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2017

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BOD COD
(
) (
)
...
MLSS

..

MLSS
.

8 /



:





.



MLSS 3500/


3000/ 6000-/

.

9 /








.


. SCADA

10 /


.






.

11 /
1-1 ( )

Population forecast


/
( )
( )


adhesion index


..

population forecasts

* linear or athematic growth

* geometric growth

* multiplicative regression
12 /
* decreasing growth rate

* logistic growth



2020
300000 2020


150000 1990
200000 2000
250000 2010

13 /
:

= Ka == = 5000
20 250000150000
20 20101990

) Pt = P0 + Ka ( t t0 )= 150000 + 5000( t 1990

2020 t 20 20

) Pt = P0 + Ka ( t t0 )= 150000 + 5000( t 1990

Pt = P0 + Ka ( t t0 )= 150000 + 5000( 2020 1990 )=300000

= Kg
20
20

)Pt = P0 (0

= Ps
)20 .1 .212 ( 0=2
0 .212

= Kd
)ln{(2)/(0
20

)Pt = P0 +(Ps P0) { 1 - 0.0371 (1990

2020 t

14 /

= Ps
)20 .1 .212 ( 0=2
0 .212

=C
)( 0
0

= K1
1 )0( 1
{ }
21 )1 ( 0

= Pt

)1+ . K1 (0

Inflection time =t0 -


) (
1

300000 2020

15 /
2-1

Average sewage flow



return confident

R = sewage flow /water flow

% 100 - %60 %80

R = sewage flow /water flow= 0.8

Q = = m3 / d

w.average
1000

Q = = L/s

w.average
86400

16 /
= Q / 3 / w.average

= Lpcd /

R /


%50 - %20 %30 100
70 100 ( 70 ) 80%
56
.

1-2-1 flow variation maximum and


minimum

17 /

K1= 1.2

K1= 1.5

K1= 0.5
:

Q max. = Q ave. x K1 . K2 = 1.8 Q ave.

Q min. = Q ave. x K3 = 0.5 Q ave.


18 /
Q max. / Q ave.= 1 + 14/4+P0.5

2-2-1 infiltration flow


0.01 1 m3/d.Kmper
mm 200 2-200 m3/d.Km per


2.5-3.5 m
3-2 2-1
150-8
125-25
0.2-20 20 -
2000m3/dKm2

19 /
3-1

Main parameters defining the quality of wastewater

1-3-1 solids

1-1-3-1 classification by size


47

filterable solids
nonfilterable solids
.

particulate
BOD
COD

.
20 /
10-3 10-3 -100
100 .

2-1-3-1 Classification by chemical


characteristics

550


.

classification by stability 3-1-3-1


/
.

4-1

Carbonaceous organic matter



%40
%50-25 % 10
.
21 /

biodegradable
inert ...

.


BOD
COD ultimate BODu
. TOC

1-4-1 ( ) biochemical oxygen demand



C6H12O6
theoretical oxygen demand TOD
22 /



( ) BOD


.

20

BODu

BOD5
BODu 20
BOD520





300/
.
23 /



:

* BODu/BOD5

ultimate biochemical oxygen demand BODu

BOD5


24 /

BOD5

BODu/ BOD5
1.1 1.5
1.2 1.6
1.2 1.6
1.5 - 3

1.46 BOD5=300 mg/l


BODu = 300x1.46=438m/l
68.5%

2-4-1 ( ) chemical oxygen demand


COD

25 /






.



COD/BOD5=1.7 2.4 2.1
.

* COD/BOD5=2.5-3

* COD/BOD5=2.5 4

* COD/BOD5=3.5 4
.

26 /
COD/BOD5

COD/BOD5 ( .) 3

total organic carbon TOC

COD/BOD5 BODu/BOD5

* ( )1

* Nitrogen

+5
+3 -3

27 /
* eutrophication

*
_( )
.



(
) ( )


/
.
28 /

total nitrogen
Kjeldahl TNK

Total nitrogen Kjeldahl TNK = NH3-N +organic nitrogen

Total nitrogen = TNK + NO3-N + NO2-N

NH4+
PH<8 %50 NH3 %50 NH4+
PH=9.5 PH>11

25
15

.
] -1
= [ + ]
[.+
+.

29 /

pH T =15 C0 T =20 C0 T =25 C0


NH3 NH4+ NH3 NH4+ NH3 NH4+
6.5 0.09 99.91 0.13 99.87 0.18 99.82
7:00 0.27 99.73 0.40 99.60 0.57 99.43
7.5 0.86 99.14 1.24 98.76 1.77 98.23
8:00 2.67 97.33 3.82 96.18 5.38 94.62
8.5 7.97 92.03 11.16 88.84 15.25 84.75
9:00 21.5 78.50 28.43 71.57 36.27 63.73
9.5 46.41 53.59 55.68 44.32 64.28 35.72

* phosphorus

* polyphosphates
orthophosphates

* ATP & ADP

30 /
PO4-3 , HPO4-2 , H2PO4- , H3PO4
%50




Eutrophication

3-4-1 relationship between load and


concentration


() ) ) per capita (
) /. gm/inhabitant
.d BOD 54
/. 54

= x

31 /
Load = population x per capita load

)population (inhabitants) (..
= Load kg/d gm
1000
kgm

= x

Load = concentration x flow


gm 3
concentration ( )
= Load kg/d m3
gm

1000kgm

/ = 3 /

= /

Concentration = load / flow


k gm
load 1000 ( )
= Concentration gm/m3
d
m3
flow
d

60/
60000/3

1000 k gm
Concentration gm/m3 = 60 x x 60000 = 3600 kg/d
1000000 d

32 /
7
/ 60000/3 420
/ 6/
360/ :
k gm
360 ( 1000 )
= Concentration gm/m3 = 6gm/m3
d
m3
60000
d

33 /
5-1

Domestic sewage characteristics

Parameters Per capita load gm/inh.d Concentration mg/l except pH


Range Typical Range Typical
Total solids 120 220 180 700-1350 1100
Suspended 35-70 60 200-450 350
*fixed 7-14 10 40-100 80
*volatile 25-60 50 165-350 320
Dissolved 85-150 120 500-900 700
*fixed 50-90 70 300-550 400
*volatile 35-0 50 200-350 300
Settable - - 10-20 15
Organic matter
BOD 40-60 50 250-400 300
COD 80-120 100 450-800 600
BODu 60-90 75 350-600 450

Total nitrogen 6-10 8 35-60 45


Organic nitrogen 2.5-4 3.5 15-25 20
Ammonia 3.5-6 4.5 20-35 25
Nitrite 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Nitrate 0.00-3 0.00 0.00-2 0.00

Phosphorous 0.7-2.5 1 4-15 7


Organic P 0.7-1 0.3 1-6 2
inorganic P 0.5-1.5 0.7 3-9 5

pH - - 6.7-8 7
alkalinity 20-40 30 100-250 200
Heavy metals 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Toxic organics 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

34 /
BOD

Microorganism Per capita load Concentration org./100


org.inhab./d ml
TCF 1010 1013 107 1010
Thermo tolerant 109 1012 106 109
coliform
E.Coli 109 1012 106 109
Fecal streptococci 107 1010 104 107
Protozoan cysts <107 <104
Helminthes eggs 103 106 100 103
Viruses 105 107 102 104

35 /
6-1

Population equivalent



20000 BOD
20
BOD :


= Population equivalent PE
.

( )
BOD

BOD load = 54 gm BOD/inhab.d




= Population equivalent PE
0.054 .

:
120 2000/
3
120 2.000
= Population equivalent PE = 4444 inhabitant
0.054 .

36 /

BOD 4444

30 20
3 kg BOD / cattle or cow

= Population equivalent PE = 2777.7 inhabitant


30 3+20 3

0.054 .

2
100
BOD
k gm
150 ( 1000 )
= Concentration gm/m3 = 1500 gm/m3 =1500 mg/l
d
m3
100 d

37 /
7-1

Flow estimation

* Lpcd = 160-180 L/inhab.d

* ( / ) R = 0.8

=Q dave = =38400 m3/d


300000 160 0.8
1000 1000

250

300
( )0:

=Q dave = =60000 m3/d


300000 250 0.8
1000 1000

=1 + =1 + =2.19
14 14
4+P 4+60000/1000

38 /
= Q max x = 2.19 x 60000= 131489 m3/d

(
)

Q max = Q av x 1.8 = 60000 x 1.8 = 108000 m3/d

* minimum flow

Qmin./Qav. = 0.5

Qmin = 0.5 x 60000 = 30000 m3/d

1-7-1 infiltration flow

Qinf = network x 0.3 L/s Km

80

Qinf = 80 x 0.3 L/s Km = 24 L/s = 2073.6 m3/d

2-7-1 industrial wastewater flow

39 /
7
1000 5-0
5000 20-15-10 10000
1.5 0.5

Qav. = 5 m3 x 7m3wastewater/m3 milk = 35 m3 wastewater /d=0.4L/s

Qmax. = 1.5 x 0.4L/s = 0.6L/s

Qmax. = 0.5 x 0.4L/s = 0.2L/s

3-7-1 total flow

+ +

.

40 /
8-1

BOD load

* domestic BOD load

BOD 54 ( )0
300000 16200
/ .

* infiltration BOD load

* industrial BOD load

25 BOD 1000

* 16200+125+0 = 16200
kg BOD

BOD = 16200 x 1000/60000= 270 mg/l

60 BOD
BOD = 300 mg/l

BOD= 60 gm per capita/d

41 /
9-1

Reaction kinetics

1-9-1 reaction types


) )r

R = kCn r k C n
n=0 n=1

An , Bm r= k An Bm
( )n+m r= k A2 B b
A . third order reaction

Log r = log k + n log C

* n=0

* n=1

42 /
* n=2

one-half
reaction
saturation reactions
.

2-9-1 zero order reactions



(
)

= -kC

= -k

C=C0 t=0

43 /

C=C0- kt

3-9-1 first order reaction


C
:

= -kC1 = -kC

C=C0
t=0

lnC = lnC0 k.t

C=C0




pseudo first order
(
)

44 /


.

4-9-1 saturation reaction

r = r max.

+
r S max r .
Ks r
.r max ./2

45 /




S
Ks

* S>>Ks
Ks S :

46 /
r=r .

max

. K r Ks
r max
max

R = K.S



.

5-9-1 influence of temperature

KT2/KT1 = 21

KT2 t2 KT1 K1
(
)

47 /
10-1

Mass Balance

1-10-1 Representative Equations


( )
( )

.




+
:

Accumulation = input output + production consumption

48 /
= QC0 - QC + rp V rC V
) (

C t C0 V
( ) Q t
, rp rC .

C. + V. = QC0 - QC + rp V rC V

=0

V. = QC0 - QC + rp V rC V



( )

( )

49 /
2-10-1 ( ) Steady state & dynamic
state

dc/dt = 0


.


dc/dt = 0

0= QC0 - QC + rp V rC V

dc/dt 0






.

50 /
11-1

Microbiology of wastewater






(




) .

( ) (
...) .
51 /

autotrophic organism
( )
heterotrophic organism
( ).


phototrophic organism
chemotrophic organism
( )

photoautotrophic & photoheterotrophic

( chemoautotrophic )

( chemoheterotrophic
) .


metabolism

*
dissimilation catabolism

52 /
* ( ) assimilation
anabolism .


substrate

( ) ( )

intracellular enzyme or
endoenzyme extracellular
enzyme or exoenzyme

.

( )
catabolism :

* oxidative catabolism redox


( )

* fermentative catabolism

.

53 /

( respiration ) ( )


electron donor

( )
.

(
) ( anoxic
) (
anaerobic
methanogenesis
hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis

acetotrophic methanogenesis
).

* aerobic

54 /
* anoxic

* anaerobic
.


anaerobic

.



. ORP



(
) (
) .

55 /
( )
( ) .

* Substrate


.

* .

1 : 5 : 100



BOD


Organic waste +activated sludge + O2 more activated sludge +


CO2+NO3+SO4+PO4

56 /
BOD

CBOD
BOD
( )BOD5
%65-%60
CBOD BOD
MLSS
biomass

BOD .

57 /
BOD

-3 -1 -2 Transfer step Conversion step


Flocculation step

capsular
) layer (slime layer

( (passive transport
( )active transport

58 /
( )permease




acclimated
.

-2
metabolic process

anabolism
catabolism

endocellular exocellular

autotrophic
.heterotrophic


ATP
.

59 /
-

Organics + oxygen CO2 + H2O + energy

Organics + oxygen + nutrients new cells + CO2 + H2O+


non-biodegradable soluble residue

Cell matter + oxygen CO2 + H2O + nutrients + energy+


nonbiodegradable cell residue

1.0 kg BOD5 0.5 kg O2 uptake + 1.0 kg O2 new cells

)(Note: 1.0 kg BOD5 = 1.42 kg BODu

Endogenous respiration reaction


60 /
1.0 kg cells 0.8 kg O2 uptake + 0.2 kg O2 cell residue

) C5H7NO2 (cells)( MW=160) + 5O2 (MW=113 5CO2 + 2H2O + NH3

160/113 = 1.42 kg O2/kg SS

Oxygen Required (kg O2/kg Solids Production (kg


BOD5 )removed SS/kg BOD5) removed
Synthesis Endogenous 0.5 0.7
Respiration 1.3 0.14

-3
polysaccharides


(
)

61 /

(
)
slime



SVI .

* Adaptation (Lag) Phase




* Log Growth Phase




* Declining Growth Phase


62 /
* Maximum Stationary Phase

* Endogenous (Cell Death) Phase



.

-1 autotrophs
( )
( )
nitrification

( )


aerobic
aerobic or oxic
CBOD

63 /
denitrification

( )anoxic
O2
NO3 anoxic zone
( anaerobic zone
) ( ) anoxic zone ( )1



denitrification
.

( ) anaerobic
Acinetobacter
( acumulibacter ,microlunatus
,phosphovorus ,lampropedia ,tetasphera japonica, agrobacterium
) ,aquaspirillum , cytophagoflavobacteria


CBOD

64 /

.



( )
aerobic or oxic
anoxic
anaerobic
.

denitrification

Achromobacter, Acinetobacter, Agrobacterium, Alcaligenes,


Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Chromobacterium, Corynebacterium,
Flavobacterium, Hypomicrobium, Moraxella, Neisseria, Paracoccus,
Propionibacteria, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Rhodopseudmonas,
Spirillum and Vibrio

anaerobic Acinetobacter
(
acumulibacter ,microlunatus ,phosphovorus ,lampropedia ,tetasphera
) japonica, agrobacterium ,aquaspirillum , cytophagoflavobacteria

65 /
-2
CBOD

.






5 100
BOD

* aerobic

organics + bacteria + O2 more bacteria + CO2 + H2O + end


products

* facultative
( ) anoxic

Organics + combined O2 + bacteria more bacteria + CO2 + H2O + end products

66 /
( )anaerobic
.



500/ 35000/
3-2/
.



denitrification
0.5/
.

67 /
( )
( )


anoxic
anaerobic
.



PH <6

%80 %20 %90


%10
C5H7O2N
C60H87O23N12P C:H:O:N

.


easily
biodegradable slowly biodegradable
68 /


.



(
..)

.



phagocytosis

.



pathogens


.

69 /
12-1

Kinetic of bacterial growth

1-12-1 specific gross bacterial growth

= X

X t





= max.

+

Ks max

70 /
*

max= 1.2 6 d-1

Ks= 25-100mg BOD/l

Ks= 15-70mg COD/l

max= 2 d-1 Ks= 200 mg COD/l

max= 0.4 d-1 Ks= 70 mg COD/l

max = 0.4 d-1

* S>>Ks
Ks S :

= max.

. K max Ks
maxx

71 /
R = K.S


max Ks
Ks Substrate
( S= 300 mg/L Ks=40
( S= 300 mg/l )Ks=40 mg/l )mg/l
( S= 10 mg/L )Ks=0.2 mg/l

= max. = max. = 0.88 max


300
+ 300+40

Ks
max

plug-flow
.

72 /
= max. = max. = 0.2 max
10
+ 10+40

max

complete mix

= max. = max. = 0.98 max


10 10
10+0.2 10+0.2

Ks

max
.

1-12-1 bacterial decay

( )

endogenous metabolism
endogenous respiration

biodegradable

73 /
fraction
TVSS VSS .

= -Kd.X

Kd d-1
:

)Kd = 0.04 1 mg VSS/gm VSS .d ( BOD5

)Kd = 0.05 0.12 mg VSS/gm VSS .d ( COD

)Kd = 0.02 1 mg VSS/gm VSS .d ( COD

2-12-1 production of biological solids

biomass
( ) assimilation
= ( )
:

= .Y


74 /
X SS
VSS Y SS VSS
( BOD COD/ ) S( BOD5 COD
/ ) 3 t .

( BOD
)COD .

Y :


Y = 0.4 8 gm VSS/gmBOD5 removed :

Y = 0.3 7 gm VSS/gm COD removed

acidogenic bacteria

Y= 0.15 gm VSS/gm COD removed

methanogenic archaea

Y= 0.03 gm VSS/gm COD removed

Y= 0.18 gm VSS/gm COD removed

75 /
Y

chemoautotrophs
Y

.

3-12-1 net solids production

=Y. Kd X


substrate removal rate

(
) :

= .
1

:
76 /
= .X

= max.

+

= max. .
X
+

77 /
13-1

Mass balance in the aeration tank


S& X
X S

( X0=0
).

( ) ( )

( ) BOD S

= S0 - S+0- X

= S0 - S+0 - max -

+

:
78 /
= X0 - X+X Kd.X

= X0 - X+ max - X Kd.X

+

1-13-1 hydraulic detention


time and solid retention time





hydraulic detention time solid
retention time
:

= Hydraulic detention time




=t

solid retention time


MCRT

79 /

c

= c

= c

dx/dt

= c

=

= X Kd.X= ( Kd).X

= c
1
( ) Kd

( )

80 /
=t * c

>t * c



steady state




2-13-1 cell wash-out time

)= Kd)X

)= ) Kd


81 /
Ln )= ) Kd

0
X t X0 0
X=2X0

)Ln 2=) Kd
t dup

=
2 0.693
= t dup
Kd Kd


c= t
c ( t dup
) t dup
c> t
c> t dup
( ) c
t . V

82 /

3-13-1 concentration of suspended


solids in the aeration tanks

= .
)(0 c
=X
1+Kd.c t

=
)(0
=X
1+Kd.t


c

t
X .

BOD

1
= c
( ) Kd

83 /
=
1
)( Kd

)( c

( = max )-
1
Kd
Ks S
)( c

1
[ Ks ] + Kd
c
=S 1
max [ ] +Kd
c

BOD
BOD S
S0 Ks Kd max
c BOD

Xv
BOD

.

BOD
BOD c

1
)(c

Smin. Smin

84 /
Smin

.
= Smin
) ( max

4-13-1 ( ) sludge load ( food to


) microorganism ratio F/M

S BOD
BOD F
M


.

S0 BOD5
Q

F = Q.S0

85 /

Xv V

M = Xv.v

=
.0
V.Xv M
F/M ( BOD5 /
) VSS F/M TSS
VSS
.

