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MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING

ME136P / A2
Engineering Materials, Processes and Testing

Experiment No. 1
Physical Study of Universal Testing Machine

Martinez, Sheena Li R. Date Performed: 25 April 2017


2015100131 Date Submitted: 2 May 2017

Prof. Rj Lawrence Tiu


Professor
I. OBJECTIVES (5pts including title page)

To familiarize on the different parts and operation of the Universal Testing Machine.

II. INTRODUCTION (10 pts)

It is necessary for students, especially those in the field of mechanical engineering to be


able to properly utilize a Universal Testing Machine. The UTM is used to test the properties of a
material, to be able to select the one most appropriate for a specific application. It is also used for
quality control and to predict how a material will behave under certain types of force. However,
before the actual operation of the machine, it is vital to familiarize the students with the UTMs
various parts and operation. Thus, this experiment focuses on naming the parts of the machine,
and identifying its functions. Figure 1 will be the particular model that the students will be using
in the current and succeeding experiments.

Figure 1. UTM of Mapua Institute of Technology (Model: Shimadzu UH-1000kNIR)


III. RELATED RESEARCH (10 pts including references)

The Universal Testing Machine, alternatively known as a materials testing machine, is used
to test the tensile and compressive properties of a multitude of materials. They are called
universal because it can test and examine the mechanical properties of the specimen placed in
the machine. Some test function includes tensile test, compressive test, shear, bending, tortion, etc.
These machines can be categorized based on its number of columns (single, double, four column),
but the most commonly used is the dual/double column. The key parameters of force and
deformation are measured by the load cells and extensometers and can be presented in graphical
mode if the machine is computer operated.

Since the specimen differs in sizes, the load is calculated per unit area. Stress, the force
exerted on the material, is calculated by dividing the force by area. Strain, the effect of stress, is
calculated by dividing the initial length to the change in length. (In tension and compression, the
area that should be measured is perpendicular to the applied force.) The observation of Stress-
Strain Behavior is key in both tensile and compression tests. In tensile strength, the stress-strain
passes through a maximum, then falls as the material starts to develop a neck then finally ruptures
at the fracture point.

This machine is widely used and is important in materials testing laboratories. In Mapa,
the UTM for our experiments is located in the north building, ground floor. It is primarily used for
compression testing of concrete and other solids. The model has a 1000kN (220,000lbf) capacity.

IV. LIST OF APPARATUS/MATERIALS (5 pts)

Pen, Ruler and letter sized paper (for labelling/illustration)


Shimadzu Universal Testing Machine, UH-1000kNIR Model, Computer Controlled
Hydraulic Servo Testing Machine
Figure 2. Universal Testing Machine Figure 3. Materials for labelling

V. PROCEDURES (10 pts)

1. Listen carefully to the lecture on the Universal Testing Machine.


2. Briefly study the illustrations of the UTM in the manual.
3. Proceed to the Materials Testing Lab and photograph the various parts of the machine.
4. Make sure to capture the 3 main units of the UTM, shown in figures 4, 5, and 6.

Figure 4. Loading Unit Figure 5. Control/Measuring Unit


Figure 6. Hydraulic Unit
5. Take note of the parts in between taking photos.
6. Print the photographs taken from the lab.
7. Identify the parts and label accordingly. Refer to the manual if necessary.
VI. FINAL DATA SHEET (5 pts)

Column

Drive Screw

Upper Crosshead

Tension Nut Cap

Elevation Motor
Lower Crosshead

Table Cover Table Top Protective Mat

Table

Loading Unit
Table Roller Guide
Ram
Loading Cylinder

Bed Cover
Drive Screw Fixing Nut

Bed

Hydraulic Unit
Load Display Meter
Upper Rear Cover (back)

Emergency Stop

Power Control Unit Manual Operation Panel

Power Switch (side)

Automatic Control Panel

Front Cover/Casing

Lower Rear Cover (back)

Control Unit
VII. QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS (10 pts)

