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Potential Natural independent variables * Conjugated variables Maxwell relations

       
S, V U U U
U T= =
S V S V S V V S V S
     
U p T
dU = TdS pdV p = =
V S S V V S

     "  #
S, p H H H
H T= =
S V S p S p p S p S

     
H V T
dH = TdS + Vdp V= =
p S
S p p S

       
T, V F F F
F p = =
V T T V T V V T V T
     
F p S
dF = SdT pdV S = =
T V T V V T

     "  #
T, p G G G
G V= =
p T T p T p p T p T

     
G V S
dG = SdT + Vdp S = =
T p T p p T

Table 1: Thermodynamic potentials, natural independent variables and Maxwell relations

*This does not mean that the thermodynamic potentials cant be expressed as functions of other
independent variables. Examples would be the caloric equation of U (V,T) from which one defines
the heat capacity at constant volume or H (p,T) from which one defines the heat capacity at constant
pressure.