Alhamdulillah, praise be to Allah S.W.T the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful.

Solawat and Salam to the Prophet Muhammad, his family and companions, which give us the inspirations and guidance, to live as a successful Muslim in this world and hereafter. We deliver our thankfulness to our most respected lecturer, (DR.) Maziah Mustapha, who always teaches us in patient and respectfully. On behalf of the group, we would like to extend our heartfelt appreciation for your time and effort in assisting us to make this book review. The time that you shared by helping us in completing this assignment, was highly appreciated. It will be remembered not only by this time, but the next day onwards and hereafter. We also want to thank you for your determinations for ma king us understand about this course. Truly, without your great efforts, the process of learning would have been unsuccessful. The assistance and effort you gave was tremendously remarkable. We hope that you continue your great work in teaching students like us in dealing with these matters. We look forward to working with you in the future. We wish you all the best in your career as our lecturer. May Allah bless all of us in this world and hereafter. InshaAllah«

Thank you, Student of Yours, ABDUL HADI BIN HAJI BAHAROM (1012769)

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The Comparative Ethics in a Global Age ± edited byMarietta T.Stepanyants, was the name of the book that our group members had review. This book was published by the Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences, The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy and it had been printed in the United States of America in 2007. This book contained four parts which each part had different articles by different writers. The first part of the book discussed the article under the topic ± A Global Ethics. s This part had seven different sub-topics with different writers that discussed the issued related to the global ethics. All the writers in this sub-topic discussed the possibility of the Global Ethics, Morality, The Golden Means, Moral Philosophy that ran beyond Universalism and Particularism. The second part with the four writers discussed the issues that pertaining to the topic of The Confucian Tradition. In this part, the writers addressed their views by explaining the New Confucianism and Problems of Interpretation, Cultural Crossings, The Genesis of Chinese Philosophy and Confucianism Pragmatism. This part was focusing on the tradition of the Philosophy, and how the people solved the problems that came from the Confucianism. The next part with the six writers under the topic ± The Hindu and Buddhist Traditions, discussed the issues relating to the Global Ethics, Morality, Philosophy and Ideology based on the Hindu Perspectives and Indian Approaches. The writers me tioned the n role of time, by relating the transmigration in the 21st Century, Morality and comparison of Western Principles in their writings. The last part which comprised five writers argued their articles under the topic ± The Islamic Tradition. In this part, the writers discoursed the topic by referring to the Muslims
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They also discussed the philosophy of power.Al-Attas.Historians and Philosophers as Al-Mawardi. the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful« Page | 3 . Our teams decided on reviewing the last part of this book under the title of The Islamic Tradition. Moral Philosophy of Islamic Mysticism. So. In our view that. and The Koran on spiritual Pluralism. and others. Al-Ghazali. Dualism and Monism. We will discuss the articles in this topic. concept of Ta¶dib. by the virtue to understand more how the Islamic Ethics are functioning in coloring this world at the next page of this assignment. let us start the discussion and review by the Name of Allah. the writers of this topic tried to bring the messages by looking at the Islamic Perspective in their ways of approach. in explaining between the Global Ethics traditions and Islamic understanding.

 Dualism And Monism: How Really Different Are The Two Versions Of Sufi Ethics?  Comparative Ethics In A Global Age: The Koran On Spiritual Pluralism . Page | 4 .SUMMARY OF BOOK REVIEW  The Philosophy of Power: Al-Mawardi and Al-Ghazali by Nur Kirabaev  Al-Attas¶ Concept of Ta¶dib as True and Comprehensive Education in Islam.