( F/M )
VSS/SS
.

=
0
t.Xv M
F/M

U

86 /
=
)(0
U
V.Xv
S BOD5 / 3

.E

=U
M
E

0
=E
S0

F/M=U F/M U Xv
Qinf BOD

=
)(0
V
U.Xv
S0 = BOD5 = 300mg/l

S0 = BOD5 = 15mg/l

t=0.8 d

87 /
(
) MLSS 3524 mg/l 2819 g VSS/m3

3
60000

300 3
= = = 0.133
0
t.Xv 0.8d X 2819VSS/m3 M

=U
)(0
V.Xv

Q/V=1/t

300 15
=U =0.8d x 2819 = = 0.126 kg BOD5/kg VSS
)(0 3 3 285
.Xv g VSS/m3 2255.2

U F/M

3
60000 ( 300 515 ) 5
=V = = 48142.7 m3
)(0
U.Xv BOD5
0.126 kg VSS X 2819VSS/m3
kg

F/M

88 /
3
60000 ( 300 515 ) 5
=V = = 45609 m3
)(0
BOD5
U.Xv 0.133 kg VSS X 2819VSS/m3
kg

46875 3

5-13-1 relationship between


substrate utilization rate U and sludge age c

(
) (
)

= Y. Kd.X


)(0
= Y. Kd.fb.Xv

Xv.t

Xv

)(0
= Y. Kd.fb
/
Xv.t

1 /
=
c

89 /
)(0 1
= Y. Kd.fb
Xv.t c
:

)(0
=U
Xv.t
:

1
= Y. UKd.fb
c
:


=U .E
M
:

.E Kd.fb
1
= Y.
M c
BOD
F/M Kd Y
.

90 /
Xv Xb
fb.Xv fb=Xb/Xv fb
. VSS

6-13-1 volumetric organic load

.0
= Lvo
V
Lvo gm BOD/m3.d Q/V=1t

0
= Lvo

Lvo :

.0
=V
Lvo

F/M

S0=300gm BOD/m3 t=0.8

= =375gm .d
0 300gm BOD/m3
= Lvo 3
t 0.8d
91 /
7-13-1 volumetric hydraulic load


= Lv
V
Lv /3
Lv = 1/t

8-13-1 surface organic load

facultative bonds
Ls

.0
= Ls
A
A Ls kgBOD/m2/d

92 /
14-1

Distribution of biological solids in the treatment

fixed solids Xi
volatile solids Xv

X = Xi + Xv


Xnb
( ) Xb

Xv = Xnb + Xb

Xi
Xnb
Xb/Xv fb *f

fb = f\b / 1+ (1 - f\b).Kd. c

fb VSS
) c ( xb/xv

f\b VSS
) ) c = 0 0.8 80%
93 /
fb Kd
fb
BOD effluent

VSS/TSS = 0.70 0.85

SSi/TSS = 0.15 0.30

SSb/VSS = 0.60

SSnb/VSS = 0.40







.. .

94 /
fa = 1 / 1+ (1 - f\b).Kd. c

fa fa= Xa/Xv

fa = fb/ f\b


fa VSS .



BOD :

P xv gross ) = Y.Q( S0 S

90%
10%
VSS/TSS=0.9

P xv gross =Pxv/0.9

Pxi = P x gross -P xv gross

95 /

. c = 0

Pxv f\b f\b


0.8

P xb recently formed =P xv gross . f\b

c
fb
:

P xb gross =P xv gross. fb

P xnb =P xv gross - P xb gross

P xa =P xv gross. fb/f\b

Kd .c
P xb destroyed = P xb gross
1 + fb.Kd .c

96 /
:

P xb net = P xb gross - P xb destroyed

Pxv net = Pxb net + Pxnb


Yobs

Y
= Yobs
1 + fb.Kd .c

VSS :

) P xvnet = Yobs.Q.(S0 S

Pxnet = Pxv net + Pxi

( VSS/TSS ) :

=
P xv net VSS
P x net TSS

97 /
Pxb destroyed
% destruction Xb = 100 x
Pxv gross


( )
BOD
BOD ( )

8
BOD=300 mg/l BOD=15mg/l
60000 m3/d
Y= 0.6 gmVSS/gmBOD Kd=0.09d-1
VSS/SS=0.9 f\b=0.8gmSSb/gmVSS

BOD5removed = S0 (BOD5inf ) S (BOD5eff.)= 300mg/l-15mg/l


=285mg/l

) Load BOD5removed kg/d = Q m3/d ( S0 S

Load BOD5removed kg/d = 60000 x 0.285 = 17100 kg/d

fb = f\b / 1+ (1 - f\b).Kd. c

98 /
=
0.8
= fb 0.699
1+( 10.8 ) 0.09 8

P xv gross = Y.Q( S0 S )= 0.6 x 17100 = 10260 kg VSS/d

Px gross =Pxv/SSV/SS = 10260/0.9 = 11400 kg TSS/d

P xi =P x gross - P xv gross = 11400 10260 = 1140 kg SSi/d

. c
P xb gross =P xv gross. fb = 10260 x 0.699 = 7171.74 kg SSb/d

Kd .c
P xb destroyed = P xb gross
1 + fb.Kd .c

P xb destroyed = 7171.74 kg SSb/d


0.09 x 8
1 + 0.699x0.09 x8
= 3442.44kgSSb/d

P xb net = P xb gross - P xb destroyed

99 /
P xb net = 7171.74 kg SSb/d - 3442.44kgSSb/d = 3729.3 kg SSb/d

P xnb =P xv gross - P xb gross

P xnb = 10260 kg VSS/d - 7171.74 kg SSb/d = 3088.26 kg SSb/d

P xvnet = P xb net + P xnb

P xvnet = 3729.3 kg SSb/d + 3088.26 kg SSb/d=6817.56 kg VSS/d

Pxnet = Pxv net + Pxi

P xvnet = Yobs.Q.(S0 S )

Pxnet = Yobs.Q.(S0 S ) + Pxi

Y
Yobs =
1 + fb.Kd .c
Y
Pxnet = .Q.(S0 S ) + Pxi
1 + fb.Kd .c
10260 kg VSS/d
Pxnet = + 1140 kg SSi/d = 7980 kgTSS/d
1 + 0.699x0.09 x8

VSS/TSS

100 /
=
P xv net VSS
P x net TSS

=
VSS
=
6817.56 kg VSS/d
)0.854 (85%
7980 kgTSS/d TSS

Pxb destroyed
% destruction Xb = 100 x
Pxb gross

=
3442.44kgSSb/d
% destruction Xb = 100 x 48%
7171.74 kg SSb/d

=
3442.44kgSSb/d
% destruction Xb = 100 x 34%
10260 kg VSS/d

(
)

VSS/TSS

101 /
15-1 aeration

1-15-1 saturation concentration of the gas

Vg Vl = Vg
Vl

Kg.Cg = Kl.Cs

Kg Kl Cg Cs
/

Kg
= Cs Cg
Kl

102 /
Cs = KD . Cg


KD

Temperature C0 KD
0 0.0493
10 0.0398
20 0.0337
30 0.0296

Cg

PV = nRT

P Pa V n
R 8.3143 J/K.mole T
.

103 /
) dv (Pa Pv
MW
Cs = KD
RT

dv ( 0.21 ) 21% MW
32 gm/mole Pa 101 325
pa Pv

Temperature C0 )Pv(Pa
0 611
10 1230
20 2330
30 4240

Cs mg/l

Cs = 14.652 4.1022 x 10-1.T + 7.9910 X10-3 .T2 7.7774 X10-5.T3

)
H
fH = C/s /Cs= ( 1-
9450

104 /
fH C/s H/
H

= 1-9 x 10-6 Csal


( )1 Csal
Cl- mg/l

gas transfer mechanism

diffusion transfer
turbulent diffusion

= D.A
C dM

X dt

D /2 A 2 x

C
X

Temperature C0 )D ( 10-9 m2/s


10 1.39
20 1.80
30 2.42

105 /

) = A (Cs C0
D dM
t dt

Xp = D. t

m A 2 t

C0 / 3 Xp
.

2-15-1 kinetic of aeration

D
tc A
steady state D
tc KL
A a A/V
:

KL a = 2 D/tc .A/V

106 /
KL a

) = KL a (Cs C
M
V

) = KL a (Cs C
dC
dt

3
dC/dt / 3 C t/

C
) (Cs C dC/dt
t=0 t=t C=0 C=C :

) = KL a (t t0
C
C0


C
Cs

C = Cs ( Cs C0 ). K La ) (t t0




107 /
r gm/m3
C= C

C = C ( C C0 ). K La ) (t t0

KL a (Cs C) = r

C = Cs -
r
KL a

C C
.


Cs Cs
dC/dt KL a
dC/dt :

K )L.a (T =K )L.a (20C0 ). (T-20

108 /
K )L.a (20C0 K KL )L.a (T

20 1.024


C Cs-C

1.5 3 mg/l

CswCL
= Correction factor for D.O concentration
)Cs (20c

/ CL Csw
/ ) Cs (20c
20 /.



. K L.a Csw

Csw

:

109 /
) Csw( wastewater
=
) Cs (clean water

= 0.70 0.98 = 0.95 .

K L.a

:

) K L.a( wastewater
=
) K L.a (clean water

=0.6-1.2 =0.4-0.8
.



( ) oxygenation capacity
20



:

.fH .CsCL
OTR standard = OTR field / . T-20
)Cs (20c

110 /
OTR SORT standard

OTR field kgO2/h


kgO2/h Cs CL
) Cs (20c
20
Cs ( .) 1-altitude/9450 fH

OTR standard SORT


KLa :

K L.a .Cs(20C0)V
OTR standard =
1000

OTR standard OTR field


OTR OTR field
: standard

.fH .CsCL
OTR standard = OTR field / . T-20
)Cs (20c

3-15-1 oxygenation efficiency OE

kgO2/h P kW

kgO2/kWh
OTR standard
= OE
P

111 /
:

3 ..
= OE
1000

power volt V i A
. factor

=P
)Qg..g (di .H

p W . ( )
1000kg/m3 g 9.81m/s2 . H

oxygen transfer efficiency

ROU

OTR standard
= ROU
Qg

112 /
ROU O2 /
Qg / .

SOTE
20.95%
32 gm/mole 0.0224 m3/mole
:

O2 concentration in air = 0.2095 x = 299 gm O2/m3


32
0.0224

SOTE

= SOTE = 100 X ROU = )= 0.334ROU (%


ROU gm/m3 ROU gm/m3
Cg gm/m3 299/m3

SOTE ) (%
di
ROU/di g O2/m3.m

power level


MLSS

Power level PL

P
= PL
V
113 /
PL W/m3 P W
. m3

Power level W/m3 SS mg/l


0.75 50
1.75 175
2.75 300



3 6-3 6 .

(

10 W/m3

114 /

)

4-15-1 aeration tests







MLSS


K
r
= L.a
CsC

C = C ( C C0 ). K La ) (t t0

115 /
) C= Cs ( r/KLa

16-1

Activated sludge process and main variants



(

).



( ) .


( BOD
... NH3 )
S BOD
116 /


( )


RAS
WAS

.

(
) MLSS .

MCRT C
SRT ( 18-
) 30 d ( ) 4-10d


8
117 /

F/M
BOD
MLVSS
kgBOD/kg MLVSS.d 0.07-0.15 (
)
16-24 h ( ) 0.67 1 D 0.25-0.50
(
) 6-8 h
BOD
F/M

F/M

BOD

118 /

. F/M

F/M
.

BOD
MLSS


.





digestion thickening
( )

(

119 /



) .






(
10 ) .

BOD 93%-98%
%90-%90COD 95-85 SS 70%-95%

1-16-1 Suspended solids


concentration in aeration tank

120 /
BOD= S0 BOD= S
Q =Qinff Qr =QRAS = QWAS
Qex X=MLSS
X0=SS or TSS
MLVSS Xr = MLSS QRAS
. V

VSS
:

.
) Y(S0S c
= Xv
1 + fb.Kd .c t

Y Kd :

Y = 0.5-0.7 gm VSS/gmBOD5 removed

Kd = 0.06-1.0 gm VSS/gm VSS.d

fb

fb = f\b / 1+ (1 - f\b).Kd. c

) Y(S0S
= Xv
1 + fb.Kd .t


c
t
Xv

121 /

VSS 2500-4000 mg
VSS/L
MLSS = ( 5880- 4704 mg VSS/L
) 3524 -5880 mg/l
1500-35000 mgVSS/L

VSS/SS 0.60-0.75
0.70-0.85

Calculation of aeration tank

t=V/Q

) Y(S0S
= Xv
1 + fb.Kd .t
) Y.c.Q(S0S
=V
)Xv (1 + fb.Kd.c

Q
( ) S0=BOD
BOD Y Kd fb
c Xv
( = tc
) V=tQ

122 /
c
SRT MCRT

t
BOD


.

2-16-1 )Substrate ( S or BOD


removal

)= max . )Xv fb. Kd . Xv



+

Xv =dXv/dt c :

)= max . ) fb. Kd
1
+ c

S BOD
123 /
1
] [ +fb.Kd
=S c
1
] max [ +fb.Kd
c

BOD
S Ks
S Ks+S

=S (. )+Kd.fb
1
max c


BOD BOD Kd, fb max
S c S

BOD

.

S

1
c

= Smin
.Kd.fb
max Kd.fb

S
S0 4

124 /
Soluble and total BOD in
the effluent

BOD S
BOD
%100

3000-6000/ %100


suspended BOD
particulate BOD

Total effluent BOD5 = soluble effl. BOD5 + particulate eff.BOD5

=S (. )+Kd.fb
1
max c

fb
VSS BOD

C5H7NO2 + 5O2 5CO2 + NH3+ 2H2 + energy

125 /
) (MW113)=Xb + (MW60 5CO2 + NH3+ 2H2 + energy
113 160
:

= =
160 2
1.42 gm O2/gm biodegradable solids
113

BODu

)BODu (Xb) =1.42 mg BODu/mg(Xb

BODu BOD5
BODu/BOD5= 1.46 BOD5/BODU= 0. 68
BOD5 %68
%68

BOD of SS biodegradable )=68 mg BOD5/BODU x 1.42 mg BODu/mg(Xb

BOD of SS biodegradable )= 1 mg BOD5/mg(Xb

VSS

)BOD of VSS = 1 mg BOD5/mg (Xb) X fb(mg Xb/mg VSS

)BOD of VSS = fb(mg BOD5/mg VSS

126 /




VSS/TSS 0.70-0.85 0.60-0.75
BOD5 :

. fb

= )BOD5 eff. SS ( mg BOD5/mg SS

BOD5
:

0.45-0.65 mg BOD5/mg TSS

0.25-0.50 mg BOD5/mg TSS

0.21-0.24 mg BOD5/mg TSS

BOD BOD
S S0
S0

127 /
BOD

S0 BOS (

%35 - %25 BOD5 S0
) %75-%65

3-16-1 Sludge digestion in the aeration


tank

(
)

) P xv gross = Yobs.Q.(S0 S

P xv gross ) = fb. Yobs.Q.(S0 S

128 /

Kd .c
P xb destroyed =P xb gross
1 + fb.Kd .c

Xb production = Xb destruction

Kd .c
fb. Yobs.Q.(S0 S )= P xb gross
1 + fb.Kd .c

=
1
c
)Kd.(1 fb

fb c

)fb= f/b/ 1+[ (1- f/b Kd . c

=
1
c
1f/b

f/b=0.80

=
2.24
c


(
129 /
)


Kd

Kd
U


=U

%
destruction SSb

x 100
Kd .c
= % destruction SSb
1 + fb.Kd .c

% destruction VSS

x 100
fb.Kd .c
= % destruction VSS
1 + fb.Kd .c

130 /
% destruction VSS

%60-%45 %50-%40

% destruction SSb %

destruction VSS c Kd

% destruction SSb
)( c Kd=0.05 d-1 Kd=0.07 d-1 Kd=0.09 d-1 Kd=0.11 d-1
4 17 23 28 33
8 31 40 48 55
12 42 53 63 72
16 52 65 76 86
20 60 75 87 99
24 68 84 98 -

131 /
28 75 92 - -
32 81 100 - -

% destruction VSS
)( c Kd=0.05 d-1 Kd=0.07 d-1 Kd=0.09 d-1 Kd=0.11 d-1
4 13 18 21 24
8 23 29 33 37
12 30 37 42 46
16 36 42 47 51
20 40 47 51 55
24 44 50 55 -
28 47 53 - -
32 49 55 - -

17-1

Recirculation of activated sludge


HDT or HRT ( ) > tc


132 /
MLSS

SS
( ) Qw+ Qr
R :

Qr
=R
Q

= +

= SS +

= MLSS

SS=Q.X0 (
) Qr.Xr

Input = output

Qr.Xr = ( Q+Qr).X

133 /
:

=
Qr XXr
=R
Q X


( Qr=Qu
Qex ) Qr

R+1
Xr = X.
R

Qr.Xr = ( Q+Qr).X

RASS
8000mg/l-12000 mg/l

.

*

134 /
*




( )
sludge volume index SVI
.

( ) 0.5





rising sludge
SS BOD


Qu .

135 /

= R
QRAS = 0.70-1.20
1.5
Qr
VSS
.

R
VSS R

=
Qr XXr
=R
Q X

R
. Xr


( = )
.

) R=1 ( Q=Qr
(
) .
136 /
( ) Q+Qr=2Q
t/2
t .

Qr
Qex c Qr
Qex
Qu :

Qu = Qr + Qex

(
)

Qr = Qu - Qex

* : underflow Qu Qr
Qex

= c

137 /
* Qu Qr Qex Qu
Qex
Qr
( +
)
( )
(
+ ) ( ).

* (
)



-
.

18-1

Production and removal of excess sludge

138 /
1-18-1 sludge production

1-1-18-1 production of biological solids

VSS
S=BOD

.

( Pxv ) VSS
:

Pxv net = gross production of Xv destruction of Xb

Pxv = Y.Q.(S0-S) Kd.fb.Xv.V

Yobs

= Yobs

1+Kd.fb.C

)Pxv = Yobs.Q.(S0-S

Pxv ) TSS (Px


VSS/TSS

2-1-18-1 production of excess sludge

139 /
(
).


6
VSS/TSS=0.76 0.75-0.95 kg SS/kgBOD5
( Y ) Kd


26 VSS/TSS=0.68
0.88-0.1.0 kg SS/kgBOD5
(
).


SS/BOD5=0.70
( 0.82-0.92 kg SS/kgBOD5 4-10 )

SS/BOD5=1.20 ( 1.0 kg SS/kgBOD5 25
)

3-1-18-1 removal of excess sludge

140 /

-1 :

(
) :

*
SS
MLSS
:

= Qex/

.C

SS conc. = MLSS=X

Qex/ /3 V
3 C MLSS=X

* :
SS RASSS

= Qex// .

C Xr

SS conc. = RASS=Xr

141 /
Qex// /3 V
3 C RASS=Xr .

Qex

.

