Prepare For IELTS is a book of practice iELTS exams

to help students wilh their preparation for the IELTS
test It contains
• • Information about the IELTS test
• Helpful study hints to make preparation more
effective
• 3 practice Module C Reading and Writing tests
• 3 practice General Training Module Reading
and Writing tests
• 3 practice Listening tests with cassette tape
• Annotated Answers to all the practice tests
• A guide to the Interview Phase of IELTS
Prepare For IELTS has been prepared and produced at
Insearch Language Centre al the University of
Technology, Sydney, by a team of teachers experienced
in IELTS preparation and testing It is modelled on the
format of the IELTS test and practices the skills
students need for the test It is an indispensable aid for
self-study and for classroom use in IELTS preparation
ISBN 1 863650172
Practice Tests for Module C (Humanities)
- and General Training Module
Mary Jane Hogan Brenn Campbell
Todd Gillian Perrett
INSEARCH LANGUAGE CENTRE
< »
INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMMES
UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, SYDNEY
Insearch Language Centre
Level 3, Prince Centre,
8 Quay Street,
Ilaymarket NSW 2000
International
Programmes,
University of Technology,
Sydney
PO Box 123
Broadway NSW 2007
Copyright © 1991 Insearch Language Centre/International Programmes, University of
Technology, Sydney
All rights reserved. No part of this publication, book and cassette tape, may be
reproduced or transmitted in a form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying, recording, or any information storage a retrieval system, without
permission in writing from the publisher.
National Library of Australia
Cataloguing-in-Publicalion data
Prepare for IELTS
ISBN 186365 017 2.
1. English language - Examinations.
2. English language - Examinations, questions, etc.
3. International English Language Testing System.
I. Hogan, Mary Jane, 1952-
II. University of Technology, Sydney. Insearch Language Centre.
428.0076
Book Cover and Cassette Design by Lcong Chan, Public Affairs and Publications,
University of Technology, Sydney
Cassette tape recorded at 2 SER-FM, University of Technology, Sydney
Set in 11/13 New Century Schoolbook
Contents
How to Use this Book page iv
Chapter 1. Introduction to the IELTS Test page 1
Chapter 2. Preparation for the IELTS Test page 3
The Day of the Test page 5
Chapter 3. Module C Reading & Writing Practice Tests
Practice Test Number 1 page 7
Practice Test Number 2 page 27
Practice Test Number 3 page 49
Chapter 4. General Training Module Reading & Writing Practice Tests
Practice Test Number 1 page 68
Practice Test Number 2 page 90
Practice Test Number 3 page 113
Chapter 5. Listening Practice Tests
Practice Test Number 1 page 131
Practice Test Number 2 page 139
Practice Test Number 3 page 147
Chapter 6. The Interview page 155
Chapter 7. Answers
Reading & Writing Practice Tests page 162
Listening Practice Tests page 170
Acknowledgements page 172
O How To Use This Book
Chapter 1 contains general, useful information about the IELTS test.
Chapter 2 contains hints and suggestions that will help you prepare well
for the test, as well as advice to help you to do your best in the different
subtests of the IELTS test.- You should read these chapters before you
begin to work on the practice tests in this book.
Reading Practice Tests
Chapter 3 contains three practice reading tests based on the Module C
IELTS test and Chapter 4 has three based on the General Training
Module. At the end of each practice test you will find an Answer Sheet
that can be cut out of the book if you wish, to make it easier to use.
Follow the instructions for each question and write y9ur answers on the
answer sheet. There are 40 boxes on the answer sheet; however, not all
the tests have 40 reading questions. Work through each practice test for
the module you are applying for, checkingyour answers in Chapter 7. It is
better not to check the answers until you have completed ea'ch test.
Try to avoid writing on the pages of the reading passages; this will slow
down your reading speed and is generally not permitted in the real IELTS
test. Allow yourself 55 minutes only for each reading test; remember that
it is important to practice reading fast. The answers in Chapter 7 have
notes to explain any points of difficulty, and why one answer is right and
another wrong.
Writing Practice Tests
At the end of each reading subtest in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 there is
a practice writing test. Each practice test has pages for writing your
answers to each of the writing tasks. Allow yourself 15 minutes for the
first writing task and 30 minutes for the second writing task, a total of 45
minutes.
Chapter 7 contains a model essay for each writing task to give you one
example of a satisfactory way of completing the task; these model essays
are not the only way to answer the question, but they give you an idea of
what kind of answer is required. Do not look at the model essays until
you
have written an answer yourself, then compare the two essays for their
content and for different ways of giving the same information. Remember
to write at least as many words as the writing task asks. You will lose
marks for writing too little. Remember also to give all the information
asked for in the question.
Listening Practice Tests
Chapter 5 contains three practice listening tests, with space for writing
your answers on the pages. The listening section of the IELTS test is the
same for all candidates. The instructions for each question are given on
the cassette tape. Allow yourself approximately 30 minutes for each
listening test and work straight through each test. It is not a good idea to
stop and go over parts of the tape; first you should complete a whole
practice test and check your answers in Chapter 7. The answers have
notes to guide you to the section of the tape that gave the information you
needed to answer the question.
The Interview
Chapter 6 has a detailed description of what you can expect in the
interview for the IELTS test. There are also many suggestions of ways
you can practise your speaking skills to help you to perform better in the
interview.

Chapter 1
Introduction to the IELTS Test
The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) is the main test used to
assess the language proficiency of students from a non-English-speaking background who
want to study in an English-speaking country, especially Australia or the UK. It has four
subtests, or sections.
The Reading and Writing Subtests
In the first two sections, reading and writing, students take one of four modules. Which
module they take depends on what they hope to study. Modules A, B, and C are for
university entrance. People who want to study Maths, for example, or Computing, Physics
or Engineering take Module A (Physical Sciences). People who want to study Biology,
Nursing or Medicine take Module B (Life Sciences). People who want to study Business,
Economics, Journalism or Drama take Module C (Humanities). In Australia people who
want to study at high school, in TAPE (colleges of Technical and Further Education), in
Foundation Studies courses, or at busirfess.colleges take the General Training Module.
The General Training Module is easier than the other modules, but it is not possible to
score above Band 6 on it, nor is it acceptable for university entrance.
This book includes three practice reading and writing tests for the Module C test and three
for the General Training Module. Like the real tests, these take 55 minutes for reading and
45 minutes for writing. These are the most popular modules with students hoping to study
in Australia.
The Listening and Speaking Subtests
The second two subtests, listening and speaking, are general and are taken by all students.
The listening test takes 30 minutes. This book and the cassette tape contain three practice
listening tests.
The last test is the speaking test. It takes the form of an interview and lasts 11-15 minutes.
This book contains a description of the interview and suggests things that you can do to
practise speaking to help prepare for the test.
I he reading and writing and the listening practice tests in this book have been designed
to
resemble the format of the IELTS test as closely as possible. They are not, however, real
IELTS tests; they simply give practice in the type of question you may have to answer in
the real test. For thisreason, there is no system of marking or scoring your practice tests
in this book, so you cannot use them to assess your band score. These practice tests are to
practise your English to help vou to do better in the real IELTS test.
The Band Scores
You cannot pass or fail the IELTS test. Your score will be reported in a series of
band, Band 9 is the highest level, band 1 the lowest. Different colleges and
universities require different band scores before they will admit you. Different
institutions indicate what ban, levels they want students to achieve. These may be
between 5.5 and 7 for universit entrance.
The band levels indicate a candidate's ability to use English as follows:
9 Expert User
8 Very Good User
7 Good User
6 Competent User
5 Modest User
4 Limited User
3 Extremely Limited User
2 Intermittent User
1 Non User
Advantages of the IELTS Test
What are the advantages of the IELTS test over the other tests whjch are often used?
Unlike the TOEFL it tests all four skills. Some students who have very high TOEFL
scores are noi able to function in English when they arrive at university because they
cannot speak 01 write the language. This means that if you achieve your target band
score on the IELTS tost both you and the college you hope to attend can be confident
that you will be able to cope With English when you start your course. Unlike some
other tests IELTS is an international test. This means that if you change your mind
about the country you want to study in,your test results will still be recognised
(outside the USA) ifyou have taken the IELTS test. It also means that you can take
the test in your own country or in the country where you hope to study.
The IELTS test is available at least once a month, at some centres it is run fortnightly
and, at busy times of the year, every week. You can take the test as often as you like,
but not less than three months apart. So for example, ifyou take the test in January
you can take it again in April. This way you are able to keep track of your
improvement in English.
The results are published quickly. They are sent to you and to the college you want to
enter within two weeks. It is considered that students need anything from 100 hours
to 200 hours of teaching to improve by one step in the band scale; all students differ
from each other but most need more time at the higher levels than they do at the
lower levels.
Chapter 2
Preparation for the IELTS Test
You are a student planning to sit for the IELTS test. Naturally, you want to get the
best core you possibly can. What is the most effective preparation for the IELTS
test?
First of all, you must be realistic. How good is your English now? A student who
currently has a band score of 5 will need about 6 months full-time study to raise it to
6,5, Preparation for the IELTS test — improvement in your level of English — will
take time and work. Below are some suggestions for useful activities.
Time
One of the biggest problems that students have in the test is that they run out of time.
The first thing you need to practise is speed, especially in the reading and writing
sections. Whenever you read something in English, give yourself a time limit. While
you are reading, stop at the end of every paragraph and summarise it to yourself. By
forcingyourself to read with time limits you will find your reading speed increases,
and reading under exam conditions will get easier.
In the same way, practise writing quickly. Every day, sit down and write as much as
you can for 5-10 minutes on any subject. Don't worry about accuracy when doing
this — the idea here is to increase your speed, not your accuracy.
Use your classes
Speed without accuracy, however, is not enough. Not only must you use your
present language skills more quickly, you must gain new skills, and improve old
ones. This can be done through classwork and personal study.
Most students reading this book will be studying English with a teacher. Here are
some of the skills your teacher will be working on with you, all important in the
IELTS test:
Speaking: pronunciation, intormtioh, fluency, common phrases, interaction
(dynamics with another speaker), asking questions;
Listening: voice tone, listening for keywords, listening for general information,
vocabulary, summarising;
Reading: skimming (general understanding), scanning (looking for specific
information), vocabulary, summarising;
Writing: adjusting style according to purpose; writing paragraphs, introductions and
conclusions; using conjunctions and reference; structuring information within a
text.
Make the most of every class by reviewing your lessons, preferably the same day.
Make a note of any new vocabulary learnt (spelling, pronunciation, meaning, part of
speech). Look at the activities the teacher gave you — what were they for? If you
had problems, do the activities again at home. If you still have problems, see your
teacher. By looking at your
classwork again, you remember it better; by thinking about it, and how it will benefit
3 you will acquire the skill(s) it teaches you more quickly.
Extra work
You will also find it useful to do other study apart from class review: extra work on
thii that you find difficult.
Also, you simply need to hear, read, write and speak as much English as possible.
Here I some suggestions:
× do an adult education course;
× join a social club, or a community service organisation;
× use every opportunity where appropriate to talk to native speakers;
× read at the supermarket, in the street, in offices and shops;
× use a detailed TV guide to gain more information about a programme;
× dial-a-robot — work through the recorded messages in the phone book;
× telephone for transport information: specific buses, trains, flights;
× telephone for travel information: costs of journeys, accommodation.
(From K. Willing, 1989, Teaching How To Learn, pp 65, 67-70, NCELTR.)
Many of these things you could do only in an English-speaking country. If you are
studyiтп in a non-English-speaking country you should try to find English interest
groups with whom to practise. You should also regularly read books/journals on
topics related to you future study. This will increase your knowledge of the
vocabulary and style of academic writing.
All of these things will help you to prepare for the IELTS test, and you will find
many good books on study skills that will give more information on effective study
techniques.
Stay Calm
Two further comments should be made.
1. While it is important that you study hard, you also need rest, exercise and
relaxation. Without these things, you will grow tired, you may lose interest in your
study, and your health may suffer. You will prepare best for the exam by living a
balanced lifestyle.
2. Many people get very nervous when taking an exam, especially an important one.
To do the very best you can in the IELTS exam, you could sit the test once just to
find out what it is like, as a practice. You will learn the procedure (what section
comes first, and so on) without having to worry about doingyour very best. When you
want to sit the test 'for real', you will be more relaxed because you will know what to
expect, and will be able to concentrate on performing to the best of your ability.
Every English exam is supposed to show how good a student's level of English is.
This is done in different ways in different tests, and with different measures of
success. The IELTS test is a good test because the language skills needed in the exam
are similar to those needed at college/university. You can thus be sure that as you
prepare for IELTS you will be preparing well for your future study.
Preparation for the
1ELTS Test
The Day of the Test
There are no magic formulas for doing well in the IELTS test. However, these simple
Jugge'stions will help you do as well as possible.
Be calm even if you feel depressed or discouraged. As one part of the exam finishes,
forget it and go on to the next one.
Do Not Memorise Answers. Firstly, an examiner can tell if you've memorised an
answer, d you will lose marks. Secondly, there is no guarantee whatsoever that the
question you were expecting will appear in the exam. In that case, you will probably
do worse than if ou had never memorised anything, because you will have neglected
your normal English practice. Again, you will lose marks.
Read the Questions. For the reading, writing and listening sections, you must read
the questions carefully. You cannot get marks if you do not answer the questions
correctly.
Use your time. Find out how much time you have for each section and divide it
sensibly among the questions. If you finish early, check your answers. Use every
second of the time you have. Don't waste time by working too long on one question or
by finishing early and j sitting doing nothing.
Reading Subtest
Begin by reading the questions first. This will give you an idea of what to look for
when you read the texts.
Do not attempt to understand every word in the reading passages, at least on the
initial reading. Read quickly to get a general understanding.
When answering a question, skim the passage until you find the relevant section,
then read it in detail. Do not read everything in detail —you haven't got time.
If you find a question difficult, leave it and come back to it later. Do all the easiest
questions first.
Writing Subtest
Read the task questions carefully. Rephrase them to yourself if you are not sure you
fully understand them. Constantly refer back to the question to check that you are
not digressing from the topic. Briefly plan your answer, especially for Task 2 in the
academic modules.
The two writing tasks are of different lengths. You should thus spend about 15
minutes on Question 1 and 30 minutes on Question 2.
The two writing tasks are of different types: Question 1 may be a description of a
diagram or a letter etc, Question 2 may be an essay or a report etc. Modify your
writing style accordmg to the question.