so called adab theories dev eloped in the genre of medieval Arabic literature a combination of the cognitive and the entertaining. there were three main directions in developing medieval political theory of Islam can be marked out. the ideas and doctrines by Muslim jurists (fuqaha) and authorities in religious knowledge (ulama). religious and moral ideas. First. According to al-Mawardi the main functions of the Imam are the fo llowing: consolidating and defending Islam and the Islamic State. The Philosophy of Power: AlMawardi and Al-Ghazaliby Nur Kirabaev. The writer also reviewed the book of Al-Mawardi. The writer mentioned that. where the primary principles of Islamic power doctrine were developed. secondly. the theory of sunni jurist authorities is considered to be classic theory of state. establishing justice. the "Al-ahkam as-sultaniya" that treaty had been written in order to consolidate the authority of the Abbasid Caliphs and limit the claims to absolute power from the side of Buyid Emirs. tax collection. developed within the classic theory of state stipulated by Islamic political conception. He also deliberated the problem of power in the political doctrines by al Mawardi and al-Ghazali.The first article review that we made is under the title. personal responsibility for ruling the state and setting norms for implementing decisions. theories of the "Cities of Excellence" by arab muslim philosophers. where the writer addressed that. assuring the strict following of the Sharia principles. The responsibility of the faithful Page | 5 . the assessment of ideas which existed in feudal Muslim society enabled it to trace the development of general mechanisms in the conception of "Muslim state" and to uncover specific features of the functioning of Muslim ideology as a well-ordered system of political. He also stated that. legal. third.

Corruption had spread widely. which by that time had become generally accepted by the majority of sunni jurists. All this resulted in further decay of the military -bureaucratic mechanism and the degradation of sacred power and the ulemas. who wrote the "Nizam al-Mulk. Certainly this was entirely in contradiction with the al-Mawardi¶s theory. he mentioned that. There were as well continuous political intrigues. His political theory differs in many Page | 6 . the ambivalent position of ulemas and fakihs and the permanent threat from abroad. for al-Ghazali. Thus. When the writer referring to the Al-Ghazali era. Al-Ghazali had faced the problem of strengthening the united Muslim state. the Imam¶s authority and the protection of that authority goes back to Sharia compared with those who trying to obtain power by force. A formal diarchy existed in the Abbasid caliphate with two centers: the religious one managed by the Caliphs and secular center headed by the Sultan.considered the power of sultan as that one sanctified by divine authority.amounted to absolute obedience to the Caliph and helping him to fulfill his functions. The writer also reviewed that. not only among government officials but among the ulemas as well. At the same time . which could be realized with the real power possessed by the Seljuk Sultans. resolving this situation was related to a different understanding of the nature of the caliphate. actual reign. The writer also referring to Al-Juwaini. He mentioned that. that established close relations among the idea of fair power. Al-Juwaini recognized sultanate as a religious institution and the caliph only as a religious leader. Therefore Nizam al-Mulk got well-known jurists of Shafii school for example al-Juweini and al-Ghazali to take part in the religious and legal justification of his ideas stated in "The Siyasat-name". the concept of true religion and the need for a stable and prosperous state" . which could be possible only on the basis of political centralization.

and sultanate becoming an integral part of caliphate. and the spirit are the element inherent in the individual. When the caliphs left the historic arena. He showed its ability to be flexible and socially adapted to new historic conditions. whereas society and state opens the door to legalism and politics. had been based on three key conditions: 1) the power required to ensure the order in the state. nor a good worker. he managed to fit his political theory into the frame of traditional sunni dogmatics. His understanding of the united Muslim state differs not only from the "classic model" of the period of Prophet¶s rule and that of the four "righteous" caliphs. the writer¶ opinion to al-Ghazali that. Page | 7 . al-Attas clarified that stressing the individual is the correct strategy for this century as intelligence. the Muslim state continued to exist as a union of power and religion. A good citizen and worker may not necessarily be a good man. but al Ghazali tried to hide this difference behind the terms generally accepted in sunni theory. virtue. however a good man will definitely b a good e citizen and worker. As conclusion. He also stated the Imamate theory of al-Ghazali. He has argued that the purpose of education in Islam is not merely to produce a good citizen. The second article that we have reviewed in this book is : Al-Attas¶ Concept of Ta¶dib as True and Comprehensive Education in Islam. but also from his direct predecessors among the jurists. We can see that. and 3) the functional and institutional authority of the caliphate being based on Sharia. as his theory stipulated the possibility of replacing the bearers of authority and power. 2) the caliphate as a symbol of the unity of Muslim community (umma) and its historical practice. Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas has thoroughly defined the meaning of education and designed a system to be used at the university level.aspects from the doctrines worked out by his predecessors. In his later work. but a good man. He had a good sense of political realism and religious responsibility.