( )

20 1/20

-2 :
Px

= Qex/
1000
X

SS conc. = MLSS=X

Px /SS

= Qex//
1000
Xr

142 /
SS conc. = RASS=Xr

19-1

Oxygen requirements

* (
( ) ) (

143 /
) ( )
.

-1 carbonaceous
demand

-2 oxygen demand

1-19-1 carbonaceous oxygen demand

-1 carbonaceous
demand


BODu

144 /
S BOD5
1.20 -1.60
BODu/BOD5=1.46

BOD5

= OUR kg/d
)1.46 .( 0
1000

OUR kgO2/d Q
/3 S0 ( BOD5
total BOD S
3
/




1 1.42
:

]OUR( kg/d) = removed BODu kg/d [ 1.42 x ( solids produced) kg/d

Pxv

Pxv = Y.Q.(S0-S) Kd.fb.Xv.V

:
145 /
OUR ( kg/d) =1.46 Q.(S0-S) - 1.42 Pxv

= Yobs

1+Kd.fb.C

Pxv

OUR ( kg/d) =1.46 Q.(S0-S) - 1.42



1+Kd.fb.C

OUR ( kg/d) = Q.(S0-S)[ (1.46 - ])


1.42
1+Kd.fb.C

-2 oxygen demand

OUR ( kg/d) =1.46 Q.(S0-S) - 1.42 Pxv

Pxv

Pxv = Y.Q.(S0-S) Kd.fb.Xv.V

146 /
]OUR ( kg/d) =1.46 Q.(S0-S) - 1.42 [Y.Q.(S0-S) Kd.fb.Xv.V

]OUR ( kg/d) = (1.46 1.42Y).Q. [(S0-S) + 1.42 Kd.fb.Xv.V

(1.46 1.42Y): 1.42 Kd.fb a/


b/ :

]OUR ( kg/d) = a/Q. [(S0-S) + b/.Xv.V

(
) ( ).

b/ fb c
b/

.

y
Kd c

Coefficients Sludge age day


Yg/g Kdd-1 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30
0.5 0.09 0.8 0.95 1.02 1.07 1.10 1..13 1.14 1.14

147 /
0.6 0.08 0.70 0.83 0.91 0.97 1.01 1.05 1.07 1.07
0.7 0.07 0.57 0.70 0.80 0.86 0.91 0.95 0.98 1.01


Y Kd
Y Kd .



BOD5
Qmax/Qave x BOD5max/BOD5ave
BOD5
BOD (
) ( )

.

2-19-1 oxygen demand for nitrification

NO2-- NO3-

148 /
( )
total nitrogen Kjeldahl TNK

TNK = NH3-N +organic-N

1kg TNK 4.57 km


O2 NO3-

OUR (kg/d) = 4.57. Q. TNK/1000

(
... )


.

* nutrients requirements

(
) .

149 /



C5H7O2N
C60H87O23N12P
12.30% 2.60 %
%7 %1 ( )
.

= +

N required = ( 0.123 fb/fb/ ).Pxv + 0.07 ( 1- fb/fb/ ).Pxv

P required = ( 0.026 fb/fb/ ).Pxv + 0.01 ( 1- fb/fb/ ).Pxv

c .d
BOD5 N P
4-10 100 4-6 0.90-1.20
20-30 100 2.50-3.50 0.50-0.60

150 /

( ) BOD5 N,P
BOD5:N:P= 100:5:1

.

* temperature effect

)KT = K20 . (T-20

KT T d-1 K20
20
30-4 mesophilic

thermophilic
.

151 /
1.02 (
) 1.02 -1.0 = 0.02 %2


BOD
.

20-1

Biological nutrient removal


/
152 /

.

NH3 NH4+

.

( ) :

*

anoxic
zone anoxic tank
. anaerobic zone

153 /
( )
( ) anoxic

*
.


NH4+ NH4-N
18 14
.

21-1

Nitrification kinetics

[ = max. ]
4+
KN+NH4+

154 /
KN
.

* :

) max.)T( = max.)20 0C )(T-20

1.08-1.13 1.10
7
7
KN , K0
50-5
36-25 .

* 7.2-8.0
:

max.)pH( = max ])[(1-0.83 ( 7.2 -pH

155 /
* 0.2/

2/


3-2/ .

[ = max. ]
.
KO+D.O

KO .

1-21-1 Sludge age required for nitrification




156 /

c = 1/

:

c
1
N


1.5-2.5
.

2-21-1 nitrification rate

=

YN t

/ TNK 3

t

N YN
/ TNK XN /. 3

157 /

VSS fN
:

.
=fN 3

) growth rate of total biomass (heterotrophs and nitrifiers
3

=fN
Xv/t

VSS=Pxv :

=

c

= YN . [ TNK TNK ]incorporated in excess sludge = YN.TNK



removed oxidized

TNK %12 oxidized


( VSS %12
C5H7NO2 14/

= ) 5X12 +7X1+1X14+2X16=113 gm/mole


14/113=0.12=12% .

158 /
TNK removed

Xv
(.[.(TNK0TNKe )0.12V ])
=fN
x
V.Xv/t

fN Xv
:

= fN. gm/m3.d
.
YN

TKN
=LTKN . kg/ d

1000 t

3-21-1 oxygen requirements for nitrification

NH3-N 2
4.57 kg 1 kg
( 14/ 64 /
. ) 64/14= 4.57

O2required (kgO2/d) = 4.57 (kgO2/kgTNK) x TNK oxidized )(kg TNK/d

4-21-1 alkalinity requirements for nitrification


159 /
+4NH4-N 2
H+

-

H+ + HCO3- H2O + CO2

2
2
2 :

1 mole +NH4-N 2 mole HCO3 -

14 mg +NH4-N/L 122 mg HCO3 - /L

1 mg +NH4-N/L 8.70 mg HCO3 - /L

}]Alkalinity = 100 { [ CO3-2 ] +1/2 [ HCO3-] +1/2[OH-

pH CO3-2 OH-
/ :

= Alkalinity
HCO3
1.2

160 /
8.7 / 8.70/1.2 = 7.10 mg/L

1 NH4-N+/L 7.10/

pH
( 100-250 / )

5-21-1 Biological denitrification principles

oxic zone

H2 2H+ + 2e-

O2 + 4e- 2O2-


..
anoxic zone

.

C5H7NO2 +4 NO3- 5CO2 + 2N2 +NH3 +4OH-

161 /
C5H7NO2 3
C5H7NO2 NO3-N 4.5 mg BOD5/ mgNO3-N
BOD5:N
.

(
)

*
2 2.5

NO3- +2 H+ 2.5O2 + N2 + H2O

1 4.57

2.50/4.0x100 ( 62.5% . ) 2.86/4.57x100


3-2/ .

*

.

162 /
MLSS
1
1 1 2

50% %50 7.1
1 3.50
( 3
1 4.10
)

*


MLSS


. rising sludge

* :
eutrophication
.

22-1

163 /
Kinetics of denitrification

[ = max. [ ]. ]
3
Ks+S KNO3+NO3

KNO3

NO3->>> KNO3

3
KNO3 + NO3


S BOD .

Ks
Ks ( ) ( ) 1

= Denitrification rate
dennit
Ydenit

anoxic zone

164 /
anoxic
.

( ) F/M
F/M

* anoxic zone

SDR = 0.03 X (F/M )anoxic + 0.029

* anoxic zone

SDR = 0.12 X c-0.706

SDR NO3- -N / gm VSS .d

(F/M ( )anoxic
) BOD MLSS
c .

1-22-1 environmental factors that


effect on the denitrification

165 /
* :


1/
:

SDR DO = SDR 20 C ) ( 1- D.O

SDR 20 C

NO3- -N / gm VSS .d

= max. [ Ks+S ]. [ KNO3+NO3 ] .


3
Ko+D.O

Ko /
.

* : 0-50 0C
35-50 0C :

SDR T =SDR 20 0C ) X c( T-20

166 /
SDR 20 0C SDR NO3- -N / gm VSS .d
20
1.15-1.20 1.08 1.09 .

* : PH = 7.50-9.20
%70 PH = 6.50-7.50

* :
.

23-1

Mechanism of phosphorus removal


( anaerobic tanks ) .


polyphosphates



.

167 /
* :
anaerobic zone oxic zone



.

air lifting pump





.



1.5-3/
( )


anoxic zone
.anaerobic zone

168 /
* :


( ) .

* : pH=7-8 pH<6.50
pH=5

* : anaerobic zone
BOD

BOD/P BOD
( )
.

* :



.

BOD/P
1/

169 /

8 .

* :
2-1

BOD


.

* :
BOD

2-1
.

* : anaerobic
(
thickener
) .
170 /

(

)
.

* : BOD
BOD/P = 15:1

COD ( COD ) 60/
COD 60
/
COD
TNK/COD
TNK/COD > 13 mg/l COD/mg N
phoredox
TNK/COD 9- 13 mg/l COD/mg N
UCT TNK/COD 7- 9 mg/l
COD/mg N UCT

TNK/COD < 7 mg/l COD/mg N .

171 /
BOD COD COD/BOD5=2
( TNK/COD=10
. ) TNK/BOD5=5


TNK/COD P/COD
COD

* :

MLSS %7-2
20/ %4
20X0.04=8mg/l
1/
) 1.0-0.80=0.20 ( 0.2 mg/l

.

172 /
1-23-1 determination of P
fraction in suspended solids


/ %7-%2
Pf
:

Pf=[frb x (COD -25)]X fan

frb COD fan


COD .

frb %30-%15 COD %35-%20


COD BOD
COD/BOD=1.7-2.4 COD 2.1
fan fan
( Vanaer/Vaerob
) ( 0.1-0.25
%25-%10 ) .

* :

P/Xa = 0.35 - 0.29 0.242

Xa/Xv :
173 /
1
= fa
1+0.2 Kd.c


Xv/X 0.60-0.75 0.70-0.85
.

Xv/X
:

Xv/X = 0.817c-0.043

Xv/X
:

Xv/X = 0.774c-0.038

)P/Xv = fa ( P/Xa

)P/X =( VSS/SS ). fa ( P/Xa

COD P/X
%7

174 /
BOD :

) P/BOD = Yobs ( P/Xv

Yobs


= P/BOD ) (P/Xv
1+fb.Kd.c

fb :

0.80
= Fb
1+0.2 Kd.c

fb 0.55-0.70 0.40-0.65

BOD S0-S


= Prem ) (P/Xv ). ( S0 S
1+fb.Kd.c

Prem

* :

Psol = P tot enff - Prem

( ) SS :

P part.eff )= SS ( P/X

175 /
:

P tot enff = Psol eff + P part.eff

24-1

Design of activated sludge Sedimentation tanks


( )


2000

* HLR
Q/A

* ( Q + Qr )x
A ( Q + Qr ). x /A

HLR
Q ) ) Q + Qr Q
( Qr )
Q

176 /

.


Solids flux
.( Q + Qr ). x

* :

Q/A V

Q/A V0.e-K.C

* Solids flux

Ga GL

( Q + Qr ) C0/A m.(Qr/A)n

v C/ v0
K C0 MLSS g/m3 A
.

177 /
SRL = m.[ RV0 e(-K.C)]n

A =( Q + Qr ) C0/SRL

MLSS 2.5-4.5 gm/L


3.5-5.5 gm/L

Q/A :

Q/A= V0.e-K.C

Q/A :

= (R+1).C0
( Q + Qr ) C0 Q
= SRL
A A

=
SRL Q
( R+1).C0 A

=
m.[ RV0 e(K.C)]n Q
( R+1).C0 A

178 /

-

2017

179 /
192 ---------------------------

1-1 193 --------------------------------------


2-1-1 193-----------------------------------------

3-1-1 193 ----------------------------------------

4-1-1 194 -----------------------------------------

5-1-1 194 --------------------

6-1-1 195 -----------------------------------------

7-1-1 195 --------------------------------------

8-1-1 197 -------------------------------

9-1-1 197 ---------------------------------------------

10-1-1 198 ------------------------------------

11-1-1 198 ------------------------------------

12-1-1 198 ---------------------------------

13-1-1 199 --------------------------------

2-1 204-----------------------------------

1-2-1 204 ----------------------------------

2-2-1 204 --------------------------------------

3-2-1 204 ----------------------------------

180 /
4-2-1 205 ------------------------------------

5-2-1 206 ---------------------------------------


206 --------------------------
6-2-1
7-2-1 206 ---------------- :
8-2-1 210 ------------------------------------

9-2-1 216 -----------


1-9-2-1 217 --------------------------
2-9-2-1 234 ----------------------------------
10-2-1 252--------------------------

11-2-1 253 ---------------------------------

12-2-1 263

3-1 265 -------------------------

1-3-1 272 --------------------------------------

(-1-3-1) 274-------------------------------

(-1-3-1) 77------------------------
4-1 78 --------------------------------------
( 1-4-1-1) 280------------------------------------

1-4 283 -----------------------

( 1-4-1) 300----------------------------------

5-1 300 ----------------------------------------

181 /
1-5-1 302 ----------------------------------

2-5-1 305 --------------------------------

(-2-5-1) 312 ------------------------------

(-2-5-1) 322 -------------------------------------

2-5-1 / 326 ----------------------

3-5-1 / 327 -----------------------

(-3-5-1) 330 -------------------------------------

4-5-1 333 ---------------------------------


( 4 -5-1) 334

( 4 -5-1) 338 -------------------------

( 4 -5-1) 340 ------------------ F/M

( 4 -5-1) 342 ------------------------------------

( 4 -5-1) 344 ---------------------------------

( 4 -5-1) 347 ---------------------

6-1 165

1-6-1 353 ---------------------------

2-6-1 354 ----------------------------------

3-6-1 360 -------------------------------

182 /
7-1 361 -----------------------------------
1-7-1 367 ------------------------------

(1-7-1) 367 -----------------------

2-7-1 369 -----------------------------

8-1 370 ----------------------------


9-1 371 --------------------------------------
10-1 373 ------------------------------------
376 ---------------------------------

1-2 377 ---------------------------------------

2-2 380 ----------------------------

3-2 ( ) - 383 ------------

1-3-2 ( ) 391 ----------------------

2-3-2 392 -----------------------------

3-3-2 395 -------------------------------

4-3-2 400 ---------------------------------------

5-3-2 400 ---------------------------------------

401 ------

1-3 402

2-3 402 ---------------------------------------

183 /
3-3 404 ----------------------------------------

1-3-3 404 ---------------------------------

2-3-3 405 ----------------

3-3-3 405 ---------------------------

4-3-3 406 -------------------------

4-3 406 ---------------------------------------

1-4-3 408 --------------------------------

2-4-3 410 -----------------------------

5-3 410 ---------------------------------

1-5-3 412 ---------------------------------------

6-3 414 ---

7-3 415 --------------------------- F/M

8-3 417 -----------------------------

9-3 419 -------------------------------------

1-9-3 420 ---------------------------

10-3 422--------------------------

1-10-3 424 ------------------------------------

184 /
2-10-3 424 ----------------------------------------

3-10-3 MLSS RAS424 ----


4-10-3 30425 -
5-10-3 425------------

6-10-3 426 ------------------

11-3 429 --------------------------------

1-11-3 433 --------------------------------

2-11-3 435 ------------------

3-11-3 437 -------------------------------

4-11-3 439 -----------------------

5-11-3 441 -----------------------

12-3 445 ------------------------------------

1-12-3 445 -----------------------------------

2-12-3 446 ------------------------------------

13-3 447 -----------------------

1-13-3 447 ---------------------------

2-13-3 447 ------------------------------------

3-13-3 449 ------------------------------------

185 /
4-13-3 451 ------------------------

5-13-3 451 ---------------------------------------

452---------------------------

1-4 453 --------------------

1-1-4 456 ----------------

2-1-4 456 ---------------------------------------

3-1-4 461 --------------------------------

2-4 463 -----------------------------

3-4 471 -----------------------------------

1-3-4473 ------------------------------------------

2-3-4474 -------------------------------------------

3-3-4 477 -------------------------------------------

5-4-4492 ------------------------------------------

4-4 495 -------

5-4 498 --------------------------------

5-4 527 ------------------------

1-5-4 529 ------------------------

186 /
2-5-4 530 -------------------------------------

3-5-4 ( ) 531 ------------------------

4-5-4 531 -------------------------------------

5-5-4 531 ------------------------

6 -5-4 533 ------------------------------------

7-5-4 534 ------------------------

8-5-4 536 ------------------------

9-5-4 537 ---------------------------

6-4 538 --------------------------------

1-6-4 540 --------------------------------------

2-6-4 543 -------------------------------

3-6-4 544 ----------------------------------

4-6-4 ( ) 545 ----------------------

5-6-4 547 -----------------------------------------

6-6-4 548 --------------------------

550 ------------------------------

1-5 551 ----------

187 /
2-5 553 -----------

3-5 553 -----------------------------

1-3-5 555----------------------------------

(1-3-5) ( 555 ) 2

(1-3-5) +

( 557-------------------------------- ) 2

(1-3-5) 558 ------

(1-3-5) 561 -----

2-3-5 ( ) 564

(2-3-5) ( 564 ) 2

(2-3-5) +
( 566 ------------------------------------ ) 2

(2-3-5) 567 --

(2-3-5) /570 -----

(2-3-5) + / 570

4-5 571 -----------------------

5-5 579 ----------------------------

6-5 583 -----------------------

188 /
1-6-5 584 ----------------------------

2-6-5 584 -------------------------

189 /

190 /


MLSS



MLSS

%10 .

MLSS
MLSS
BOD5
MLSS BOD5 .

MLSS
.




. MLVSS

191 /
1-1









:
* ( )
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

192 /
1-1-1 Pumping of Wastewater and Sludge

1-1-1 Static head


( ) (
)
.

3-1-1 Velocity head

Velocity head v2/2g

v / g 9.8 m/s2

193 /
4-1-1 Headlosses

Minor Losses

Minor loss kv2/2g

5-1-1 Total System Head or


Total Dynamic Head




k
10 %20

.

194 /
6-1-1 PUMP PERFORMANCE



net positive suction head NPSH

7-1-1 Pump performance curves

pump curves ( )

impeller

195 /
Centrifugal pump

impeller

196 /
8-1-1 Pump and Motor Power and
Efficiency

( Water power (PW




( Brake power (PB
( ) PW > PB
( Wire or motor power (PM
PM > PB
9-1-1 Efficiency

brake power
( )1 brake
power :

100 X

100 X

( ) hp 1 Kw 0.7457 : ft-lb/s 550 ft- 000 33


lb/min
197 /
10-1-1 Pump Affinity Laws



impeller

11-1-1 Pump Rotational Speed

Q
2 2
1
= 1

head H
2/1)22
1
( =

( brake horsepower (P
2/ 1) 32
1
(=

12-1-1 ( ) Pump Impeller Diameter

Q D
D2/D1)32
1
(=

head H
D2/D1)22
1
(=
198 /
( brake horsepower (P

D2/D1)52
1
(=

( )1 ( )2
.