Do not write your answers in note form, unless the instructions specifically permit
you to do so. While notes show the examiner the structure of your text, you will lose
marks in the area of cohesion and sentence structure because your ideas are neither
elaborated nor joined.
Write as neatly as possible. This makes it easier for the examiner to mark your work,
and there is less likelihood of the examiner misunderstand ing what you have said.
Write neatly, but do not waste time by writing a rough draft, then rewriting it. Write
one draft only and write on every second line. In this way you will have enough
space to change/correct your answer if you need to.
Don't waste valuable time by using white-out (just cross out anything you want to
change), writing the essay title, or writing in capital letters (use cursive writing if it's
at all readable).
If you have spare time at the end, check your work for small errors ryerh agreements,
plurals, punctuation. These things are easily corrected and are important in deciding
what mark your work will receive.
Listening Subtest
You will hear each listening passage only once. To make the most of it, read the
questions through quickly before each section and try to predict what subject the
listening text is about. This will increase your ability to understand what you hear.
Look at what kinds of questions you m-ust^answer: true/false, multiple choice,
pictures/diagrams, forms to be filled in. This will ffeterrm'ne what kind of listening
you do, whether you listen for individual words or for the general meaning.
Look through any pictures and diagrams in the exam before each listening as these
will help you choose the correct answers.
Speaking Subtest
Breathe deeply and relax while waiting. Talk to your friends in English while
waiting.
Speak as much as you can during the interview, don't just give one word answers.
Unless you speak, the interviewer can't find out how good you really are. Don't be
afraid to ask the examiner to repeat a question if you don't understand it. You will not
lose marks.
At the beginning of section 3 (the role play) the interviewer will give you a card with
some information on it. Note carefully the role the interviewer will take: is (s)he your
friend? A classmate? an official? Make sure you vary your speech accordingly
(because you don't speak in the same way to a friend as to an official)
Section 3 of the interview is the one where you must take the initiative. Here it is not
impolite to ask questions, it's essential. Your questions should be as natural as
possible. Think: What sort of questions would I ask if this situation were real?'
If you have prepared yourself by practising the skills mentioned earlier in this
chapter, and if you are familiar with the format of the test, and remember the
suggestions written here, then you are ready to do your best in the IELTS test.
Chapters 3 (Hunities)
fj Module C Reading and Writing Practice Tests
G Test Number 1
Q Reading
Part 1. Australia's Linguistic History
Read the passage below, then answer Questions 1 - 6 on page 9.
Aboriginal Australia was multilingual in the sense that more than two
hundred languages were spoken in specific territorial areas which
together comprised the whole country. Because mobility was
restricted, one lan- guage group had knowledge of its own language
together with some knowledge of the languages spoken in the
territories immediately adjacent to their own. However, from the
beginning of European settlement in 1788, English was given
predominance by the settlers. As a result Abo- riginal languages were
displaced and, in some areas, eliminated. By 1983, about 83 per cent
of the Australian population spoke English as a mother tongue. Less
than one per cent did not use English at all. The pre-emi- nence of the
English language reflects the fact that European settlement of this
continent has been chiefly by English-speaking people, despite prior
Portugese and Dutch coastal exploration.
The first white settlers, convicts and soldiers and, later, free settlers,
came almost exclusively from the British Isles. Some of these settlers
spoke the then standard form of English whilst others spoke a wide
variety of the non-standard forms of English that flourished in
various areas of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales. In addition,
many spoke the Celtic languages including Gaelic, Irish and Welsh.
However, speakers of languages other than English did not arrive in
the Australian colonies in significant numbers until the goldrushes of
the 1850s, which attracted people from all over the world, including
substantial numbers from China. The reac- tion of the Europeans to
the Chinese led to restrictions on Chinese and other non-European
immigration and eventually to the Federal Immigration Act of 1901.
By prohibiting the entry of non-European immigration this Act
hindered the spread of non-European languages in Australia. By the
late nineteenth century, German appears to have been the major non-
English language spoken in the Australian colonies. In J891, about
four per cent of the total population was of German origin.
(Reading passage continues over page)
Part 1 continued
Despite increased immigration from southern Europe, Germany and
east- ern Europe during the 1920s and 1930s, the period from 1900 to
1946 saw the consolidation of the English language in Australia. This
process was accelerated by the xenophobia engendered by the two
world wars which resulted in a decline in German in particular and of
all non-English languages in general. As the Department of
Immigration and Ethnic Affairs noted, the result was that 'at the end
of World War II, Australia was at its most monolingual ever: 90 per
cent of the population tracing its ancestry to Britain'.
The post-war migration program reversed the process of increasing
English monolingualism. The post-war period also witnessed a
reversal of a trend of diminishing numbers of Australians of
Aboriginal and Asian descent. Dr C. Price, a demographer at the
Australian National University, has estimated that in 1947 only
59,000 Aborigines remained from a population of 110,000 in_1891
By 1981 their numbers had increased to 160,000. Between 1947 and
1971, nearly three million people came to settle in Australia. About
60 per cent came from non-English-speaking countries, notably, Italy,
Greece, Cyprus, Yugoslavia, Turkey, Germany and the Netherlands.
Since 1973, Australian immigration policies have not discriminated
against people on the grounds of race, and more Asian settlers have
arrived, especially from South East Asia generally and, more recently,
from East Timor and Vietnam in particular. Between 1971 and 1981,
the Asian population of Australia more than doubled to 8.5 per cent of
the total overseas-born population. Traditional migration from
Europe, although remaining substantial, declined in relative
importance during this decade. The numbers of new settlers from
Lebanon and New Zealand also more than doubled during this period
and there was much greater migration from Latin America, Africa and
Oceania.
Parti. Australia's Linguistic History
Questions 1-6
Read the passage headed 'Australia's Linguistic History'. Answer the questions below
by writing the correct date in the boxes on the Answer Sheet for Questions 1 to 6.
The first one has been done as an example.
Example: Although there had been many Aboriginal languages in Australia
before white settlement, English took over as the main language from
...........example...........
ex 1788
1. The first period when speakers of languages other than English arrived in
Australia in large numbers was in the 1
2. In......2.........the Australian Government enacted a law that prohibited all non-
European immigration into Australia.
3. Figures from ......3....... show that at that time about four per cent of Australia's
population was of German origin.
4. Even though there were large numbers of non-English-speaking European
immigrants for part of this period, from the turn of the century up to.......4
.........................................................................................................English
was the unchallenged dominant language in Australia.
5. From the years after the Second World War until.....5...... almost 3 million people
emigrated to Australia, with about 60 per cent coming from non-English-
speaking countries.
6- In.......6.......the laws preventing non-Europeans from emigrating to Australia
were removed, resulting in an increase in Asian immigration.
Part 2. The Composition of Australia's Overseas Born Population by Birthplace
Look at the information in the map and answer Questions 7-14 on page 11
part 2. The Composition of Australia's Overseas Bom Population by Birthplace
Questions 7 -14
Look at the map on page 10. Use the information in the map to complete the passage
below.In the boxes on the Answer Sheet, write the correct word, words or number
to complete the spaces. The first one has been done as an example.
The map shows the composition of Australia's overseas born population by
..........example......, comprising over three million people or 21 per cent of the total
Australian population in 1981.
ex birthplace.
The United Kingdom/Eire and ..........7...........were the two most important sources of
migrants, with more than half of all immigrants coming from non-English-speaking
countries. Thirty-seven per cent were European, principally from ............5..............,
Greece, Germany and Yugoslavia. Non-European migration, particularly South East
Asian, has become much more significant since the 1970s. People born in
...........9................accounted for 8.5 per cent of the population: they came chiefly
from....10.............., Malaysia and 1 1 Smaller numbers of people had been
born in the............12............., (3.2 per cent), in................13.............(5.9 per cent) and
in Africa (2.0 per cent), although of this number............14..............per cent were
from one country. In the years 1982-83, about 26 per cent of new settlers arriving in
Australia came from Asia.
Part 3. Some Traits of Language
Read the passage and answer Questions 15-22 on pages 13 to 14.
One estimate puts the number of languages in active use in the world
today somewhere between three and four thousand. Another makes it
five thousand or more. The latter is probably closer to the truth, for
many languages are spoken by relatively few people — several in one
small area of New Guinea, for instance, have fewer than a hundred
speakers each. The number of different languages is formidable and is
quite awesome if we include the tongues once spoken but now dead.
All languages use the same channel for sending and receiving: the
vibrations of the atmosphere. All set the vibrations going in the same
way, by the activity of the speech organs and all organise the
vibrations in essentially the same way, into small units of sound that
can be combined and recombined in distinctive ways.
Languages can be related in three ways: genetically, culturally and
typologically. A. genetic relationship is one between mother and
daughter or between two sisters or two cousins: there is a common
ancestor some- where in the family line. A cultural relationship arises
from contacts in the real world at a given time; enough speakers
command a second language to adopt some of its features, most often
just terms of cultural artifacts but sometimes other features as well. A
typological relationship is one of resemblances regardless of where
they came from. Engjish is related genetically to Dutch through the
common ancestry of Germanic and Indo-European. It is related
Culturally to North American Indian languages from which it has
taken many place names. And it is related typolpgically to Chinese
which it resembles more than it resembles its own cousin Latin in the
comparative lack of inflection on words.
Though genetic and cultural relationships tend to spell typological
ones, it often happens that languages of the same family diverge so
radically in the course of time that only the most careful analysis will
demonstrate their kinship. The opposite happens too: languages
unrelated genetically may converge to a high degree of similarity.
Part 3. Some Traits of Language
Questions 15 -17
Read the passage headed 'Some Traits of Language
1
. Then, complete the table below
to describe the primary relationship between English and several other languages:
*write T if the relationship is primarily typological
*write C if the relationship is primarily cultural
*write G if the relationship is primarily genetic
Write your answers in the boxes on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as
an example.
Languages Relationship

1 Example: English - Dutch
ex G
15. English - Chinese
16. English-American Indian
17. English - Latin
Part 3 continued
Questions 18 - 22
The following statements are summaries of some of the information in the reading
passage 'Some Traits of Language'. Write True in the box on the Answer Sheet if the
statement accurately summarises the information in the text; write False if the
statement is an inaccurate summary of information in the text. The first one has been
done as an example.
Example: It is said there may be three to four thousand languages spoken in the
world today.
ex True.
18. The writer believes that there are probably fewer than five thousand languages
spoken in the world today.
19. Each language has a unique medium for sending and receiving: some use the
speech organs and others use small distinctive units of sound.
20. A cultural relationship between languages is one where two languages have
developed from similar cultures.
21. A genetic relationship between languages does not always imply a typological
relationship.
22. Languages that have developed from totally separate ancestors may come to
resemble each other to a high degree.
Part 4. Optimum Age for Language Learning

Questions 23 - 30
The following passage is a discussion on what age is the best time to learn a
language. Several words have been omitted from the text. From the list in the box,
select the correct words to complete the text and write them in the boxes on the
Answer Sheet. Note that there are more words than there are spaces. Each word can
be used once only. The first one has been done as an example.
One aspect of the current debate on language teaching in Australian schools is the
......example.........of when is the best time for people to learn a second language.
ex question
Language teachingwithin the education system in Australia has traditionally been concentrated
at the secondary school ...................23........... However, many people argue that the
.........24............age to commence language learning occurs in the early primary years or even
in pre-school, when children are able to 25 a language naturally with minimum
interference from their mother tongue. Some suggest that early adolescence is
in fact the.........26..........time to begin to learn a language, given the psychological and
.........27........... problems many high school students face. It should be remembered, however,
that many studies have shown that there is 28 age at which one cannot learn a language.
At 60 years, 70 years or 80 years you can still learn a language. What will cause the learner the
greatest difficulty after puberty is the ...29., The reasons for this problem with accent have
been much ....30
debated soonest worst only
emotional technology acquire accent
controversy optimum education examination
level no question age
Part 5. Purposes of Language Study: The Australian Senate Inquiry into a National
Language Policy
Read the passage below and answer Questions 31 - 35 on page 18.
The Report of the Inquiry by the Senate of the Australian Parliament into a national
language policy in Australia proposed five purposes for studying a language other
than English in Australian schools.
The first point relates to what might be termed the more strictly utilitarian reasons for
language learning — the acquisition of fluency in a language other than English for
the purpose of direct communication.. The communication in question may be of an
informal nature, such as that which occurs during overseas travel, or between
members of different groups within Australian society in a variety of social situations.
In large measure, however, this language learning objective relates to the role of
languages other than English in various fields of employment, such as interpreting
and translating, international trade, diplomacy and defence.
Some witnesses to the Inquiry cautioned against placing too heavy an emphasis on
utilitarian goals. Professor M. Halliday commented:
I think one should not be too restricted to the practical arguments,
which are in a sense dishonest if you say to someone: 'If you spend
all this time learning a language you will immediately be able to go
and find a use for it'. I think we should have a more rounded picture
of the goal.
The Committee agrees that, taken in isolation, practical arguments tend to give an
incomplete picture of the value of language learning. In the early school years, for
example, utilitarian objectives may well be less important than they are at tertiary
level where employment considerations exert a strong influence. Nonetheless, it
seems indisputable that practical fluency skills must remain one of the major purposes
of the language teaching enterprise, even though the emphasis placed upon these
skills may vary considerably according to the educational context.
The second purpose concerns the link between a language and the cultural context
from .which it emerges, Many submissions stressed the value of the language
learning experience as a means of understanding other cultures, and hence of
developing sensitive and tolerant cross-cultural attitudes. This proposition is applied
to cultures both within Australia and overseas. Thus, it is argued that language study
can contribute in important ways both to harmonious community relationships within
Australia, and to an understanding of the cultural values of other countries. It is also
contended that language provides the key to major historical cultures, such as the
civilizations of classical antiquity which have exerted a profound influence on the
Western tradition.
In the course of hearings, Dr David Ingram of the Australian Federation of Modern
Language Teachers Associations referred to evidence which lends some empirical
support to the claim that the experience of language learning fosters the development
of a better understanding of other cultures. The Committee does not find the
proposition difficult to accept. It believes, however, that the measure of success
achieved is likely to be largely •dependent on the teaching methodology adopted, and
the degree of teacher commitment to the goal of cultural awareness and sensitivity.
In this regard another submission referred to the contention that second language
study produces such desirable characteristics as 'greater tolerance, understanding of
others, and acceptance of difference', and went on to observe that:
It is paradoxical that language teachers are totally convinced of the
validity of such claims, and yet have very little success in convincing
others. While the language teachers believe that it is all about
tolerance and understanding, others believe it is all about doing
grammar exercises. What is required here is a genuine attempt on the
part of language teachers to think through the concepts of attitudinal
development and to demonstrate that language learn ing can certainly
be an encounter with a new thought system, and hence a powerful
means of challenge to complacency in the Tightness of one's own
ways.