In the Quran. The significance of the meanings of adab is wide as they re late to the education of a good man with the recognition. When adab refers to human relationship. the content (maudu¶) of ta¶dib as according to the early scholars is akhlaq (ethics and morality). referring to domain of knowledge. and acknowledgement. and reality and truth (haqq). and good breeding (tarbiyah).In this chapter. First. In other works. In addition adab towards nature and the natural environment means that one¶s should take care of the nature. which involves action. sources of knowledge and development of iman. Page | 8 . adab means the discipline of the practical intellect in dealing with the programs that characterizes the world of nature such as people¶s judgement. justice (µadl). towards one¶s self starts when one acknowledges ones dual nature. of proper places are related to other key terms in Islamic worldview that is wisdom (hikmah). instruction (ta¶lim). which involves knowledge. Al-Attas has stated that Adab can be manifest in the various level of human existence. Ta¶dib is actually derived from the word adab which means the invitation to a banquet which implies the idea of a good and honourable social intercourse. God¶s signs. Next. it means ethical norms which are applied to social behaviour. For the natural world. Another way to clarify adab is towards language which means the recognition and acknowledgement of the rightful and proper place of every word in written and spoken sentence. The word Ta¶dib includes within its conceptual structure the elements of knowledge (µilm). adab means an intellectual discipline which recognizes and acknowledges the hierarchy of knowledge based on criteria of degrees of perfection. it is referred to as God¶s invitation to a banquet on earth (ma¶dabat Allah fi µl-ard) which means we are persuaded to acquire knowledge. namely the rational and the animal. the education is defined as ta¶dib which means the instilling and inculcation of adab in man.

the proper understanding and implementation of fard µayn and fard kifayah categories of knowledge. Therefore. adab means the recognition and acknowledgement of the degress of perfection. It implies the proper education should include certain types of punishment. the education of society cannot happen unless sufficient individual¶s parts are educated. that are intended to discipline the mind and spirit. Al-Attas writes that we must first solve the problem of the loss of adab because knowledge cannot be taught to. with the comprehensive meaning of adab. a category which al-Attas develops from Abu Hamid al-Ghazali. Adab is also the spectacle of justice (µadl) as it is reflected by wisdom (hikmah). his Creator. The verb adabba. or inculcated in. A man of adab as understood by al Attas is an individual who is fully conscious of his individuality and of his proper relationship with himself.For the spiritual world. as they pertain to man. It is clear that education as ta¶dib is different from mere training or instructions given as training can be performed on man and animals. his society and other visible and invisible creatures of God. which derives from root word adab. would ensure the realization of personal and societal welfare. thereby indicating their individual inadequacies. The term ta¶dib education has been rightly used primarily by Sufi scholars who characteristically championed the complete development of the Islamic personality. Al-Attas rejects the terms tarbiyah and ta¶lim to refer the comprehensive meaning of education in Islam. The significations of both ta¶lim and tarbiyah. the learner unless he shows proper adab Page | 9 . Furthermore. Although society consists of individuals. it is recognized as the complete definition of Islamic education as ta¶dib (education). has also been used in early Islam to indicate punishment. are already included in the meaning of ta¶dib.

