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ESCUELA SUPERIOR POLITCNICA

DE CHIMBORAZO

ENGLISH

LEVEL II O

TOPIC: BASIC PUNCTUATION


RULES
NAME: jpo

RIOBAMBA, 13/6/2017
Basic Punctuation Rules:

DASHES:
Dashesoften confused with hyphensconnect groups of words to
other groups of words to emphasize a point. Usually, the dash
separates words in the middle or at the end of a sentence.
In the middle of a sentence, a dash can put special emphasis on a
group of words or make them stand out from the rest of the sentence.
At the end of a sentence, a dash separates information from the rest
of the sentence.
Examples: Our ideas for the weekend, going to a movie, having a
picnic, doing homework, and hiking Garcia Trail, seemed like a lot to
squeeze in.
APOSTROPHES:
Apostrophes are used to show possession or to indicate where a letter
has been omitted to form a contraction.
1.- To show possession, add an apostrophe and an -s to singular nouns
or indefinite pronouns that end in one or body.
Example: Susan's wrench, anyone's problem
2.- Add only an apostrophe for plural possessive nouns ending in -s.
Example: my parents' car, the musicians' instruments
3.- Add an apostrophe and an -s for plural possessive nouns that do
not end in -s.
Example: the men's department, my children's toys
4.- Add an apostrophe and an -s for singular possessive nouns that
end in -s.
Example: Chris's cookbook, the business's system
5.- Do not use an apostrophe with possessive personal pronouns
including yours, his, hers, its, ours, their,
and whose.
6.- Apostrophes are also used in contractions, two words which have
been combined into one, to mark
where the missing letter or letters would be.
Example: I am= I'm I have = I've
QUOTATION MARKS:
Quotation marks are used to show the beginning and end of a quotation
or a title of a short work.
1.- Quotation marks enclose the exact words of a person (direct
quotation).
Example: Megan said, "Kurt has a red hat."
2.- Do not use quotation marks around a paraphrase (using your own
words to express the authors ideas)
or a summary of the author's words.
Example: Megan said that Kurts hat was red.
3.- Quotation marks set off the titles of magazine articles, poems,
reports, and chapters within a book
Example: "The Talk of the Town" is a regular feature in Time
magazine.
PARENTHESES:
Elements inside parentheses are related to the sentence but are
nonessential.
1.- Parentheses set off additions or expressions that are not necessary
to the sentence. They tend to de-emphasize what they set off.
Example: We visited several European countries (England, France,
Spain) on our trip last year.
2.- Parentheses enclose figures within a sentence.
Example: Grades will be based on (1) participation, (2) in-class
writing, and (3) exams.
3.- When the group inside the parentheses forms a complete sentence
but is inserted inside a larger sentence, no period is needed. However,
if a question mark or exclamation point is needed, it may be used.
Example: The snow (she saw it as she passed the window) was now
falling heavily.
4.- When parentheses are used to enclose an independent sentence,
the end punctuation belongs inside the parentheses.
Example: Mandy told me she saw Amys new car. (I saw Amys car
before Mandy.) She said it was a nice car.
EXCLAMATION POINTS:
Exclamation points were originally called the note of admiration. They
are still, to this day, used to express excitement. They are also used
to express surprise, astonishment, or any other such strong emotion.
Any exclamatory sentence can be properly followed by an exclamation
mark, to add additional emphasis. After all, isnt it a lot more exciting
to say I am excited! then to say I am excited.
They are commonly used after interjections (words or phrases that are
used to exclaim, command or protest). Interrogatories include words
such as oh, wow, and boy For example, Wow! This grammar stuff is
interesting. Boy! I wish Id learned it before. Oh! Thats right, I did.
Examples: Yes! I will marry you.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
1.- http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/punctuation/when/when-to-
use-exclamation-marks.html#EBShBCvwDSt25zaM.99
2.-
http://www.apu.edu/live_data/files/288/basic_punctuation_rules.pdf