The third objective relates to the role of language learning in the maintenance of
ethnic languages and cultures within Australia. It was argued in submissions that a
central element in Australia's policy of multiculturalism is a recognition of the value
of the cultural heritages of the different groups within Australian society. Since
language and culture are inextricably intertwined, the preservation of cultural
heritages necessarily entails the retention of the languages associated with them. In
the case of Aboriginal communities this issue takes on a special note of urgency
since, in many instances, Aboriginal cultures and languages are on the verge of
disappearing completely. The objective in this context, therefore, is not simply to
assist in the maintenance of a cultural and linguistic heritage but to aid in preserving
that heritage from extinction.
Prominent amongst the purposes of language learning described in submissions was
the fourth point: the development of the general cognitive and linguistic capacities of
students. The educational outcomes at stake here were described in a number of
ways. Professor M. Halliday, for example, spoke of language learning as 'an
educational exercise of the first importance, as a development of thinking". Another
submission referred to the development of 'a sharpened, more critical awareness of
the nature and mechanism of language". Professor Clyne pointed to research
conducted particularly in Canada which, he states, 'suggests that bilinguals are
superior to monolinguals in logical thought and conceptual development, verbal
intelligence and divergent thinking".
Finally, several submissions spoke of the role of language learning in the general
development of personality. To a large extent, this objective builds upon and sums up
aspects of those already covered. The possibility of direct communication with
speakers of another language, for example, offers the opportunity for a broadening of
personal horizons. A similar outcome may be expected from the encounter with
another culture made possible through language study. Where the language concerned
is the child's mother tongue —either the language of a migrant group or an Aboriginal
language — an additional factor emerges. In this context, it is argued, language study
contributes significantly to the development of individual self-esteem, since the
introduction of the language into the school encourages children of that language
background to value it and appreciate it as an asset. As a result, their estimation of
their family's value as well as of their own worth is likely to rise. In such a case the
language program may also aid family cohesion by facilitating the child's
communication with family members of non-English-speaking background.
The Committee believes that submissions have been correct in drawing attention to
these personal development issues. Naturally, the benefits of language learning in
question here are less easy to quantify than those involved in the objectives
previously discussed. Nonetheless, the Committee believes that, if appropriately
taught, languages can play an important part in assisting young people to establish
their identity, and develop their individual and social personalities.
Part 5. Purposes of Language Study
Questions 31 - 35
Read the passage headed 'Purposes of Language Study'. Then, read the list of
statements below that summarise both the five major purposes of studying languages
other than English in Australian schools as well as some of the arguments used in
support of the major points. Identify the summaries of the major purposes as listed in
the passage and write their corresponding letters in the appropriate box on the Answer
Sheet to answer Questions 31 - 35.
Question 31 First Purpose of Language Study?
Question 32 Second Purpose of Language Study?
Question 33 Third Purpose of Language Study?
Question 34 Fourth Purpose of Language Study?
Question 35 Fifth Purpose of Language Study?
A. To maintain ethnic languages and cultures as part of Australia's policy of
multiculturalism
B. To convince people that language classes teach tolerance and acceptance of
other races and cultures *
C. To successfully communicate with people who do not speak English both within
Australia and overseas
D. To find employment outside Australia
E. To better appreciate the multicultural nature of Australian society
F. To achieve better professional standing in careers in Australia
G. To develop an understanding of other cultures
H. To develop better cognitive and general linguistic abilities in students
I. To assess whether bilinguals are superior to monolinguals in logical thought and
conceptual development
J. To develop the personality of students and a sense of individual identity
K. To prevent Aboriginal languages disappearing completely
L. To enable Australians to travel overseas more easily
This is the end of the reading test
Write your answers to tlie reading practice tests in the boxes below.
> You may cut out this page to make it easier to use.
Answer Sheet
; 21
2 22
j 23
4 24
5 25
6 26
7 27
8 28
9 29
10 30
11 31
12 32
13 33
14 34
IS 35
16 36
17 37
18 38
19 39
20 40
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º Tes t Number 1
º Writing
Writing Task 1
The diagram below comes from a student's lecture notes after hearing a lecture on the
factors affecting the learning of English as a second language.
Using the information in the diagram and your own experience, describe
the main factors affecting success in learning English as a second language.
*You should spend no more than 15 minutes on this task.
*You should write at least 100 words.
*Do not write in the form of notes.
Writing Task 2
Write an essay on the following topic:
All secondary school students should learn a second language.
*You may use information in the reading passages but do not copy directly from
them. You may also use your own knowledge and experience.
*Your essay should be well organised to express your point of view. You should
support your opinion with relevant evidence.
*You should spend 30 minutes on this task.
*You should write at least 150 words.
Use This Space For Notes
22
Writing Task 1
The answers to the reading questioins and themodel essays for
the writing tasks are in Chapter 7, beginning on page 162:
º Test Number 2
º Reading
Part 1. Australia's Exports
Read the passage below and answer Questions 1 - Son pages 28 to 29.
The pattern of change in Australia's export trade reveals, much about
the changing focus of the exploitation of Australia's resources. From
about 1830 wool replaced the products of whaling and sealing as the
dominant in- dustry and the biggest export. Its supremacy in
Australia's export trade was unrivalled for over a century,
notwithstanding the sharp but temporary decline in the Depression of
the 1890s. It was commonly quoted and quite true to say that
'Australia rode on the sheep's back'; wool production reached a peak
of 800,000 tonnes in 1971 (Figure 1).
In recent years, however, wool sales have become an area of deep
concern in the Australian economy. As can be seen from Figure 2,
pastoral exports generally (wool, meat, skins and hides, dairy
products), once responsible for over 60 per cent of Australia's export
trade, steadily declined as a percentags of £otal exports in the period
1952 to 1976. Since then they have stabilised at a comparatively low
level (25 per cent). In contrast, Figure 3 shows that other agricultural
exports (wheat, fruit, vegetables, sugar) have remained fairly stable
at around 18 per cent of total exports in the last three decades, though
1960, 1964 and 1972 were better years.
Mineral exports from Australia present a different picture. Gold was
the first mineral exported from Australia in quantity, and brought
great and sudden wealth to the nation's economy. Figure 4 traces
gold production from its discovery in New South Wales and Victoria
in 1851. In the first decade Australia produced almost half the
world's gold supply, about 750,000 kilos. Surprisingly, however, the
peak production period for gold from Australia's fields was 1901 to
1910, since which time production has greatly diminished.
From the 1870s Australia began to mine and export other minerals:
copper, tin, silver, and above all, coal and iron ore. New discoveries
of mineral deposits and the steady introduction of new technology
led to a slow but steady growth in mineral exports, with the greatest
boom coming after the Second World War. A comparison of Figure
5 with Figures 2 and 3 clearly reveals how, from the 1950s to the
1980s, the value of mineral exports as a percentage of total exports
climbed steadily to equal pastoral and agricultural exports, reaching a
peak of around 29 per cent in 1976. Although mineral exports have
fluctuated somewhat since then, the addition of relative newcomers
such as uranium and diamonds has ensured that mineral exports have
maintained their importance to the Australian economy into the
1990s.
Parti. Australia's Exports
Questions 1-5
Read the passage headed 'Australia's Exports'. From the information in the passage,
identify the five graphs below by writing the correct Figure Number in the box on
the Answer Sheet. For example, if you think that the information in the graph in
Question 1 matches the facts connected with, say, Figure 2 in the reading passage,
you would write thenumber 2 in the box on the Answer Sheet.
Question 1. Figure ?
Question 2. Figure ?
part 1 continued
Question 3. Figure ?
Question 4. Figure ?
Question 5. Figure ?
Part 2. Stricken Sea Needs Long-Term Solution
Read the passage below and answer Questions 6 -16 on pages 32 to 33.
Twenty years ago, anglers might have stood on the Aral seabed, up to their
hips in water, and fished for carp under the blazing sun of north-west
Uzbekistan. Today they would have to drive 48 kilometres north across flat,
grey, salt-scabbed earth to find the disappearingsea, and they would see a
briny pool, receding toward a lifeless equilibrium.
This is — or was — the Aral Sea, once the fourth-largest inland body
of water. Although it is far less severe in its immediate consequences
than the catastrophic earthquake in Armenia, it is the Soviet Union's
most mourned and debated ecological calamity. By siphoning off
water to irrigate the cotton fields of Uzbekistan and neighbouring
Turkmenia, Soviet developers have made sluggish sewers of the two
rivers that feed the Aral Sea, the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya.
Since 1960, the surface area of the
sea has shrunk 40 per cent, leaving
behind
26,000 square kilometres of salty,
man-
made desert, with unhappy conse-
quences for the health, the economy,
and even the climate in the vast Aral
Sea basin. All this was obvious on a
recent visit, said to be the first
allowed
into this closed region.
The high concentration of salt and
farm
chemicals in the rivers and under-
ground water is blamed for high rates
of
stomach and liver disease, throat
cancer
and birth defects.
'A catastrophe of no lesser magnitude
than Chernobyl,' wrote Sergei
Zalygin,
editor of the magazine Nouy Mir, in
Pravda in June.
The Aral Sea has become a test of the Soviet Union's newly stated
commitment to balancing short-term economic growth against the
demands of the environment. Prominent writers and scientists who
formthe Committee
part 2 continued
to Save the Aral Sea say the sea can be salvaged only by strict
measures to curtail the use of water, even if this means cutting back
production of water-intensive crops such as cotton and rice. Others,
including the officials responsible for water development, want to
replenish the sea by reviving a controversial engineering scheme:
tapping two Siberian rivers and diverting their water to Central Asia.
The area faces many problems, such as salt storms. From time to
time, the northerly wind blows so violently, it whips up vast clouds of
salty dust from the desiccated seabed, depositing grit on farms
hundreds of kilometres away. Traces of Aral sand have been found as
far away as Georgia and on the Soviet coast of the Arctic Sea.
Without the moderating influence of the huge lake the summers have
become hotter — by two or three degrees Celsius — and drier.
Another Aral Sea oddity has a peculiarly Soviet quality: the fish
cannery at Muinak, built on what was then the southern shore to
process the catch of the Aral Sea fishing fleet, is now landlocked. It is
48 kilometres from the water, and the commercial fishing catch has
fallen to zero because of the high concentration of salt, fertilisers and
pesticides. But to avoid closing the plant, the authorities fly in frozen
fish at high cost from the Baltic Sea, 2,720 kilometres away.
The ruling Communist Party Politburo approved guidelines in
September to reduce the depletion of the sea, mostly involving stricter
conservation of water that irrigates cotton crops in Uzbekistan and
Turkmenia. The measures are to include a reconstruction of the
irrigation system, now consisting largely of leaky, unlined ditches.
New collector canals are being built to recycle used irrigation water
back to the sea.
Part 2. Stricken Sea Needs Long-Term Solution
Questions 6-10
Read the passage headed 'Stricken Sea Needs Long-Term Solution'. Answer the
following questions by choosing the correct answer and writing the appropriate letter
in the box on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as an example.
Example: The Aral Sea in the south-east of the Soviet Union has:
(a)disappeared
(b) diminished by 40 per cent
(c)been contaminated by industrial pollution
Ex b
6. The problems in the Aral Sea have been caused by:
(a) natural environmental changes
(b) man-made changes
(c) the Chernobyl nuclear disaster
(d) the Armenian earthquake
7. The Sea has shrunk because:
(a) high temperatures have caused increased evaporation
(b) the salt content has increased
(c) the sources of its water have been diverted
8. The rivers that formerly filled the Aral Sea have been:
(a) used to grow cotton
(b) diverted to Siberia
(c) polluted by industrial chemicals
9. The high rates of illnesses in the region have been blamed on:
(a) the Chernobyl nuclear disaster
(b) salt and farm chemicals in the rivers
(c) pollutants in the local fishing industry
10. Temperatures in the area have:
(a) risen by 2 or 3 degrees
(b) decreased by 2 or 3 degrees
Part 2 continued
Questions 11 -16
From the same reading passage, answer the following questions by writing Correct in
the box on the Answer Sheet if the following statements are supported by
information in the reading passage. Write Incorrect if the statements are not
supported by the reading passage. The first one has been done as an example.
Example: The Soviet Union has no stated commitment to protecting the
environment.
ex Incorrect
11. Despite the problems of the region, there are no suggestions to reduce the use of
water from the rivers feeding the Aral Sea.
12. One proposed solution to the problem would mean less production of cotton
and rice in the region.
13. A fish cannery has had to be moved 48 kilometres in order to continue in
operation.
14. Violent salty storms sometimes carry salt from the dry seabed to places many
hundreds of kilometres away.
15. Government plans to solve the problems include rebuilding fimsflicient
irrigation canals.
16. Government plans also include redirecting irrigation water to the Aral Sea so it
is not depleted.
Part 2. Stricken Sea Needs Long-Term Solution
Questions 6-10
Read the passage headed 'Stricken Sea Needs Long-Term Solution'. Answer the
following questions by choosing the correct answer and writing the appropriate letter
in the box on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as an example.
Example: The Aral Sea in the south-east of the Soviet Union has:
(a)disappeared
(b) diminished by 40 per cent
(c)been contaminated by industrial pollution
Ex b
The problems in the Aral Sea have been caused by:
(a)natural environmental changes
(b) man-made changes
(c)the Chernobyl nuclear disaster
(d) the Armenian earthquake
7. The Sea has shrunk because:
(a)high temperatures have caused increased evaporation
(b)the salt content has increased
(c)the sources of its water have been diverted
8. The rivers that formerly filled the Aral Sea have been:
(a)used to grow cotton
(b)diverted to Siberia
(c)polluted by industrial chemicals
9. The high rates of illnesses in the region have been blamed on:
(a)the Chernobyl nuclear disaster
(b) salt and farm chemicals in the rivers
(c)pollutants in the local fishing industry
10. Temperatures in the area have:
(a) risen by 2 or 3 degrees
(b)decreased by 2 or 3 degrees
part 2 continued
Questions 11-16
From the same read ing passage, answer the following questions by writing Correct
in the box on the Answer Sheet if the following statements are supported by
information in the reading passage. Write Incorrect if the statements are not
supported by the reading passage. The first one has been done as an example.
Example: The Soviet Union has no stated commitment to protecting the
environment.
ex Incorrect
11. Despite the problems of the region, there are no suggestions to reduce the use of
water from the rivers feeding the Aral Sea.
