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HIDAYATULLAH NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY

CRIMINAL LAW HONOURS ON

The Penal Couple : Victimology Approach

SUBMITTED TO
Ms. Sonal Dass

SHIVENDRA KUMAR TEKAM

SEC-B

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THE PENAL COUPLE : VICTIMOLOGY A PPROACH

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

At the outset, I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude and thank my teacher, Ms. Sonal
Dass for putting his trust in me and giving me a project topic such as this and for having the
faith in me to deliver. Mam, thank you for an opportunity to help me grow. My gratitude also
goes out to the staff and administration of HNLU for the infrastructure in the form of our
library, IT Lab and my friends that was a source of great help for the completion of this
project.

SHIVENDRA KUMAR TEKAM

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction..................................................................................................................3

2. Objectives......................................................................................................................4

3. Research Methodology.................................................................................................4

4. Chapterisation

I. Rise of Victimology......................................................................10

II. Victim of Crime............................................................................11

III. Consequences of Crimes..............................................................13

IV. The Penal Couple.........................................................................15

V. Victim and Offender Dyad..........................................................18

VI. Theories........................................................................................... 21

VII. Victim and Offender.....................................................................26

VIII. Critiques of Penal Couple Theory.............................................. 28

5. Conclusion...................................................................................................................31

Biblography........................................................................................................................... 32

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INTRODUCTION

Victimology is considered to be a sub-discipline of criminology which includes three


different groups of people and their respective interests. This area has been the subject matter
of frequent debates and analyses which have brought together the intellectuals, the activists of
many non-governmental organizations as well as the law-making authorities, yielding a lot of
tension in this "boiling pot" of diverse interests.1 Some authors have noted that victimology is
"a specific and respectable academic and scientific discipline, a new branch in the scientific
study of the victim, which is distinguished by its transparent and peculiar spectrum as well as
by a comprehensive and interdisciplinary research methodology. 2

In simple terms, as eparovi states, "victimology is, simply, the scientific knowledge of the
victim".3 Yet, regardless of its principal objective to study the personality of the victim and
its conduct in the victim-offender interaction in the mechanism of becoming a victim
(victimization),4 i.e. irrespective of the phenomenological and etiological characteristics of
an individual victim's personality and the process of its victimization, it is also necessary to
study the collective and abstract victims, including the collective) victims ensuing from the
violation of the norms of the International Humanitarian Law or the victims of certain deviant
forms of behaviour, such as prostitution or drug abuse.

The old paradigm (primarily addressing the victim's rights) can be observed as an expression
of pure morality in relation to the victim, whereas the new paradigm (addressing the victim's
needs) demonstrates consideration and care for morality. The new paradigm involves not
only the protection of the victim's rights and interests but also the provisions to meet the
victim's needs. The current victimological theory articulates this new paradigm both in terms
of immediate action and in terms of academic and scientific field of interest. The main action
is aimed at changing the perception of victimization, shifting it from the individual to the
institutional level and creating a different cultural and social definition of crime.

1
Sandra Walklate, Imagining the Victim of Crime, McGrawHill, Open University Press 2007, pages 29-30.
2
Alija Ramljak, Miodrag Simovi, Viktimologija, Paneuropean University Apeiron, Faculty of Law in Banja
Luka, Banja Luka 2006, page 3.
3
Zvonimir eparovic, Viktimologija studije o rtvama, Informator, Zagreb 1998, page 5.

