COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY THEORY (R. SPIRO, P. FELTOVITCH & R.

COULSON) Cognitive flexibility theory focuses on the nature of learning in complex and ill-structured domains. Spiro & Jehng (1990, p. 165) state: "By cognitive flexibility, we mean the ability to spontaneously restructure one's knowledge, in many ways, in adaptive response to radically changing situational demands...This is a function of both the way knowledge is represented (e.g., along multiple rather single conceptual dimensions) and the processes that operate on those mental representations (e.g., processes of schema assembly rather than intact schema retrieval)." The theory is largely concerned with transfer of knowledge and skills beyond their initial learning situation. For this reason, emphasis is placed upon the presentation of information from multiple perspectives and use of many case studies that present diverse examples. The theory also asserts that effective learning is context-dependent, so instruction needs to be very specific. In addition, the theory stresses the importance of constructed knowledge; learners must be given an opportunity to develop their own representations of information in order to properly learn. EXPLANATION: As a women grows old she learns a lot of things. The things she may have learned maybe from school, environment, experience and most commonly through other people. As a person grows up he/she adapts and changes his/her perception in life. If the women starts experiencing menopause she will easily learn it since the cognition of a person is flexible to all the things that the he/she interacts with.

KOLB’S EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING THEORY Experiential learning is the process of making meaning from direct experience. [1] Aristotle once said, "For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them."[2] David A. Kolb helped to popularize the idea of experiential learning drawing heavily on the work of John Dewey and Jean Piaget. His work on experiential learning has contributed greatly to expanding the philosophy of experiential education. Experiential learning is learning through reflection on doing, which is often contrasted with rote or didactic learning. Experiential learning is related to, but not synonymous with, experiential education, action learning, adventure learning, free choice learning, cooperative learning, and service learning.

though the gaining of knowledge is an inherent process that occurs naturally. [3] Experiential learning focuses on the learning process for the individual (unlike experiential education. stereotypes." Preferably. An example of experiential learning is going to the zoo and learning through observation and interaction with the zoo environment. experiential learning can often lead to "mis-educative experiences." Experiential learning therefore can be problematic as generalizations or meanings may be misapplied. The classic example of this is the lecture experience many students have in formal educational settings. While the content of the course might be "physics" the experiential learning becomes "I hate physics. which focuses on the transactive process between teacher and learner). 3."[6] In other words. certain abilities are required: 1. Explanation: .[citation needed] For the adult learner especially. the learner must be able to reflect on the experience. importantly they are also separate terms with separate meanings. there must exist certain elements. Experiential learning requires no teacher and relates solely to the meaning making process of the individual's direct experience.[5] However. experience becomes a "living textbook" to which they can refer. for a genuine learning experience to occur. the learner must be willing to be actively involved in the experience.While there are relationships and connections between all these theories of education. and other related areas. knowledge is continuously gained through both personal and environmental experiences. as opposed to reading about animals from a book. 2. Without continuity and interaction. and 4. the learner must possess decision making and problem solving skills in order to use the new ideas gained from the experience. one makes discoveries and experiments with knowledge firsthand. the student should have learned "I hate lectures. [4] He states that in order to gain genuine knowledge from an experience. instead of hearing or reading about others' experiences. experience may actually distort educational growth and disable an otherwise capable learner. as John Dewey pointed out. Thus. There are countless examples of this in prejudice. an American educational theorist. the learner must possess and use analytical skills to conceptualize the experience. However. According to David Kolb. experiences do not automatically equate learning.

Therefore the retention of the idea is much greater if it is learned by experience. Since the variable of our research is pre-menopausal to post-menopausal women the women will be more interested to our topic since they may either have experienced it already or will just experience it.It is said in this theory that a person easily learns something if he/she has experience it. .

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