12. One proposed solution to the problem would mean less production of cotton
and rice in the region.
13. A fish cannery has had to be moved 48 kilometres in order to continue in
operation.
14. Violent salty storms sometimes carry salt from the dry seabed to places many
hundreds of kilometres away.
15. Government plans to solve the problems include rebuilding (inefficient
irrigation canals.
16. Government plans also include redirecting irrigation water to the Aral Sea so it
is not depleted.
Part3. The Heat Is On
Questions 17 - 20
Read the passage headed 'The Heat Is On' and the accompanying'Calendar of
Catastrophe'. Match the examples of global climatic change below to the five
'greenhouse predictions' in the passage by writing the number of the prediction in the
box on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as an example.
Example: An iceberg more than twice the size of the Australian Capital Territory
broke off Antarctica in 1987. It floated away, broke into three sections and is
slowly melting. Prediction Number ?
ex 5
17. The grain belts of the US and the Soviet Union suffered some of the worst
droughts ever recorded during the last northern summer. Prediction Number ?
18. The four warmest years on record seem to have been in the 1980s (1980,
1981,1983 and 1987). The globe appears to have warmed up an average of
0.5'C over the past century. Prediction Number ?
19. Drought has lingered over Africa's Sahel region for most of the past twenty years,
and over India's vast central plateau for most of this decade. But the models
suggest that monsoons may become more intense in the wet tropics. Prediction
Number ?
20. The centre of 1988's Hurricane Gilbert, one of the most powerful storms in the
Western hemisphere this century, was agreed to be of abnormally low pressure.
Its most powerful gusts reached 320km/h as it hit Jamaica, Haiti, Venezuela, the
Cayman Islands and Mexico. Prediction Number ?
part 3 continued
Questions 21-25
From the information in the 'Calendar of Catastrophe', complete the following table
of climatic disasters. Write your answers in the boxes on the Answer Sheet. The first
one has been done as an example.
Part 4. Towards Global Protection of the Atmosphere
Read the passage below and answer Questions 26 - 34 on page 40.
At the International Conference on the vention ready for consideration at the
Changing Atmosphere: Implications intergovernmental Conference on Sus-
for Global Security, held in Toronto from tainable Development jn 1992. These
June 29 to 30, 1988, more than 300 scien- Activities should in no way impede si-
tists and policymakers from 48 countries multaneous national, bilateral and re-
recommended specific actions to reduce the gional actions and agreements to deal
impending crisis caused by pollution of the with specific problems such as acidifica-
atmosphere. Working groups presented tion and greenhouse gas emissions.
the scientific basis for concern about atmos-
pheric changes — including climatic warm-  In order to reduce the risks of global
ing, ozone layer depletion, and acidification warming, energy policies must be de-
— and described the implications of these signed to reduce the emissions of carb-
changes for global security, the world econ- on dioxide and other trace gases.
omy and the natural environment. Among Stabilising atmospheric concentrations
the conference statement's 39 observations of carbon dioxide is an imperative goal
and proposals were the following recom- — currently estimated to require re-
mendations: ductions of more than 50 per cent from
present emission levels.
 Governments, the United Nations and
its specialised agencies, non-governmen-  An initial global goal should be to re-
tal organisations, industry, educational duce carbon dioxide emissions by ap-
institutions and individuals should act proximately 20 per cent of 1988 levels
immediately to counter the ongoing deg- by the year 2005. About one-half of
radation of the atmosphere. this reduction would be sought from
energy-efficient improvements and
 The Montreal Protocol on Substances other conservation measures and the
that Deplete the Ozone Layer should be other half from modifications in energy
, ratified immediately and revised in supplies. Clearly, the industrialised na-
1990 to ensure nearly complete elimi- tions have a responsibility to lead the
nation of emissions of fully halogenated way, through both their national energy
CFCs by theyear 2000. Additional meas- policies and their bilateral and multilat-
ures to limit other ozone-destroying hal- eral assistance arrangements. Negotia-
ocarbons should also be considered. tions on ways to achieve this reduction
should be initiated now.
 Governments and other international
organisations should initiate the devel-  Targets for energy-efficiency and en-
opment of a comprehensive global con- ergy-supply improvements should be
vention as a framework for protocols on made. Challenging targets would be
the protection of the atmosphere, em- a 10 per cent improvement in both
phasising such key elements as the free areas by the year 2005. A detailed
international exchange of information study of the systems implications of
and support of research and monitor- these targets should also be made. Sys-
ing. Preparation for such a convention tems must be initiated to encourage,
should be vigorously pursued at upcom- review and approve major new projects
ing international workshops and policy for energy efficiency.
conferences, with a view to having the
principles and components of the con-
part 4 continued


Contributions towards achieving the related to an overall global change of
energy-efficiency goal will vary from climate and to how the oceans affect
region to region; some countries have global heat transport and the flux of
already demonstrated a capability for greenhouse gases.
increasing efficiency by more than
per cent a year for over a decade.
D  Funding for research, development and
tfieTransfer of information on renewable


The desired reduction in carbon diox- energy should be significantly
ide emissions will also require switch- and technology transfer should be ex-
ing to fuels that emit less carbon tended with particular emphasis on
dioxide; reviewing strategies for the needs of developing countries.
implementation of renewable energy,
especially advanced biomass conver-  Funding for more extensive
sion technologies; and reviewing nu- transfer and technical co-operation
clear power. If safety, radioactive projects in coastal zone protection
waste and nuclear weapons prolifera- management should be expanded.
tion problems can be solved, nuclear
power could play a role in lowering  Deforestation should be reduced
emissions of carbon dioxide. afforestation increased through pro-
posals such as the establishment of a


There must be vigorous application of trust fund to provide adequate incen-
existing technologies to reduce emis- tives to enable developing nations to
sions of acidifying substances, other manage their tropical forest resources
substances that are precursors sustainably.
spheric ozone, and greenhouse gases
other than carbon dioxide.  Technical cooperation projects to
developing nations to participate in


Products should be labelled to allow ternational mitigation efforts,
consumers to judge the extent and na- ing, research and analysis related to
ture of atmospheric contamination the changing atmosphere should be
arising from the manufacture and use veloped and supported.
of the product.
 Funding should be increased to non-


The work of the Intergovernmental ernmental organisations for the estab-
Panel on Climate Change to conduct lishment of environmental education
continuing assessments of scientific programmes and public awareness
sults and to initiate government-to- paigns that would aim at changing
government discussions of responses lic values and behaviour with respect
and strategies should be supported. the environment.


Resources for research and monitoring  Financial support should be
efforts within the World Climate Pro- for environmental education at all
gramme, the International Geosphere- els, and consideration" should be
Biosphere Programme, and the Human to establishing special units in
Response to Global Change Pro- sity departments to address the
gramme should be increased. It is par- issues of global change.
ticularly important to understand how
climate changes on a regional scale are
Part 4. Towards Global Protection of the Atmosphere
Questions 26 - 34
Read the passage headed Towards Global Protection of the Atmosphere'. If each
statement below is a correct summary of one of the recommendations in the passage,
write Correct in the box on the Answer Sheet. Write Incorrect if the statement is not a
correct summary. The first one has been done as an example.
Example: Everyone from governments to individuals should act immediately to
prevent atmospheric degradation from becoming worse.
Ex Correct
26. The Montreal Protocol should be accepted by all countries by 1992.
27. The Montreal Protocol should be accepted immediately.
28. Governments and other international organisations should begin to develop
common policies for the protection of the atmosphere as soon as possible.
29. We should aim to reduce carbon dioxide emissions through energy-efficiency
and energy-supply improvements by 10 per cent by the year 2005.
30. A worldwide goal of two per cent a year in increasing energy efficiency should
be established immediately.
31. If the problems of safety, radioactive waste and the spread of nuclear weapons
can be solved, nuclear power may in future be used to reduce the emissions of
carbon dioxide.
32. Products should be labelled so that consumers can judge if the product is
damaging to the atmosphere.
33. Money should be paid to developing nations to help them to find ways to reduce
the number of trees they cut down and to encourage them to preserve and
increase their forests.
34. Money should be paid to community organisations to help them to change
people's opinions about the environment.
This is the end of the reading test
Write your answers to the reading practice tests in the boxes below.
> You may cut out this page to make it easier lo use.
Answer Sheet
1 21
2 22
3 23
4 24
5 25
6 26
7 27
8 28
9 29
10 30
11 31
12 32
13 33
14 34
I5 35
16 36
17 37
18 38
19 39
20 40
This page has been deliberately left blank.
º Test Number 2
º Writing
Writing Task 1
In some parts of the world where rainfall is close to zero farmers are able to use
water from artesian bores (wells). The diagram below shows how water which falls
on lands many kilometres away can be utilised in these arid areas.
Use the information in the diagram to describe the manner in
which water accumulates underground and becomes available
for use in arid areas.
*You may use your own knowledge and experience in addition to the diagram.
*Make sure your description is relevant to the task and well organised.
*You should write at least 100 words.
*You should spend no more than 15 minutes on this task.
Writing Task 2
Write an essay for a university teacher on the following topic:
Human beings are rapidly destroying the planet Earth.
*Your essay should be well organised to show your point of view.
*You may use information in the reading passages but do not copy directly from
them.
*You should write at least 150 words.
*You should spend about 30 minutes on this task.
Use this space for Notes
Writing Task 1
The answers to the reading questions and model essays for the
writing tasks are in Chapter 7, beginning on page 162.
º Test Number 3
º Reading
Part 1. First National Literacy Report
Read the passage below and answer Questions 1-12 on pages 51 to 52.
Australia's first national survey of adult literacy reveals that the problem of adult
.illiteracy is much more serious than previously estimated.
The survey shows that:
• 12 per cent of respondents could not find a simple intersection on a street map
• 31 per cent can't use the yellow pages correctly
57 per cent can't figure out a 10 per cent surcharge on a lunch bill
• 73 per cent can't identify the issues in a newspaper article about technology
• 10 per cent failed to achieve at all on quantitative literacy [numeracy tests].
According to the survey's author, ITATE lecturer Ms Rosie Wickert, the study
provides evidence to show the need for a long-term national campaign to overcome
adult literacy problems. Ms Wickert is a lecturer at the Institute of Technical and
Adult Teacher Education (ITATE) which is amalgamating with UTS as the Faculty
of Adult Education.
'Before this first national survey we estimated that 10 per cent of the population were
having problems with everyday basic literacy and numerical tasks,' Ms Wickert said.
'Obviously many more than 10 per cent are experiencing problems.
We can therefore assume they are having great difficulty with more complex tasks
like fitting in with regrading and upgrading in the restructuring of the workforce.
'The evidence suggests that the majority of the population has significant difficulty
reading between the lines, they lack critical thinking skills if you like. We need to
follow this up because it is something that employers are emphasising when they ask
for broader, more general skills.
(Reading passage continues over page)
Part 1 continued
'To seriously address the problem we need opportunities for adults to upgrade their
literacy and numeracy skills that are free of charge and widely available. It's
estimated that 20 per cent of Australia's adults do not receive their schooling in
Australia. Also, the population is ageing, and we believe about 70 percent of the
workforce of the year 2000 has already left school. So we can't expect schools to be
able to solve these problems.
'We need the help of familiesand communities to raise the understanding of the
significance of reading not only during childhood years but life-long."
Ms Wickert went on to point to the impact of literacy problems on the economy.
'Literacy is now an important part of labour market programmes and economic
restructuring. Government plans to promote a "productive culture" and a strong
national economy will fail without a workforce w.hich is more adaptable, mobile and
highly skilled,' she said.
The controversial nature of the debate about literacy was acknowledged. Differences
of opinion arise because 'literacy' is not clearly definable. Ms Wickert said that
'earlier this century people were said to be literate if they could sign their name, but
now adults are required to bring different kinds of literacy and problem solving skills
to different contexts and these vary in complexity'.
The Report, entitled No Single Measure, combines a concern for the individuals who
have failed to gain literacy skills adequate for their lives with the*national need to
bring about the highest levels of skills, training and education among its workforce.
The data collected for the first time enables an estimate of what proportion of the
adult Australian population is able to perform literacy tasks at various levels of
difficulty. The tasks are grouped in three categories which are referred to as
Document Literacy, Prose Literacy and Quantitative or numerical Literacy. A large
amount of background data was also collected to gain a greater understand ing of the
problem. A bigger picture will emerge as the survey data is further analysed.
Parti- First National Literacy Report
Questions 1-7
Read the passage headed 'First National Literacy Report'. Then, answer the questions
below in the boxes on the Answer Sheet.
If the statement represents the points made in the article, write Correct; if the
statement contradicts the article, write Incorrect; if the statement is not mentioned in
the article, write Not Mentioned. The first one has been done as an example.
Example: The national survey of literacy levels showed that literacy is a serious
problem in Australia.
Ex Correct
I. The results of the survey were unexpected.
2. Before the survey it had been estimated that about 10 per cent of the population
had literacy and numeracy problems.
3. In fact a much smaller number have these problems.
4. Literacy and numeracy problems may make it difficult for workers to cope with
changes in the workplace.
5. The problem cannot be solved simply in schools.
6. Schools cannot solve the problem because large numbers of people leave school
at 15 without matriculating.
7- Despite the statistics, the literacy levels will not have a significant impact on the
future national economy.
Part 1 continued
Questions 8-12
From the information in the same passage, identify the groups with specific literacy
and numeracy problems represented by the columns in the graph below. Write your
answers in the boxes on the Answer Sheet. For example, if you think that Column
No. 1 represents Group A, you would write the number 1 in the box for Question 8,
and so on.
Literacy Problems
& Group A: cannot calculate percentages = Column ?
9. Group B: cannot use a street directory = Column?
10. Group C: cannot make full use of
telephone directories = Column ?
11. Group D: cannot add up at all = Column?
12. Group E: cannot fully understand
the meaning of what they read = Column ?
Part 2. Hard Work Is Asians' Secret of Success
Read the passage below and answer Questions 13 - 26 on pages 55 to 57.
The authors of a major US study claim to have pinpointed why Chinese and Japanese
children are such great school achievers wherever they compete — in Asia, in the
US, or in Australia.
'Asians do better in school simply because they try harder ... and because they believe
that academic success results from hard work just as much as from intelligence,' says
Dr Harold Stevenson, the head of the research team conducting the study.
The study, comparing the school performance of Chinese, Japanese, and American
children, shatters myths about why Chinese and Japanese children perform so well in
school.