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Some more recent victimological papers clearly point out that "it may be deceiving to think
that the demeanour of corporations is irrelevant, even taking into account the narrow
definition of crime. In many ways, misdemeanour of corporations may include much more
deliberation than most of the perpetrated criminal acts known as the street crime, which are
commonly regarded as the acts of criminal conduct or victimization".4

"Victimology has too many pros to allow any kind of coherence in its own conception of the
world",5 while Rock notices its "Catholic" nature.6 Indicating to even broader concepts within
this discipline, a Canadian victimologist Fattah insists on making a clear distinction between
what he calls "the humanistic victimology" and "the scientific victimology". In fact, by
making this distinction, Fattah puts forward the standpoints stemming from the comparative
analysis of the alleged victimization cases, where these contentions were made either by the
proponents of the victim protection movements or by those scholars whose views on
victimization could be described as impartial but primarily academic and scientific in nature.
The need for such a distinction comes from the time when Fattah's writing was "highly
appropriate" in terms of articulating strong and convincing conservative undertones which
were combined with the ideas born in the North American victim's protection movement and
its ability to draw attention of the state authorities. Yet, this potpourri of activism and
political influence in favour of "hearing the voice of the victims" also developed in the
powerful Western European countries, such as England and Wales, in spite of a relatively
neutral position of the victim's support movement in these countries. 7 Until the early 1990s,
along with the growing number and the variety of groups and individuals that advocated the
victims' rights in those countries, there was a process of a growing concentration of victims'
political interests.8 Consequently, in the course of its development, victimology has branched
into a number of different directions, whose contents and time spans varied depending on the
approach of the victimologists who been advocating them.9

4
Ellias Robert, "Paradigms and Paradoxes of Victimology"
http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/proceedings/27/elias.pdf,
5
Sandra Walklate, loc. cit.
6
Ibid.
7
Ibid.
8
Ibid.
9
Konstantinovi-Vili, S., Nikoli-Ristanovi, V., Kosti, M., op.cit., page 461.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Ellias Robert, "Paradigms and Paradoxes of Victimology"


http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/proceedings/27/elias.pdf, discussed demeanour of
corporations is relevant.

Sandra Walklate, Imagining the Victim of Crime, McGrawHill, Open University Press 2007,
pages 29-30. discussed victimology and its meaning.

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OBJECTIVES

I. Examine Victimology and Rise of Victimology


II. Examine Relationship of Victim and the Offender

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HYPOTHESIS

The Penal Couple theory (The victim- criminal relationship) is to some variable extent
victims of criminal act may directly share in responsibility for the victimization.

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RESEARCH QUESTIONS

I. What is Victimology? Discuss Rise of Victimology in present time

II. Who is Victim of Crime? Explain Penal Couple theory

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The method of research adopted for the project is analytical methodology. For the
present project relevant data and information has been received and collected from
secondary sources and there has been use of authentic books and websites which
provided reliable information and data.

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Rise of Victimology

The end of the Second World War i.e. the late 40s saw the advent of the study of
victimology. Benjamin Mendelsohn, a Romanian attorney or Hans Von Hentig who fled to
America from Germany during 1940, are said to be the founding fathers of the study of
victimology. Both these writers were lawyers and criminologists and as such were very much
concerned with the understanding of the victim-victimizer dyad. The need to understand the
situation and dynamics that lead one to become offended and other an offender encouraged
them to form victim typologies. None of the writers suggested that there could be born
victims, but never the less they looked out and searched for ways to differentiate the potential
victim from the non-victim the differentiation was a novel field from the earlier concerns of
criminology.

The two writers explored the familial and natural origin of victimhood, victims,
characteristics, their relationship with the perpetrators, and offer a victim typology. Hans Von
Hentigs typology is based in 'victim-proneness' and Mendelsohn categorized capability The
psychology of victims and the dynamics and victimhood that have been earlier ignored due to
this new approach lead to the tendency to blame the victim.

Victim Blame school has a huge impact on all major writers, criminologists, scholars,
lawyers and psychiatrists though in proper etymological term victimogy means the study of
victims but the general trend has been to blame the victim in the past few years. Exploring the
psyche of victims has become synonymous with the blaming of the victim and role of the
victim in violent systems.

Hans Von Henting has said Possession of money has certainly to do with robbery and
prettiness of youth are contributing factors in criminal assaults.. if there are born criminals
it is evident that there are born victims. Self-harming and self-destroying through the medium
of a pliable outsider.