(coordinate (Q1, H1


( coordinate (Q2, H2




13-1-1 Impeller Specific Speed



H
:

199 /
s = /H0.75

s rpm Q
( )L/s or gpm H ()m or ft

( radial-flow pump hub


90
4200 ) 6000

axial-flow ( )propeller
180
. 9000

Mixed-flow
45 -4200
9000

-1500
4000

200 /
6000-1000
.

=Net Positive Suction Head NPSHA




Patm
( ) Pvap
ZW
( )
HL NPSH

201 /
pump cavitation

NPSHA > NPSHR


( )wire hp
:

Flow = 300 gpm,

Total head = 175 ft


202 /
Pump efficiency = 85%,

Motor efficiency = 90%,

Pump run time = 12 hours/day and 4 days/week

Pw = 8.34 /
33000 /

Pw = 300 8.34 / 175


33000 /
= 13.3 hp

brake power

PB =
100%

PB = 13.3
85 = 15.6 hP
100

motors wire power

PM =
100%

PM = 15.5
90/100
= 17.3 hP

WM= PM x 746W /hp

WM= 17.5 x 746W /hp=12.9kW

203 /
2-1

Classification of pumps

( kinetic ) dynamic

centrifugal pump
:
.

1-2-1 )(Centrifugal pump


.


.


.
2-2-1 Propeller
3
2 .
3-2-1

204 /

.

positive-displacement

4-2-1 )(Axial flow submersed pumps


intermediate
pump station


.
( (

205 /
5-2-1
:
* ( / ) ( /)
* ( / ) ( / ) .
()
.

( )

6-2-1
.

7-2-1 :
-1

.
-2


-3

-4

-5
.

206 /
-6
.
-7 (
)

( )
.

*
* .
* .
*
.
* .
* .



.
:


* .
* .

207 /
* ( )
* .
* .
* .
* .
* .
*


.
( )

.


:
- ( / / ...).
* .
*
.
* .
:
* /
*

208 /
* P=QH75
*
* .




:
( ).
* .
* .
* .
*
*
*
.
* .
* .
* .
:
* ( )
* .
* .
* .

209 /
* .
8-2-1


.

.


"
.

:
-1
.
-2
.
-3
.
-4
.
-5
.

210 /

-1
.
-2
.
-3
.

.
-5 .

-6 -
.
-7

.

.
.


.

211 /
.

.
.
. :
( ) 1:




.
:
.
.
:



.

(
)
.

212 /
.
.
-
.
:
- .
-
.
:

.

:



.
:
.

.
.
:

213 /

.
()

.
.


:

( )

. .
:

.

.

()

.
:

214 /

.

.
:
: % .
% ,
% %
.
:
-1 .
-2 .
-3 .
:


:
-1 .
-2 .

215 /
9-2-1

:
-1 .
-2
.
-3 .
-4
.
-5 .
-6 .
-7 .
-8
-9 .
-10
.
-11
-12 ( - -)
-13 .

216 /
1-9-2-1

(
.... ) .

.

217 /

-1
/3 2017 /.../ :

1
2
1
2
1
2

1
2
3
1
2
1
2
1
2

218 /
-2

219 /
-3
( ) 1

/

1
2
3
4
5
6

1
2




220 /
( ) 2

/

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

1
2




221 /
( ) 3

/

1
2
3

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

1
2




222 /
-4



()1
()2
()3
()4
()5
()6

-5



) ) 1

) ) 2

) ) 3

223 /
-6
3

. %

-7
3

. %

224 /
-8 ( )
( )

()1

()2

-9 ( )
( )






( ) %

225 /
-10



:

%
3


%

-11

1
2
3

226 /
-12
:
%
/

1
2
3

-13












%

227 /
-14

/
1
2
3

-15



2
/


228 /
: .





/ / : :
: : :


...........................................................................................
.....................................................................
..............

.............:

229 /



.

.


( )


.
:
-1
-2
-3 ( )
-4
()

.

230 /




_________________ : 2017 / / _____
__________________ :
__________________ : :
________________________
:

:

:
- -

231 /
( )




:
:





/ ()1
/ ()2









/ ()1
/ ()2
( )


232 /

233 /
2-9-2-1

234 /




.

235 /
-

Flow/ 18-10-1437 Day /


)/3( 23/7/2016 Date of Sample
18-10-1437 Week /
23/7/2016 Date of Analyses

Standard Specification Analysis Results





CCT FST Inlet CCT FST Inlet Unity Symbol Test
-- pH
6-8.4 6-8.4 9- 6 1.
pH
Mg/L DO
- - -
Dissolved oxygen
NTU TUR
5 5 -
Turbidity
Mg/L ALK
- - 200
Alkalinity
Mg/L T. CL
- - 1000
Chlorides
Mg/L TS
- - -
Solids Total
Mg/L TSS
10 40 600
Solids Suspended Total
Mg/L COD
- - 1000
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Mg/L BOD
10 40 500
Bio Chemical Oxygen Demand
Mg/L NO3N- -
10 10 -
Nitrate Nitrogen
Mg/L NO2N- -
- - -
Nitrite Nitrogen
Mg/L NH4N- -
5 5 80
Ammonium Nitrogen
Mg/L PO4P-
- - 25
Total Phosphate
mw.s/cm UV
25 0 -
ultra violet
Mg/L TKN
- - -
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
TC
2.2 1000 - 100/
Total Coliform Bacteria
TFC
2.2 1000 - 100/
Fecal Coliform Bacteria
-
1 - - /
Eggs of worms

()%
COD BOD TSS NH4

( /3) ( /3)

236 /
-

Flow/ ()Month
6696 Week /
)/3(
()Year


Operating standards Analysis Results Unity Symbol Test Place of sampling
-- pH
8.4 -- 6
pH
Mg/L S2-
--
Sulphides
NTU FOG
Nil
Fats, oils and grease
Mg/L COD
--
Chemical Oxygen Demand

Mg/L BOD5
--
Bio Chem ical Oxygen Dem and


C TEM
25
Temperature
Mg/L DO
4 -- 2
Dissolved Oxygen
Mg/L MLSS
6000 -- 3000 Mixed liquor suspended
solids
Mg/L MLVSS
-- Mixed liquor volatile
suspended solids
-- F/M
0.3 -- 0.05
Food / Microorganisms
ML SV
600 -- 300
Sludge Volume
Mg/L SVI
120 -- 80
Sludge Volume Index

filamentous -- --
--
Fungi Microscopic Checked
Day SA
25 -- 10
Sludge Age
Mg/L -- ( )
--
( Dry solid)before belt press

Mg/L -- ( )
--
( Dry solid)after belt press

Mg/L -- ( )
--
( TSS)before belt sand filter

Mg/L -- ( )
--
( TSS)after belt sand filter

()%

237 /

Settleometer data activated sludge sheet


Date : Observations :
Sample location : Floc
Analyst :Ibrahim elshamy ( )flocculant
Time of test ( ) dispersed
SSC = 1000 Interface

Time SSVcc SSC% ( ) well defined


minutes ( ) ragged
0 Supernatant
5 ( ) clear
10 ( ) turbid { ( )pinfloc ( )stragglers floc}
15
20 comment : ( odor , color , etc )

25 rise time : hrs

30
40
50
60

238 /
Time minutes SSV cc SSC% = 1000

0 1000 3
5 500 6
10 400 7.5
15 325 9.2
20 290 10.3
25 260 11.5
30 250 12
40 220 13.5
50 200 15
60 200 15

Time minutes SSV cc SSC%


0 100 3
5 990 3
10 970 3.1
15 950 3.15
20 925 3.2
25 900 3.3
30 855 3.4
40 825 3.6
50 750 4
60 700 4.3

239 /
Time minutes SSV cc SSC%
0 1000 3
5 510 5.8
10 310 9.7
15 250 12
20 200 15
25 170 17.6
30 150 20
40 150 20
50 150 20
60 150 20

Parameter good Moderate poor


Filamentous index <3 3-4 4-5
Free living cells 0-1 2-3 3
spirils 0 1 2
Ciliats/testate 1 <1 0
amoeba
Flagellate/amoeba 0 1-2 3
% floc >25m >80-90 >50-70 <50
Floc structure compact open -
Floc strength robust weak -
Floc shape rounded Irregular -

240 /

1436


/ C.O.D

/ T.ALK


/ T.D.S

/ T.S.S
/ B.O.D

/ NH3

/ NO3



/ F.COLI

/ PO4

/ PH
/ E.COLI

DO
1
2
3
4
5
6
* 7
* 8
* 9
* 10
* 11
* 12
* 13
* 14
* 15
* 16
* 17
* 18
* 19
* 20
* 21
* 22
* 23
* 24
* 25
* 26
* 27
* 28
* 29
* 30
* 31
###### ##### #### ##### ##### ###### ###### ##### ##### #### ##### #### #####

241 /
/ E.COLI

242
/ FCF

/ C.O.D

/ B.O.D

R.CL2

/ PO4

/ NH3

/ NO3

/ T.ALK

/ T.D.S

/ T.S.S

DO
/ PH

###### ##### #### ##### ##### ###### ###### ##### ##### ### ##### ####
1436

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10


INB.O.D Out B.O.D
0 0 1
0 0 2
BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND 0 0 3
0 0 4
0 0 5
0 0 6
1
0 0 7
0 0 8
0.9
0 0 9
0 0 10
0.8
0 0 11
0 0 12
0.7 0 0 13
0 0 14
0.6 0 0 15
0 0 16
0.5 IN B.O.D 0 0 17
OUT B.O.D 0 0 18
0.4 0 0 19
0 0 20
0.3 0 0 21
0 0 22
0.2 0 0 23
0 0 24
0 0 25
0.1
0 0 26
0 0 27
0
0 0 28
31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
0 0 29
0 0 30
0 0 31

INC.O.D Out C.O.D


1436 1
0 0 2
chemical oxygen demand 0 0 3
0 0 4
0 0 5
0 0 6
1
0 0 7
0 0 8
0.9
0 0 9
0 0 10
0.8
0 0 11
0 0 12
0.7
0 0 13
0 0 14
0.6 0 0 15
0 0 16
0.5 IN C.O.D 0 0 17
OUT C.O.D 0 0 18
0.4 0 0 19
0 0 20
0.3 0 0 21
0 0 22
0.2 0 0 23
0 0 24
0.1 0 0 25
0 0 26
0 0 27
0
31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 28
0 0 29
0 0 30
0 0 31

243 /

*

0 1
0 * 2
DAILY FLOW 0
0
*
*
3
4
0 * 5
1 0 * 6
* * 7
* * 8
0.9
* * 9
* * 10
0.8
* * 11
* * 12
0.7
* * 13
* * 14
0.6 * * 15
* * 16
0.5 * * 17
* * 18
0.4 * * 19
* * 20
0.3 * * 21
* * 22
0.2 * * 23
* * 24
0.1 * * 25
* * 26
* * 27
0
31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 * * 28
* * 29
* * 30
* * 31

1436


* 3 1
* 3 2
* 3 3
!#DIV/0 3 4
0 3 5
0 3 6

750 25
210 7
7
8 ..
120 4
210 7

244 /





N.H3N.MG/L PH C.O.D B.O.D T.S.S INF.FLOW


MG/L MG/L MG/L MG/L MG/L M
!#DIV/0 !#DIV/0 !#DIV/0 !#DIV/0 !#DIV/0 *
80 9-6 1000 500 600 /

N.H3N.MG/L PH C.O.D B.O.D T.S.S INF.FLOW


MG/L MG/L MG/L MG/L MG/L M
!#DIV/0 !#DIV/0 !#DIV/0 !#DIV/0 !#DIV/0 !#DIV/0
5 8.4-6 <50 <10 <10 /

C.O.D B.O.D T.S.S


MG/L MG/L MG/L

#### ##### #### ##### #### ####
!#DIV/0 !#DIV/0 !#DIV/0

245 /

Worksheet for microscopic examination of activated sludge


Date: / / time : am/pm
analyst : ibrahim elshamy Sample location: te mperature C0:

Microorganism group Slide 1 Slide 2 Slide 3 Slide 4


Amoeboids

Flagellates

Free swimming ciliates

Stalked ciliates

Rotifers

Worms

Relative predominance observations

246 /

Filament abundance rebort data sheet

none few some common Very abundant Excessive


common
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Filament effect on floc structure

Little or none bridging Open floc structure

Morphology of floc

firm weak Round compact Irregular , diffuse

Floc diameter

150 150-500 500

Free cell in suspension


zoogloeal
Inorganic/organic particles
Filamentous microorganism summary

Nocardia sup. Rank Abundance M. parvicella Rank Abundance


Type 1701 Type 581
S. natans Type 0092
Type 021 N Type 0803
Thiothrix sp. Type 1851
Type 0041 Type 0961
H. hydrosiss other
N limicola other

X= dominant 0 = secondary

Chemist / Ibrahim elshamy

247 /
Laboratory operation control report

Dewatering /belt filter press operating report 1

Jan 01 2017

Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3


Date Op.hrs F.S m3 Th SS% cake To Op.hrs F.S m3 Th SS% cake To Op.hrs F.S m3 Th SS% cake To
DS DS DS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Laboratory chemist operator

248 /
Laboratory operation control report

Dewatering /belt filter press operating report 2

Jan 01 2017

Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3


Date P. dose Centrate %WAS S %Cake S P. dose Centrate %WAS S %Cake S P. dose Centrate SS %WAS S %Cake S
mg/l SS mg/l mg/l SS mg/l mg/l mg/l
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

249 /
Laboratory chemist operator

Ultraviolet disinfection monitoring report / /2017


Date Flow m3/hr. Retention Transmittance % intensity Dose
time mW.s/cm2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Chemist operator

Ibrahim elshamy

250 /
Daily operating LOG

Operating programeter Fri Sat Sun Mon Tues Wed Thu


Time of day
Operator
Stage 1 pH
Stage 2/3 pH
Stage 2/3 ORP
NaOH tank level
NaOCL tank level
Deffrenial pressure of
activated carbon tank

251 /
11-2-1 Start-Up Procedure

composite sample
( & BOD5
) COD BOD5 COD



BOD5 MLSS MLVSS -70
%80 F/M







.



( . )SVI,BOD5, COD, MLSS

252 /
12-2-1



ATV A 131

oxidation ditch
2000

2 4 6 8
6

3-2 /.

(
)

2000 Carrousel
2000 oxidation ditch
anoxic zone aerobic zone
( 0.35 0.49
( ) 0.64 N-NH3

253 /
% 92.96 %94.93 ) 97.60 ( 80.22
86.55 ) 92.30 COD
% 90
anoxic zone
anoxic zone
.

BOD5
NH3

-1

-2 MLSS C/N

-3 HRT
SRT .

60000
2500 100000
4167
200000

254 /
300/ 18000/

255 /

60000 m3/d
ADF (Average daily flow):
2500 m3/h
Average hourly flow
100000 m3/d
Daily Peak flow
4167 m3/h
Hourly peak flow
18000 kg BOD/d 300
mg/l BOD:
3600 kg N-NTK/d 60
mg/l N-NTK:
21000 kg SS/d 350
mg/l TSS
27 C
Minimum design water temp
32 C
Maximum design water temp
300000 Population
Equivalent )P.E. (at 60 g BOD per capita
5 /
BOD/N ratio:
1,17 /
TSS/BOD ratio:
1,667 /
Peak Flow/Average flow:

256 /

(
24 )
5 mg/l <10 mg/l BOD

5mg/l <10 mg/l TSS
<12 mg/l N-Tot
<23 MPN/100ml (30 Fecal Coliform
days geometric
)mean
50 C


< 20 mg/l BOD

< 20 mg/l TSS

< 15 mg/l N-Tot

257 /
:

-1




-2
1600


-3 anaerobic zone
anoxic
anaerobic anaerobic zone

F / M 1000

.
-4 anaerobic zone
3030
.

258 /
-6
MLSS

( )3
anoxic zone ( )1

denitrification 3475 /

47815 ( 16078 )1
( 15981 )2 ( 15756 )3

) F / M=(0.0846 0.1412 MLSS (3524-
)5880
6 11000

simultaneous denitrification
aerobic zone
anoxic zone

Pre- denitrification
( )1 anoxic zone

259 /
( 2 )3 aerobic zone
1 2 3 .





2 3/

.





2 3 1
. anoxic zone

-7
3 40 3770
1,257 437
12/1/ 19629
358 119

260 /
-8 6 11000
(
) nitrification
-9
12
1260 2


-10

3


-11


-12

-13
injury bacteria

261 /


-14 3 1250 /
3 75 /
-16

-17
-18
-19
-20

-21

262 /
3-1
( )

1-3-1

1600

(-1-3-1)

( ) 10

3
2768
/ 0.58 / 0.26/
1042/3
90 120
150 75

263 /

( )
%20-10

264 /
(-1-3-1)



.

265 /


( )



266 /
30 29 237
158 228
56.5 284.5
2500 / 21.4
/ 4167 / 35.64/
35.2/ 58.6/
6.8
4.1
5-2 .


1
300 / .

267 /




300
8 6.58

40
.

2 40
2
.

268 /



269 /


12/ 0 9/
60
800 2
22 44 55
60 .



4500
4167
100

270 /
4-1
Anaerobic tanks
1-4-1

Biological phosphorus removal (BPR( And filamentous control

anaerobic tanks
4030 1000 anerobic
selector 3030 anaerobic zone

%2

( 1-4-1) selector tank


aerobic
( anaerobic ) anoxic


(

271 /


).

272 /
MLSS
0.5/ F/M
.


F/M
( )

HRT 25-5
60000
100000
anaerobic tank



hydroxybutyrate ATP ADP

anoxic zone

273 /
ANOXIC

( 1-4-1)

%35
heterotrophic bacteria
( anaerobic
)


.


-hydroxybutyrates

(
ATP )ADP

274 /




polyphosphates
ADP ATP

WAS
1/
)

275 /

3-2 MCRT -40
60





.

%35
heterotrophic bacteria
( anaerobic
)


276 /

277 /
HRT anaerobic
24.


( ) 30-12MCRT
( 15 -12 ).

( %30-20
thickeners
MCRT
3-1).

RAS
%30-20
%77 - %75 .

BOD
25:1
.

3-2
73 44

anaerobic zone

278 /
-1 COD

-2


.

279 /
5-1
Aeration tanks

( ) ( )


Anaerobic tank

/ simlutanous
nitrification/denitrification / preceding
denitrification
.

60000
100000 .

6 11000


0.2 m/s 0.3
m/s

280 /
simultaneous denitrification
aerobic zone
anoxic zone % 37

Pre- denitrification
( )1 (2 )3
anoxic zone ( 2 )3 aerobic zone
( ) 1 ( ) 2
( ) 3
281 /
% 27 47815
.

282 /
1-5-1

Carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand removal CBOD

( ) (
...) .


autotrophic organism
( )
heterotrophic organism
( ).


phototrophic organism
chemotrophic organism
( )

photoautotrophic & photoheterotrophic
283 /

( chemoautotrophic )

( chemoheterotrophic
) .


metabolism

*
dissimilation catabolism

* ( ) assimilation
anabolism .


substrate

( ) ( )

intracellular enzyme or
endoenzyme extracellular
enzyme or exoenzyme

284 /

.

( )
catabolism :

* oxidative catabolism redox


( )

* fermentative catabolism

.


