based and why they are important?

The eight quality management principles are customer focus, leadership, involvement of
people, process approach, systems approach to management, continual improvement,
factual approach to decision making and mutually beneficial supplier relationship. They are
important to meet because they ensure that quality is kept through entire process, was te
is eliminated and products satisfy customers.

2) Why small and medium sized companies implement the U.S. Quality Standards (QS -

Many smaller companies who wants to provide services to the big corporations which are
leaders in their fields, need to assure that the services provided meets all the quality
standards. By not having quality standards, they will have problems selling their products
and services to big corporation because the big corporation couldn't trust the quality

3) Why customer focus is very important TQM principle?

Customer focus is very important because for any company to create good and innovative
product complex knowledge of customer needs is required. Customer focus increases
loyalty among customers and helps to grow the business. Also, it helps to build better
customer relationship which is very beneficial for every company.

4) What are the most important elements of Process Approach Principle?

One of the most important elements in process approach is to lower cost and shorter cycle
times which can be achieved by good control of resources. All activities should defined
systematically, so the goals can be obtained. Another important element in process
approach is to focus on resources, methods and material which helps to improve
5) Why continual improvement is critical to successful business?

Continual improvement is one of the most important principles. It allows companies to

stay ahead of competition, lower cost of operation and improve designs of the products.
Companies which are not constantly improving, they lose they edge and quickly can have
financial and operational problems.

Chapter 3

1) What are the benefits of designing for a minimum number of parts?

If we create fewer parts, the cost of the product will be reduced. This is accomplished
because fewer parts need to be in inventory and fewer parts are being manufactured. It is
also easier to assemble or install products with fewer parts. Also with reducing
requirements for maintenance and testing the cost will be reduced.

2) What is the goal of DFM?

DFM means Design For Manufacturing, which is a systematic approach to analyze each
individual part and assembly and reduce waste. Any organization can use DFM to reduce
the number of stages and setups required until the product is made. With using DFM,
organizations can reduce their lead times, tooling and setup expenses. By analyzing each
step in the manufacture of the product, the utilization of DFM will reduce the waste and
save time and money in the overall assembly.

3) What do the terms MUDA, MURA and MURI refer to?

They are used in reference to KAISEN which is a Japanese technique referring to gradual
product design and process improvement. MUDA is a type of problem that refers to waste
from material, time, poor planning and poor manning. MURA is another type of problem
that refers to irregularities, differences and variabilitys caused by men. MURI also is
another type of problem that refers to strain and stress that can be cause by poor work
conditions or disharmony among the workers.

4) What are the advantages of modular design and product structure?

one of the advantages of modular design and product structure is that downstream
manufacturing costs can be reduced because the processes and systems are in place
already. Another advantage is that engineering changes can be implemented easily and a
family of product can be created meaning that from one different product similar variants
can be produced. By using modular design and product structure we are able to reduce
risks and cost savings can be achieved.
5) How does Demings method for quality management is different from traditional way?

The traditional view on quality was that the higher quality is the higher cost would be. This
will result in management when they are not willing to invest money in quality. Demings
way promotes that with higher quality, cost and expenses can be decreased. Deming
believes that organizations should strive to create the highest quality of product at the
lowest cost. The Demings 14 rules of management and quality are as follow as:
-Create consistency and continuity
- Refuse to allow commonly accepted levels of delay for mistakes
- Eliminate the need for, and dependence upon inspection
-Reduce the number of suppliers and end the practice of awarding business on the basis of
the price tag
- Search continually for problems in the system and seek ways to improve it in order to
decrease cost
-Institute modern methods of training and education on the job
- Eliminate fear
- Breakdown barriers between departments
- Eliminate the use of numerical goals, slogans and posters
- Eliminate work standards and quotas on factory floor. Substitute leadership
- Remove barriers
- Institute a vigorous program of regular education
-Clearly define and demonstrate managements permanent commitment to quality and
productivity and assure everyone that the transformation is everybodys job.


1) Duke Energy Scraps SC Nuke Plant, Seeks Higher Power Rates

This article states that Duke energy asked regulators to let its western North Carolina
subsidiary raise household electricity bills by 16.7 percent. The country's largest electric
company asked the North Carolina Utilities Commission to let its Duke Energy Carolinas
subsidiary raise rates by $647 million a year, adding $18.72 to the $104 monthly bill of the
typical residential customer.

The Duke Energy Carolinas rate increase would affect 13.6 percent across all types of
customers, including factories and retail stores. The rate increment will just influence more
client to search for different options for vitality. The east Carolina duke power asked
regulators to raise power bills by an average 15 percent for 1.3 million customers, totaling
an extra $477 million a year. Duke also canceled the plan of constructing lee power plant in
Cherokee County.
Charlotte-based Duke Energy's choice to scrap the Lee plant takes after a related choice a
month ago by two South Carolina utilities to stop endeavoring to extend the V.C. Like
South Carolina Electric & Gas and Santee Cooper, Duke Energy blamed lead contractor
Westinghouse for the nuclear project's failure.
2) Plant Waste Could Make Less Expensive, More Sustainable Carbon Fiber Possible
This article talks about the manufacturing of carbon fiber at a lower price. It says about the
importance of the carbon fiber in the automobile industry as well as in other industries.
The researchers at the University of Washington have found a way to make the
manufacturing of carbon fiber in the cheaper way. This can be done with help of lignin, a
substance found in the cell walls of plants and trees. Lignin is a complex aromatic
molecule that is mainly burned to make steam in a bio-refinery plant, a relatively
inefficient process that doesnt create a lot of value. The next step is to bring this product
to use because of which the cars will cost cheaper plus it a renewable way.

3) This Inflatable Drone Is Waterproof

This video tells about inflatable drone which can float in water and which is inflatable.
The diodon drone manufactured by French manufacturer airvada can fly in heavy rain and
can do most of the stuff which other drones can do. The drone is also crash proof and fits
in a small bag so it is also easy to carry. The air pump is used to inflate its arms. It comes in
different variants.