Von Henting also developed victim typologies. One set was for Four perfect murder
victims : The depressive , the greedy for gain, the wanton, and tormentor. The depressive
was described as a perfect murder victim because his depressed state made him someone who
Lacks ordinary prudence and discretion. Later these original four victim categories were
expanded to thirteen. Among these new Perfect victims were the young, the old, females,

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immigrants, normal people who are dull, the acquisitive, fighters and the lonely and the
heartbroken in the classic book on victimology, The Criminal and His victim , the influential
concept of the duet frame of crime the criminal and his victim was introduced. Given the
encompassing the, therefore, vague nature of perfect victim almost any person could be
part of this duet.

Thinking about ways of differentiating victims from nonvictims in this way reflects an
underpinning worldview that there is a normal person when measured against whom the
victim somehow falls short. The concept of victim precipitation is particularly revealing in
understanding victimology and its development.

Volenti non fit injuria- no one can complain of injury to which he has submitted willingly. In
many other instances, consent changes the legal aspect while the factual situation remains
unaltered. By his or her decision the victim can, in spite of loss and pain endured, turn factual
crime into a situation devoid of legal significance. Noncomplaint after the event practically
stands on a par with consent. The doer sufferer relation is put by our codes in mechanical
terms. A purse is snatched bodily harm is done. The sexual self-determination of a woman is
violated. Mental factors are, of course, taken into account. So is felonious intent or malice
aforethought. The consent of an adult woman changes the otherwise criminal act of rape
into a lawful occurrence or, at least, happening in which the law is not very much interested.
When the victim's consent or decide not to complain, to bear the loss and pain he loses his
legal rights though the facts remain the same. The decision whether due to coercion or not
affects the legal situation as such making him a contributor in the crime.

In a sense the victim shapes and mould the criminal although the final outcome may appear to
do one side, the victim and criminal profoundly work upon each other, right up until the last
moment in the drama. Ultimately the victim can assume the role of a determinant in the
event. These investigation attempted to describe the complex relationship between the diverse
and complimentary roles of perpetrators and victims in general and men and women in
particular in the dynamics of violence, assuming the victims have complementary needs to be
in a relationship with victimizers. Over the years, this relationship has been mentioned as
'Penal couple', 'duet frame of crime' and 'victim precipitation criminal homicide. Thus, the
beginning of victimology was with narrower goals : the contribution of the victim to a
criminal act and was given a broader and more meaningful perspective in late 1970s when
this victim blame climate gave way to the debate of nature vs. nurture and destiny vs. choice.

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Victim of Crime

The concept of a victim can be traced back to ancient societies. It was connected to the
notion of sacrifice. In the original meaning of the term, a victim was a person or an animal
put to death during a religious ceremony in order to appease some supernatural power or
deity. Over the centuries, the word has picked up additional meanings. Now it commonly
refers to individuals who suffer injuries, losses, or hardships for any reason. People can
become victims of accidents, natural disasters, diseases, or social problems such as warfare,
discrimination, political witch hunts, and other injustices. Crime victims are harmed by
illegal acts.

In criminology and criminal law, a victim of a crime is an identifiable person who has been
harmed individually and directly by the perpetrator, rather than by society as a whole.
However, this may not always be the case, as with victims of white collar crime, who may
not be clearly identifiable or directly linked to crime against a particular individual. Victims
of white collar crime are often denied their status as victims by the social construction of the
concept (Croall, 2001). Not all criminologists accept the concept of victimization or
victimology. The concept also remains a controversial topic within women's studies.

A victim impact panel is a form of community-based or restorative justice in which the crime
victims (or relatives and friends of deceased crime victims) meet with the defendant after
conviction to tell the convict about how the criminal activity affected them, in the hope of
rehabilitation or deterrence.

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Consequences of Crimes

The trauma of victimization is a direct reaction to the aftermath of crime. Crime victims
suffer a tremendous amount of physical and psychological trauma. The primary injuries
victims suffer can be grouped into three distinct categories: physical, financial and emotional.
When victims do not receive the appropriate support and intervention in the aftermath of the
crime, they suffer "secondary" injuries.

