Introduction to 205335 Microprocessor

Course Description Microprocessor architecture, data types, addressing modes, instructions, register organization, interrupts, memory management, interfacing the peripherals, data communication and networks, coprocessor, multiprogramming and multitasking, microprocessor applications, introduction to microcomputer design.


2 . Counter 4. 7-Segment. Clock -PCB + Some items (Free from KU) -Price approx 500 bath -“first come first serve”.Home Work and Quiz .Project .Final 20% (6 times +) 20% (4 times) 30% 30% Introduction to 205335 Microprocessor Project (1-2 peoples) 1. Button 3.Midterm . LED.Introduction to 205335 Microprocessor Points . Hardware 2.

SDCC (C language) or KEIL 3. 3 . embedded system. Protel (PCB Design) What is a “Microprocessor”? A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconductor integrated circuit (IC). so that the transistors of its logic circuits would fit onto a single part. The microprocessor was born by reducing the word size of the CPU from 32 bits to 4 bits. ASM-51 2. or handheld device. Flash Magic 4. One or more microprocessors typically serve as the CPU in a computer system .Introduction to 205335 Microprocessor Software 1.

The first Microprocessor is 4004. which was also compatible with their TI-990 line of minicomputers. The 9900 was used in the TI 990/4 minicomputer. In the same year. This microprocessor architecture is a precursor to the most successful 8080 microprocessor that released in 1974. developed by Federico Faggin and Marcian Hoff. Timeline After the first microprocessor is released. Motorola also released the 6800 series microprocessor. Intel released the first 8-bits microprocessor. which is established by Marcian Hoff. and the TM990 line of OEM microcomputer boards. the TI-99/4A home computer. Zilog Company. It is a 4 bit microprocessor that is released on November 15. The first single-chip 16-bit microprocessor was TI's TMS 9900. 4 .What is the first “Microprocessor”? There are 3 microprocessor developed and finished in the same period but the first commercial microprocessor is developed and released by Intel. 1971 . released the Z80 microprocessor in 1976. 8008 in 1972.

and succeeded in winning much business on that premise. the early 2000s have seen the introduction of 64-bit microchips targeted at the PC market. having no minicomputers to emulate. of Intel Timeline While 64-bit microprocessor designs have been in use in several markets since the early 1990s. With 64-bit Windows XP. and instead "upsized" their 8080 design into the 16-bit Intel 8086.Both processors can run 32-bit legacy apps as well as the new 64-bit software. followed by Intel's own x86-64 chips. the 64-bit desktop era began. the model 5150. Intel introduced the 8086 as a cost effective way of porting software from the 8080 lines. the first member of the x86 family which powers most modern PC type computers. was the microprocessor in the first IBM PC. the 32-bit 80386. the software too is geared to utilize the full power of such processors. Following up their 8086 and 8088. a version of the 8086 that used an external 8-bit data bus. The 8088. Linux and Mac OS X that run 64-bit native. cementing their PC market dominance with the processor family's backwards compatibility. in 1985.Timeline Intel followed a different path. Windows vista x64. AMD64. in September 2003. 80286 and. Intel released the 80186. With AMD's introduction of the first 64-bit IA-32 backwards-compatible architecture.The integrated microprocessor memory management unit (MMU) was developed by Childs et al. 5 .

in contrast to a general-purpose microprocessor (the kind used in a PC). In addition to all arithmetic and logic elements of a general purpose microprocessor. office machines. and input/output devices. By reducing the size. cost.Timeline What is a “Microcontroller”? A microcontroller (or MCU) is a computer-on-a-chip. 6 . power tools. Microcontrollers are frequently used in automatically controlled products and devices. and input/output interfaces. appliances. the microcontroller usually also integrates additional elements such as read-only and read-write memory. and toys. memory. such as automobile engine control systems. microcontrollers make it economical to electronically control many more processes. and power consumption compared to a design using a separate microprocessor. It is a type of microprocessor emphasizing self-sufficiency and cost-effectiveness.

Some embedded systems are mass-produced.Special Instructions for SIMD (Single Instruction. 7 . Multiple Data) operations . factory controllers. reducing the size and cost of the product.What is a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) Digital Signal Processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing.The ability to act as a direct memory access device if in a host environment . design engineers can optimize it. or increasing the reliability and performance.Optimum performance with streaming data . such as a personal computer.Designed for real-time processing . embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players. to large stationary installations like traffic lights. It is usually embedded as part of a complete device including hardware and mechanical parts. Output is then converted back to analog form using a Digital-toanalog converter (DAC) What is an Embedded system Embedded system is a special-purpose computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions. or the systems controlling nuclear power plants. can do many different tasks depending on programming.Separate program and data memories (Harvard architecture) . In contrast. Physically. generally in real-time computing. Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks. sometimes with real-time computing constraints.Processes digital signals converted (using an Analog-to-digital converter (ADC)) from analog signals. . benefiting from economies of scale. a general-purpose computer.

Where you can find microprocessor/controller ? Where you can find microprocessor/controller ? 8 .

