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SOIL MECHANICS:

Principles and Practice

THIRD EDITION

Graham Barnes

palgrave
macmiiian
Contents

Preface xii Fine soil 19


List of symbols xiv Mass structure 21
Note on units xix Degree of weathering 22
List of case studies XX Geological origin 22
Soil classification 22
Particle density 23
1 Soil formation and nature 1
Particle shape 24

Objectives 1 Particle size distribution 24


Soil formation 1 Grading characteristics 27
Man-made soils 1 Density 28
Contaminated and polluted soils 2 Density Index 29
Naturally occurring soils 2 Moisture content or water content 30
In situ soils weathered rocks 2 Atterberg limits 31
-
In situ soils peat 3 Activity Index 35
-
Water-borne soils 3 Shrinkage limit 36
Glacial deposits 4 Soil model 36
Wind-blown soils 6 Summary 39
Soil particles 6 Worked examples 39
Nature of particles 6 Exercises 46
Clay minerals 8
Soil structure 10
3 Permeability and seepage 47
Cohesive soils 10
Granular soils 13 Objectives 47

Summary 13 Permeability 47
Introduction 47
Groundwater 47
2 Soil description and classification 14
Flow problems 48
Objectives 14 Flow into excavations 48
Soil description 14 Flow around cofferdams 48
Soil categories 14 Dewatering 48
Made ground 14 Flow through earth structures 49

Organic soils 15 Stability problems 'running sand'


-
49
Volcanic soil 15 Boiling or heaving in cofferdams 49
Particle size fractions fundamental basis 16 Piping 50
-
Very coarse soil 16 Heaving beneath a clay layer 50
Coarse soil 17 Uplift pressures 50
Fines 18 Soil voids 50

Composite soils 18 Pressure and head 51


Darcy's law 51 Normally consolidated clay 98
Effect of temperature 52 Overconsolidated clay 101
Empirical correlations for k 52 Desiccated crust 103
Layered soils 54 Present state of stress in the ground 103
Laboratory test constant head permeameter
-
55 Mohr's circle of stress 104
Laboratory test -

falling head permeameter 56 In situ horizontal and vertical stresses 104


Laboratory test -

hydraulic cell vertical-

Changes in stress due to engineering


permeability 57 structures 108
Laboratory test -

hydraulic cell -
horizontal Pore pressure parameters theory -
110
permeability 58 Pore pressure parameters A and B 111
Laboratory test ~
triaxial cell vertical Capillary rise above the water table 112
-
permeability 58 Effective stresses above the water table 114
Borehole tests -

open borehole 58 Desiccation of clay soils 115


Borehole tests -

packer tests 61 Suctions 116


Borehole tests -

piezometers 62 Frost action in soils 118


Pumping tests 63 Frost heave test 120
Seepage 63 Permafrost 121
Seepage theory 63 Ground freezing 121
Flow nets 66 Summary 122
Flow net construction 67 Case study 123
Seepage quantities 69 Worked examples 125
Total head, elevation head and pressure head 70 Exercises 130
Pore pressure and uplift pressure 71
Failure by uplift (buoyancy) 71
5 Contact pressure and stress
Seepage force 72
distribution 132
Quick condition, boiling and internal erosion 72

Critical hydraulic gradient 73 Objectives 132


Failure by internal erosion 73 Contact pressure 132
Failure by heave sheet piling 73 Contact pressure uniform loading 132
-
-

Failure by piping 74 Contact pressure -

point loading 133


Seepage through earth dams 74 Stress distribution 134
Seepage through flood banks, levees 74 Stresses beneath point load and line
Soil filters 76 load 134
Summary 78 Assumptions 134
Case studies 79 Stresses beneath uniformly loaded areas 136
Worked examples 83 Bulbs of pressure 137
Exercises 94 Stresses beneath flexible 137
a rectangle
Principle of superposition 137
Stresses beneath flexible area of any shape 137
I Effective stress and pore pressure 97
Stresses beneath a flexible
Objectives 97 rectangle -
finite soil thickness 137
Total stress 97 Stresses beneath
rigid rectangle
a 139
Pore pressure below the water table 97 Embankment loading 141
Effective stress 98 Summary 143
Effective stress in the ground 98 Worked examples 144
Stress history 98 Exercises 149
6 Compressibility and consolidation 150 Axial symmetry 192
Plane strain 192
Objectives 150
Introduction 150
0 condition 192
Normal and shear strains 192
Compressibility 150
Mohr circle of strain 194
Void ratio/effective stress plot 150
Volumetric strains 194
Reloading curves 151
Shear strength 194
Preconsolidation pressure cxp' and Effect of strain 194
overconsolidated ratio OCR 152
Idealised stress-strain relationships 197
Casagrande
'

method for c 152


Yield and plasticity 197
Effect of sampling disturbance 153
Flow rule and normality 198
In situ curve for normally consolidated clay 153
Failure criterion 199
In situ curve for overconsolidated clay 153
Failure of soil in the ground 199
Effect of load increments 154
Stress paths 201
Effect of duration of load 154
Effects of drainage 202
Effect of secondary compressions 155
Testprocedures 205
Isotropic compression 156
Shear strength of sand 206
Anisotropic compression 156
Stress-strain behaviour 206
Consolidation 157
Shear box test 207
Terzaghi theory of one-dimensional
Effect of packing and particle nature 208
consolidation 157
Constant volume condition 210
Solution of the consolidation equation 159
Effect of density 210
Isochrones 159
Shear strength of clay 211
Average degree of consolidation 160
Effect of sampling 211
Oedometer test 162
Undrained cohesion, cu 211
Coefficient of consolidation, root time
cv -