( respiration ) ( )


electron donor

( )
.

(
) ( anoxic

285 /
) (
anaerobic
methanogenesis
hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis

acetotrophic methanogenesis
).

* aerobic

* anoxic

* anaerobic
.


anaerobic

.

286 /


. ORP



(
) (
) .

*

( )
( ) .

* Substrate


.

* .

1 : 5 : 100

287 /


BOD


Organic waste +activated sludge + O2 more activated sludge +


CO2+NO3+SO4+PO4

BOD

CBOD
BOD
( )BOD5
%65-%60
CBOD BOD
MLSS
biomass

BOD .

288 /




.



BOD

-3 -1 -2 Transfer step Conversion step


Flocculation step


289 /

:

capsular
) layer (slime layer

( (passive transport
( )active transport
( )permease




acclimated
.

-2
metabolic process

anabolism
catabolism

290 /
endocellular exocellular

autotrophic
.heterotrophic


ATP
.

Organics + oxygen CO2 + H2O + energy

Organics + oxygen + nutrients new cells + CO2 + H2O+


nonbiodegradable soluble residue

Cell matter + oxygen CO2 + H2O + nutrients + energy+


nonbiodegradable cell residue

291 /

:

1.0 kg BOD5 0.5 kg O2 uptake + 1.0 kg O2 new cells

)(Note: 1.0 kg BOD5 = 1.42 kg BODu

Endogenous respiration reaction


1.0 kg cells 0.8 kg O2 uptake + 0.2 kg O2 cell residue

) C5H7NO2 (cells)( MW=160) + 5O2 (MW=113 5CO2 + 2H2O + NH3

160/113 = 1.42 kg O2/kg SS

Oxygen Required (kg O2/kg Solids Production (kg


BOD5 )removed SS/kg BOD5) removed
Synthesis Endogenous 0.5 0.7
Respiration 1.3 0.14

292 /

-3
polysaccharides


(
)

(
)
slime



SVI .

* Adaptation (Lag) Phase


293 /


* Log Growth Phase



* Declining Growth Phase

* Maximum Stationary Phase


* Endogenous (Cell Death) Phase

.


:

-1 autotrophs
( )
( )
nitrification
294 /

( )


aerobic
aerobic or oxic
CBOD
denitrification

( )anoxic
O2
NO3 anoxic zone
( anaerobic zone
) ( ) anoxic zone ( )1



denitrification
.
( ) anaerobic
Acinetobacter

295 /
( acumulibacter ,microlunatus
,phosphovorus ,lampropedia ,tetasphera japonica, agrobacterium
) ,aquaspirillum , cytophagoflavobacteria

CBOD

.


( )
aerobic or oxic
anoxic
anaerobic
.
denitrification

Achromobacter, Acinetobacter, Agrobacterium, Alcaligenes,


Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Chromobacterium, Corynebacterium,
Flavobacterium, Hypomicrobium, Moraxella, Neisseria, Paracoccus,
Propionibacteria, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Rhodopseudmonas,
Spirillum and Vibrio

296 /
anaerobic Acinetobacter
(
acumulibacter ,microlunatus ,phosphovorus ,lampropedia ,tetasphera
) japonica, agrobacterium ,aquaspirillum , cytophagoflavobacteria

-2
CBOD

.






5 100
BOD

* aerobic

organics + bacteria + O2 more bacteria + CO2 + H2O + end


products

297 /
* facultative
( ) anoxic

Organics + combined O2 + bacteria more bacteria + CO2 + H2O + end products

( )anaerobic
.



500/ 35000/
3-2/
.

298 /
denitrification
0.5/
.

( )
( )


anoxic
anaerobic
.



PH <6

299 /
2-5-1 Biological Nitrogen Nemoval

( (Nitrification / Denitrification process


/
predenitrification / simlutanous denitrification


/ / .

(-2-5-1) Nitrification processes

autotrophic bacteria
NH3
NO2 NO3

nitrifiers
HDT SRT

.

300 /
nitrogen fixation

4.6/ -
MLSS
( 3-2/ )
8-6.5 pH

1 - 7.1
( (CaCO3 100-50
/

301 /

.


MCRT
3 MCRT
25 %90
1/
.

(-2-5-1) Denitrification

(
..)
heterotrophic


anoxic
zone /
( )1 2 3
anoxic zone /
MLSS 3 ( )1
240

302 /
2500 /
mixed liquor recycle
MLR


MCRT 3.6/ 1 / CaCO3
- 2.86
1 .

denitrification
Achromobacter, Acinetobacter, Agrobacterium, Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Bacillus,
Chromobacterium, Corynebacterium, Flavobacterium, Hypomicrobium, Moraxella, Neisseria,
Paracoccus, Propionibacteria, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Rhodopseudmonas, Spirillum and
Vibrio

303 /
denitrification mechanism

/ ( ) )nitrification denitrification process ( nitrogen removal

304 /
2-5-1 / simultaneous
nitrification/denitrification process


( )
anaerobic tanks .

2
3 16 1

270 2160
2 3 4320
1 2160
.

305 /
()2

306 /
( )3 / simultaneous nitrification/denitrification

/
( 2 anoxic zone
) (

) anaerobic zone


anoxic
zone (
307 /
8 + 16
2 + )

3 2

1
anoxic zone
8
/




%40 BOD 500-5






308 /







.



PIN-POINT FLOC


.



anoxic zone anaerobic zone

309 /





16/1

8/1

310 /

( )


.


30

(

)
500 10-5

311 /
3-5-1 /

Preceding nitrification/denitrification process

6
.

1 2 3
anaerobic tanks
(
. ) anoxic zone

2 3 aerobic zone
16 2
4 .

( 1 ) anoxic zone 2
( ) aerobic zone
( 3 ) .

312 /
( )1 / preceding nitrification /
denitrification anoxic zone

313 /
( )2 ( )1 aerobic zone

314 /
( )3 aerobic zone ( )2

315 /
( )3 /

316 /
2 3



anoxic zone
1 2 3
1 .

3
1
3475 % 240
( 100000 )
1 2 3

3
. %77


MLSS Oidation reduction potential
ORP

317 /

BOD
Anoxic zone

cBOD= +5 - +200 mV
denitrification = -50-+50 nitrification= +150 - +350 mV

denitrification = -50 +50 mV


BIOLOGICAL p-release -100 to -250 mV

BIOLOGICAL p-removal +25 to mV


+250





2 3/
318 /

.

6 11

2
4

.

319 /






( )



11

320 /

2



.

321 /
2 3 1
. anoxic zone



20 .

(-3-5-1) Sludge age


12
12
25 .

27
32
:

SRT (sludge age) = 1.072(12-T) 25

SRT =8.8 = 9 Days

322 /

solid inventory
:

= Sludge age = 9.19 days


16078 3.524
875 7.047



350/

= Sludge age = 8.1 days


16078 3.524
20000 0.350

= Sludge age = 9.35 days


47815 3.524
2556 7.047

60000


3

) 0.75+0.6 ( 3 ( 10.2 )(0.17 0.75 8.8
= S.p
) 1+( 0.17 8.8

323 /
0.350


62000 0.292 )0.75+0.6 ( 0.292 ( 10.2 )(0.17 0.75 8.8 3.27

= Sludge production
) 1+( 0.17 8.8 3.27

Sludge production= 17199 kg/d

0.01-0.015
3-4.5 mg/l 3

= Phosphrous sludge production x 62500 =843.8 kg/d


4.5 3
1000

Total sludge production = = 17199 kg/d + 843.8 kg/d = 18043 kg/d

8.8

Sluge quantity after 8.8 d = 18043 x 8.8 = 151523 kg


8.8


MLSS
MLSS= 3524 mg/l
:

324 /
= Aeration tank volume = 42997.446= 43446 m3
151523

3.5243

47815
( 16078 )1 ( 15981 )2
( 15756 )3

325 /
4-5-1
Finial sedemintation tanks

40 1257 6543
3770
19629 2


anaerobic zone
denitrification
.


scum pump
thickener

3 /
1.16
576 m3/hr/FST 1728 m3/ hr

326 /

( 4 -5-1)

Concentration of MLSS in aeration tank and return sludge


MLSS %75-60
MLVSS



327 /

.

RAS & WAS pump station

60000
100000
/ /

328 /

20000 MLSS
( MLSS= 3000-
6000 mg/l )

8.8
27 ( 125 - 75/ ) (
( 150 50/ )

MLSS
:
1
RAS MLSS = 23 x 1000/SVI

2 125
1
RAS MLSS = 23 x 1000/125= 10070 mg/l



short circuiting factor 70 80 %
10070 x 0.70 = 7049 mg/l

MLSS
% 150 - %50

329 /
: %75 125 MLSS

= MLSS = = 3021 mg/L


0.75 7049
1+ 1+0.75

%100

= MLSS = = 3524 mg/L


1 7049
1+ 1+1

( 4 -5-1) Excess sludge rate calculations

:
3
/
= Q WAS
mg/l

RAS MLSS = WAS


MLSS
3
15756 3524 /
= Q WAS
9 7049 mg/l

Q WAS= 875 m3/d

330 /
75
1
RAS MLSS = 23 x 1000/75 = 16799 mg/l

1699 x 0.70 = 11759 mg/l

MLSS 75 %75

= MLSS = = 5040 mg/L


0.75 11759
1+ 1+0.75

%100

= MLSS = = 5880 mg/L


1 11759
1+ 1+1


3
15756 5880 /
= Q WAS
9 11759 mg/l

Q WAS= 875 m3/d

875

895 x 3 = 2626 m3 / d

( )1
16078 ( )2 15981
( )3 15756 47815

331 /

3
47815 5880 /
= Q WAS = 2656 m3/d
9 11759 mg/l


2656 .

75

= Hours interval
2626 m3/d
3
3 73

12

MLSS
3524/ % %100 125

(Qinff + QRAS) MLSS = (QRAS x RAS )MLSS ) + ( Qeffl x TSS

=RAS MLS
(Qinff + QRAS) MLSS (60000 + 60000) 3524
= = 7048 /
QRAS 60000

332 /
( 4 -5-1) F/M


MLVSS

75

MLVSS = 70%(5040 - 5880)= 3528 - 4116 mg/l

125

MLVSS = 70%(3021 - 3524)= 2114 - 2467 mg/l

= F/M
) (5
V aeration

= F/M
) (300/ 20000 /
2467 / 15756m3

F/M = 0.1543 kg BOD / d / kg MLVSS

= F/M
) (300/ 20000 /

4116 15756 m3

F/M = 0.0925 kg BOD / d / kg MLVSS


mean cell residence time MCRT

333 /
SRT Sludge age




= MCRT d ] )[MLSS mg/L (Aeration Vol.+ Clarifier Vol.


mg
[(WAS, ]) (WAS flow)+(TSS out flow out
L

( 4 -5-1) Sludge Settling

scum pumps & tank

MLSS

334 /


thickner
.

335 /



F/M
endogenous phase

BOD
( F/M MLLS ) F/M
.

( )
( ) ( )
.

intracellular Poly- hydroxybutyric acid


Extracellular
polysaccharides Zooglea ramigera



exopolymeric fibrils

336 /


( )





hydrophobicity Serratia marcescens
Hydrophobic
SRT (
) SRT
.


EPS


influent wastewater
bulking
SVI EPS

337 /
nonfilamentous bulking filamentous
bulking .

EPS
% 30-27
SVI
30

SVI = (SV x 1000)/MLSS

SV MLSS
/ .

75
150 125/

( 4 -5-1) Sludge load and sludge age


30

338 /

.

kg BOD or COD / kg MLSS.d








.

( )
( )nutrients


.

( )

.


.
339 /

.

( 4 -5-1) uptake of nutrients by sludge Flocs

-1

-2

-3

bio- sorption

.

Flocs load

gm BOD or COD / kg MLSS

= Floc loading )(gm BOD or COD / kg MLSS


).( ..

340 /
( )

.





3 75

Aaerobic tanks
1250

gravity thickener


341 /
6-1

Tertiary filteration

1-6-1 filters and filteration media description

flux decline rate


filter
( ) hydro-anthracite 12
10
4167

342 /

10 ppm
24 5 ppm
10 ppm 24 5 ppm
20 ()3.15 -5.6 mm
nozzels 60pcs/m2

12 261 32.5
240 378 .
60000 2500

= Filtration velocity = 7.94 m3/m2/ hr
2500
10 315

= Filtration velocity = 13.20 m3/m2/ hr
4167
10 315

15 m3/m2/ hr 60 0.75 1.25
mm 40 1.4 2.5 mm
140 .
hydro-anthracite 10
2.5

343 /
10 x 0.4 = 4 kg = 2.5 x 0.6
1.5 kg 5.5 kg
11 ( 10
) 11 x 31.5 x 5.5 = 1905 kg

= Running time before saturation = 76.2 hr
1905 24
60000 0.01

2-6-1 filteration cell constituents


:
-1 penstock valve
-2
-3
-4 55%


-5 level
detector
-6
0.3 m

344 /
345 /

346 /
3-6-1 Filter operation procedures
-1







-2



.
-3


-4 3

-5
:

347 /
-

348 /
- ( )

-
( )

- ( 2 )

m3/m2/ hr 50-60
40 m/hr 2 1890
m3/ hr 3
1260 m3/hr .
349 /


:
-6

( 30-40 )
-7
3
-8 (
) 1.5
-9 2
-10



-11

350 /

-12


-13


-14

-15 sludge water tank

( )

351 /
-16


-17



-18
(
)
1270
3.5 1260
2.1 % 60000
10/ %3
350/
220




.

352 /
7-1
Treated water designfection
1-7-1 Chlorination designfection


10
60000
7500 / 12.5% 312.5

353 /
5-4/ 5/
3750/ 156.25
249.6
20/
10-5
31.5
1270 12.5%
1000

(1-7-1) Disinfection, chlorine demand and free
chlorine

) Chlorine Demand = Chlorine Dose (mg/L) Chlorine Residual (mg/L

5/ 1
/

Chlorine Demand = 5 mg/L 1.0 mg/L = 4 mg/L

( [ = Chlorine Feed Rate kg/m3/d )] Flow )m3/d


1000
)
1000000

354 /
5/ 60000/3
/ :

( Chlorine Feed Rate kg/m3/d = [5 ) 1000000] 60000 )m3/d) = 300 kg/d


1000

= ) Dose (mg/L ) (/
3

468.75
60000 / 3 :

= ) Dose (mg/L =5 mg/L
( 300 ) 1000000

3
60000 1000

(
)

Available Chlorine = Amount of Hypochlorite % Available Chlorine

12.5% 468.75

= Quantity of Chlorine = 3750 L/d


468.75 kg
0.125

:

= ) Hypochlorite (kg/day
) (3/

%

355 /
8.5/

60000 /3 70%

1000
= ) Calcium hypochlorite Hypochlorite (kg/day = 728.60
8.5 ) 60000 (3/
1000000
0.70

kg/d

12.5%
1000
= ) Hypochlorite (kg/day = 4080 kg/d
8.5 ) 60000 (3/
1000000
0.125

= Volume of sodium hypochlorite = 32640 L/d


4080 kg/d
0.125



%7.5
60000 / 3
:

(Projected Flow = Current Flow )MGD( )1.0 + % Change

( Projected Dose = Current Dose )mg/L( )1.0 + % Change

356 /
Projected Flow = 60000 m3 /d )1.0 + 0.075( = 64500 m3/d

Sodium hypochlorite Required = Feed Rate )kg/day( No. of Days Required

468.75
4 31
:

Sodium hypochlorite Required = 468.75 kg/day 124 days = 58125 kg

= Volume of sodium hypochlorite = 465000 L/d


58125 kg
0.125

70%

Calcium hypochlorite Hypochlorite (kg/day) = 728.60 kg/d

728.60 kg/d
4 31
:

Calcium hypochlorite Required = 728.60 kg/d 124 days = 90346 kg

357 /

jar test

) Chlorine Demand = Chlorine Dose (mg/L) Chlorine Residual (mg/L

chlorinator
Qeffl. = 60000 m3 /d
chlorine demand = 5 mg/l:

Chemical (kg/day) = chemical (mg/L)x 1000


1000000
x Qeffl. m3/d

Chemical (kg/day) = 5 (mg/L) 1000000


1000
x 60000 m3/d= 300 kg/day

( 24 )

= Chlorine Feed Rate kg/m3/hr 300


24
= 12.5 kg/hr

12.5%

= Volume of sodium hypochlorite = 100 L/hr


12.5 kg
0.125

= ) Dose (mg/L )Chlorine Feed Rate (kg/day


m3
folw
d

358 /
kg
= )Dose (mg/L = 5 mg/l
( 3000 )x1000000
day
m3 x 1000
60000
d

jar test 5/
0.5/ 60000/3
:

( [ = Chlorine Feed Rate kg/m3/d )] Flow )m3/d


1000
)
1000000

( Chlorine Feed Rate kg/m3/d = [5 = )] 60000 )m3/d


1000
)
1000000

300 kg/d

= Chlorine Feed Rate kg/m3/hr 300


24
= 12.5 kg/hr

= Volume of sodium hypochlorite = 100 L/hr


12.5 kg
0.125

359 /
2-7-1 polymer dosing unit

0.6 % 0.1%
0.05 0.1% 2
500

100000 4167
0.1% 4167 x 0.0001 = 0.417 kg/hr

360 /
8-1
UV designfication unit




.
photochemical reaction

.

253.7 nm
400-100
:
Vacuum UV 100-200 nm
UV C 200- 280 nm
UV B 280- 315 nm
UV A 315- 400 nm
UV C 200- 280 nm

361 /








25-50 mWs/cm2

2
/ 2 / 2 . /
10 J/m2 = 1mj/cm2 = 1mWs /cm2
UV dose = average UV intensity x retention time seconds
= Retention time seconds

= Flow per channel litres / second


3
24 60 60


= Flow per channel litres / second = 1157.4
1000003 1000
1 24 60 60
291685.24 cm3

= Retention time seconds = 0.252 second
291685.24cm3
1157.4 litres secondx 1000
%65 151109.02w.s/cm2
362 /
UV dose = average UV intensity x retention time seconds
UV dose = 151109.02 w.s/cm2 x 0.252 second= 38079.46
UV dose =38.079 w.s/cm2


.

363 /





10/ 5/ BOD 10
/ 65%-70% 253.7 nm
23 100/ .


364 /

.

1-200 mW/cm2


male specific bacteriophage

9-6




.
200 mWs/cm2

365 /
Ultraviolet disinfection monitoring report / /2017
Date Flow m3/hr. Retention Transmittance % intensity Dose
time mW.s/cm2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Chemist operator

Ibrahim elshamy

366 /
9-1
Clear water tank

intermeduiate pump

1400 submersed mixed
flow pump 112.500 2

10-1
Irrigation pump station

833

367 /

368 /

Sludge treatment stages


369 /





.
1-2 excess sludge pumping



%75
(
%150 - %50 ) %200
3 1250

gravity thickener
.
18043/
7.06 kg/m3

370 /
MLSS


18043
= Sludge production m3/d 3
= 2556 m3/d
7.06
3
30072/
:


30072
= Sludge production m3/d 3
= 4459.4
7.06
3

m3/d
2-2 excess sludge tank and gravity
thickener
1413


(
).