and every worshipper worships only the One and the True God which is rather uncommon even as pure as theory. As Rumi with the dualism and Arabi with monism. Rumi claims that there is different level between Islam and the other religions. it has been discussed about the thought of two prominent Sufi thinkers who are Jalal al Din Rumi and Muhyi alDin Ibn Arabi. is in this sense a universal person who understands and practices right adab in himself. can deal successfully with a plural universe without losing his identity. as al Attas understands and practices it. that is a person of adab. its various catogories and its legitimate authorities. so that everything in the world should rather be evaluated positively. Ibn Arabi argues that nothing is evil µas such¶ (bi alayn). and stupidity. set them apart and ne never mix up.towards knowledge. That means the objective of human being as to distinguish o another. The loss of adab naturally entail the prevalence of injustice. Instead. A person of adab by definition. The writer found that Rumi¶s ideas is good and evils are two opposites that never meet. The next article that we have reviewed is : Dualism And Monism: How Really Different Are The Two Versions Of Sufi Ethics?From this article. However. Ibn Arabi claims that no religion is wrong. in his family. The book also mentioned that in aspect of religion status. (accept the dichotomy of good and evil that are sharply instinct and immiscible principles). An educated person. in his environment and in the world community. and even m adness. and ethical monism on the part of Ibn Arabi (whose fundamental assumption resulting out his ontologism is µall is good¶). As ethical dualism of the part Rumi. there were exists a question that why do the ethics of these two thinkers are so different? There should be doubt that the Persian Page | 10 .

futuwwa is by no means the ultimate limit of perfection. hence. the literal meaning of the word ³ futuwwa´ is ³youth´. who is at the mid-point of the path. which would be impossible if the evil had not been evil by itself (bi al ayn). Yanis Eshots quote one more definition of futuwwah given by µAbd al. This standpoints change quite evident when Rumi claims that the willing of evil (sharr) would have been bad (qabih) if He willed it for its sake (li ayni hi).Razzaq Kashani: futuwwah consist in the manifestation of the light of the in inborn nature (fitra) and in its subjugating the darkness of the modalities. accessible to the human being. ³a young man´.³a youth.cultural legacy left its trace in Rumi¶s thought whereas it could hardly have influenced Ibn Arabi¶s theory. As we can see from the Yanis Eshots¶s writing. futuwwa is regarded by the author as a middle station between the stations of the boys and the old man. That means Rumi does not take advantage of Ibn Arabi¶s point that everything is exclusively good as such but is either good or evil according to human emotions. ³ Fata´ is the one who is not a ³sabi´(a boy) any longer and has not become a ³shaykh´(an old man) yet. Fourth article : Yanis Eshots¶s The Moral Philosophy Of Islamic Mysticism: A Cursory View Of The Ethical Teachings Of Futuwwa. Yanis Eshots stated that.had been written to examine the ethical teachings related to the station of the ³straight path´ which must be passed by every faithful ( mu¶min) man in his way to God. or those of the novice and the shaykh. The writer respond to this question by putting Rumi¶s introduces the notion of Divine (irada) as addressing this topic. Page | 11 . He does not hesitate to express that God Wills both good and evil are created by Him Himself. ³ Fata´ is the one. so that the totality of man¶s virtues is manifested and the deficiencies are removed. the word is derived from ³fata´ .

The Islamic philosophers and mystics regard the Qur¶an and the Tradiion(sunna) as the t basis and main source of all knowledge and wisdom nowadays. T . and purities. In this chapter. to reach the station of futuwwa. True futuwwa consist in renouncing our claims to it and delegating it to God. we must leave the station of futuwwa. The beginning of discussion is about the universalistic understanding of divine guidance which has been developed by the Koran. we will have to gain more knowledge from Koran because it is absolutely our guidance in undergoing our life before hereafter. to gain futuwwa. which is the fifth. Yanis Eshots stated that.K . like muruwwa is the basis and foundation of futuwwa. and .Razzaq Kashani also speaks of three stations of man¶s self-realization. Ibn al-¶Arabi tells us. futuwwa is the basis and foundation of walaya (³friendship´). Allah sent the messenger to each nation without Page | 12 .Yanis Eshots also stated that µ Abd al. of which futuwwa is the middle one: muruwwa(³manhood´) is the soundess and purity of the inborn nature and futuwwa(³valour´) is its lustreand luminocity. is called : Comparative Ethics In A Global Age: The Koran On Spiritual Pluralism. rather than excludes it. Since the Koran is being our main source. And walaya is the annihilation of the mortal human nature and submersion in the entity of unity (ahadiyya). and the manifestation of the power of love. The Koran explains that advantageous universalistic understanding can be seen through the devotion to all spiritual missions delivered by god¶s messengers to people.Ibrahim says that the Koran contains numerous precepts implying that universalism takes pluralism for granted. The last article. Yanis Eshots claims that we should try to follow their example and look there for sources of the teachings of futuwwa. There are many things in the Koran that we can take into account for our advantages. we must forsake it.