One misconception is that Chinese and Japanese children are innately more
intelligent than Western children. Results of the study show that there is no evidence
to support such a notion. For instance, compared with American children, Chinese
and Japanese children do not score any higher on standardised IQ tests.
Another punctured myth is that too much television viewing by Western children
may account for their poorer school performance. Again, evidence for this assertion
is weak. In fact, Dr Stevenson points out that it is the Japanese school children who
spend more hours in front of the television set than anyrotfyer group measured.
The study, 'Contexts of Achievement', was undertaken by Dr Stevenson and Dr Shin-
ying Lee. Both are from the Centre for Human Growth and Development at the
University of Michigan. Their study appears in the latest issue of Monographs of the
Society for Research in Child Development.
The study involved 1440 Year land Year 5 children attending schools in Minneapolis
(USA), Taipeh (Taiwan) and Sendai (Japan). The children did standardised tests
which measured reading and mathematics skills. Then they were interviewed in order
to reveal their attitudes towards school. Their parents, teachers and principals also
were interviewed and given questionnaires in order to uncover additional information
about the children's attitudes.
Interestingly, Stevenson says it was data from the parents, particularly the mothers,
that were the most revealing. These data point to sharp cultural differences in parental
attitudes. He is convinced that such attitudinal differences have an all-important
bearing on why Chinese and Japanese children excel in school.
What are these differences? Stevenson and Lee suggest six:
* Chinese and Japanese children pay more attention to school. Stevenson and Lee
write that "background information about the children's everyday lives revealed
much greater attention to academic activities among Chinese and Japanese than
among American children'.
(Reading passage continues over page)
Part 2 continued
* Chinese and Japanese parents are more interested and involved in their children's
schooling. The researchers write: 'Members of the three cultures differed significantly
in terms of parents' interest in their child's academic achievement, involvement of the
family in the child's education, [and] standards and expectations of parents concerning
their child's academic achievement'.
* Chinese and Japanese parents are more likely to believe that success gomes from
hard work, rather than from innate ability. Stevenson and Lee note that Chinese and
Japanese parents instil in their children 'beliefs about the relative influence of effort
and ability on academic achievement".
They add that 'Chinese and Japanese mothers stressed the importance of hard work to
a greater degree than American mothers and American mothers gave greater
emphasis to innate ability than did Chinese and Japanese mothers'.
* Chinese and Japanese parents are more likely to express their child's success in
school as a major goal. The two researchers write that, 'whereas children's academic
achievement did not appear to be a central concern of American mothers, Chinese and
Japanese mothers viewed this as their child's most important pursuit'.
* Chinese and Japanese parents are more committed to their child's schooling
success. Stevenson and Lee contend that once the child entered primary school,
'Chinese and Japanese families mobilised themselves to assist the child and to provide
an environment conducive to achievement". In contrast, 'American mothers appeared
to be less interested in their child's academic achievement".
* Chinese and Japanese parents have higher standards and are more knowledgeable.
The researchers report that 'Chinese and Japanese mothers held higher standards for
their children's achievement than American mothers and gave more realistic
evaluations of their child's academic, cognitive, and personality characteristics.
'American mothers overestimated their child's abilities and expressed greater
satisfaction with their child's accomplishments than the Chinese and Japanese
mothers.'
Stevenson observes that Chinese and Japanese homes, although usually smaller than
American homes, are still more likely to provide a special place for the child to do
homework. Furthermore, he maintains that research reveals that Chinese and
Japanese pupils have better note-taking skills, better study skills and spend more
hours per week on homework.
"These kids see school as central to their lives; most American students do not.'
Part 2. Hard Work is Asians' Secret of Success
Question 13
Below is an extract from a questionnaire completed by a parent in the study
described in the reading passage. From the answers that the parent gives, decide
whether the parent was from:
*Group A: Chinese and Japanese parents
or from:
*Group B: American parents.
Write the letter A or B in the box on the Answer Sheet for Question 13 to show to
which group the parent probably belonged.
Do you Agree or Disagree with the following statements?
Circle the number to show your opinion:
1 means "Strongly Agree",
5 means "Strongly Disagree"
agree disagree
*success comes from hard work 1 2 (3) 4 5
*success comes from natural talent (1) 2345
*school success is vital to
success in life
1 2 3 4 (5)
*school success is not as important
as being satisfied with what you
are doing
(l) 2 3 4 5
*parents should be involved in
the education of their children
1 2 (3) 4 5
*children should have a fixed time
and place for homework
1 2 3 4 (5)
13. The parent was most likely from Group ?
Part 2 continued
Questions 14 - 26
The passage on the next page is a summary of part of the text. Complete the summary
by choosing the correct word from the words in the box below and writing it in the
appropriate box on the Answer Sheet. Not all of the words will be used; each word
may be used more than once. The first one has been done as an example.
more beliefs
harder innate
effort actively
clever American
discovered. higher
intelligence expectations
nature worried
lower less
skills myths
mobilised Asian
realistic pessimistic
part 2 continued
Example: A research project in the USA claims to have.......ex.....the reasons
for an educational phenomenon that has intrigued people for some time.
EX DISCOVERED
The project claims to have found the reasons why Chinese and
Japanese children are ....14.... achievers in their studies than other
children. The study says that Asian children put more ....15.... into
their studies and points to the belief of the children and their parents
in the value of hard work over 16 intelligence. The study
claims to have disproved some false 17 about the differences
between children, such as that West- ern children watch ....18....
television than Japanese children; in fact, it is the other way round.
The tests measured ....19.... as well as attitudes of
parents, teachers and the children themselves. The attitudes of
American parents tended to put 20. emphasis on the
importance of hard work and to give much 21 credit to
natural ability in their children's success. The Chinese and Japanese
families were more22 in- volved in their children's academic
life, and Chinese and Japanese mothers had higher 23 for
their children's achievement. In addition, whereas 24
mothers tended to believe their children were doing better and were
more able than in fact was the truth, the 25 mothers
surveyed were more 26 in their assessment of their
children.
Part 3. Got What It Takes To Be A Marketing Manager?
Read the passage below and answer Questions 27 -36 on page 60.
David Corkindale, Head of Marketing at the South Australian Institute of
Technology, outlines 11 basic skills you must acquire if you are to make it as
marketing manager in these tough times.
Marketing is fast becoming understand how competitors First, strategic thinking
key role in all sorts of ence buying habits. much further into the
tries. Many organisations forced lo think not about
exploring the role of The marketing manager month's sales figures, but
This article spells out the skilled in analysing company performance
abilities needed by a strengths and weaknesses, years hence. Without (hat
manager* who is lo survive ing that analysis to horizon, strategic thinking
prosper during the next ten her own marketing annual plan must be short-
Eleven trails are identified 2 Secondly, the variables that
article. This list is by no The organisation of new strategic thinking arc more
finitive but constitutes the development is critical lo ous and their interactions
of effective marketing survival and growth of plex than in thinking about
in the 1990s. every company. nearer term, so the
ager must be thoroughly
1 The management of with such tools as portfolio
Too often marketing starts with the vigilant and the directional policy
in firms outside the fast- manager identifying a industry analysis
consumer goods companies opportunity, particularly issuc'of sustainable
skilled either in analysing tinual monitoring of the vantage.
haviour or in place, the environment, his
research. tors' activities, and the 4-
self. Planning is the most
Skilled salesmen use their of marketing management
to understand the factors The marketing manager At worst it is an annual
mine whether a contact is proactive in the search for sued with ill grace and
ible into a customer. The and in establishing a
marketing manager must and proactive environment Planning is a continuing
stand the key factors that monitoring new product Plans too often find their
mine the decision to buy in marketing company is drawer and arc re-
the market segments that products that will satisfy the under duress. A plan
consideration. of market segments, and it as a living organism,
end that research and environment requires, not
Buying factors are should be dedicated. torical document. Planning
complex interactive system comcof a complex process
both by factors internal to The new product and should reflect the
and responses to external introduction system, thinking and activity that
Consumer's perceptions of careful management of a in the preceding stages.
ual products are influenced intra company interfaces
range of product offerings exposure of the product to That activity should be
them, and it is very ket place through test therefore the plan should
direct launch, requires ously benefit from
*In many organisations the marketing management ing and analysis.
marketing manager is
occupied by both men and
women. For conven- ience
1 have used the term 'he' to
represent either sex: no
preference is intended.
3
Most marketing managers
have tactical marketing
skills. But the skills needed
for thinking strategi cally
are of a high order
Too many senior
marketing manag-
ers send their plans to
oblivion once
the annual planning
exercise is com-
plete. Thus, planning skills
are a first requirement for
the marketing manager.
.
part 3 continued
The proactive marketing manager be tempted by the management
Market research is a vital sup- must be thoroughly at home with
the
game that produces dramatic short-
port to the marketing manager's
decision-making.
profit and loss statement and the
balance sheet, with productivity
ratios,
term results, induced primarily by a
desire for glory leading to promo tion
or enhanced self
with calculating rates of return on marketability.
Market research can best serve the investment, with calling-cost per
manager when the skills exist to un- customer calculations. 10
derstand the scope of market re- Managers are paid to be dy-
search, to differentiate between The financial illiterate has no place namic organisers of resources —
good and bad research agencies, and
particularly to commission good re-
in the ranks of the marketing
department of the marketing
company.
that quality is what should separate
managers from bureaucrats! But
search. they must continually ask the ques-
8 tion: is that company organised lo
The market researcher cannot be ex- The marketing company is a re- serve the needs of its chosen mar-
pected lo specify the problem facing source management enterprise. ket?
the marketing manager; it is the mar- resources extend from places to
keting manager who must identify ple, from manufacturing back to Since markets arc in continuous
the problem and the role that addi- procurement of materials, forward change, since product offerings are
tional data will play in resolving that to distribution from factory to mar- likely to be in continuous change,
problem. He must also be able to ket place. the skill to alter the organisation of
calculate the cost/benefit equation the company to meet changing
relating to buying additional infor- The marketing company is a very needs is a skill that must be found in
mation. complex system, each part of the the marketing manager, perhaps to a
system relating lo all other pans of much greater degree than in any
6 the system. other functional'area.
The marketing manager's job is
to blend together all elements of the The system manager has an un- 11'
marketing mix, each of which repre- derstanding of how to analyse Every department of a com-
sents an investment, into an optimal and understand complex systems pany feels, as an instinct for self
mix, one in which no element is out in order to make them work more preservation would demand, that it
of phase. effectively. is indispensable lo the future sur-
vival of the company. The reality is
The right products, existing or in The marketing manager, as senior that without full and complete co-
process of development, the right member of the management team, operation between all departments
level of service support, the right must be a systems thinker and a survival chances are measurably re-
prices (right in terms of yielding op- tems manager. duced.
timum revenue given the demand
conditions prevailing), the right 9 The sources of conflict between the
channels of distribution, the right The marketing manager as marketing and other departments
advertising support, the right sales guardian of the company's future are well known, but conflict resolu-
support — all elements must work has a role not well understood. tion requires considerable manage-
together to produce a coherent and often the preoccupation with pre- rial skill, often of the interpersonal
effective market offering. sent-day problems, typical of the kind.
active manager's style, precludes
Productivity analysis will be an im- intelligent thinking about the long The highest skill is identifying po-
portant tool in making such meas- term, typical of the proactive man- tential conflict and removing its
urements, but the marketing ager, the strategic thinker, living in cause — preventativc rather than re-
manager must be a skilful energy an environment characterised by medial management. Much of this
manager. creasingly rapid change. skill can in fact be taught and
learned.
7, The temptation lo reduce one's ho-
Long gone are the days when we rizons in thinking about the future
left it all to the accountants. They are great indeed. It is all too easy
are the historians of past errors!
Part 3. Got What It Takes to be a Marketing Manager?
Questions 27 - 36
Read the passage headed 'Got What It Takes to be a Marketing Manager?'. Listed
below are eleven titles for the eleven numbered points in the passage. Write the
correct point number for each title in the boxes on the Answer Sheet. The first one
has been done as an example.
Title
I Example: Planning Skills Point No. ? j
Ex 4
27. Conflict Resolution = Point No. ?
28. Organisational Ability = Point No. ?
'29. Commissioning Research = Point No. ?
30. Strategic Skills Point No. ?
31. Market Behaviour Analysis = Point No. ?
32. Innovation Management = Point No. ?
33. Financial Management = Point No. ?
34. Systems Thinking = Point No. ?
35. Marketing Skills Point No. ?
36. Long-Term Thinking = Point No. ?
This is the end of the reading test
Module C Reading & Writing Practice Test 3
Write your answers to lite reading practice tests in the boxes below.
> You may cut out this page to make it easier to use.
Answer Sheet
1 21
2 22
3 23
4 24 .
5 25
6 26
7 27
S 28
9 29
10 30
11 31
12 32
13 33
14 34
IS 35
16 36
17 37
18 38
19 39
20 40
This page has been deliberately left blank.
º Test Number 3
º Writing
Writing Task 1
'In 1989 significantly fewer students in higher education in Aus- tralia
came from rural areas than from urban areas, with an even smaller
number coming from remote areas. Also, women students in higher
education outnumbered male students.'
Use the statistics in the graph and the chart below to support this
statement.
* You should write at least 100 words.
*You should take about 15 minutes for this task.
Figure 1.
Participation in Higher Education
Rales by Sex and Home Location, 1989
Source: Data from DEET. Sept 1990
Figure 2.
Students in Higher Education, 1989
Home area Total number of students % female
Urban 320 561 52.3
Rural 77925 54.8
Remote 13959 54.8
___ Total 412 445 52.8
Writing Task 2
Write an essay for a university lecturer on the following topic:
The attitude of parents to the education of their children is more
important than the quality of schools and teachers in producing well-
educated people.
*You should write at least 150 words.
*You may refer to the reading passages in your answer but do not copy directly from
them.
*Your essay should be well constructed to show your point of view.
*You should take about 30 minutes for this task.
Use This Space for Notes
Writing Task 1

Chapter 4
º General Training Module
º Test Number 1
º Reading
Reading & Writing Practice Tests
Part 1. Dial-It Information Services
Read the following information and answer Questions 1 - Son page 69.