The physical injury suffered by victims may be as apparent as cuts, bruises, or broken arms
and legs. However, it is not uncommon for victims to be fatigued, unable to sleep, or have
increased or decreased appetites. Many victims believe that the stress caused by victimization
endangers them to physical problems later in life.

The Financial Injury is suffered by the victims and survivors when their money or jewelry is
taken, when their property is damaged, when their medical insurances does not cover all
expenses, and when they must pay funeral costs.

The primary emotional injuries of victimization cause both immediate and long-term
reactions to victims, their loved ones and, sometimes, their friends. Emotional distress as the
result of crime is a recurring theme for all victims of crime. The most common problem,
affecting three quarters of victims, were psychological problems, including: fear, anxiety,
nervousness, self-blame, anger, shame, and difficulty sleeping. These problems often result in
the development of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Post crime distress is also
linked to pre-existing emotional problems and socio-demographic variables. This has been
known to become a leading case of the elderly to be more adversely affected.(Ferraro, 1995)

Victims may experience the following psychological reactions:

Increase in the belief of personal vulnerability.

The perception of the world as meaningless and incomprehensible.

The view of themselves in a negative light.

The experience of victimization may result in an increasing fear of the victim of the
crime, and the spread of fear in the community.

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Dr. Morton Bard, co-author of The Crime Victim's Book, has described a victim's reaction to
crime as the crisis reaction. Victims will react differently depending upon the level of
personal violation they experience and their state of equilibrium at the time of victimization.
Victims of non-violent crimes such as theft may experience less of a personal violation than
victims of violent crimes, however, that is not always the case. Homicide is the ultimate
violation for a crime victim, and leaves behind the victim's survivors to experience the
personal violation. All people have their own "normal" state of equilibrium. This normal state
is influenced by everyday stressors such as illness, moving, changes in employment, and
family issues. When any one of these changes occur, equilibrium will be altered, but should
eventually return to normal. When people experience common stressors and are then
victimized, they are susceptible to more extreme crisis reactions. There are certain common
underlying reactions that a victim will undergo either in the immediate hours or days after the
crime. Frequent responses to a criminal victimization include, but are not limited to: shock;
numbness; denial; disbelief; anger; and, finally, recovery.

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The Penal Couple

The penal couple is defined as the relationship between perpetrator and victim of a crime.
That is, both are involved in the event. A sociologist invented the term in 1963. The term is
now accepted by many sociologists. The concept is, essentially, that "when a crime takes
place, it has two partners, one the offender and second the victim, who is providing
opportunity to the criminal in committing the crime." The victim, in this view, is "a
participant in the penal couple and should bear some 'functional responsibility' for the
crime."The very idea is rejected by some other victimologists as blaming the victim.

The victimology as a discipline began with the publication of Hans von Hentigs The
Criminal and His Victim in 1948. He made a remarkable contribution to criminology by
emphasizing and demonstrating the importance of the victim in the doer-sufferer
entanglement (von Hentig, 1948, 1967: 448) what Mendelsohn (1956: 99) later called the
penal couple of the victim and the offender.

He asserted that studying offenders without taking any interest in victims is futile, leading to
incomplete understanding or to incorrect conclusions. While criminologists have not fully
taken this insight on, it has become increasingly difficult to ignore. Indeed, the overlaps
between the two groups and the extent to which offending can be better understood when one
understands the offenders prior experiences of victimization have informed much recent
victimological research and writing (Boswell, 2000; Rumgay, 2004) and patterns of victim
behaviour have been studied by criminologists interested in repeat victimization (Gill and
Pease, 1998; Titus and Gover, 2001). These issues were raised in The Criminal and His
Victim (see for example the discussion of John Dillingers early history).

Many writers have argued that von Hentigs work laid down the basis for a pernicious
tendency which has become known as victim blaming: by studying the connections between
offending and victimization (rather than, for example, the social causes of victimization) he
individualized the issue and made it easier for criminal justice professionals, the media and
people in general to blame victims for their plight (Walklate, 1989).