Strength index tests 211


method 164
Strength tests 212
Coefficient of consolidation, log time
cv -

Laboratory vane test 212


method 166
Fall cone test 212
In situ
cy values 167
Unconfined
Rowe consolidation cell 167
compression test 212

Field vane test 213


Two- and three-dimensional consolidation 169
Triaxialtest 214
Correction for construction
period 170
Triaxial unconsolidated undrained (UU) test 216
Precompression by surcharging 171
Multi-stage (UU) test 217
Radial consolidation for vertical drains 172
Effect of clay content and mineralogy 218
Summary 175
Partially saturated clays 218
Case studies 176
Fissured clays 218
Worked examples 180
Variation with depth 219
Exercises 188
Frictional characteristics 221
Test procedures 221
7 Shear strength 190 Triaxial consolidated undrained (CU) test 222

Triaxial consolidated drained (CD) test 224


Objectives 190
Critical state theory 224
Introduction 190
Parameters 225
Stresses and strains in soils 191
State boundary surface 225
Representation of stresses 191
normal consolidation line 225
Isotropic (ICL)
Pole 191
KQ normal consolidation line (KQ CL) 227
Principal stresses 191
Critical state line (CSL) 227
Roscoe surface 228 Foundation design 263

Tension cut-off 229 Design requirements 263

Hvorslev surface 229 Traditional approach compared with the

The elastic wall 230 Eurocodes 264

Real soils 231 Bearing resistance 264

Residual strength 231 Modes of failure 264

Summary 233 Bearing capacity and bearing resistance 266

Case study 234 Shape factors 267

Worked examples 236 Depth factors 267


Exercises 241 Base inclination factors 267
Bearing resistance -

overturning 268
Eccentric loading 268
8 Geotechnical Eurocodes 243
Inclined loading 270
Objectives 243 Different soil strength cases 270
Relevant Eurocodes 243 Effect of water table 271
Personnel 243 Net ultimate bearing capacity 271
Geotechnical Design Report 243 Effect of compressibility of soil 271
Geotechnical Risk 244 Sliding 271

Durability 245 Allowable bearing pressure of sand 272


Geometrical data 245 Introduction 272
Limit states 246 Settlement limit 272
Verification of limit states 247 Allowable bearing pressure 272
Design by prescriptive measures 247 Corrected SPT N values 273

Design by experimental models and Summary 275


load tests 247 Case studies 276
Observational method 247 Worked examples 279
Design by calculation 248 Exercises 285
Models and model factors 248
Actions 248
10 Shallow foundations -

Design situations and values of actions 248


settlements 287
Characteristic and representative values of
actions 249 Objectives 287

Design values of actions 249 Introduction 287


Effects of actions E& 249 Are settlement calculations required? 288

Design resistances 249 Immediate settlement 289

Design approach and partial factors 249 General method 289


Characteristic values of geotechnical Principle of superposition 290

parameters 251 Principle of layering 290

Summary 254 Rigidity correction 290

Depth correction 291

9 Shallow foundations Average settlement 291


-

stability 255
Modulus increasing with depth 291
Objectives 255 Effect of local yielding 292
Shallow foundations 255 Estimation of undrained modulus 294
Ea
Definition 255 Consolidation settlement 295
Spread foundations 255 General 295
Types of foundation 256 Compression index Cc method 296
Depth of foundations 259 Oedometer modulus oed or
mv method 297
Total settlement 298 Driven piles in sand 336

Skempton-Bjerrum method 298 Effects of installation 336


Elastic drained method 299 End bearing resistance qb 337
Estimation of drained modulus E 299 Critical depth 337
Proportion of immediate to total settlement 299 Skin
friction/s 339
Secondary compression 302 Bored piles in sand 340
Introduction 302 Mobilisation of base and shaft loads 340
General method 302 skin friction) 341
Downdrag (negative
Estimation of Ca or ea values 303 Causes of downdrag 341
Sands 304 Determination of downdrag 342
Methods of estimating settlements 304 Pile groups 342
Schmertrnann's method 304 Stiffness of pile cap and structure 342
Burland and Burbridge's method 306 Pile 342
spacing
Permissible settlements 307 Stressed zone 343
Definitions of ground and foundation Load variation 343
movement 307 343
Efficiency
Criteria for movements 309 344
Ultimate capacity
Routine settlement limits 309
Settlement ratio 345
Summary 311
Settlement of pile groups 347
Case studies 312
Summary 348
Worked examples 317
Case studies 349
Exercises 324
Worked examples 352
Exercises 358