Dial-it Information Services
(One local call fee is charged for each call)
WTime 1194
WNews
1199
W Sportsfone
W Cricket and Major Sporting Events
1187
1188
WTAB Racing Service *Day Meetings
*Night Meetings
1181
1182
WWeather
1196
Alpine Accommodation Life. Be-in-It. Activities 11629
and Snow Report 11539 Lottery Results 11529
Cancer Information Service 11648 Lotto Results and Dividends 11521
Cash Management Trust NRMA Road Report 11571
Information 11625 Ski News and Weather 11547
Computerline 11504 Shipping Movements
Dairy Line 11638 (Passenger and Cargo) 11551
Defence Force Careers Line 11609 Smoking Quit Line 11640
Dial-a-Horoscope 11635 Stock Exchange Reports
Dial-a-Prayer 747 1555 Mining 11511
Dial-a-Record 11661 Oil 11517
Fire Restrictions Information 11540 Industrials A-H 11513
Fresh Food Line 11538 Industrials I-Z 11515
Gas Company Information 11535 Sydney Futures Exchange Reports
Hints for Healthy Living 747 1133 Financials and Metals 11518
Hoyta Cinema Programme Rural 11519
and Session Information 11680 Television Programmes 11660
Insurance Information Service 11570 Thredbonews 11544
Job-Line 11503 Venereal Disease Information 11646
General Training Module Reading & Writing Practice Test I
Part 1. Dial-It Information Sendees
Questions 1-5
Read the information on the page headed "Dial-It Information Services'. Answer the
following questions by writing the correct telephone number in the box on the
Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as an example.
I Example: What number do I telephone to find out the time?
ex 1194
1. What number do I call to find out the time of a movie at the Hoyts centre?
2. We want to go on a picnic today but don't know what the weather will be like.
What number can we ring to find out?
3. What number will tell me if lighting a fire in the open is forbidden today?
4, I have invested money in some mining shares and would like to know what the
value of my shares is today. What number can I call?
5. What number can I telephone to get help to stop smoking?
Part 2. University of Technology, Sydney
General Information for Students
= Street Directory:
A copy can be found at the
Students' Association
Office, Level 3A,
Broadway.
' Lecture
Timetables
Lecture
timetables can
be obtained
from your
Faculty
Office, but if you are one of the many that
suffer timetable hassles, the Faculty Clerk
(at the Faculty Offices) will help you to sort
out those frequent mix-ups. However, you
can also see your nearest lecturer who is
dubbed 'Academic Advisor' when
performing this role.
E Student ID Cards:
This piece of plastic allows you to borrow library books and table tennis equipment,
get discounts at local stores, borrow sports equipment, and get cinema concessions at
the smaller movie houses. It also acts as proof of identity where required. You will be
given a card when you enrol. A lost card can be replaced by the Student Information
Office, Level 4, Broadway.
E Travel Concession Cards:
These get you half price on public
trans- port and they are issued upon
enrolment. If you lose it or you need a
replacement then contact Student
Information on Level 4.
E Movie Concession Pass:
To get a discount on movie tickets
at major cinemas you need a special
card, available from the Union
Office at Broadway.

 Library Book Return:
Just in front of the Security
Office at the Broadway Campus
there is a library book return
box which will save you a trip
to the library. Overdue books
cannot be left there and must be
returned directly to the library.
+- Travel:
The International Student Identity Card gets
you discounts at museums, theatres, cinemas
and retail outlets all over the world. It costs $8
(plus a passport-sized colour photograph of
yourself) and is only available to full-time
students. It is avail- able at the Students'
Association Office, Level 3A, Broadway.
Read the information below and answer Questions 6-12 on pages 71 to
72.
¬ Stamps:
These are sold at the Union Newsagency at both Broadway (Level
3A) and Markets (A Block) Campuses.
General Training Module Reading & Writing
Practice Test 1
part 2. University of Technology, Sydney
General Information for Students
Questions 6-12
From the information in Part 2 of the reading section, answer the following questions
by writing the letter corresponding to the correct answer in the boxes on the Answer
Sheet. The first one has been done as an example.
Example: To replace a lost student ID card you would:
(a) Go to the Students' Association Office, Level 3A, Broadway
(b) Go to the Union Office at Broadway
(c) Go to the Student Information Office, Level 4, Broadway
Ex C
6. A copy of a Sydney Street Directory can be found at:
(a)Students' Association Office, Level 3A, Broadway
(b) Student Information, Level 4
(c)Union Newsagent, Level 3A
7. To purchase stamps you would go to:
(a) The Students' Association Office, Level 3A, Broadway
(b)The Union Newsagency
8. Overdue library books:
(a) can be returned in the library book return box near the Security Office at the
Broadway campus
(b) must be returned to the library itself
Part 2 continued
9. A lost travel concession card can be replaced by contacting Student Information
on:
(a)Level 3
(b)Level 2
(c)Level 4
10. Do you need a special card to get a discount on movie tickets?
(a) Yes
(b)No
(c) It depends on the movie house
11. Can you use your student ID card to get a half price concession on public
transport?
(a)Yes
(b) No
(c)It depends on the form of transport
12. If you have a problem with your timetable, you can get help from your lecturer
and
also from:
(a) the Students' Association
(b) the Student Information Office
(c) the Faculty Clerk at the Faculty Offices
part 3. TAPE Course Descriptions
Questions 13 - 20
Read the TAPE course descriptions in Part 3 of the reading passages, on pages 74 to
75. Each course has a Course Number. From the descriptions given, match the
Course Titles below to their description by writing the Course Number in the boxes
on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as an example.
Course title Course
number

Example: Accounting
Ex 8635
13. Creative Arts - (Visual Arts)
14. Pilot Licence, Commercial
15. Management
16. Travel and Tourism
17. Public Administration
18. Garment Cutting - Trade
19. Sewing Machine Maintenance - Trade
20. Creative Arts - (Music)
General Training Module Reading (•/ Writing Practice Test;
Part 3. TAPE Course Descriptions
Read the following information and answer Questions 13 - 20 on page 73.
Course No: 5418 Course No: 5419
Award: Associate Diploma Award: Associate Diploma
Stage I Stage I
Creative Studies I Major instrumental elective
Art theory I Minor instrumental elective
* Painting I Harmony & composition I
* Ceramics I History of music I
• Fibre I Ensemble & conducting I
* Photography I Electronic music & recording
1
* Printmaking I Concert practice I
Aural training I
* The student will select two of the
subjects marked with
an asterisk, one will be continued as a
major study for the duration of the course
Music in the community I
General education elective
.
Course No: 0843
Course No: 8635 Award: Certificate
Award: Associate Diploma Attendance: Three years, eight hours per week
Attendance: Two years, thirty-six weeks, 18 hours per
week (1476 hours total); Four years, thirty-six weeks, nine This course provides the theoretical and practical train-
hours per week (1260 hours total); Available Externally ing required by garment cutters in the clothing industry.
On completion of the course, they should be capable of
In this course, students develop the skills necessary to drafting, culling and grading a basic fabric width, and
become professional accounting personnel. Students understanding the processes of garment construction
become proficient at understanding and processing fi- operations for mass production and special-measure or-
nancial data, from which they leam to produce reports, ders in clothing manufacture.
financial statements, analyses and forecasts. The ac-
counting information, which they leam to produce, com- In particular, the course provides training in metric
plies with institutional, legal, social and managerial measurements related to a variety of anatomy, body
standards. proportions and body types. Students leam to apply the
concepts of design and pattemmaking theory to garment
styling, to understand the basic colour theories, and line
and shape considerations.
Course No: 8510
Award: Advanced Certificate In addition, students leam about the use and mainte-
Attendance: Three years, thirty-six weeks, six hours nance of cutting-room equipment, organisation and
per week (648 hours total) processes.
In this course, students become familiar with the broad
fields covered by the public administration, .and the
relationship between the social, political, financial and
managerial aspects of government. Students also de-
velop the skills and attitudes necessary for coping with
technological and organisational change. The course
has been designed around five strands: Finance and
Economics, Management and Organisation, Communi-
cation, Office Administration and Public Administra-
tion.
General Training Module Reading & Writing Practice Test 1
part 3 continued
Course No: 3534 - Course No: 0842
Award: Associate Diploma Award: Certificate
9 Attendance: Three years, eight hours per week (
;

This course is designed for persons pursuing or devel-
oping careers at management level in the sales, market-
ing and related administrative areas of the travel and
Trainee mechanics receive theoretical and practical in-
struction so that they may efficiently service the
various
tourism industry. It provides education and training machines used in apparel plants. An understanding is
related to those occupations in the following kinds of developed of the importance of maintaining the best
firms and organisations, travel agencies, tour operators, possible production-flow through the various depart-
lour wholesalers, regional and national tourism organi- ments of the plant and-a mechanic's responsibilities in
sations, and in sales-marketing facets of airlines, other relation to this concept.
carriers, hotels and other accommodation businesses.
Entrance requirements: None
Compulsory subjects
Geography Stage I
Economics Workshop procedures I
Tourism I Textiles process theory I
Marketing I Sewing machine servicing I
Business and consumer psychology
Business communication
Statistics
Tourism II Course No: 3103
Management I Award: Statement of Attainment
Marketing II Attendance: Eighteen weeks, twelve hours per week,
Financial management
Business law
part-time, or nine weeks full-time.
Marketing III This course prepares students for the appropriate
nations set by the Civil Aviation Authority. Enrolments
will be accepted either for the full course or for
ual subjects.
Course No: 3519
Award: Advanced Certificate
Attendance: Three years, thirty-six weeks, six hours
Applicants should have completed the Private Pilot Li-
cence theory examinations.
per week (648 hours total)
Subjects
This course has been designed to assist the individual's Aeroplane performance and operation
advancement to the position of manager of a profit
centre in a small or medium size corporation, or in the
Engines, systems and instrumentation
Meteorology
division or branch of a large scale organisation. It aims Navigation and flight planning
to develop his or her ability to function effectively in Principles of flight
specialist area, such as sales management, understand Flight rules and radio procedures
the work performed in other functional areas, such as
finance, marketing, production and personnel depart-
ments, and direct the managerial functions of planning,
organising, directing and controlling.
Satisfactory completion of the course together with
vant work experience can lead to membership of the
Australian Institute of Management and the Manage-
ment Graduate Society.
Part 4. The TAPE Tertiary Preparation Certificate
Read the following passage and chart and answer Questions 21 - 34 on pages 78 to
79.
The Tertiary Preparation Certificate Part-time — weekly attendance is up to 11
(TPC) is a matriculation course for mature hours (2 year course)
age students. The TPC aims to help stu-
dents develop confidence and competence in The Course
a range of skills. It is particularly suitable
for people who have not studied for some There is only one compulsory subject — Lan-
time, and who need to develop effective guage and Learning Skills. Other subjects
study skills. These skills include: use of a include: (Anthropology, Australian Politics
library, writingskills (including word usage, and Government, Australian Society, Biol-
essays and report writing), speaking to ogy, Chemistry, Computing, Experimental
small groups of people, techniques for suc- Processes, Education and Society, Environ-
cessful independent learning, note taking, or- mental Studies, Literature, Mathematics,
ganising lesson material, presenting seminars, Media Studies, Physics, Statistics, The Aus-
efficient reading and research techniques. tralian Economy, and World History Turn-
ing Point.
Successful completion of the TPC will allow
entry to TAFE Diploma and Associate Di- The grid on the next page shows which col-
ploma courses. The TPC is accepted by most leges offer the TPC course. Not all colleges
universities and tertiary institutions for en- offer all subjects. You must ensure that the
try into most courses. It is also recognised subjects you select will allow you entry to
by the NSW Public Service, the Defence your chosen course(s). For example, most
Forces, and the NSW Police. tertiary science courses require a back-
ground in mathematics and chemistry
NOTE: The completion of a TPC course does and/or physics.
not guarantee eligibility for entry into all
tertiary institutions or courses. You should If you wish to enter a university course you
contact the relevant tertiary institution(s) to must complete at least five subjects (a total
ensure you are eligible for entry into the of ten semester units of study). If you wish
course and institution of your choice. to enter a TAFE Diploma or Associate Di-
ploma you must complete at least four sub-
Entry Requirements jecta (eight semester units of study). You
may find it helpful to discuss your subject
The entry requirement for TPC courses is selection with a TAFE Counsellor.
either the NSWSchool Certificate or TAFE's
Certificate in General Education, or equiva- Assessment
lent. Students who lack these qualifications
need to show that they could succeed in the TPC students are assessed throughout the
course. In general, preference will be given year. The final mark includes written as-
to older students. signments, tutorials, practical work and
tests. Assessment tasks are worth 80 per
Age: Minimum age 18 years at time of en- cent of the total mark for each subject. The
rolment. end-of-year examination is worth 20 per cent
of the total mark for each subject. The TPC
Attendance: Full-time — weekly atten- ia assessed by TAFE.
dance is 22 hours (1 year course);
General Training Module Reading & Writing Practice Test 3
Part 4. The TAPE Tertiary Preparation Certificate
Questions 21 -29
Read the passage on page 76. The passage below is a summary of some information
about the TPC. Use the information in the passage to complete the text by choosing
the correct word from the words in the box below. Write your answer in the boxes on
the Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as an example. Note that there are
more words than spaces. Each word can be used only once.
Example: The Tertiary Preparation Certificate will be offered at several TAFE
Colleges in 1991 as a one year.........example.....-time course.
Ex Full
The weekly attendance by a full-time student in this course is.....21....
hours per week. The course aims at giving students confidence as well as
.....22...... in a range of skills which will help them in their .....23........
studies at TAFE colleges and universities. Most students who take the
TPC will not have studied....24......and may have left school some time
ago, as the course is especially designed for..........25. age students. There
is one......26.......subject and many others to choose from, depending on
the college. In the TPC,.......27.......is continuous throughout the year;
tasks such as written assignments, tutorials and practical work are
worth.....28............of the total mark for each subject, and the end-of-
year examination is worth. .29
optional 20% future recently plan
assessment 80% compulsory mature 22
assignment full competence soon current
100% tasks obliged younger necessary
nothing old 11 essays
Part 4 continued
Questions 30 - 33
From the information in the chart 'Expected Locations of TPC and Subjects 1991',
decide if the following proposed subjects are possible or not. Write Yes in the box on
the Answer Sheet if the proposed subjects are possible; write No if the subjects are
impossible. The first one has been done as an example.
Example: Biology and Media Studies at Granville
ex Yes
30. Education and Society, and Statistics at Liverpool
31. Statistics in the evening at Sydney
32. Biology, Computing and Mathematics in the evening at Campbelltown
33. Physics and Computing at St. George
Question 34
From the information in the same chart, answer the following question. Write your
answer in the box on the Answer Sheet.
34. What subject is missing from this list of subjects available at North Sydney
College of TAFE?
Subjects offered:
* Australian Economy
* Environmental Studies
* Language and Learning Skills
* World History Turning Point
* Statistics
* Australian Society
* Media Studies
Part 5. Ready, Get Set, But Know What You're Going For
Read the passage below and answer Questions 35 - 40 on page 81.