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The argument that the collusion between perpetrator and victim is a fundamental fact of
criminology is made with great brio. Because von Hentigs study was the first, others
emulated it. On its own, it might not have had much influence, but it represented the
beginning of an academic tradition which has helped to justify some of the political and
judicial manifestations of victim blaming. The judge who introduced the notion of
contributory negligence may not even have been aware of von Hentigs concept of the
wanton victim but he was nevertheless probably influenced by it (Walklate, 1989).

Younger people, males and single people had consistently higher rates of victimization than
older people, females and those who were married. They reasoned that this must have to do
with victims lifestyles, and that there was likely to be a correlation between victims age,
gender and marital status and being in places and situations with high opportunities for
criminal victimization. In addition, certain conditions such as the proximity of offender and
victim and an offender sufficiently motivated to commit an offence are required. The
likelihood of these coinciding, they hypothesize, is related to lifestyles.

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Victim and Offender Dyad

From historical times it is assumed that the actions of victims were irrelevant is
understanding the hows & whys of crime occurrence. The focus was entirely on offender
while ignoring, dismissing or understanding the role of victim. But in the due time more so
after the have or second world war the society and the world at large saw the other half of
criminal dyad : Victim and his version of the crime.

The relationship between victim and the criminal was seen in a new light as to discover the
reason behind the why / how of criminals choice of victim. The relationship between the
victim and offender is much more intricate than the rough distinctions of criminal law. The
central thrust of the study of victim- criminal relationship is that to some variable extent of
the officially labelled victims of criminal act may directly share in responsibility for the
victimization.

There are different stages of victim offender relationship :

A. The victim has no prior knowledge of the crime. He dislikes very much being made a
victim. He inquires the policy about the victimization.

B. The victim has no prior knowledge of the crimes and he disapproves being made a
victim, but refrains from calling the police.

C. The victim has some prior awareness of the possible crime.

The first of these might be called victim non acceptance. The second and third might be
termed as victim acquiescence, unwilling with of without previous knowledge.

According to Mack10 These three develop out of number of social situation of which the
major ones are :

(a) The victim himself is a criminal .

10
Mack, Jack : A : A victim role typology of Rational Economics Property Crimes Victimology A New Focus,
(1974) Drapkin & Viano (Eds) Lexington Books Massachusetts p. 127

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(b) The victim is a near criminal.

(c) The victim has no open criminal associations.

(d) The victim belongs to an ethnic minority group.

There is much to be learned about victimization patterns and the factors that influence them.
Associated with the questions (of considerable importance) of victims precipitation , since
crime is an interactional process (Personage 1979, p. 10).

Therefore, the performance of the victimizer should be seen as a shared responsibility. From
the point of view, who may take on the role of victim or victimizer in particular situations
may have more to do with sheer chance than with anything else. Victimization is a problem
of relationship and responsibility. Who is responsible for what and to what extent? The
victimizer and the victim act on each other directly by sharing a common place, or indirectly
by symbolic, relationship Hence the victim can be viewed as a dependant variable by
examining the conditions which predispose certain kinds of persons to victimization.

The distinction between criminal and victim which used to be considered as clear cut as the
black and white, can become vague and blurred in individual cases. The longer and more
deeply the actions of the person involved are scrutinized the more difficult it occasionally
will be to decide who is to blame for tragic outcome (Mannhem, 1965, p. 672).

When a crime takes place it has two partners, one the offender and second the victim who is
providing the opportunity to the criminal in committing the crime. The first few pioneers of
victimology coined the expressions like 'duet frame of reference' (Hans Von Henting, 1941)
and the 'penal couple' (Mendelsohn, 1956), the 'doer suffers relationship' (Ellenberger, 1955).
Thus, came the concept of 'Shared responsibility Reconstructing the situation proceeding the
incident can provide a more balanced and complete picture of what happened. Who did what
to whom and why, and thereby represent an improvement over earlier one sided, static
perpetrator centered accounts (Fattah, 1979).