Data bus . ROM. Execute Instruction (Read an instruction code from a Memory) (Work on that particular command) Since a microprocessor is a digital device then a microprocessor work on a binary system (0.Address bus . 1 or On. Fetch Instruction 2. Microprocessor (works as CPU) 2. RAM and I/O is needed. Off). The microprocessor system contains 1.How can “Microprocessor” work ? In order to make a microprocessor work. I/O Device and Peripheral They are connected by the “BUS SYSTEM” and the bus system can be separated into . microprocessor by itself alone cannot perform any command because a microprocessor don’t have memory inside.Control bus CPU Address Bus Data Bus Control Bus ROM RAM I/O Peripheral How can “Microprocessor” work ? Microprocessor works in 2 steps: 1. Memories 3. Memory Memory Fetch Execute Register I/O Unit 9 .

6. 2.CPU CPU consists of 1. 10 . Program Counter (PC) Address bus Data bus Control bus IR Decode Control PC ALU Registers Sequence of Fetch 1. 4. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) 3. 3. Program Counter (PC) Fetch by sending its address into the address bus. 5. Instruction Register (IR) 5. Program Counter (PC) increase its own address in order to ready for the next Fetch. Decode Unit read the instruction in IR and ‘Execute’ that instruction. it send the instruction data from that specific address to data bus. Control unit sends “Read” command to control bus . Registers 2. Instruction Register (IR) get that instruction from data bus. Instruction Decode and Control Unit 4. Memory after get the address and “Read” command.

024 = 1 Kbyte 216 = 65. Interrupts and other signal depended on the CPU architecture. Address bus is different in each system depended on bits of the CPU. Address bus is an unidirectional bus because the address come from CPU only.536 = 26 x 210 = 64 KByte 2 20 = 1. and I/O unit.576 = 1 Mbyte Bus System Data bus : used to transfer data to memory. Control bus : control signal in the control bus are timing signals that are used to synchronize external devices that are connected to CPU. Write. 11 . Address bus is a bidirectional bus because the data come both in and out from CPU. The control signal will synchronize the address and data bus.Bus System Bus system in the microprocessor unit is separated into 3 category: Address bus : used to specific the location of instruction. If CPU is n an n-bits microprocessor then the total addresses that can refer to is 2 addresses 2 8 = 256 210 = 1. data. Read.048. and to I/O unit. The control bus consists of Clock.

Mass storage can be separated to archival and online storage. printer. 12 . keyboard. mouse.Input / Output Unit I/O unit . but archival storage is a storage that user have to prepare for microprocessor and tell CPU to access it. some of these device are bidirectional devices such as touch screen monitor. Online storage is magnetic disk or “Hard Disk” while archival storage is magnetic tape and floppy disk. Others are one direction Devices such as mouse is an input device. Peripherals are devices that extended from CPU (not include Memory). speaker is an output device. Control/Monitor devices are the devices that are used to control or measure some devices for example control relay that use to drive motor. Online storage is a mass storage that CPU can always access the information when CPU needs. This unit is used to interface the microprocessor system to user . measure mass storage and to control/monitor system. Input / Output Unit User Interface is a monitor. etc.

Utilities) Input/Output Subroutine (Directly Access to Hardware) Hardware Software Input/Output Subroutine is the lowest level that controls the input and output of the hardware directly. Software Application ( User Interface) Operating System (Command language. read the input from keyboard. Since the program can be run only on RAM then Bootstrap loader has a responsibility to copy that program from a hard disk and place it in RAM. This subroutine is contained in a BIOS and in track of a hard disk called bootstrap loader. etc. Display data to a monitor. Example. software is needed. 13 . Microprocessor software can be separated into 3 hierarchies.Software In order to make the microprocessor unit works as design. Input/Output Subroutine is importance and difference for each microprocessor (PC) system because microprocessor system has a different hardware.

Moreover. digital circuit have to redesigned every time when work is changed while MPU just change the software One hardware can do them all 14 . Microprocessor VS Digital Circuit Microprocessor (MPU) is software approach because the microprocessor system is flexible and programmable. User interface is in this application level. Application is a application software that design for a specific propose.Software Operating System will manage the sequence of operation and it is easier for user to use a microprocessor system rather than use only Input/Output Subroutine. while the digital circuit is a hardware approach because it is fixed to the hardware. Operating system consists of “command language” and “utility software”.

MCU is easier than MPU for interface the Input/Output.Microprocessor VS Microcontroller Microprocessor (MPU) is a CPU and it needs ROM. MCU will jump to assigned sub-program that is already assigned.RAM. RAM. Microcontroller is used to control the system that work on input/output while microprocessor is used in the larger system such as PC or system that need a powerful processor and a large memory.I/O then it need some few extra devices in order to make it ready to work. When the interrupt happens. One of the most advantage of MCU is interrupt. Because of this reason MCS-51 is faster and optimal than Z-80. MCS-51 VS Z-80 Z-80 has a lot of instructions but 71% of them are multi-bytes instruction so Z-80 has to Fetch more than one time to get the complete instruction while MCS-51 has 62% of its instruction are single-byte instruction. I/O in order to work but Microcontroller (MCU) is a CPU + ROM. Microcontroller has some limit in memory. Table : Page 9 15 . Moreover. Interrupt is a event that can cause by hardware (hardware interrupt) or software (software interrupt). Interrupt is used in Real-Time situation programming such as a chemical pumping system whenever the fluid level excess the limit of a tank then interrupt will occur to make the MCU cut the motor power.

Most microcontroller in this series has both microcontroller and microprocessor mode (set at EA pin).MCS-51 MCS-51 series has many microcontrollers with the same architecture for example: 8031. etc. MCS-51 16 .8051.8952.

Question ? 17 .

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