371 /
/

24
% 3-2
40

2

372 /


3-2 ( ) -

Sludge (Biosolids) dewatering Belt press


%70 .

1-3-2 ( ) belt filter press

belt press

373 /
( )
prethickening thieve drum
%8- %6
< 15 m3/hr
<220 kg DS/hr 6

= Belt width = 2.92 m
701 3/
15 3// 16


= Belt width = 5.98 m
21050 3/
2203// 16

18043
:
= Dewatering sludge quantity = 21050 DSkg/d= 877 DSkg/hr
18043 7
6


400-480 kg DS/hr 14-25 m3/h
2%-4%
:

m3
flow
= Hydraulic loading rate m3 / m hr
belt width m

374 /
kg
375hemical375 to be dewatered
= Biosolids feed rate kg/ hr hrs
d
operating time
d

= Biosolids feed rate kg/ hr =1315.6kg/hr


21050 DSkg/d
16hr

) Solids loading rate (kg/hr ) = Feed (kg/hr ) X (%TSS/100

Solids loading rate (kg/hr ) = 1315.6kg/hr X ( 2.5/100 )= 32.9 kg/hr

2.5%

= Sludge volume = 842 m3/d


21050 kg/hr
25.000 /3

mg 1000 m3
flocculants x xfeed rate
= polymer feed kg/day l 1000000 d
hrs
24
d
mg 1000 m3
1000 x x 842
= polymer feed kg/day l 1000000
hrs
= d 34.33kg/d= 1.43kg/hr
24
d

16 2.15 kg/hr

( )ton/hr ( )kg/hr
kg/ton :

375 /
kg
flocculant
= polymer dosage kg/ton hr
ton
solids treated
hr
kg
= polymer dosage kg/ton = 1.634 kg/Dston
2.15
hr
1315.6 ton
1000 hr

3
701
= Hydrolic load =14.6 m3/hr
16 3


21050
= Sludge load
= 438 DS kg ss/unit
16 3

%20-%18
7

18043
= Average daily dewatering sludge production
= 100 m3/d
180 /3

6
3
100 7
= Average daily dewatering sludge production
= 117 m3/d
6
2-3-2 feeding pump
25
701
16 6

701
= Required pump capacity = 14.6 m3/hr
16 3

376 /

3-3-2 polymer preparation and dosing



3-6 kg / ton DS

377 /

378 /
3( units ) x 0.48 ton DS/hr x 6kg/ ton DS = 8.64 kg/hr
0.1 %
8640 /
900 9
0.01kg/L=10 g/L= 1g/100 mL
0.1%
90 90

6

6 kg / ton DS

18043
:
= Dewatering sludge quantity = = 21050 DSkg/d=21.05 DS ton/d
18043 7
6

Polymer wight kg/ton DS = 21.05 DS ton/d x 1.634 kg/Dston = 34.40 kg/d


400-480 kg DS/hr 14-25 m3/h
2%-4%:

379 /
4-3-2 belt covyer
2

15
%18 :

= 8m3/hr
0.48 /
0.18

centerate
:
1843 kg DS/ d
DS concentration 7.06 kg/m3

380 /
)DS concentration after dewatering = 180 kg/ m3 (18%

= Turbid water ( Centrate ) volume = 2450 m3/d
18043 18043

7.06 180
BOD 100/ 250/
20/ 50/

381 /

382 /
5-3-2 operation procedures
-1

. %3-2


(
)
.
-2 ( )

-3

jar test
( )


( )440-500 rpm

383 /
-4
belt pressure tension
4
-5 rotating thieve drum
%8-6

rotating thieve drum

-6



384 /
2
.


electrostatic
attraction


.
MLSS
* free water
thickener

385 /
* bounding water


cake
sludge
* vicienty water
electrodtstic bonds

sludge cake
* interstesial water

* capillary water



%20-%18
%100 polyacrylamide
%96-%88


.

386 /




.

6.5-7.5 .



-7 belt deive

387 /
Centrate
.

-8


388 /
Laboratory operation control report

Dewatering /belt filter press operating report 1

Jan 01 2017

Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3


Date Op.hrs F.S m3 Th SS% cake To Op.hrs F.S m3 Th SS% cake To Op.hrs F.S m3 Th SS% cake To
DS DS DS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Laboratory chemist operator

389 /
Laboratory operation control report

Dewatering /belt filter press operating report 2

Jan 01 2017

Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3


Date P. dose Centrate %WAS S %Cake S P. dose Centrate %WAS S %Cake S P. dose Centrate SS %WAS S %Cake S
mg/l SS mg/l mg/l SS mg/l mg/l mg/l
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Laboratory chemist operator

390 /

391 /




BOD5
..:

1-3





...

: MLSS

392 /
Design Conditions

60000 :/ 3

3524 : MLSS/

300 BOD/

Actual Conditions

6000 :/ 3

265 : BOD/


BOD5/COD

Actual minimum Start-Up MLSS Concentration for a Single Basin= Design MLSS concentration for

X x

Aeration basin to be started

3524 x x = 933.86 mg/l


6000 265
20000 300

MLSS :

393 /
3 47815
3-1 16078 15981 15756 3

Design Conditions

60000 :/ 3

3524 : MLSS/

300 BOD/

3
47815 :

Actual Conditions

32000 :/ 3

280 : BOD/


60000 / 3 20000 / 3
32000 3
1.6 2
F /M

394 /
3-2 activated sludge formation

MLSS
500/ 3-2/
%10
%10 .

( by pass
)

3-2/
8
7
60-30


500 MLSS/

395 /

( )

.

MLSS

.

= MLSS 60 ( X
+ )


33
.

396 /

MLSS
MLSS
.



- .

397 /
MLSS





MLSS .




SVI
Fluffy


bound water



F/M
F/M

398 /
( 2-3/ )

( F/M )

MLSS MLVSS
.






denitrification



.

MLSS

399 /


.

3-3

Preparation for Start-Up

3-3-1

-1
-2 (

...
-3

3-3-2

-1 (
BOD
MLSS
-2 ( COD/BOD )
COD/BOD5
400 /
3-3-3

-1
-2 BOD5
-3
-4

4-3-3

MLSS ( )

401 /
4-3 Start-Up Procedure

1-4-3 seed sludge

-1 2/

-2

-3 MLSS 500/
%10
%10

-4

2-4-3

-1 ( by pass
)

-2
3-2/

-3 8
7
402 /
60-30

-4
500 MLSS/

(
)
.

MLSS

.

403 /
5-3

Process Monitoring During Start-Up

-1 ( MLSS
D.O BOD5
&COD SS SV
SVI F/M

-2 MLSS

-3

-4

3-5-1 Normal Operation

-1 (
BOD5 MLSS TSS

)F/M

-2 ( QRAS QWAS
)

404 /
6-3

* Qinff. = 60000 m3

* 3 47815
3-1 16078 15981 15756

* BOD5 = 300 mg/l

* TSS= 350 mg/l

* MLLS = 3524 5880 mg/l

V aeration * = 15756 m3

:
405 /
Qinff. = 5000 m3

BOD5 = 268 mg/l

TSS= 237 mg/l

Q WAS &Q RAS :

-1 :

) (5
Minimum MLSS conc. = design MLSS x
) (5



(268 ) 5000 3/
Minimum MLSS conc. = 3542 x

) (300 20000 3/

MLLS = 787.03 mg/l



(268 ) 5000 3/
Minimum MLSS conc. = 5880 x

) (300 20000 3/

MLLS = 1313.2 mg/l

-2


:
406 /

(Q inffl. + Q RAS) x MLSS = QRAS x MLSSRAS + Q effl. X TSS effl.

(Q inffl. + Q )RAS x MLSS = Q RAS x MLSS RAS

(Qinffl.+ Q RAS) x MLSS


MLSS = RAS

%75

(5000+ 5000 X 0.75 ) x 787


MLSS = RAS =1836.3 mg/l
5000 0.75

(5000 + 5000 X 0.75 ) x 1313


MLSS = RAS =3063.66 mg/l
5000 0.75

WAS & RAS MLSS RAS = 1836.3 mg/l 3063.66 mg/l

( = )

) (
Q RAS =
) (MLSS RASMLSS
407 /

MLSS

MLSS =787 mg/m3 - 1313mg/m3

WAS & RAS MLSS RAS = 1836.3 mg/l 3063.66 mg/l

-1

= Q WAS

MLSS WAS

SRT ( sludge age ) = 1.072(12-T) 25

12
25 12
27

SRT =8.8 = 9 Days

408 /

3
15756 787 /
= Q WAS
9 1836 mg/l

Q WAS= 750.42 m3/d


3
15756 1313 /
= Q WAS
9 3063.66 mg/l

Q WAS= 750.29 m3/d

75
:

= Hours interval
750.29 m3/d
3
75

10


MLVSS

MLVSS = 75%( 787)= 590.25 mg/l

MLVSS = 75%(1313)= 984.75 mg/l

409 /

= F/M
) (5
V aeration

(268 5000 / )
= F/M
590.25 / 15756m3

F/M = 0.144086 kg BOD / d / kg MLVSS



) (268 5000 /
= F/M
984.75 / 15756m3

F/M = 0.086364 kg BOD / d / kg MLVSS

S.P = O.L x (QRAS + Y (1-0.2) x


0.17 x Q RAS x S.A x FT
)1+( 0.17 x S.A x FT

S.P O.L QRAS


FT

Organic load O.L=BOD5 kg/m3 x Qinffl.m3/d= 0.268 x 5000=1340kg/d

S.P = 1340kg/d x (0.75 + 0.6 (1-0.2) x =1928.4


308 0.17 x 0.75 x 8.8 x 3.27
268 )1+( 0.17 x 8.8 x 3.27


3gm D.S

410 /
3mg/L 4.5mg/L
:

= Sludge production from P = 67kg/d


4.5mg/L X 3gm D.S X 5000m3/d
1000

Total sludge production = 1928.4 + 67 = 1995.4 kg/d

WAS & RAS MLSS RAS = 1836.3 mg/l 3063.66 mg/l


QWAS

=QWAS = 651.24m3/d
1995.4 kg/d
3.064 kg/m3

75m3/hr 8 40 .

60000
/ /

20000
MLSS 3524- 5880 mg/l
8.8 125/
:
1
RAS MLSS = 2 3
x 1000/SVI

411 /
2 125

( ) 150 75
1
RAS MLSS = 23 x 1000/125= 10070 mg/l



short circuiting factor 70 80 %
10070 x 0.70 = 7049 mg/l

MLSS
% 200 - %50

: %75 125 MLSS

= MLSS = = 3021 mg/L


0.75 7049
1+ 1+0.75

%100

= MLSS = = 3524 mg/L


1 7049
1+ 1+1


3
15756 3524 /
= Q WAS
9 7049 mg/l

412 /
Q WAS= 875 m3/d

75
1
RAS MLSS = 23 x 1000/75 = 16799 mg/l

1699 x 0.70 = 11759 mg/l

MLSS 75 %75

= MLSS = = 5040 mg/L


0.75 11759
1+ 1+0.75

%100

= MLSS = = 5880 mg/L


1 11759
1+ 1+1


3
15756 5880 /
= Q WAS
9 11759 mg/l

Q WAS= 875 m3/d

875

895 x 3 = 2626 m3 / d

413 /
( )1
16078 ( )2 15981
( )3 15756 47815


3
47815 5880 /
= Q WAS = 2656 m3/d
9 11759 mg/l


2656 .

75

= Hours interval
2626 m3/d
3
3 73

12


300/ 8
/ ( 5/ )
350/ 14 mg/L
60000 2500
62000
10/ TSS

414 /
:

S.P = O.L x (QRAS + Y (1-0.2) x


0.17 x Q RAS x S.A x FT
)1+( 0.17 x S.A x FT

S.P O.L QRAS


FT

Organic load O.L=BOD5 kg/m3 x Qinffl.m3/d= 0.292 x 62500=18250 kg/d

S.P = 18250 kg/d x (0.75 + 0.6 ) (1-0.2


336
292

x =17199 kg/d
0.17 x 0.75 x 8.8 x 3.27
)1+( 0.17 x 8.8 x 3.27


3gm D.S

3mg/L 4.5mg/L
:
4.5mg
X 3gm D.S X 62500 m3/d
= Sludge production from P L
= 844 kg/d
1000

Total sludge production = 17199 + 844 =18043 kg/d

WAS & RAS MLSS RAS = 7049 mg/l 11759 mg/l


QWAS

415 /
=QWAS = 2559.65 m3/d
18043 kg/d
7.049 kg/m3

75m3/hr
( 17 ) 150m3/hr


solid inventory
:

= Sludge age = 9.19 days


16078 3.524
875 7.047


solid inventory
350
/

= Sludge age = 8.1 days


16078 3.524
20000 0.350

= Sludge age = 9.35 days


47815 3.524
2556 7.047

416 /
7-3 F/M


MLVSS

75

MLVSS = 70%(5040 - 5880)= 3528 4116 mg/l

125

MLVSS = 70%(3021 - 3524)= 2114 2467 mg/l

= F/M
) (5
V aeration

= F/M
) (300/ 20000 /
2467 / 15756m3

F/M = 0.1543 kg BOD / d / kg MLVSS

= F/M
) (300/ 20000 /

4116 15756 m3

F/M = 0.0925 kg BOD / d / kg MLVSS


mean cell residence time MCRT

417 /
SRT Sludge age




Mean Cell Residence Time, day


] )[MLSS mg/L (Aeration Vol.+ Clarifier Vol.
mg
])[(WAS, L (WAS flow)+(TSS out flow out

418 /
8-3

Treatment Process Control Stratgies

QRAS
QWAS
Mass Balance

F/M
MCRT
Gould sludge age GSA
MLSS
Sludge quality

MCRT , GSA ,MLSS, & F/M
.

( . ) 0.5 mg/l

419 /
9-3

Selecting a Control Strategy


QWAS
( MCRT SRT ) GSA
MCRT

QWAS
F/M BOD

MLSS (
)
MCRT F/M
MLSS
( MCRT ).


BOD F/M MCRT MLSS
MCRT (
) .

420 /
MLSS

MCRT .



(
)

COD
MCRT
MLSS . MLVSS

421 /
1-9-3 QRAS

Return Activated Sludge Rate Control

RAS QRAS

-1 RAS (

)
-2 RAS (
MLSS F/M - MLSS

denitrification
)
F/M


.

35
>

422 /
MCRT SI
% 50-%25 (
)%40-%30 MCRT
SI %150-%100

.


% 75 .


( )
. SVI

423 /
10-3

QRAS Flow rate control

RAS

-1
-2
-3
-4 SVI
1-10-3 : sludge blanket measuring

90-30 .

2-10-3 : Mass balance


Q R
Q+R
MLSS Q+R
R Q .

424 /
Q influent wastewater flow = 60000 m3

MLSS concentration = 3524 mg/l

RASss return sludge concentration = 7047 mg/l

3-10-3 QRAS MLSS RAS



= QRAS m3 /d Qinfl.x MLSS
RASssMLSS

=QRAS m3/d 60000 x 3524


70473524
= 60017.03

= QRAS m3/d 60017


60000
x100= 100%

MLSS

4-10-3 30

30 .

Q = 60000 M3

30 SV ml/L = 430

425 /
=QRAS m3d SV
1000SV
x100=75.4% influent flow rate

QRAS= 75.4%x 60000=45240 m3d

30 R/Q
R/Q
QRAS R/Q x Q.

= R/Q SV
1000SV
x100



2-1 /
.

5-10-3
determination of QRAS using MLSS concentration



( )



426 /
MLSS



.

= % QRAS
100

1000000

60000/3 MLSS=3524 mg/l


SVI= 125

= % QRAS =78.37%
3524 100

1000000
3524
125

QRAS 77.77% x 100000 = 77777.77 m3/d

%75 % 150
%200

%75
( 7047 m11760 ( 0 %1.176-%0.8
5880-3524 MLSS/ .

427 /
MLSS
. MCRT

* MLSS MLSS
F/M
MLSS

(actual MLSSdesired MLSS )x1000
Waste sludge m =3 x Aeration volume m3
1000000
mg 1000
WASss concentration x
l 1000000



.
hrs
= QWAS m3
wast sludge m3 x 24
d
wasting period hrs

* MCRT
/3 :

=WAS kg/d ] )[MLSS mg/L (Aeration Vol.+ Clarifier Vol.


] [ desired MCRT
- TSS out x Q effl.

= QWAS m3/d waste kg/d


WAS concentration mg/l

428 /
6-10-3 The sludge quality
approach


inflection point

( ) .

30-15 60-40 -100


140
:

Settled Sludge Concentration (SSC) = Aeration Tank Concentration



(MLSS) X
1000

SSC
40 ( )Settled Sludge Volume (SSV
40 ml/L 430 ( ATC = ) MLSS
3524 mg/L RSC = 7047 mg/L

Settled Sludge Concentration (SSC) = 3524 X = 8195
1000

430

429 /
RSC = 8195 mg/L
7047
.

*



*
* ( )
*
*

* / % 25 -15 -/+
*

430 /
11-3

Waste Activated Sludge Control


WAS




MLSS




.

BOD
( )



431 /

( ) steady state BOD

:

MCRT
F/M
) G.S.A( Gould sludge age
)VSS (Volatile solid inventory
MLVSS concentration
Sludge quality control
RAS

.

MLSS


. MLSS

432 /
1-11-3 Methods of sludge wasting

RAS
WAS VSS

WAS .


RASss . QWAS

-1 QWAS m3d = 2556


-2 ( )
RASVSS1 mg/l=7047
RASVSS2 mg/l= 8500 -3
WAS RASVSS 7047/
8500/ :

= QWAS m3d adjusted 1


2
=x QWAS 7047
8500
X2556=2119.07

RASVSS
. QWAS

433 /
-1 QWAS m3d= 2255.3
-2 p , hrs/day= 4
WAS

= QWAS m3 @ 4hrs 24hrs/day


P1 hrs/day
=x QWAS adjusted 24
4
x2255.3= 13531.8


RASVSS




( ) %5
.


WAS :

MLVSS

434 /
GSA
F/M
MCRT

2-11-3 MLVSS


.

MLVSS
MLVSS= 2625 mg/l

.

MLVSS = 0.75 X MLSS = 0.75 x 3524 = 2643 mg/l

MLVSS
.

-1 MLVSS
-2 RASVSS
-3 Qinf.

435 /
-4 V aeration



F/M


.

MLVSS
.

*
*
MLVSS

=QWAS m3d SI2SI1


RASVSS

436 /
3-11-3 ( Constant Gould Sludge Age
(GSA
GSA
( inf. Waste water or
)primary effl. ( ) SI
MLSS .