Allah sent Muhammad s. tribes and religion will make us to be more knowledgeable about learning other language. Pluralism is entirely positive because it promotes the learning of human solidarity. the book mentions about the pluralistic measure of the Koran. This indicates that Allah has given us the justice and equality.a.w. For examples.a.w as his deputy to all mankind. The existence of various types of language. No one is excluded from getting the right path. We know that variety in the world is precondition by God¶s will and wisdom. Page | 13 . The Koran promotes all people to embrace into the true Islam. Next.exception. harmony. We are all given the guidance by Allah through the Koran that has been revealed to Muhammad s. and mutual enrichment of all nations. learning of other tribes (to know each other) and about finding the true religion among others.


the shia. knowledge of Muslim law. During those two periods. Islamic community were faced the great challenges in maintaining their stability and power while the three main ways of thought. Page | 15 . absence of any physical and mental defects. In our critical minds. as follows: justice. We can see it in the main idea of the "Al-ahkam as-sultaniya" was to provide a theoretical justification for the separation of authority and power between the Caliph in the religious sphere and the Emir in civic management on the basis of mutual agreements. the writer addressed the works and conflicts that emerged during the time and the era of Al Mawardi and Al-Ghazali. the sunni and the khawarij clashed each other to gain the political supremacy and position. we can see that. So. the Islamic philosophy as AlMawardi and Al-Ghazali had written the guidelines in order to solve those fitnah that occurred during their era. Al-Mawardi was one of the first to realize the need to bring into line the Sharia principles and the existing historic and political situation. Al-Mawardi also was among the first to clearly define the features required of Caliph.Reviewing this article.

What we can observe Al-Mawardi¶s understanding of the important role played by the fuqaha and Ulama in the Islamic state by looking at the following statement: if the Imam becomes incapable to fulfill his duties and functions then the e lectors can elect a new Imam. This last requirement is in conflict with the fundamental Islamic principle of equality among believers. the way of the origin people thought were also different. we can considered that any dismissal of the Caliph could be legal only under extreme and absolute conditions arising from a threat to the existence of the state. along with al-Mawardi. later came with the methods that can be evaluated under religious and historical factor. But. to argued that. For Al-Ghazali. Considering the fact that there is no church institute in Islam Page | 16 . in Al-Juwaini¶s opinion. However it is obvious that the last requirement was directed against the Khawarij. At the same time Al-Juweini or imam al-Kharamain. the real practice of assigning caliphs since the Ummayyad period. but like many other Sunni jurists he considered it to be in compliance with the practice which existed in the first Arabic state during the period of the prophet and his associates. Knowledge (ilm) is required to understand the Sharia prescriptions and those who did that were called ulema. As the theory. Al-Ghazali. had a different goal which became obvious when he stated its possibility of the simultaneous existence of two caliphs if geographically located at a distance from each other. at the same time. the student of Al-Juwaini. Sharia is a direct source of authority for Islam in general and for its political doctrine in particular. we need take into consideration. Those differences derived where Al-Mawardi and Al-Juwaini were lived in two different era and places. It is necessary to review those religious and theoretical problems encountered by al-Ghazali prior to analyzing his political theory. assumed the possibility of imam¶s election even by one elector from among the ulama.wisdom. courage and origin from the Quraysh tribe. in contrast to al-Mawardi.