Being a member of a university's chocolate club or children later on.
campaigning in ils local conservation group are not
the only requirements necessary for adaptation to life on .'The hardest thing at university is keeping up with the
campus. pace,' Kyliesaid. 'University is different to high school
as students are left to work on their own and if they fall
This is the advice of 20-year-old Michael Francis, a behind they're in trouble.'
second year student at the University of NSW, who, like
other students, believes newcomers to tertiary life can Kylie said she was lucky that some of the lectures were
make it if they follow their own rules. held in small groups and thai the lecturers al the univer-
sity were approachable.
Many would say Michael entered university the hard
way — he didn't gel enough marks when he completed 'There appears to be less work at university than at
his Higher School Certificate at Wavcrlcy College in school, but we are required to work much faster. Some-
1987, so he did it again in 1988 at Randwick Technical limes you can go three weeks with next to nothing to do
College. One year later and 150 marks more, Michael and then all of a sudden mid-semester exams and assign-
was accepted into the social science course at the Uni- ments just hil you."
versity of NSW with an entry score of 355.
Students needed to be able to learn quickly if they were
'It took me six months to adapt and feel confident about contemplating tertiary study and should start thinking
myself and I can honestly say it has taken others up to a about assignments as soon as they were given them.
year to fit in,' Michael said.
The major difference between university and school was
Michael felt that he matured fast at technical college last that at university students did their own 'pacing', she
year, where he was constantly surrounded by older said.
people and required to do a lot of work on his own.
Narelle Oxley, 18, has wanted to be a nurse since she
Michael said that while he loved being at university, he had was a young girl. She started her three-year course al
several criticisms about the university system in general. Charles Slurt University, Mitchell campus, last year and
has not run into any problems so far.
'There needs to be some sort of bridge between Year 12
and first year at university because students need to be 'I don't really know how different university life at
told what to expect on enrolment day. Perhaps they Charles Slurt is to life in a cily university — I would
should visit the university and meet students before they
go there.'
imagine it is the same,' she said.
'The first couple of weeks were scary because I felt
Michael described university as being intimidating at alone. But then I realised that all the students were in
first — being in tutorials with older people who seemed the same boat.'
to have so much knowledge — but said students must
realise they loo had knowledge in other areas. 'Students It was totally different from school because there were
should not be embarrassed if they make mistakes — more essays, and students seemed to help you more.
everybody makes mistakes.' whereas at school there was so much competition and
little help from classmates, she said.
Kyjiejiance, 18, knew she had made the right move
when she started the Bachelor of Business Management 'It is more relaxing at university and lectures are so
course at the University of Western Sydney this year. different to the classroom atmosphere. I thought lee-
However, she said one of the biggest problems many lures would be difficult, but the lecturers are helpful,
students had was choosing the most suitable course. often dictating the important parts.'
Kylie put a great deal of thought into her future when Narelle suggests that students try lo make the right
she left Blaxland High School last year. She made the decision in (he beginning, rather than starling a course,
choice knowing that she wanted a job which would pay finding out they don't like it, then either dropping out or
well, allow her some freedom and lime to bring up seeking a transfer.
part 5- Ready, Get Set, But Know What You're Going For
Questions 35 - 40
Read the passage headed 'Ready, get set, but know what you're going for'. Listed
below are paraphrases of the opinions of the three students about tertiary study. In
the boxes on the Answer Sheet write one letter to show whose opinion each
statement is:
Write: M for Michael Francis
K for Kylie Dance
N for Narelle Oxley.
The first one has been done as an example.
Example: Joining clubs and societies at college is not the only thingyou should
do to adapt to life on campus.
Ex m
35. It may take six months or a year to feel that you belong at college.
36. There seems to be less work at university than in high school but a lot of
assignments can fall due at the same time.
37. The first few weeks are frightening but after that students realise that there are
many students who have the same problems.
38. Other students seem to be more helpful at university than at school, and there is
less competition.
39. Year 12 students need to be given more information about university life and
enrolment procedures before they go there.
40. Every student at university is responsible for how fast or how slowly they work.
They should not fall behind.
This is the end of the reading test
The answers to all the reading questions are in Chapter 7,
beginning on page 162.
General Training Module Reading & Writing
Practice Test I
Write your answers to the reading practice tests in the boxes below.
> You may cut out this page to make it easier to use.
Answer Sheet
i 21
2 22
J 23
4 24
S 25
6 26
7 27
8 28
9 29
10 30
11 31
12 32
13 33
14 34
15 35
16 36
17 37
18 38
19 39
20 40
This page has been deliberately left blank.
General Training Module Reading & Writing Practice Test 1.
T
E Test Number 1
 Writing
Writing Task 1
Write a letter to the Information Officer at the TAPE Information Office asking
for information about the Tertiary Preparation Certificate. Describe your
educational background and your reasons for wanting to do the course.
* You should write at least 80 words.
* Allow yourself 15 minutes for this task.
General Training Module Reading & Writing Practice Test 1
Writing Task 2
Many students going to tertiary colleges for the first time find it difficult to adjust to
their new life because it is so different from high school.
Write a short report with suggestions for new students to help them to
survive in tertiary study. Include suggestions about making friends,
study habits, leisure activities and how to make best use of the college
facilities.
*You should write at least 250 words.
* You may use ideas from relevant reading passages but do not copy words or
phrases directly from them.
*You should spend about 30 minutes on this task.
Use This Space for Notes
General Training Module Reading & Writing Practice Test J \f\
Writing Task 1
E Test Number 2
E Reading
Part 1. University of Technology, Sydney. Information Evenings
Read the following advertisement and answer Questions 1 and 2 on
page 91.
Kiiring-gai Campus
INFORMATION EVENINGS
Bachelor of Business
Wednesday 29 August, 6.30pm
Diploma of Applied Science (Nursing)
Wednesday 15 August, 6.00pm and Monday
17September, 6.00pm
Bachelor of Applied Science (Information)
Bachelor of Education (Teacher Librarianship)
& Postgraduate Information Courses
Tuesday 28 August, 6.30pm
Bachelor of Arts (Human Movement Studies)
Bachelor of Arts (Leisure Studies)
Bachelor of Arts (Tourism Management)
Contact Schools for details 413 8497
Bachelor of Education (Primary) Sandwich
Bachelor of Educalion (Teacher Librarianship)
Friday 7 September, 6.30pm
Telephone Enquiries: 413 8200
part 1. University of Technology, Sydney. Information Evenings
Questions 1-2
Read the advertisement on page 90 and answer the questions below by writing the
correct letter in the box on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as an
example.
Example: If I am interested in studying Business I should go to find out about the
course on:
(a)Tuesday 15 August at 6pm
(b) Wednesday 25 September at 7pm
(c)Wednesday 29 August at 6.30pm
Ex C
1. To find out about Nursing studies I can go to the information evening on:
(a)Wednesday 29 August at 6pm
(b) Wednesday 15 August at 6pm
(c)Monday 17 September at 6pm
(d) Either (b) or (c) above
2. To find out about Tourism studies I should:
(a)telephone 413 8497
(b) attend the information night on Friday 7 September at 6.30pm
(c)attend the information night on Wednesday 15 August at 7pm
E Test Number 2
E Reading
Part 1. University of Technology, Sydney. Information Evenings
Read the following advertisement and answer Questions 1 and 2 on
page 91.
Kiiring-gai Campus
INFORMATION EVENINGS
Bachelor of Business
Wednesday 29 August, 6.30pm
Diploma of Applied Science (Nursing)
Wednesday 15 August, 6.00pm and Monday
17September, 6.00pm
Bachelor of Applied Science (Information)
Bachelor of Education (Teacher Librarianship)
& Postgraduate Information Courses
Tuesday 28August, 6.30pm
Bachelor of Arts (Human Movement Studies)
Bachelor of Arts (Leisure Studies)
Bachelor of Arts (Tourism Management)
Contact Schools for details 413 8497
Bachelor of Education (Primary) Sandwich
Bachelor of Education (Teacher Librarianship)
Friday 7 September, 6.30pm
Telephone Enquiries: 413 8200
:
i
part 1. University of Technology, Sydney. Information Evenings
Questions 1-2
Read the advertisement on page 90 and answer the questions below by writing the correct
letter in the box on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as an example.
i
Example: If I am interested in studying Business I should go to find out about the
course on:
(a)Tuesday 15 August at 6pm
(b) Wednesday 25 September at 7pm
(c)Wednesday 29 August at 6.30pm
Ex C
To find out about Nursing studies I can go to the information evening on:
(a)Wednesday 29 August at 6pm
(b) Wednesday 15 August at 6pm
(c)Monday 17 September at 6pm
(d) Either (b) or (c) above
2. To find out about Tourism studies I should:
(a)telephone 413 8497
(b) attend the information night on Friday 7 September at 6.30pm
(c)attend the information night on Wednesday 15 August at 7pm
Part 3. Consumer Bookshelf
Read the following descriptions of books and answer Questions 8 -13 on page 95.
Book 1: A very interesting find comprehensive book,
expecially if you want to do something practical to
'green' Australia. It offers constructive techniques for
the regeneration of native species in both urban and
rural settings. Chapters on botany, plant ecology,
weeds, regeneration techniques, bushland
management and project manage- ment are extremely
well illustrated with colour photos and diagrams. A
beautiful book and a real bargain.
Book 2: Cut your energy
bills and maximise the
efficiency of your home
with this specialised
consumer guide.
Book 3: David Suzuki gives an excellent
introduction to the topic of environmental
science.Children aged 7-14 should enjoy this
book with its interesting projects and activities
— from testing air for pollution to
makingrecycled paper.
Book 4: Anyone who uses pesticides in the
house or garden would benefit from this book
about the hazards of their use and about safer
alternatives.
Book 5: If you wait to avoid the plethora of specialised, packaged cleaning products
(and pesticides) available and make your own from basic ingredients such as vinegar,
baking soda and pure soap, this little book offers recipes trialled by the author and
her friends.
Book 6: How much do you really know about the
greenhouse effect? Written in a very readable style, this
book fulfils the need for clear, scientifically accurate and
Useful information about the greenhouse effect and its
impact on Australia's climate, patterns of land use and
energy consumption. A sobering book, but also helpful.
Book 7: Advice on which products are the most environmentally friendly to buy, and
also an interesting and comprehensive explanation of the major environmental issues
affecting Australia. Find out why the critics agree this is the best book of its kind.
Part 3. Consumer Bookshelf
Question 8 -13
Read the descriptions of books in Part 3 of the reading passages. Answer Questions 8 -13
by matching the book titles below to the descriptions. Write the number of the book in
the box on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as an example.
!
Example: Helen Wellings, Home Energy Guide
Ex 2
8. David Suzuki, Looking at the Environment. Activities for kids.
9. Dr Ian Lowe, Living in the Greenhouse. What to Expect; What to Do.
10. Paul Rogers, Safer Pest Control for Australian Homes and Gardens.
11. John Elkington and Julia Hailes, The Green Consumer Guide.
12. Barbara Lord, The Green Cleaner. How to Clean Nearly Everything.
13. Robin A. Buchanan, Bush Regeneration. Recovering Australian Landscapes.
Part 4. A Guide to Toxics in the Home
Read the following passage and answer Questions 14 • 20 on page 97.
Widespread contamination of groundwatcr, soil diately pour salt or hot water on the stain and soak in
and air is not entirely due to Ihc irresponsibility milk before washing. GREASE: Pour boiling water on
of large industry. While this is a major factor it is also stains and follow with dry bicarb soda. Or try ammonia
true that you and 1 in our everyday lives arc contributing and water. INK: Soak in milk or remove with hydrogen
to Ihc slow poisoning of Ihe planet. Commonly used peroxide. BLOOD: Soak in warm water or remove with
substances such as many lypcs of paint Ihinners, house- hydrogen peroxide. For a more stubborn stain, mix
hold pesticides, cleaners and solvents and some
aerosols
cornflour or talcum powder with water and apply mix-
produce hazardous waste. lure. Allow to dry and brush away. COFFEE: Mix egg
yolk with lukewarm water and rub on stain. CI IEWING
This factshcct brings good news. There ARE alterna- GUM: Rub with ice. Gum will flake off. Alternatively
tives to 'household toxics'. Some of these products lake try a dab of eucalyptus oil. LIPSTICK: Rub with cold
time to prepare but they're cheaper than commercial cream and wash with washing soda.
products and, more importantly, they represent an in-
vestment in the future of the planet. Ovens. Combine strong version of all purpose
cleaner with bicarb soda: wear gloves when scrubbing.
Household Cleaners unit Polishes. When cleaning An easier oven cleaner is ammonia. (CAUTION: this
your home, keep in mind that you don't have to replace ammonia is strong solution ammonia available only
grease and dirt with chemicals dangerous to your family from chemists. It is a very caustic solution and great
care
and Ihe environment. should be taken with handling. Rubber gloves should
be worn. If skin contact should occur wash with water
Most of your household cleaning needs can be met with immediately and bathe affected area with vinegar, a
seven simple ingredients: vinegar, pure soap, bicarb neutralising solution.) Place about 1/4 Cof ammonia in
soda, washing soda, borax, cloudy ammonia and strong a shallow pan (not alum inium) and add enough hot
water
solution ammonia. All these arc available in your local to cover the bottom of the pan. I leal oven for 20 min-
supermarket or chemist. Various combinations of these utes, turn off and place pan in oven overnight. Take
care
simple substances can accomplish most household to avoid inhaling ammonia fumes. Baked on food will
cleaning jobs cheaply and safely. Use caution with all be loosened, then the oven can be cleaned with bicarb
cleaners and remember that even environmentally sound soda and scrubbing.
cleaners may be unsafe if consumed.
Uuthroom. Most commercial tile cleaners do more
All Purpose Cleaner Key harm than good because they contain chlorine, a
serious
(Mild Mixture): 1 C = 1 Cup = 250ml irritant to nose, eyes and skin and one of the most
4L hot water 1 T = 1 Tablespoon dangerous chemicals found in Australian sewers. For
1/4 C cloudy ammonia 1 I = 1 Teaspoon general bathroom cleaning, use a firm bristled brush
1 T bicarb soda 1 L = 1 Litre with cither bicarb soda and hot water or a mild version
of the all purpose cleaner. To clean toilet apply a thick
This solution issafe for all surfaces, can be rinsed with paste of borax and lemon juice to stubborn areas.