= Sludge Age, days SS in Tank kg


SS Added kg/d
= MLSS kg
SS add kg/day

*
*
*
*
:

= Gould sludge age GSA , days SS in Tank kg


SS Added kg/d

WAS :

*
*
*
437 /
*
:

= GSA, days SI
)(pri.effl.or 438hemi.kg)( Q m3/d


WAS :

GSA days = 8.8 *


*
*
*
MLSS
8.8 :

MLSS, kg desired = GAS x 438hemi

8.8
27
:

= QWAS m3d )(

438 /
4-11-3 Constant Food to
Microorganisms F/M Ratio
F/M (
)
MLVSS .

F/M= 0.119

0.05 0.15 kg vss / kg BOD

F/M :

-1 COD BOD


-2 F/M
-3
MLVSS
(

439 /

MLVSS ).
-1 F/M 5 .
:

-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
(
MLVSS .) V

F/M :

= F/M
( ))( 3
3

440 /
5-11-3 Constant Mean Cell
)Residence Time MCRT )Control

F/M
WAST .

MCRT (
) MCRT

F/M

Conventional activated sludge
MCRT F/M
MCRT
F/M . BOD , COD , TSS

MCRT
.

MCRT ( ) 15-20
( )5-10

MCRT .

441 /
27
32

MCRT days C0
30 10
20 15
15 20
10 25
7 30

MCRT WAS :

=MCRT, day ] )[MLSS mg/L (Aeration Vol.+ Clarifier Vol.


mg
[(WAS, ]) (WAS flow)+(TSS out flow out
L

= MCRT , days SI
])[(RASss)( QWAS)+(efflvsss)(Q

-1
-2
-3 ( ) RAS
-4
-5
-6

442 /
-7
-8
MCRT days = SI
[(RASss)( QWAS)+(efflvsss)(Q)]

MCRT

QWAS m3d =
SI
( MCRT desired)(RASvss)

MCRT

Mean Cell Residence Time, day [MLSS mg/L (Aeration Vol.+ Clarifier Vol.) ]
mg
[(WAS, (WAS flow)+(TSS out flow out)]
L

MCRT
:

WAS kg/d= [MLSS mg/L (Aeration Vol.+ Clarifier Vol.) ]


[ desired MCRT ]
- TSS out x Q effl.

QWAS
:

QWAS m3/d = waste kg/d


WAS concentration mg/l

Mean Cell Residence Time, day [MLSS mg/L (Aeration Vol.+ Clarifier Vol.) ]
mg
[(WAS, (WAS flow)+(TSS out flow out)]
L

MCRT days = SI
[(RASss)( QWAS)+(efflvsss)(Q)]

443 /
SI solids inventory

Mean Cell Residence Time, day ] ) [3524 mg/L ( 16078+6591


mg = 12.4 days
[(7047, ]) (875)+(15 20000
L


MCRT
:

=WAS kg/d ] )[MLSS mg/L (Aeration Vol.+ Clarifier Vol.


] [ desired MCRT
- TSS out x Q effl.

QWAS
:

= QWAS m3/d waste kg/d


WAS concentration mg/l

444 /
12-3 sludge quality control

:

30

MLSS

( )

MLSS

5
5 Moving average test
1-12-3 Settled Sludge Volume
30
SSV30 / 60 SSV60 /

= ) Settled Sludge Volume (mL/L )(


)(

=Settled Sludge Volume % )(


)(
100

445 /
2-12-3 Sludge Volume Index SVI


( WAS
) RAS
( WAS
) RAS .

=) Sludge Volume Index (SVI SSV (mL/L) 1000


MLSS mg/l

150-50 120-80 200-100


100
200-100
250

125

446 /
13-3

Biosolids production and pumping calculations

1-13-3 Estimating Daily Sludge


Production

= Estimated Pump rate m3/ hrs Influent TSS Conc Effluent TSS Conc
% Solids in Sludge

2-13-3 pump operating time

Sludge production kg DS/d = 18043 kg DS/d

7074 mg/L

= Sludge production kg W.S/d =2550.6 m3 WS/d


18043 kg DS/d
7.074 /3

75m3/hr

17.04 hr

total pumps capacity = 2 x75 m3/hr= 150 :


m3/hr

2550.6 m3 WS/d / 150 m3/hr =17.004 hr

447 /

:

17.04 hr/3 shieft = 5.68hr/shieft=341minutes/shieft


( ) 1080 g/L
1080/ 3
2556m3/d :

)= 2550.6 m3 WS/d x Total Sludge Production (kg


1080kg/m3=2754648 kg/d

1000 3

= ) Sludge (kg/1000 m3 )Total Sludge Production (kg


Total Wastewater Flow
1000m3

kg
= ) Sludge (kg/1000 m 3
) = 45910.8(kg/1000 m3
2754648 kg/d 1000
d
600003/

Sludge Production in Wet Tons per Year

( + )
wet tons .

448 /

= ) Sludge (wet tons/yr
( ) . (/) /



= ) Sludge (wet tons/yr ) = 1005446.5(wet tons/yr
) .(/ /


BOD
sludge hemical449449

hemical449449
solids
449hemical449 + .

%2
%97
.

)Plant Available Nitrogen (PAN 3-13-3



mineralized
.

449 /
mineralization factor f1 = 0.2
plowing :

PAN (kg/dry ton )= [( ( ) 1 +


1 0.0044

f1= 0.20

V1= 1.00 injected

V1= 0.85 plowed 24

V1= 0.70 plowed 7

: 21000 /
10500/ - N-NH3
24 PAN
PAN/dry ton

= PAN (kg/dry ton )= [( ( ) . + ( ) . ] .


450 /
Application Rate Based on 4-13-3
Crop Nitrogen Requirement

=Dry tons/m2 ) (/ 2
) (/

5-13-3 Metals Loading

Loading (kg/m2) = Metals Concentration (mg/kg) 0.0044 lb/dry ton x


)Application Rate (dry tons/m2

= Applications ) (/2
) (/2/

= )Site Life (yr.


451 /

Quality and operation control tests


452 /


biochemical reactions
metabolism
catabolism anabolism
( )

. Biosolids

453 /




MLSS
Q RAS Q WAS


.




...

454 /

.

455 /
1-4

Nessesary laboratory tests for raw water, treated


water and sludge

1-1-4 chemical , biochemical and


physical tests

456 /


.

457 /
:

458 /
-

Flow/ 18-10-1437 Day /


)/3( 23/7/2016 Date of Sample
18-10-1437 Week /
23/7/2016 Date of Analyses

Standard Specification Analysis Results





CCT FST Inlet CCT FST Inlet Unity Symbol Test
-- pH
6-8.4 6-8.4 9- 6 1.
pH
Mg/L DO
- - -
Dissolved oxygen
NTU TUR
5 5 -
Turbidity
Mg/L ALK
- - 200
Alkalinity
Mg/L T. CL
- - 1000
Chlorides
Mg/L TS
- - -
Solids Total
Mg/L TSS
10 40 600
Solids Suspended Total
Mg/L COD
- - 1000
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Mg/L BOD
10 40 500
Bio Chemical Oxygen Demand
Mg/L NO3N- -
10 10 -
Nitrate Nitrogen
Mg/L NO2N- -
- - -
Nitrite Nitrogen
Mg/L NH4N- -
5 5 80
Ammonium Nitrogen
Mg/L PO4P-
- - 25
Total Phosphate
mw.s/cm UV
25 0 -
ultra violet
Mg/L TKN
- - -
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
TC
2.2 1000 - 100/
Total Coliform Bacteria
TFC
2.2 1000 - 100/
Fecal Coliform Bacteria
-
1 - - /
Eggs of worms

()%
COD BOD TSS NH4

( /3) ( /3)

459 /
-

Flow/ ()Month
6696 Week /
)/3(
()Year


Operating standards Analysis Results Unity Symbol Test Place of sampling
-- pH
8.4 -- 6
pH
Mg/L S2-
--
Sulphides
NTU FOG
Nil
Fats, oils and grease
Mg/L COD
--
Chemical Oxygen Demand

Mg/L BOD5
--
Bio Chem ical Oxygen Dem and


C TEM
25
Temperature
Mg/L DO
4 -- 2
Dissolved Oxygen
Mg/L MLSS
6000 -- 3000 Mixed liquor suspended
solids
Mg/L MLVSS
-- Mixed liquor volatile
suspended solids
-- F/M
0.3 -- 0.05
Food / Microorganisms
ML SV
600 -- 300
Sludge Volume
Mg/L SVI
120 -- 80
Sludge Volume Index

filamentous -- --
--
Fungi Microscopic Checked
Day SA
25 -- 10
Sludge Age
Mg/L -- ( )
--
( Dry solid)before belt press

Mg/L -- ( )
--
( Dry solid)after belt press

Mg/L -- ( )
--
( TSS)before belt sand filter

Mg/L -- ( )
--
( TSS)after belt sand filter

()%

460 /
/
2-1-4 settleometer test


.

2
) ( 2L Mallory direct reading SGA
.

-1 205 15

settleometer -15

-3 1000 3 ( 1000-0
2000) 3
-4
-5 5
10
-6
.
-7 15 30 1 1

461 /
Settleometer data activated sludge sheet
Date : Observations :
Sample location : Floc
Analyst :Ibrahim elshamy ( )flocculant
Time of test ( ) dispersed
SSC = 1000 Interface

Time SSVcc SSC% ( ) well defined


minutes ( ) ragged
0 Supernatant
5 ( ) clear
10 ( ) turbid { ( )pinfloc ( )stragglers floc}
15
20 comment : ( odor , color , etc )

25 rise time : hrs

30
40
50
60

462 /
3-1-4 Settleometer & settleability




.

*
*

* ( ... )
* (... )
* (.. )

*

*
*


463 /


( 30 ) 10
.


ATC

SSV SSC :

* ATC% = 3.4
* 30 SSVtml/l = 680 t
* ( 30 ) t
:

SSCt
) ()(1000


=SSC30 = =5%
()(1000 ) ) (3.4)(1000

30

30 %5

464 /
* 5 30 60
.
* 30 (
) 30
200/ 600/

*

* 60


*
RAS
* 60 -12 ( SSC60
) 18 ( 120 ) .
* 60 SSC60 ( )20


Ashing clumping
* 60 ) 10 ( SSC60
4-3

465 /

10-5 900-700
/



-400
1200 800-400/ 30
SSR :
:

* 30 SSV30 ml/l =680


= SSR =
1000SSV30 1000680
0.5hr 0.5
=640ml/l/hr

* 500/
500/ .
SSC

:

466 /
= SSC ATC x1000
SSVt

SSVt t ATC
.

SSC %3 500 3
( 5 )
1000 500 3 1000 3
250 3
.

SCC ( ) .

SSC
%3 :

=SSC0 3% 1000
1000
= 3%

5 500 3
:

=SSC5 3% 1000
500
= 6%

250 3 30

=SSC30 3% 1000
250
= 12%

200
467 /
=SSC60 3% 1000
200
= 15%

t min.
SSVcc
...
5 10
aerobic digestion
30 4

.

468 /
Time minutes SSV cc SSC% = 1000

0 1000 3
5 500 6
10 400 7.5
15 325 9.2
20 290 10.3
25 260 11.5
30 250 12
40 220 13.5
50 200 15
60 200 15

Time minutes SSV cc SSC%


0 100 3
5 990 3
10 970 3.1
15 950 3.15
20 925 3.2
25 900 3.3
30 855 3.4
40 825 3.6
50 750 4
60 700 4.3

469 /
Time minutes SSV cc SSC%
0 1000 3
5 510 5.8
10 310 9.7
15 250 12
20 200 15
25 170 17.6
30 150 20
40 150 20
50 150 20
60 150 20

470 /
2-4

Visual observations

-1
-2 ( )
( 30-90 3 -1 )
-3
( )1-3 JTU


.
-4



.
Q
ATC SSC
RSF RSC

2
471 /




.

SSC

.

472 /
3-4

Microscopic examination of activated sludge and


operation process control

( ) MLSS
RAS
WAS 10
/

. fluffy flocs


( )

473 /
1-3-4

Operation performance indicators

1-1-3-4 protozoa

amoeboids
flagellates
ciliates


474 /
MLSS
.

MLSS
BOD
.

free swimming
ciliates stalked ciliates



MCRT

.

MCRT



475 /
30 MLSS F/M
.

-1 :

Vorticella Chilodonella Colpidium


Blepharisma Aspidisca cicada Aspidisca cicada
carchesium Epistylus * Opercularia

-2 omnivorous ciliates

Stentor Euplotes

-3 carnivorous ciliates

Litonotus Trachelophyllum Hemiophrys


Suctorea

476 /
2-3-4 ciliates

-1 sessile ciliates

* vaginicola
100m ( )

Vaginicola

* Opercularia

140 m
0.2-0.3 kgBOD/kgMLSS /d

Opercularia

477 /
* Epistylus
70-100 m 0.1- 0.2
kg/BOD/kgMLSS/d

Epistylus

* carchesium

sessil ciliate
50-125 m 0.2
kg/BOD/kgMLSS/d

Carchesium

478 /
* Vorticella 50-150m
< . 0.4kg/BOD/kgMLSS/d

Vorticella

-2 crawling ciliates

* Aspidisca cicada
30-50m <0.4 kgBOD/kgMLSS/d

Aspidisca cicada

479 /
* Chilodonella 40-125m
<0.2 kgBOD/kgMLSS/d

Chilodonella

* Trachelophyllum 30-50m
<0.4 kgBOD/kgMLSS/d

Trachelophyllum

480 /
-3 free living ciliates

* Blepharisma

200m
0.1-0.4 kgBOD/kgMLSS/d

Blepharisma

481 /
* Colpidium
0.1-0.4 kgBOD/kgMLSS/d

Colpidium

482 /
* Euplotes 6
30-100m 0.1-0.4 kgBOD/kgMLSS/d

Euplotes

* Litonotus
100 <0.4 kgBOD/kgMLSS/d

Litonotus

483 /
* paramecium 180-
300m

0.1-0.3 kgBOD/kgMLSS/d

Paramecium

* spirostomum 500-
900m <0.2 kgBOD/kgMLSS/d

Spirostomum

484 /
* Hemiophrys

<0.4 kgBOD/kgMLSS/d

Hemiophrys

* Suctorea


50-100m

Suctorea

485 /
* Aspidisca cicada

Aspidisca cicada

* Stentor 150-500 m

Stentor

486 /
flagellate protozoa

* bodo 15m

>0.4 kgBOD/kgMLSS/d

Bodo
* hexamitus


20m >0.4 kgBOD/kgMLSS/d

Hexamitus

487 /
* peranema


20-30m

Peranema

488 /
* monosiga

1-15m

>0.4 kgBOD/kgMLSS/d

Monosiga

489 /
* poteriodendron

20m

Poteriodendron

490 /
* terponomas

4 2
20m >0.4
kgBOD/kgMLSS/d

Terponomas

491 /
3-3-4 aoembea


50-400m

>0.4 kgBOD/kgMLSS/d

Aoembea

492 /
:

* testate amoebae

* arcella

euglypha

493 /
* heliozoan

Heliozoan

494 /
5-4-4 metozoa

100 2-1


* rotifers

* nematodes

* warms

* tardgrides

0.15 kgBOD/kgMLSS/d
( ) ( 3 )

* rotifers

500-100

495 /
Rotifers

* nematodes

Nematodes

* ) tardigrads ( water bear

1200-200 0.1
kgBOD/kgMLSS/d

496 /
) Tardigrads (water bear

* worms

0.1 kgBOD/kgMLSS/d
aleosoma

Aleosoma

497 /
2-3-4

Operation process decline and sludge problemes


100


MLSS



vorticella aspidisca


( ) thecamobeoa
metozoa
.



testate amoeba .

.
498 /


.

worms .


( ) ( ) (
)



499 /
Parameter good Moderate poor
Filamentous index <3 3-4 4-5
Free living cells 0-1 2-3 3
spirils 0 1 2
Ciliats/testate 1 <1 0
amoeba
Flagellate/amoeba 0 1-2 3
% floc >25m >80-90 >50-70 <50
Floc structure compact open -
Floc strength robust weak -
Floc shape rounded Irregular -

500 /
Worksheet for microscopic examination of activated sludge

Date: / / time : am/pm

Analysed By chemist : temperature C0 sample location

Microorganism group Slide 1 Slide 2 Slide 3 Slide 4


Amoeboids

Flagellates

Free swimming ciliates

Stalked ciliates

Rotifers

Worms

Relative predominance observations

Chemist / Ibrahim elshamy

501 /
4-4

Description of the various filamentous species

28

.

-1 actinomycetes

scum

502 /
15
0.1-0.7 kg BOD/kgMLSS.d
M. parvicella

-2 biggiatoa

503 /
-3 cyanophaycea

>0.1 kg BOD/kgMLSS.d

504 /
-4 flexibacter

505 /
-5 haliscomentobacter hydrossis

(
) ( > 0.2 kg BOD/kgMLSS.d
)


506 /
-6 leucothrix

>0.1kgBOD/kgMLSSd

40-10/

507 /
-7 microthrix parvicella

( ) poly-p
<0.2 kgBOD/kgMLSS
scum





508 /


anoxic zone
40% 15
(
)

( )
.

-8 nostocoida limicola 1

509 /

scum

nostocoida limicola III 3 -9

( )

510 /
0.1-0.3 kgBOD/kgMLSS

-10 Fungi

511 /
-11 sphaerotilus natans

>0.2kgBOD/kgMLSS


.

512 /
-12 streptococcus

513 /
-13 thiothrix


>0.1 kgBOD/kgMLSS
( )

514 /
-14 type 0041/0675


<0.2kgBOD/kgMLSS d

515 /
-15 type 0092


<0.1 kgBOD/kgMLSS
M. parvicella
( )

516 /
-16 type 0211

517 /
-17 type 021N

0.05-0.4 kgBOD/kgMLSS
>0.1 kgBOD/kgMLSS

518 /
-18 type 0411

>0.3 kgBOD/kgMLSS

-19 type 0581

519 /
-20 type 0803


<0.2 kgBOD/kgMLSS
Predenitrification

-21 type 0914

520 /

<0.2kgBOD/kgMLSS d
.

-22 type 0961


>0.2kgBOD/kgMLSS d

521 /
-23 type 1701

>0.2kgBOD/kgMLSS d


.

-24 type 1702

522 /
-25 type 1851

<0.15 kgBOD/kgMLSS d
.

-26 type 1852

523 /

-27 type 1863

0.3-0.6 kgBOD/kgMLSS d

524 /
-28 Nocardia

20-10 1

mycelium x 1,2 1

PHB .

525 /
Filament abundance

none few some common Very common abundant Excessive


0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Filament effect on floc structure

Little or none bridging Open floc structure

Morphology of floc

firm weak Round compact Irregular , diffuse

Floc diameter

150 150-500 500

Free cell in suspension


zoogloeal
Inorganic/organic particles
Filamentous microorganism summary

Nocardia sup. Rank Abundance M. parvicella Rank Abundance


Type 1701 Type 581
S. natans Type 0092
Type 021 N Type 0803
Thiothrix sp. Type 1851
Type 0041 Type 0961
H. hydrosiss other
N limicola other

X= dominant 0 = secondary

Chemist / Ibrahim elshamy

526 /
5-4

Activated sludge Operational process problems and


solutions

Flocs load

gm BOD or COD / kg MLSS

= Floc loading )(gm BOD or COD / kg MLSS


).( ..