He is considered to be the pioneer in proposing the idea of Islamization of knowledge. al-Attas had study the essence of education and its relation with human spiritual and physical. the French orientalist A. Page | 17 . Laust believes that the politics for al-Ghazali was a necessary part of religion and morality. So. with the autonomy for each being stipulated within the united Muslim state. and its existence depends on their balance and their close unity. sultan and ulema. What we can argued that. body and soul and its effects on the personal and collective life o Muslims worldwide. As a prominent contemporary scholars who is thoroughly rooted in the traditional Islamic sciences and who is equally competent in theology. and literature. history.and no recognition for religious hierarchy it should be noted that the subject of researc by h the ulema was burdensome and indefinite and their functions were considerably broader exceeding the bounds of pure religious and religious-legal problems. For the next article. It had been considered as an art of behaving in accordance with certain conditions of the life of a person. the political authority of the Caliphate consists of these three components. we can agree that. and a good man is capable to be a good worker and good citizen. philosophy. the united Muslim state or Caliphate is based on the authority of caliph. whose actions should meet the existing state order. metaphysics. n In his works. al-Attas has focused on the individual as it is the fundamental because the ultimate purpose and end of ethics in Islam is the individual. Al-Attas' philosophy and methodology of education have one goal that is Islamization of the mind. it is agreeable with al-Attas¶ arguement that he claims that a good worker nor good citizen may not necessarily will become a good man. To conclude that. al-Ghazali addressed that. In his political theory Al-Ghazali actively used the experience of the Sasanid state.

Al-Attas also interpret and translate the word µadabbani¶ as µeducated me¶. we have to choose good and avoid evil for sure. He also rejects the term ta¶lim as it is only generally limited to instructional and cognitive aspects of education. µgood¶ and µevil¶ as philosophical categories were elaborated in Mu¶talism and later in Sufism through the lines generally adopted in Islamic ethics. Moreover. from the word adab and ta¶dib. the word µilm and adab shared the same meaning and cannot be used twice as if it will separate the meaning behind this words. as a Muslim and the slaves of Supreme God. It is because that the meaning of this two terms tend to distinguish the word µilm and ta¶lim or their synonyms. Besides that. al-Attas rejects the terms tarbiyah because its only pertains only to the physical and emotional aspects in animals and man. then what is the rational of prescription of Divine law? This µonthologism¶ seems to be strange because it was bring in without the philosophical reasoning. if Ibn Arabi claims that everything in this world should be appraise positively. in this context. It explains the Prophet¶s most honourable status and his excellent ethic and moral standings. it can be related that the Prophet¶s education is made mo excellent by God st Himself with the Quran. It means that every worshipper worships only the One and The Page | 18 . From this understanding. As stated earlier. We agreed with Rumi that good and evils are two opposites that cannot getting close. As human. we have to separate each other and don¶t let it mixed up.Al-Attas has cites Ibn Manzur quote that equates the word adabba with the word µallama which gives him the right and proper Islamic concept for education. that is the word ta¶dib. Furthermore. we totally disagree with Arabi as he announced that the status of Islam and the other religion are the same. We would like to express our own comment for the third article as follow: We ha noticed ve that at first.