Scholars have begun to see the victim not just as a passive object, as the innocent point of
impact of crime on society, but as sometimes playing an active role and possibly contributing
to some degree to his own victimization. During the last thirty years, there has been
considerable debate, speculation and research into the victim's role the criminal - victim

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relationship, the concept of responsibility and behaviour that could be considered


provocative. Thus, the study of crime has taken a more realistic and more complete outlook.

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Theories

Usually, a theory is a statement that explains a given phenomena based on causal


relationships. In this case, what is needed is a statement that explains how and why
victimizations occur.

Beniamin Mendelsohn

The first person to begin the development of theoretical writings about victimology was the
Romanian defence attorney Beniamin Mendelsohn, who needed to understand victims to
improve his ability to defend offenders. To do this, in 1956 he created a short taxonomy of
six categories that centered on the relative guilt of victims. These categories were designed to
facilitate the degree to which a victim shared the responsibility for a crime with the offender;
however, they do not explain the causes of victimization. Mendelsohn was intrigued with the
relationship between the offender and the victim. He referred to this relationship phenomenon
as the penal couple.

1. The completely innocent victim.

2. The victim with minor guilt.

3. The victim who is as guilty as the offender.

4. The victim who is more guilty than the offender.

5. The most guilty victim.

6. The imaginary victim.

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Hans von Hentig

With the publication of his book, The Criminal and His Victim, von Hentig created a
taxonomy that described how victims were responsible for their harms. His schema was
based on psychological, social and biological factors. He was also interested in relationship
between offender and victim, in what he called the criminal-victim dyad. In 1948, he
developed three broad categorizations of victims.

1. General: age, gender, vulnerabilities.

2. Psychological: depressed, acquisitive, loneliness.

3. Activating: victim turned offender.

Ultimately, Von Hentig, expanded his categories to 13:

1. The Young

2. The Female

3. The Old

4. The Mentally Defective and Deranged

5. The Immigrants

6. The Minorities

7. The Dull Normals

8. The Depressed

9. The Acquisitive

10. Wanton

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11. The Lonesome and the Heartbroken

12. The Tormentor

13. The Blocked, Exempted, or Fighting

Stephen Schafer

Extending the work of von Hentig, Stephen Schafer used an ironic change of titles with his
book, The Victim and His Criminal. He was also focused on the offender victim interaction
and developed a taxonomy based on the victims functional responsibility for the crime:

1. Unrelated Victims (no victim responsibility)

2. Provocative Victims (victim shares responsibility)

3. Precipitative Victims (some degree of victim responsibility)

4. Biologically Weak Victims (no victim responsibility)

5. Socially Weak Victims (no victim responsibility)

6. Self-Victimizing (total victim responsibility)

7. Political Victim (no victim responsibility)

These three pioneer victimologists, strangely enough, were not focused on the injury caused
to the victim by the offender. Their main concern was with the victims role in contributing to
the crime and in the co-operation of the victim with the criminal justice system. Mendelsohn,
in 1976, proposed a different view of victims with his concept of general victimology which
considered the source of the victimization. Based on this notion, he listed five types of
victimizers:

1. A criminal

2. Ones self

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3. The social environment

4. Technology

5. The natural environment

6. Most crime victimologists are also criminologists.

Dietrich L. Smith and Kurt Weis

In 1976, Dietrich L. Smith and Kurt Weis created a rudimentary model of the General
Victimology perspective which considered the university of situations, events and processes
that likely lead to victimization.

1. The study of the creation of definitions of victims by legal processes, everyday processes
and scientific processes.

2. The study of applications of the above definitions by control agents, significant others,
community, behavioural and social scientists, and the victim him or herself.

3. The study of societal response systems with victims such as crisis intervention, social
services, police, prevention, medical services and civil courts.

4. The study of the victims reaction in the post-victimization behaviour such as seeking help,
complaints, and reactions to the response of others. 5.