11 Pile foundations 326

Objectives 326 12 Lateral earth pressures and


Pile foundations 326 retaining structures 360
Introduction 326
Objectives 360
Types of pile 326
Lateral earth pressures 360
Loading conditions 326
Introduction 360
Uncertainty of design calculation methods 327
Effect of horizontal movement 360
Limit states 328
Effect of wall flexibility and propping 364
Pile load tests 328
Effect of wall friction 364
Ultimate compressive resistance from
Coulomb theory -
active force 365
static load tests 329
Coulomb theory -

passive force 366


Ultimate compressive resistance from
Limitations of the Coulomb theory 366
ground test results 330
Earth pressure coefficients 367
Ultimate compressive resistance from
other methods
Effect of cohesion intercept c' 369
330
Minimum equivalent fluid pressure 369
Weight of pile 331
Effect of water table gravity walls 370
Bored piles in clay 332
-

Effect of water table embedded walls 371


End bearing resistance qh 332
-

Adhesion ca 332 Undrained conditions 372


Driven piles in 334 Earth pressures undrained condition 372
clay
-

End resistance qh 334 Tension cracks 373


bearing
Adhesion installation effects 334 Uniform surcharge 373
ca
-

Adhesion values 334 Line loads and point loads 374


ca
-

Effective stress for adhesion 336 Earth pressures due to compaction 374
approach
Retaining structures 376 13 Slope stability 417
Introduction 376
Basement walls
Objectives 417
376
Natural and artificial slopes 417
Bridge abutments 379
Introduction 417
Gabions and cribwork 379
Types of mass movement 417
Design of gravity walls 379
Natural slopes 417
Serviceability limit states 379
Artificial slopes or earthworks 420
Ultimate limit states 379
Short-term and long-term conditions 421
Loss of overall stability 380
Methods of analysis 425
Overturning or rotational failure 380
Plane translational slide -

general 425
Bearing pressure under the toe 380
Plane translational slide -
Eurocode
Bearing capacity 381
approach 425
Sliding 382
Plane translational slide -

special cases 426


Failure of structural elements 382
Stability of vertical cuts 428
Design of embedded walls 382
Circular analysis general
arc -
429
Cantilever embedded walls -

general 383
Circular arc analysis undrained condition
-

Cantilever embedded walls -

design 383
or 0U 0 analysis
= 429
Single anchor or propped embedded walls
Tension crack 430
-general 384
Undrained analysis stability charts -

Single anchor or propped embedded walls


Taylor's method 431
-design 384
Effective stress analysis 432
Design methods 384
Effective stress analysis -
method of
Gross pressure method 384
slices 432
Net available passive resistance method 385
Bishop simplified method 433
Factor on strength method 385
Bishop simplified method -
limit state
BS8002 method 386
approach 434
Anchorages for embedded walls 386
Pore pressure ratio ru 435
Strutted excavations and cofferdams 387
Introduction 387
Stability coefficients -
r method 435

Strut loads 387


Stability coefficients water table method
-
438
Submerged slopes 439
Base stability of excavations 388
Base stability -
shallow excavations 388
Rapid drawdown 439
Non-circular slip surfaces 440
Base stability -

deep excavations 389


Reinforced soil 389
Wedge method single plane
-
441

Reinforced soil walls -


construction 389
Wedge method multi-plane
-
441
Factors affecting stability and slope design 443
Effects of reinforcement 390
Summary 444
Reinforced soil walls -

design 390
Case studies 445
External stability 391
Worked examples 449
Internal stability -

general 392
Exercises 459
Tensile rupture 393
Pull-out resistance or adherence 393
Internalstability tie-back wedge
-
method 394
14 Earthworks and soil compaction 462
Coherent gravity method 395
Summary 397 Objectives 462
Case studies 398 Earthworks 462
Worked examples 402 Introduction 462
Exercises 415 Construction plant 462
Purpose and types of materials 463 15 Site investigation 499
Material requirements 466
Objectives 499
Suitability of fill material 466
499
Site investigation
Suitability of granular soils 467
499
Introduction
Suitability of cohesive soils 468
500
Relationship with geotechnical design
Moisture condition test 469
Stages of investigation 501
Efficiency of
earthmoving 471
501
Desk study
Material probl ems 471
Site inspection 501
Softening 471
501
Ground investigation
Bulking 472
Extent of the ground investigation 501
Soil compaction 474
Depth of exploration 502
Factors affecting compaction 474
Choice of method of investigation 503
Field compaction 476
Methods of ground investigation 504
Compaction plant 476
Undisturbed sampling sampling quality 508

-
Specification of compaction 478
Types of samples 509
Control of compaction in the field 480
Methods of in situ testing 512
Laboratory compaction 482
Dilatometer tests 515
Light compaction test 482
Groundwater observations 516
Heavy compaction 483
Investigation of contaminated land 519
Vibrating hammer 483
Ground investigation report 520
Air voids lines 484
Presentation of geotechnical information 520
Correction for oversize particles 484
Factual report 520
California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test 484
Geotechnical evaluation 522
Addition of lime 485
Summary 525
Cement stabilisation 486

Summary 487
Answers to Exercises 526
Case study 488
Glossary 528
Worked examples 490
References 530
Exercises 497
Index 540