1. Illustrate the Universal Testing Machine and label the parts.


2. Give the functions of each single part.
Loading Cylinder It converts fluid power to mechanical motion (linear or circular).
Ram This is where the specimen is loaded.
Bed It is the base of the UTM.
Table It is where the specimen to be tested for compression placed.
Upper and Lower Crossheads Clamps the specimen to be tested.
Drive Screw It enables direct load to the specimen and supports the lower crosshead.
Column They support the (upper) crosshead and are driven by motor.
Tension Nut Cup Stabilizes and controls the tension of the UTM
Drive Screw Fixing Nut It holds the drive screw in place.
Elevation Motor It controls the movement of the lower crosshead.
Table Roller Guide It enables a precise placing of the material.
Table Cover Protects and covers the table.
Bed Cover Protects and covers the bed.
Table Top Protective Mat It protects the table from being damaged by specimens.
Upper and Lower Rear Cover It covers the rear part of the measuring unit.
Power Switch Turns the machine on or off.
Casing Covers and protects the internal parts. Located in the front
Power Control Unit Contains power controls.
Manual Operation Panel This contains manual controls of UTM.
Automatic Control Panel This contains the controls to configure UTM automatically.
Load Display Meter Displays whether or not the maximum load has been reached.

3. Enumerate the uses of Universal Testing Machine.


The UTM can perform various tests including the following:
Tensile Test determines the value for tensile strength, ultimate strength, elongation,
modulus of elasticity, yield strength, Poissons ratio, and strain hardening.
Compression Test determines the of compressive strength, yield strength, ultimate
strength, elastic limit, and elastic modulus of a material by applying a compressive load
then measuring fundamental variables, such as, strain, stress, and deformation
Bend Test - determines the ductility or resistance to fracture of a material
Bond Test - determine the ability of an adhesive to remain in contact with a material
while under load
Flexural Test- determines the flexural strength and flexural modulus of a material.
Fracture Test - determines a materials ability to resist the growth or propagation of a
pre-existing flaw; a flaw can be a fatigue, crack, void, or any other inconsistency
Peel Test determines the strength of the adhesive bond between two materials.
Sheer Test determines maximum shear stress that the material can withstand before
failure (sheer strength)
Tear Test - determines the ability of a material to resist the growth of the initial tear
(tear resistance)

VIII. DISCUSSION (10 pts)

The model of the Universal Testing Machine that we had photographed and labelled differs
from the machine in the book. Thus, the students encountered some confusion in finding some
parts. The lab assistant, however, clarified that some parts are no longer existing (or not visible)
in the newer model.

IX. CONCLUSION (10 pts)

The students were able to successfully identify and label the various parts of the Universal
Testing Machine, though they were unable to accurately observe how the machine works in
reality.

X. RECOMMENDATION (5 pts)
It would be more efficient to take photographs of the machine part by part, and also as a
whole. Taking a photo up close will ensure that the details (such as switches and buttons) may
be seen.
Since the objective of this experiment is to be familiarized with the parts AND operation
of the machine, it would better to see the machine operate. In this way, the students would get
to see the parts in motion as it operates, instead of seeing it stationary.

XI. REFERENCES
Davis, Joseph R. (2004), Tensile testing, ASM International

Hussain, G. (2013, June 16), Universal testing machines. Retrieved from


https://www.slideshare.net/e_gulfam/universal-testing-machines-23088618

(2017, January 30), What is a Universal Testing Machine?. Retrieved from


http://www.admet.com/what-is-a-universal-testing-machine-2/

UH-X/FX Series Hydraulic Universal Testing MachinesReliable, High-precision


Control Performance Shimadzu Instruments. Retrieved from
http://www.ssi.shimadzu.com/products/product.cfm?product=uh-x_fx

TestResources | Test Machines, Grips and Fixtures. Retrieved from


http://www.testresources.net/test-machines/universal-testing-machines/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Map%C3%BAa_Institute_of_Technology#Instruments_
and_Testers

(PRELIMINARY DATA SHEET 20 pts)