John Dussich

The most recent attempt to create a unified comprehensive theory of victimization within the
scope of general victimology was created by John Dussich in 1985 with the presentation of
his Social Copy Theory. In 2004, It has been revised to the Psycho Social Coping Theory.
The essential ingredients of this model are to consider the existence of personal resources in
the victims environment that exist at the time of the victimization. Persons who have an
adequate number or type of resources are able to thwart their victimization; if the

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victimization is not thwarted, the injury can be diminished, and the victim is able to recover
sooner. Those with fewer personal resources in their environment will be more vulnerable to
victimization, greater injury, and less recovery. The unique aspect of this theory is that it
serves to both explain victimizations for all sources and it is useful to assist victims in their
recovery process.

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Critiques of Penal Couple Theory

The very idea is rejected by some other victimologists as blaming the victim. Victim blaming
occurs when the victim of a crime or any wrongful act are held entirely or partially
responsible for the harm that befell them. People familiar with victimology are much less
likely to see the victim as responsible. For example, there is a greater tendency to blame
victims of rape than victims of robbery in cases where victims and perpetrators know one
another.

Indeed, we find that the victim is accorded significant levels of attribution in their
maltreatment and that gender appreciably impacts this perception. Specifically, we find that
male victims are attributed the highest levels of blame for the crime committed against them,
while women are attributed equal or greater positions on the question of having no
responsibility for the crime or having some responsibility for the crime.

For Example : In 2005, Australian Muslim preacher Feiz Mohammad gave a speech in
Australia that was covered in Europe and the U.S. in which he blamed women themselves for
being rape victims. He said: "A victim of rape every minute somewhere in the world. Why?
No one to blame but herself. She displayed her beauty to the entire world... Strapless,
backless, sleeveless, showing their legs, nothing but satanic skirts, slit skirts, translucent
blouses, miniskirts, tight jeans: all this to tease man and appeal to his carnal nature.

Also, In a case that attracted worldwide coverage, when a woman was raped and killed in
India in December 2012, some Indian government officials and political leaders blamed the
victim for her outfit and being out late at night.

Theoretically, this may be explained within a framework of A Just World (Lerner, 1980;
Anderson, 2004). In this orientation, negative victim perception is seen to occur when an
observer overcompensates for a need to place an unfair act in a context that makes sense to
them. As Anderson (2004:2) writes:

One has a motivational need to believe that the world is just and fair place and that
behavioral outcomes are deserved (people get what they deserve and deserve what they
get), thus maintaining a sense of control and efficacy over the environment. To believe that

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unfortunate things happen to people without any apparent reason would prove chaotic and
would subsequently threaten ones sense of self-control.

Thus, to blame the victim is to create a sense of order and a belief that the world is
understandable and actions happen for a reason. Such beliefs however, especially for justice
professionals, truly deserve identification and discussion. For example, how much force to
use in restraining a suspect, or how one might treat a drug dealer who was shot versus a child
who was gunned down leaves room for the possibility of unequal treatment based on the
responsibility assigned to those associated with the crime?

Second, we find that gender does influence reactions to victims. The literature has historically
named gender a major factor in victim blaming (Howard, 1983; Anderson and Swainson,
2001; Anderson, 2004). In fact, victimization has typically been perceived as a feminine
experience.

This is to say that women are more likely to be thought of as potential victims and thus more
likely to be seen as the cause of their victimization. In this study, female victim attribution
does occur. Indeed, we find that women are attributed greater or equal positions on
responsibility for the crime committed against them versus no responsibility for the crime.
We believe that traditional female sex and gender role stereotyping along with perceptions of
a just world often make this so. One finding that is inconsistent with the literature is this
studys suggestion that men are more likely to be blamed for the crime committed against
them. We suppose this is due to participants perceiving (through gendered norms) woman as
incapable of defending themselves, whereas, men on the other hand should be able to resist
the attack and are thus more responsible for the crime committed against them.