( )

.

527 /


.

-1




-2 deflocuation of sludge



<<0.05 kgBOS/kgMLSS d

-3 SVI


-4

528 /

-5






-6







1-5-4 high sludge load and oxygen
deficient



>0.3 0.4 kgBOS/kg MLSS d (
) .

529 /
( ( anaerobic /anoxic





2-5-4 poisoning of the sludge






.


.
:
530 /




3-5-4 ( ) many small Flocs , deflocuation





<<0.05 0.4 kgBOS/kg MLSS d

4-5-4 heavy sludge

5-5-4 the final clarifier dos not work


well

531 /


:








treatment performance inadequate with
clear effluent

BOD , P . NO3


decline of sludge production

532 /

worms

6 -5-4 bulking sludge








30


SVI
SVI> 150 ML/GM

. zoogloeal

533 /
7-5-4 filaments index and sludge
volume index



.
S.natans , thiothrix , type 021 , type 0803 /0904




actinomycetes ,M. parvicella , N. limicolaIII , type 0092, type 1701


534 /
type 1863
. N. limicola


,



.>40%-50%

FI SVI
H2S Thiothrix ,
. type021 , biggiatoa , type 0914

microthrix parvicella

anaerobic/anoxic parvicella

.

(
... )
535 /

( )

1-1.5 kg BOD/kg MLSS d

8-5-4 process condition and composition

>0.2kgBOD/kg MLSS d

>0.2kgBOD/kg MLSS d




(

)
0.1 kgBOD/kg MLSSd
M. Parvicella


M.Parvicella
.

536 /
actinomycetes
type 0041 , type 1851 ,type 0092
M.Parvicella
9-5-4 effect of nutrient removal

anaerobic/anoxic
M.Parvicella

M.Parvicella TYPE 0041
SVI
Actinomycetes
Parvicella type 0041
Parvicella

10-5-4 completion between filaments


organism




S. Natans/thiothrix/ TYPE0021N

Parvicella/actinomycetes/type0041/type0092
537 /
6-4

Controlling bulking sludge





()

M. parvicella



2/


aerobic anoxic

538 /

.


.


anaerobic tank


25-5
.
COD
bio sorption

M. Parvicella
QRAS = 0.5 floc load = 100-
150 gm COD/kg MLSS.d 5
sludge load = 1.2-1.8 kg COD/kg MLSS.hr

539 /


.



%75

M. Parvicella

30-20
anaerobic

. anoxic
1-6-4 scum formation





10

540 /
30-50 mg/l
.

( ) 50%

.

denitrification




.

541 /

.


(.)0.44 cm3 gas/1 gm solids



....

25-100m 20-10



.

(
)
hydrophobic surface

.

542 /
scum index SI
10
M. Parvicella
84%-94% N. limicola & actinomycetes


.

2-6-4 scum controlling

SI= 10%-15%


(
15% 43%
.

SI= 10%-15%
.
543 /
3-6-4 clumping /rising sludge

30
2-1 denitrification

anoxic zone denitrifies

.

F/M
nitrification

denitrification
0.2/

F/M

.

:

544 /







%10

.
4-6-4 ( ) cloudy secondary effluent

MLSS
.



WAS

545 /
3/
.
F/M

:
F/M
WAS

RAS

.

F/M

0.5/
3-2/


MLVSS
.

546 /
5-6-4 ASHING


denitrification
:





%15 MLSS :

scum

pin point flocs

547 /
:

30
WAS


3/
SCFM 3-2/ .

6-6-4 stragglers/billowing sludge


MLSS
F/M .


RAS
:

* MLSS



MLSS F/M .

548 /
*
.
* RAS .
:

* WAS MLSS
* RAS
*
.

549 /

Odor control system

550 /

( )

.


H2S NH3 ( mercptanes
)
( )
(
) (
) .


23.9 g/L (
)

odor threshold (
) H2S odor threshold = 0.0005 ppm
17 ( NH3=17 ppm ) .

551 /


.


olfactory bulb


intensity faint strong


.





H2S NH3 mercptanes
amines skatole

.

552 /
1-5

Odor release compounds in municipal wastewater treatment plants



2
10 .


5-50 ppm
50 ppb

2-5

chemical wet scrubber


towers
2

.

553 /

:

H2S
NH3

dimethyl disulphide & diethyl sulphide
H25
( ) pH=9-11
/

NH3
pH<3

554 /


(

)

3-5

Calculations of consumed chemicals

1-3-5


pH =6.5-7.5
80% . HS- & S-

50 mg/l pH=6.5-7.5
0.45 22 mg/l

7 mg/Lx0.45=3mg/m3

HH2S = 0.023

/3

555 /

M H2S = mole mass = 34.08

P H2S = saturated vapour pressure of H2S = 20.265 bar

n air exchanges = 20

X =
2 1 1
H2S 2
2 2

X = = 37ppm
0.023 1 1
H2S 22 1000000
34.08 3 20.265 20

1ppm = 1.4 mg/m3

X H2S 37 ppm x 1.4mg/m3 =51.8 mg/m3

3 g/ m3

X =
2 1 1
H2S 2
2 2

X = = 5.06ppm
0.023 1 1
H2S 3 1000000
34.08 3 20.265 20

556 /
1ppm = 1.4 mg/m3

X H2S 5.06ppm x 1.4mg/m3 =7.1mg/m3


400 m3/hr 20 8000 m3/hr

X TH2S =8000 m3/hr X 51.8mg/m3= 414400 mg/hr = 0.4 kg/hr

X TH2S =8000 m3/hr X 7.1 mg/m3= 56800 mg/hr = 0.0568 kg/hr

(1-3-5) ( ) 2

2.35 / 1/
20
0.4 kg/hr

70%

:
kg
0.4 0.70 2.35
X NaoH = hr
= 0.658 kg/hr
1

557 /
kg
0.0568 hr 0.70 2.35
X NaoH = = 0.0934 kg/hr
1

0.5 kg/l

50% NaOH =0.5gm/cm3=50gm/100cm3= 500 gm /L = 0.5 kg/l


= 500 kg NaOH/m3

V = = 1.32 L/hr = 31.6 l/d =11370.24 L/year


0.658/hr
NaOH
0.5 kg/l

V = 0.1869 L/hr = 4.48 l/d =1614 L/year


0.0934 kg/hr
NaOH
0.5 kg/l

(1-3-5) +

( ) 2

2.35 / 1/

30%

2.35 kg NaOH per kg of H2S

NaOCl + H2O HOCl + NaOH-

H2S + 2NaOH+4NaOCl Na2SO4 +4NaCl +2H2O

558 /
2.35 /
8.74 +/

)34.081 + 2(40) +4(74.453

8.74 kg NaOCl + 2.35 kg NaOH per kg of H2S

20
0. 4 kg/hr

:
kg
0.4 hr 0.30 8.74
X NaOCL = = 1.05 kg/hr
1


kg
0.0568 hr 0.30 8.74
X NaOCL = = 0.149 kg/hr
1

0.125 kg/l

12.5% NaOCL =0.125gm/cm3=12.5gm/100cm3 =0.125 gm/L = 125kg


NaOCL/m3

V = = 8.4 L/hr = 201.4 L/d =72493 L/year


1.05 kg/hr
NaOCL
0.125 kg/l

559 /
V = = 1.19 L/hr = 28.60 L/d =10294 L/year
0.149 kg/hr
NaOCL
0.125 kg/l

2.35 /
8.74 +/


kg
0.4 0.30 2.35
X NaOH = hr
=0.3 kg/hr
1


kg
0.0568 hr 0.30 2.35
X NaOH = = 0.0398 kg/hr
1

0.5 kg/l

50% NaOH =0.5gm/cm3=50gm/100cm3= 500 gm /L = 0.5 kg/l


= 500 kg NaOH/m3

V = = 0.564 L/hr = 13.50 l/d =4873 L/year


0.3 kg/hr
NaOH
0.5 kg/l

V = = 0.0796 L/hr = 1.91 l/d =688 L/year


0.0398 kg/hr
NaOH
0.5 kg/l

560 /
(1-3-5)

NH4+
PH<8 %50 NH3 %50 NH4+
PH=9.5 PH>11

25
15

.
] -1
= [ + ]
[.+
+.

pH T =15 C0 T =20 C0 T =25 C0


NH3 NH4+ NH3 NH4+ NH3 NH4+
6.5 0.09 99.91 0.13 99.87 0.18 99.82
7:00 0.27 99.73 0.40 99.60 0.57 99.43
7.5 0.86 99.14 1.24 98.76 1.77 98.23
8:00 2.67 97.33 3.82 96.18 5.38 94.62
8.5 7.97 92.03 11.16 88.84 15.25 84.75
9:00 21.5 78.50 28.43 71.57 36.27 63.73
9.5 46.41 53.59 55.68 44.32 64.28 35.72

561 /
( )1
pH=6.5-8.4
10 mg
:

HNH3 = 0.0569

/3

M NH3 = mole mass = 17.03

P NH3 = saturated vapour pressure of NH3 = 10.032bar

n air exchanges = 20

X =
3 1 1
NH3 3
3 3

X = = 167 ppm
0.0569 1 1
NH3 10 1000000 /
17.03 3 10.032 20

562 /
XNH3= 167ppm x 1.4 mg/m3= 234


400 m3/hr 20 8000 m3/hr

X TNH3 =8000 m3/hr X 234 mg/L = 1872000 mg/hr = 1.87 kg/hr

2NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4

2(17.031) + 98.097

/ 2.88/

: ()1

/ 2.88/

Sluphric acid required kg/NH3kg/hr = 2.88 kg / 1 kg

H2S + 2NaOH Na2S + 2H2O

)34.081 + 2(40

Sluphric acid required kg/NH3kg/hr = 2.88 kg / 1 kg

563 /

= Sluphric acid required = 0.65 kg/hr


1.87 kg/hr
2.88 kg / kg

98%H2SO4=0.98gm/cm3 =98 gm/100 cm3 = 0.980 kg/L= 980kg/m3

V = = 0.66 L/hr = 16 L/d = 5760 L/year


0.65 kg/hr
H2SO4
0.980 kg/L

(1-3-5)


5760 / 5760 /
686+1614 = 2300/ 4873+11370 = 16243/
10294 / 72493/
18354 / 94496 /

2-3-5 (
)

10
0.1mg/m3
0.45% .

X = = 0.15 ppm
0.023 1 1
H2S 0.10.45 1000000
34.08 3 20.265 10

564 /
1ppm = 1.4 mg/m3

X H2S 0.15 ppm ppm x 1.4mg/m3 = 0.2 mg/m3

2024 m3/hr 10
20240 m3/hr

X TH2S =20240 m3/hr X 0.2 mg/m3 = 4048 mg/hr = 0.004 kg/hr

(2-3-5) ( ) 2

2.35 / 1/
10
0. 004 kg/hr

:
kg
0.004 x 0.70 2.35
X NaoH = hrx
= 0.007 kg/hr
1

0.5 kg/l

50% NaOH =0.5gm/cm3=50gm/100cm3= 500 gm /L = 0.5 kg/l = 500 kg NaOH/m3

V = = 0.013 L/hr = 0.312 l/d =112 L/year


0.007 kg/hr
NaOH
0.5 kg/l

565 /
(2-3-5) +
( ) 2

2.35 / 1/

2.35 kg NaOH per kg of H2S

NaOCl + H2O HOCl + NaOH-

H2S + 2NaOH+4NaOCl Na2SO4 +4NaCl +2H2O

2.35 /
8.74 +/

)34.081 + 2(40) +4(74.453

8.74 kg NaOCl + 2.35 kg NaOH per kg of H2S

10
0. 004 kg/hr

:
kg
0.004 0.30 8.74
X NaOCL = hr
= 0.01 kg/hr
1

0.125 kg/l

12.5% NaOCL =0.125gm/cm3=12.5gm/100cm3 =0.125 gm/L = 125kg NaOCL/m3

566 /

V = = 0.02 L/hr = 0.50 L/d =181 L/year


0.01 kg/hr
NaOCl
0.125 kg/l

2.35 /
8.74 +/

:

kg
0.0096 0.30 2.35
X NaoH = hrx
= 0.0068kg/hr
1

0.5 kg/l

50% NaOH =0.5gm/cm3=50gm/100cm3= 500 gm /L = 0.5 kg/l


= 500 kg NaOH/m3

V = = 0.008 L/hr = 0.2 l/d =72 L/year


0.004 kg/hr
NaOH
0.5 kg/l

(2-3-5)

1mg

567 /
HNH3 = 0.0569

/3

M NH3 = mole mass = 17.03

P NH3 = saturated vapour pressure of NH3 = 10.032bar

n air exchanges = 10

X =
3 1 1
NH3 3
3 3

= X NH3 = 33.4 mg/L


0.0569 1 1
1 /3 1000000 /
17.03 3 10.032 10


2024 m3/hr 10 20240 m3/hr

X TNH3 =20240 m3/hr X 33.4 mg/L = 676251.3 mg/hr = 0.676 kg/hr

568 /
2NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4

2(17.031) + 98.097

/ 2.88/

: ()1

/ 2.88/

Sluphric acid required kg/NH3kg/hr = 2.88 kg / 1 kg

H2S + 2NaOH Na2S + 2H2O

)34.081 + 2(40

Sluphric acid required kg/NH3kg/hr = 2.88 kg / 1 kg

= Sluphric acid required = 0.235 kg/hr


0.676 kg/hr
2.88 kg / kg

98%H2SO4=0.98gm/cm3 =98 gm/100 cm3 = 0.980 kg/L= 980kg/m3

V = = 0.24 L/hr = 5.75 L/d = 2070 L/year


0.235 kg/hr
H2SO4
0.980 kg/L

569 /
(2-3-5) /


2070 /
112+ 72 =184/
181/
2435 /

(2-3-5) + /


5760+2070=7830 / 5760+2070=7830 /
2300+390=2690/ 16243+181=16424/
10294+1740=12034 / 72493+181=72674/
22554 / = 22.55 / 3 96928 / = 96.9/ 3

67662 L= 67.66 m3 290784 L= 290.78 m3 3

570 /
4-5

Procedures of odor control Scrubbers stages




pH=2

H2S&mercptanes pH=7
pH=9-11
oxidation reduction
potential ORP
.

mercptanes



.

-1

-2

571 /
-3

-4 ( )1

( )

-5 ( )2
(
)

572 /
573 /
( )1 ( )2 pH=9-11
:

H2S + 2NaOH Na2S +2H2O

CH3SH + NaOH CH3Sna +H2O

CH3SCH3 + NaOH No reaction

CH3S-SCH3 + NaOH No reaction

-6 ( )3 /
( )2
( )2

/ 11-9

574 /
575 /
( ( ) )2

HOCl Ocl-
ORP
HOCL
Ocl-

pH7

.

576 /


ORP PH>9
Buffering
ORP
.

577 /
ORP pH ()
- 2 NH3 1
- 7 2
/ 650-750 11-9 2

( )1

2NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4

( )1( )2

H2S + 2NaOH Na2S +2H2O

pH7

()2

Na2S + 4NaOCl Na2SO4 + 4NaCl

578 /
5-5

Activated carbon th3 stage





45%
150ppm 99% .

3.5 m 4m
0.858m 40000 m3/hr
24240 m3/hr
H2S
. damper

16% 7250 kg
MW=34.08 Avogadros No.= 22
/ . 1.55

579 /
580 /
( )

dynamic activity Xdy=0.285 kg H2S/kg * carbon

* bulk density Ps = 560 kg/m3

* adsorption capacity (Xdy . PsgH2S/cm2)= 16%

* ) (8-150 YA inlet 8ppm average 150ppm


max.

* gas density PG = 1.2kg/m3

* superficial velocity W = 0.413m/s

* height of adsorbed bed h= 0.75 m

* effective of absorber zone hA =0.2 m

* length of adsorption zone = 0.5

:
2
/3
= T minimum
3
(h-.h A )
/3

= T minimum
0.285 560
( 0.75 0.5 ) = 26.90
0.413 3 1.2

581 /
= T minimum
0.285 560
( 0.75 0.5 ) = 80.70
0.413 1 1.2

-1 1 2

-2

-3
100pa
200pa 50%

-4

-5


5%
.

5% 24
.

5% 8
.
582 /
6-5

Chemicals storage, handling and feeding


(
) material safety data sheet(MSDS


packaged-type bulk-storage tank

30-15 .

583 /
1-6-5 Chemical dosage calculations

27L/hr
14L/hr

=Dosage, ppm (kg chemical/d


)(mil.kg wastewater treated/d

)kg chemical/d = (dosage, ppm) x (mil. Kg wastewater treated/d

2-6-5 chemical feed percent


stroke setting

positive displacement
piston pumps

Stroke .

:
m3
= % Stroke setting
required feed
d
m3
maximum feed
d

15.9
27
:

584 /
1 m3
% Stroke setting= = 0.58888=59%
15.9 x
1000 d
1 m3
27 x
1000 d

/
:
L m3
=Solution mL/ min
( 585hemical feed volume x (1000 )or )x 1000000
d d
minutes
1440
day

369.6/
/ :
L
=Solution mL/ min = 256.666 ml/minutes feed rate
) 369.6 x (1000
d
minutes
1440
day



30
:

= Chemical feed rate kg/ min chemical applied kg


length of application minutes

1
30
:

= Chemical feed rate kg/ min 1


30
= 0.033 kg/minute

Chemical feed rate kg/ day= 0.033 x 1440 min/day= 47.52 kg/day
585 /
:

0.16
1
/ :

= Chemical feed rate kg/ min = 0.028


1 0.16
30 .

Chemical feed rate kg/ day= 0.028 x 1440 min/day= 40.32 kg/day


:

= Flow rate Lpd
1440


1000

Chemical (kg/day) = Chemical (mg/L) X flow m3/d


1320 12.5%
/ :

= mL/min flow rate 1320


5
= 264 mL/ min

/ mL min /

586 /

=Lpd flow rate = 380.16 L/d
264 / min 1440 .


1000

Chemical (kg/day) = Chemical (mg/L) X flow m3/d

Chemical (kg/day) = [0.125 10000 ] X 0.380 m3/d =47.50 kg/d


95 15 87

:

= Flow Lpm volume pumped L


duratin of test
= 87L
15
= 5.8 L/min

= Average use kg/ day total chemical used kg


number of days

= Average use L/ day total chemical used L


number of days

587 /
Inventory supply day = total chemical in inventory kg
average use kg/ day

Inventory supply day = total chemical in inventory L


average use L/ day

/ 50 / 46 / 48 / 47.5
.. / 49 / 44 / 49
:

Average use kg/ day = 333.5 kg


7 days
= 47.60 kg/day

2700

Inventory supply day = 2700 kg


47.60 kg/ day
=56.70 days

Daily operating LOG

Operating programeter Fri Sat Sun Mon Tues Wed Thu


Time of day
Operator
Stage 1 pH
Stage 2/3 pH
Stage 2/3 ORP
NaOH tank level
NaOCL tank level
Deffrenial pressure of
activated carbon tank

588 /
589 /