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Citationindex

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Acitationindexisakindofbibliographicindex,anindexofcitationsbetweenpublications,allowingtheuserto
easilyestablishwhichlaterdocumentscitewhichearlierdocuments.Aformofcitationindexisfirstfoundin12th
centuryHebrewreligiousliterature.Legalcitationindexesarefoundinthe18thcenturyandweremadepopularby
citatorssuchasShepard'sCitations(1873).In1960,EugeneGarfield'sInstituteforScientificInformation(ISI)
introducedthefirstcitationindexforpaperspublishedinacademicjournals,firsttheScienceCitationIndex(SCI),
andlatertheSocialSciencesCitationIndex(SSCI)andtheArtsandHumanitiesCitationIndex(AHCI).Thefirst
automatedcitationindexingwasdonebyCiteSeerin1997.OthersourcesforsuchdataincludeGoogleScholar
andElsevier'sScopus.

Contents
1 History
2 Majorcitationindexingservices
3 Seealso
4 References

History
Theearliestknowncitationindexisanindexofbiblicalcitationsinrabbinicliterature,theMafteahhaDerashot,
attributedtoMaimonidesandprobablydatingtothe12thcentury.Itisorganizedalphabeticallybybiblicalphrase.
Laterbiblicalcitationindexesareintheorderofthecanonicaltext.Thesecitationindiceswereusedbothfor
generalandforlegalstudy.TheTalmudiccitationindexEnMishpat(1714)evenincludedasymboltoindicate
whetheraTalmudicdecisionhadbeenoverridden,justasinthe19thcenturyShepard'sCitations.[1][2]Unlike
modernscholarlycitationindexes,onlyreferencestoonework,theBible,wereindexed.

InEnglishlegalliterature,volumesofjudicialreportsincludedlistsofcasescitedinthatvolumestartingwith
Raymond'sReports(1743)andfollowedbyDouglas'sReports(1783).SimonGreenleaf(1821)publishedan
alphabeticallistofcaseswithnotesonlaterdecisionsaffectingtheprecedentialauthorityoftheoriginal
decision.[3]

Thefirsttruecitationindexdatestothe1860publicationofLabatt'sTableofCases...California...,followedin
1872byWait'sTableofCases...NewYork....Butthemostimportantandbestknowncitationindexcamewiththe
1873publicationofShepard'sCitations.[3]

Majorcitationindexingservices
Generalpurposeacademiccitationindexesinclude:

WebofSciencebyClarivateAnalytics(previouslytheIntellectualPropertyandSciencebusinessof
ThomsonReuters)
ScopusbyElsevier,availableonlineonly,whichsimilarlycombinessubjectsearchingwithcitation
browsingandtrackinginthesciencesandsocialsciences.
IndianCitationIndexisanonlinecitationdatawhichcoverspeerreviewedjournalspublishedfromIndia.It
coversmajorsubjectareassuchasscientific,technical,medical,andsocialsciencesandincludesartsand
humanities.ThecitationdatabaseisthefirstofitskindinIndia.

Eachoftheseofferanindexofcitationsbetweenpublicationsandamechanismtoestablishwhichdocumentscite
whichotherdocuments.Theydifferwidelyincost:WebofScienceandScopusareavailablebysubscription
(generallytolibraries).

Inaddition,CiteSeerandGoogleScholararefreelyavailableonline.

Seealso
MicrosoftAcademicSearch
GoogleScholar
Scopus
SemanticScholar
Citationanalysis
Acknowledgmentindex
CiteSeer
CiteSeerX
Scientificjournal
ScienceCitationIndex
IndianCitationIndex
JournalCitationReports
EmergingSourcesCitationIndex(ESCI)
SciELO
Redalyc
IndexCopernicus

References
1.BellaHassWeinberg,"TheEarliestHebrewCitationIndexes"inTrudiBellardoHahn,MichaelKeebleBuckland,eds.,
HistoricalStudiesinInformationScience,1998,p.51ff
2.BellaHassWeinberg,"PredecessorsofScientificIndexingStructuresintheDomainofReligion"inW.Boyden
Rayward,MaryEllenBowden,TheHistoryandHeritageofScientificandTechnologicalInformationSystems,
Proceedingsofthe2002Conference,2004,p.126ff
3.FredR.Shapiro,"OriginsofBibliometrics,CitationIndexing,andCitationAnalysis:TheNeglectedLegalLiterature"
JournaloftheAmericanSocietyofInformationScience43:5:337339(1992)

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Categories: Academicpublishing Bibliometrics Bibliographicdatabasesandindexes


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