While women are generally blamed for characteristics that conform to the female stereotype,
e.g., trust, passivity, carelessness (Howard, 1984), this study argues that men are blamed for
behaviors that contradict the male stereotype, e.g., failure to fight back, show of fear and
shame (Pollack, 1998). Put another way, when victimized, females are blamed for living up
to traditional female gender stereotypes while men are blamed for not living up to their
traditional gendered norms. In the end we hold that victim blaming, both male and female,
derive primarily from gender stereotypes.

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Furthermore we believe that victim services and criminal justice professionals would benefit
from a broader discussion of the relationship between blaming and gender identification. At
the very least, practitioners should be aware of the effects of perception on their overall
service actions and their reactions to victims.

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CONCLUSION

The use of such expressions as "the victim-offender problem" (Mac- Donald 1939), "the duet
frame of crime" (Von Hentig 1948), "the penal couple" (Ellenberger 1955), and, more
generally, "the victim-offender relationship" (Von Hentig 1940; Schafer 1968; Schultz 1968)
clearly indicates the significance of crime victims to the understanding of crime. Garofalo
(1914) was one of the first to note that a victim may provoke another into attack, whereas
Mendelsohn (1956) developed a victim typology that distinguishes victims who are more
culpable than their offenders from those who are considered totally guiltless.

Von Hentig (1948) described general classes of crime victims (e.g., the young, females, the
old, the mentally defective, the depressed, the acquisitive, the lonesome and heartbroken) and
some of the characteristics associated with these personal attributes that increase their
vulnerability to crime. Such a list of phrases is not a history, and it would be incorrect to
claim that modern victim theories are merely the latest variants in a long lineage of earlier
victim theories. These early writers did not propose theories, and even some of the concepts
they used were primitive.

Furthermore, it is speculative at best to attempt to sketch a victim theory ancestry since there
seem to be few connections among these early works. Although it is difficult to trace the
origins of any particular theoretical perspective.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

JOURNALS & BOOKS WEBSITES

ELLIAS ROBERT, "PARADIGMS AND PARADOXES OF VICTIMOLOGY"


SANDRA WALKLATE, IMAGINING THE VICTIM OF CRIME, MCGRAWHILL, OPEN
UNIVERSITY PRESS 2007
MACK, JACK : A : A VICTIM ROLE TYPOLOGY OF RATIONAL ECONOMICS PROPERTY
CRIMES VICTIMOLOGY A NEW FOCUS, (1974)
DHAMMIKA DHARAMAPALA, NUNO GAROUPA, AND RICHARD H. MCADAMS, BELIEF IN
A JUST WORLD, BLAMING THE VICTIM AND HATE CRIME STATUES, 2008

COLIN LOFTIN, KAREN KINDLEY, SANDRA L. NORRIS, BRIAN WIERSEMAAN


ATTRIBUTE APPROACH TO RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN OFFENDERS AND VICTIMS IN

HOMICIDE, 1987
WILLIAMS, BRIAN K., CHONG, HANNAH GOODMAN, THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE

DISCIPLINE: INTRODUCTION, 2009

ANDREW KARMEN, CRIME VICTIMS INTRODUCTION TO VICTIMOLOGY, 1984


SELF-BLAME AND BLAME OF RAPE VICTIMS, NANCY E. SNOW, PUBLIC AFFAIRS
QUARTERLY, VOL. 8, NO. 4 (OCT., 1994)

WEBSITES

THE TRAUMA OF VICTIMIZATION, HTTP://WWW.VICTIMSOFCRIME.ORG/HELP-

FOR-CRIME-VICTIMS/GET-HELP-BULLETINS-FOR-CRIME-VICTIMS/TRAUMA-OF-

VICTIMIZATION, ACCESSED ON APRIL 3, 2016.

PENAL COUPLE,
HTTP://WWW.GUTENBERG.US/ARTICLES/PENAL_COUPLE#CITE_NOTE-3,

ACCESSED ON APRIL 3, 2016.

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BLAMING THE VICTIMS, HTTP://WWW. DANIELPIPES.ORG/11179/BLAMING-THE-

VICTIMS, ACCESSED ON APRIL 3, 2016.

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