THIRD EDITION
Graham Barnes
palgrave
macmiiian
Contents
Summary 13 Permeability 47
Introduction 47
Groundwater 47
2 Soil description and classification 14
Flow problems 48
Objectives 14 Flow into excavations 48
Soil description 14 Flow around cofferdams 48
Soil categories 14 Dewatering 48
Made ground 14 Flow through earth structures 49
hydraulic cell 
horizontal Pore pressure parameters theory 
110
permeability 58 Pore pressure parameters A and B 111
Laboratory test ~
triaxial cell vertical Capillary rise above the water table 112

permeability 58 Effective stresses above the water table 114
Borehole tests 
overturning 268
Eccentric loading 268
8 Geotechnical Eurocodes 243
Inclined loading 270
Objectives 243 Different soil strength cases 270
Relevant Eurocodes 243 Effect of water table 271
Personnel 243 Net ultimate bearing capacity 271
Geotechnical Design Report 243 Effect of compressibility of soil 271
Geotechnical Risk 244 Sliding 271
stability 255
Modulus increasing with depth 291
Objectives 255 Effect of local yielding 292
Shallow foundations 255 Estimation of undrained modulus 294
Ea
Definition 255 Consolidation settlement 295
Spread foundations 255 General 295
Types of foundation 256 Compression index Cc method 296
Depth of foundations 259 Oedometer modulus oed or
mv method 297
Total settlement 298 Driven piles in sand 336
Effective stress for adhesion 336 Earth pressures due to compaction 374
approach
Retaining structures 376 13 Slope stability 417
Introduction 376
Basement walls
Objectives 417
376
Natural and artificial slopes 417
Bridge abutments 379
Introduction 417
Gabions and cribwork 379
Types of mass movement 417
Design of gravity walls 379
Natural slopes 417
Serviceability limit states 379
Artificial slopes or earthworks 420
Ultimate limit states 379
Shortterm and longterm conditions 421
Loss of overall stability 380
Methods of analysis 425
Overturning or rotational failure 380
Plane translational slide 
general 425
Bearing pressure under the toe 380
Plane translational slide 
Eurocode
Bearing capacity 381
approach 425
Sliding 382
Plane translational slide 
general 383
Circular arc analysis undrained condition

design 383
or 0U 0 analysis
= 429
Single anchor or propped embedded walls
Tension crack 430
general 384
Undrained analysis stability charts 
design 390
Case studies 445
External stability 391
Worked examples 449
Internal stability 
general 392
Exercises 459
Tensile rupture 393
Pullout resistance or adherence 393
Internalstability tieback wedge

method 394
14 Earthworks and soil compaction 462
Coherent gravity method 395
Summary 397 Objectives 462
Case studies 398 Earthworks 462
Worked examples 402 Introduction 462
Exercises 415 Construction plant 462
Purpose and types of materials 463 15 Site investigation 499
Material requirements 466
Objectives 499
Suitability of fill material 466
499
Site investigation
Suitability of granular soils 467
499
Introduction
Suitability of cohesive soils 468
500
Relationship with geotechnical design
Moisture condition test 469
Stages of investigation 501
Efficiency of
earthmoving 471
501
Desk study
Material probl ems 471
Site inspection 501
Softening 471
501
Ground investigation
Bulking 472
Extent of the ground investigation 501
Soil compaction 474
Depth of exploration 502
Factors affecting compaction 474
Choice of method of investigation 503
Field compaction 476
Methods of ground investigation 504
Compaction plant 476
Undisturbed sampling sampling quality 508

Specification of compaction 478
Types of samples 509
Control of compaction in the field 480
Methods of in situ testing 512
Laboratory compaction 482
Dilatometer tests 515
Light compaction test 482
Groundwater observations 516
Heavy compaction 483
Investigation of contaminated land 519
Vibrating hammer 483
Ground investigation report 520
Air voids lines 484
Presentation of geotechnical information 520
Correction for oversize particles 484
Factual report 520
California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test 484
Geotechnical evaluation 522
Addition of lime 485
Summary 525
Cement stabilisation 486
Summary 487
Answers to Exercises 526
Case study 488
Glossary 528
Worked examples 490
References 530
Exercises 497
Index 540