Moreover.Razzaq Kashani in his ³Tuhfat al-Ikhwan´ stated that we must know that futuwwa consist in the manifestation of the light of the inborn nature and in its subjugating the darkness of the natural modalities. For the next critical comment. we can conclude that the ethics of monism as the part of Arabi is a bit radical. Yanis Eshots emphasize the deeper meaning of futuwwa based on his own understanding and from some other Islam Philosophers¶s opions and descriptions about futuwwa. stated that ³fata´ is the one who has reached the perfection of his inborn nature and the end of what is his perfection. The reason is. so that the totality of man¶s vi tues is manifested and r the deficiencies are removed. we should responsible on it.Razzaq Kashani.t already mentioned in the Holy Quran that only Islam is the religion for His sake. When he ascends from this station and his inborn nature becomes free from the adversities and maladies of the soul. Among them are Shams al Din - Muhammad Amuli. Page | 19 . So. Abd al. he is in the rank of the boy (sabi). Shams al-Din Muhammad Amuli. as long as the servant is subject to his caprice(hawa) and nature. In brief.True God which is quite uncommon even as pure theory.w. the other religions are absolutely rejected. Consequently. and Shihab al-Din µOmar Suhrawadi. Allah s. how can he put Islam same to the other religion and all of human action are classified as good? As a Muslim. µ Abd al. any rules and regulations in Islamic life comes with its own reason/explanation. he reaches the rank of the youth(fata). the author of the encyclopaedic work ³ Nafais al-funun´. and the deficiencies and evil attributes. and the muddy admixtures of the mortal human being (bashar) are manifest in it. we believe that whenever we have to make choice. we believed that our religion (Islam) is the most perfect religion because of it comprehensiveness. Finally. from the book.

we have to be united on the Islam as a Muslim. the famous Sufi shaykh. There is nothing negative comments that we can address at the topic because the lesson from what we get by reading about the universalistic of divine guidance can teach us how we should be thankful of what we have been given by Allah. The Koran is for the whole kind of human being. Maybe we can consider properly other religions. the important thing that we need to do is always be in the same street into the sacrifice for Allah without differentiating races. So. Moreover.the author of the ³Awarif al ma¶rif´ and the founder of the sufi order of Suhrawardiyya. gives even more eloquent account of Ali¶s decisive attempts to protect those accused in transgressions and breaking the rules of Syariah. The most manifest aspest of the futuwwa of Ali¶s apparently consists in his covering the other people¶s sins and sheltering the sinners. Allah gave us the prophets to guide us based on the holy book that had been revealed to them. We have to take the matter of various cultures into account as an advantage for us to do da¶wah. one more important thing in the chapter is about pluralism. There are so much lesson that we can learn from the importance of pluralism. By Page | 20 . The example that explained by Koran related to universalistic of divine guidance is much talk about the justice and the equality that given to us. So. However. we can learn how to be grateful on what Allah gives to us.Shihab al-Din µOmar Suhrawadi. by reading on that main point. So. Besides that. we can advance our devotion to Allah easily. language. The last article in this book is good to be read because it can lead us into knowing the Koran with more things. tribe because we are holding the same kalimatullah. the Koran is sent to us without exception of various types of people. The examples about the importance of pluralism tell us that we as a Muslim need to prevail attitude of assabiyah among us. That means for example we can learn other language from other culture to be used when delivering the Islamic teachings.

in the two different era of the caliphate dynasty in Islamic History. the writers of article discussed the issues that related to the Philosophy of Power in concept of Al-Mawardi and Al-Ghazali. It had been discussed also in the article that.reading on pluralism idea that has been mentioned by T. Ibrahim in his book. it can instil us to reach unity among various types of people in the one of the true religion: Islam. in aspect of religion status. we can see that. CONCLUSION As conclusion. Rumi claims that there is different level between Islam and the other religions. and every Page | 21 . K. in this book. Instead. Ibn Arabi claims that no religion is wrong.

Pluralism is entirely positive because it promotes the learning of human solidarity. the skill of gaining knowledge is not temporary. Page | 22 . We hope that the knowledge that we get from reviewing this book will give benefits not only for this time. May Allah guide us to seek the successful life in this world and hereafter. The book also mentions about the pluralistic measure of the Koran. we found that this book is critically and deeply discussed the issues relating to the Islamic Ethics in the various forms of discipline and methodology. In the umbrella terms. To conclude that.worshipper worships only the One and the True God which is rather uncommon even as pure as theory. but also for the next up-coming days. but it is a continuous efforts. By reading this book. and mutual enrichment of all nations. harmony. we can understand how the di ferences occurred and how the f problems were solved by the previous authorities in their ways.

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