Leave
water, and is very effective for most jobs. For a for two hours and scrub. Alternatively, a strong
solution
stronger cleaner or wax stripper, double the amounts of vinegar can be used.
of all ingredients except water. Use gloves and do not
mix jvith other compounds, especially chlorine bleach. Garden Pests. Pesticides carry Ihe suffix 'cidcs'
which means 'killer'. Natural pesticides are cheaper
and
WARNING: Never mix ammonia and bleach: an ex- safer for your family and pets. Here are three
examples
tremely toxic gas is produced. of alternative pest sprays. SOAP: Use only pure soap,
as
detergents will damage your plants. Liquid soaps: 2 T
Laundry. The best alternative for cleaning your per litre of water. Dry soaps: 50 grams per litre of
water.
clothes is pure soap! Soap has accomplished the task of
gelling garments white and bright for generations. Try
TOBACCO WATER: This can be used against soft
bodied insects such as aphids, thrips and caterpillars.
this recipe for washing: Add 1/3 C washing soda (so- Place a large handful of tobacco in 4 litres of warm
dium carbonate) to water as machine is filling. Add water. Let stand for 24 hours. Dilute and apply with a
clothes. Add 1/2 C of soap. flakes. If water is hard, add spray bottle. This tobacco water is poisonous to
humans.
extra washing soda. The following list gives some spe- Use caution when handling. HOT PEPPERS: Blend 2
cific solutions for stains: or 3 very hot peppers, 1/2 onion and 1 clove garlic in
HEAVILY SOILED: Rub with solution of 2 T washing water, boil, sleep for two days, and strain. This spray
will
soda in 1 C warm water. FRUIT AND WINE: Imme- not damage indoor or outdoor plants.
Part 4. A Guide to Toxics in the Home
Questions 14 - 20
Read the passage headed 'A Guide to Toxics in the Home'. Answer the following
questions in the boxes on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as an
example.
Example: What do many commonly used household substances produce that
damages the environment?
Ex Hazardous waste
14. Do safe alternatives to environmentally dangerous household cleaners cost more
or less than the commercial products?
15. If we take the advice of the writer of the passage, how many basic ingredients do
we need to do the household cleaning?
16. What do you mix with bicarb soda and cloudy ammonia to make a general all
purpose household cleaner?
17. Does milk help to remove wine stains from clothing? (Yes/No)
18. What very dangerous chemical can be used with care to clean ovens?
19. What serious skin irritant is found in most commercial tile cleaners?
20. Of the three alternatives to commercial plant sprays for use in the garden, which
one is dangerous for humans?
Part 5. What Do Humans Eat?
Questions 21-29
Complete the text on the next page by choosing the correct word from the box and writing
it in the boxes on the Answer Sheet. Note that there are more words than spaces. Each
word can be used only once. The first one has been done as an example.
crops diet meat consume
available nutritional little cultural
increased technological doing availability
religious trying trial great
Part 5 continued
Example: People eat very different foods. In Australia, for example, the variety
of restaurants in the major cities reveals the varied......example.......of people
from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds.
Ex continued
Although some people eat no meat at all, as a whole Australians ....21
more meat and sugar than any other nation. The reasons for the
different food customs in the world may be due to ....22....
differences between countries, as shown by people from different
countries choosing and eating quite different foods, and preparing
them in many different ways. The reasons may also be 23 as we
can see in the religious beliefs about food that particular groups have.
If we look at history, we can see that food habits developed because
of the ....24.?... of food, fashions in food and cultural influences. But
how did people know what was good for them to eat and what was
not good or even poisonous? It is likely that early humans learnt what
to eat and what not to eat by ....25.... once all the kinds of food
naturally available to them in their environment. Later, when people
began to grow ....26.... and keep domesticated animals, the amount of
food 27..... increased .
In the 20th century much attention has been paid to food processing
and technology, but we have remained aware of the need to retain
....28.... value in processed foods. Many processed foods retain much
of their value as nourishment, but in developed countries at least a
dietary problem can arise because many foods of ....29.... nutritional
value are now readily available as processed foods and are probably
overconsumed.
Part 6. UTS — A Smoke-Free Zone
Read the following passage and answer Questions 30 - 38 on pages 102 to 103.
'To achieve a smoke-free working environment, smoking will not
be permitted inside any building on any campus of Ihe University
or in any vehicle owned by the University from April 1,1990.'
The 'Smoke-Free Working Environment" policy at UTS was implemented in two
stages:
Stage 1: an introductory stage which allowed staffand students who smoke time to
consider the effects of this policy on themselves. This stage also provided assistance
to smokers who wished to quit, and it allowed for the adequate signposting of
buildings and vehicles. Stage 1 began on January 1, 1990.
Stage 2: from April 1,1990 smoking was totally prohibited in any building on any
campus and within vehicles owned by the University.
The general aim of the gradual implementation was that by April 1, 1990, staff,
students and visitors would have accepted that they cannot smoke in the buildings and
facilities of the University of Technology, Sydney in the same way that people now
accept that they cannot smoke in public transport, public hospitals or cinemas.
Advertisments for positions vacant at UTS now carry an explanatory note stating
'This University has implemented a "Smoke-Free Working Environment" policy".
Reasons for this Policy
Section 15 of the Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1983 states that 'Every
employer shall ensure the health, safety and welfare at work of all his employees." It
also states the employer should 'provide or maintain a working environment for his
employees that is safe and without risks to health ...'. The penalty for not complying
with these statements is $100,000 in the case of a corporation and $10,000 in other
cases.
The University therefore has a legal obligation to comply with the Act or risk
incurring prosecution and a subsequent fine. UTS, by implementing this policy, will
also safeguard itself against potential workers' compensation or damages claims from
employees or students who have been exposed to passive smoking.
Smoking
Smoking is the largest single preventable cause of death in Australia today.
Approximately 23,000 Australians die each year as a result of diseases caused by
smoking.
Short-Term Effects: * increased heart rate * increased blood pressure * increased pro-
duction of stomach acid * increased levels of carbon dioxide, causing dizziness *
increased hand tremor * decreased urine formation * decreased sensation of
taste/appetite/smell * decreased physical endurance * irritation of allergies * staining
of teeth and fingers * production of halitosis (bad breath).
Long-Term Effects: * narrowing/hardening of blood vessels in heart and brain*
shortness of breath, cough and respiratory infections * chronic bronchitis * cancer of
lung/larynx/kid- ney/oesophagus/bladder/mouth * stomach ulcers.
Liabilities and Loss to Employers
To December 1986 there were seven successful passive smoking workers'
compensation cases in Australia. Settlements ranged from $8,000 to $20,000. (In
four of these cases settlements were undisclosed.)
passive Smoking
Passive smoking involves either smokers or non-smokers inhalirjgeither side stream
and/or exhaled smoke. Research has identified the following effects on non-smokers
experiencing passive smoking:
Acute: * eye irritation * coughing and headaches * asthmatic non-smokers have
shown declines in respiratory function;
Chronic: * increased risk of lung cancer * increased risk of lung damage * increased
risk of coronary heart disease.
There are many misconceptions related to passive smoking. These issues include:
chemical exposure of non-smokers to mainstream and exhaled smoke; the priority of
passive smoking as opposed to other safety issues; the invasion of privacy of
smokers; ventilation and airconditioning.
Research has dealt with these issues to show that:
• chemical exposure to non-smokers from mainstream and exhaled smoke is
significant;
• the health problems associated with passive smoking are a matter of priority
as are other safety issues;
• the matter of choice exists with both smokers and non-smokers. Not only may
smokers choose to smoke but non-smokers may also choose not to breathe
main- stream or exhaled smoke;
• many non-smokers remain silent so as not to enter into conflict with co-
workers or be branded as troublemakers by unsympathetic management;
• typical airconditioning may be overwhelmed by pollutant levels produced by
smokers.
Further Facts on Smoking
Lost Working Days: In 1981 a total of 8.4 million working days were lost in Australia
from absenteeism due to smoking-related illness.
Accidents: Research has shown that smokers have higher accident rates than non-
smokers.
Cleaning and Maintenance Costs: American industries that have introduced non-
smoking policies have reported 10-15 per cent savings on cleaning maintenance costs.
Life Insurance Policy Costs: Most Australian Life Assurance companies now offer
reduced premiums to non-smokers and ex-smokers.
Fires: In 1980 the Board of Fire Commissioners of NSW found that discarded
cigarettes or matches caused a total of 13,600 fires (including 900 building fires).
Information supplied by Iht UTS Occupational Htallh and Safely Branch.
Part 6. UTS — A Smoke-Free Zone
Questions 30-38
Read the passage on pages 100-101. Choose the correct answer for the following
questions and write its"tetter in the box on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been
done as an example.
Example: When did the total prohibition on smoking in campus buildings and
vehicles begin?
(a) April 1, 1990
(b) January 1, 1990
(c) April 1, 1991
Ex a.
30. In which of the following places is smoking generally prohibited in Australia?
(a)hospitals
(b)public transport
(c)cinemas
(d)all of the above
31. As well as its legal obligation as an employer, which of the following reasons is
given in the passage for the University's non-smoking policy?
(a) Public opinion has forced all public institutions to ban smoking indoors
(b)The University is concerned about the health of students
(c) The University wishes to protect itself against potential workers
compensation claims from employees or students exposed to smoke
32. How many Australians die each year as a result of diseases caused by smoking?
(a)Approximately 230,000
(b) Approximately 23,000
(c)Approximately 2,300
part 6 continued
33 Which of the following descriptions best describes passive smoking?
(a) smoking but not inhaling very deeply
(b) breathing in smoke breathed out by other smokers
(c) breathing in smoke either exhaled by other smokers or simply from their
burning cigarettes
(d) giving up smoking
34. How many successful passive smoking workers' compensation claims have there
been in Australia?
(a)none
(b) 8,000
(c)at least seven
35. Passive smoking can cause which of the following effects?
(a)increased risk of lung cancer
(b) eye irritation
(c)coughing and headaches
(d) greater risk of heart attacks
(e)all of the above
36. 'Airconditioning safely removes the pollutants produced by smoking from a
typical building." Is this statement:
(a)supported in the reading passage
(b) contradicted in the reading passage
(c)not mentioned in the reading passage
37. 'People who smoke have fewer accidents than people who don't smoke.' Is this
statement:
(a)supported in the reading passages
(b) contradicted in the reading passages
(c)not mentioned in the reading passages
38. Insurance policies for non-smokers and ex-smokers are often:
(a) cheaper than for smokers
(b)more expensive than for smokers
This is the end of the reading test
The answers to the reading questions are in Chapter 7, beginning
on page 162.
Write your answers to the reading practice tests in the boxes below.
> You may cut out this page to mate it easier to use.
Answer Sheet
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E Test Number 2
E Writing
Writing Task 1
Most people today are aware that smoking, although perfectly acceptable a few years
ago, is now known to do great damage to a person's health and to cost industry and
governments a great deal in lost wages and health expenses.
Write a brief description of some of the dangers of smoking both
for smokers and non-smokers.
*You should write at least 80 words.
*Do not write in note form; use sentences.
*You may use information from the reading passages but do not copy directly from
them.
*You should spend about 15 minutes on this task.
This page has been deliberately left blank.
E Test Number 2
E Writing
Writing Task 1
Most people today are aware that smoking, although perfectly acceptable a few years
ago, is now known to do great damage to a person's health and to cost industry and
governments a great deal in lost wages and health expenses.
Write a brief description of some of the dangers of smoking both for smokers
and non-smokers.
*You should write at least 80 words.
*Do not write in note form; use sentences.
*You may use information from the reading passages but do not copy directly from
them.
*You should spend about 15 minutes on this task.
Remember there are model answers to all the writing tasks for
each practice writing test in Chapter 7.
E Test Number 3
E Reading
Parti. Union Buys Student Accommodation
Read the following passage and answer Questions 1-3 below.
The Union at the University of Technology, Sydney, has taken
a,lcap)nto the student accommodation business by purchasing a
boarding house in Chippendale'for use by students.
The building, on the corner of City Road and Myrtle Street, cost
$1.1 million. Some renovations arc needed, however, before
students can move in from the beginning of the 1990 Spring
semester.
The Union's aim is to provide accommodation at a reasonable
cost lo students in most need of it, such as younger students
whose home is not in the metropolitan area.
Question 1-3
Choose the correct answer and write the letter in the box on the Answer Sheet.
1. Which statement is true?
(a) the building has been rented by the University of Technology
(b)the building cost $1.1 million
(c) the building is for the use of academic staff
2. The building is:
(a) in need of some renovations
(b)ready for students to move in immediately
3. The students who will have most need of accommodation in the new building
are:
(a)students whose parents live in Sydney
(b) students whose parents do not live in Sydney
(c)students who would like to live in the suburb of Chippendale
Part 2. University Library Guide for Students
Read the following information and answer Questions 4 - 12 on page 115.
Campus Libraries
There are five libraries in the University of Technology, Sydney, each on different
campuses, and each having different collections.
Ilulmuin lower is outside the Library's four floors of concave
The design Library al Ualmain contains reference male- walls which reflect a busy urban landscape during the
rials, books, periodicals and audiovisual material in the day and become a brightly lil stage set of readers and
areas ofinduslrial and inlerior design, costume, fashion, book stacks at night.
textiles, graphic design and illustration, photography The major holdings of the Markets Library are in the
and computer graphics as well as the collection of Syd- following subject areas: Adult Education, Architecture,
ney College of the Arts. Building, Business, Computer Studies, Economics, En-
gineering, Film, Humanities, Mathematics, Science and
Kuring-gai Social Sciences.
The name 'Kuring-gai' reflects the aboriginal word
'Kuringgai' or 'Guringai', believed to be a generic term North Shore - Gore Hill
for Iribes along the eastern coast from Port Jackson, The Gore Hill Library is on Level 4 of the Dunbar
north beyond the Mawkesbury River and west to the Building in Wcslbourne Street, Gore I lill. This Library's
I.ane Cove River. collections arc principally in the areas of Life Sciences
The collection of the George Muir Library at Kuring-gai and Nursing.
is broad and particular areas of interest are Family
History, Business, leisure, Tourism and Information North Shore - St Leonards
Studies as well as the Curriculum Library which caters Part of the facilities at St Ixonards are a Central
Library,
for Teacher Education. practice court rooms equipped with audiovisual equip-
ment, a large lecture theatre and small group training
Markets rooms. The Library at St l^conards caters for the needs
The Markets Library, City Campus, is in the I laymarkel of students undertaking practical legal training. The
on the comer of Quay Street and Ultimo Road, with the College of Law is an affiliated School within UTS.
entrance lo the library in Quay Street. A restored bell
Loan Conditions and Periods
A summary of the loan conditions at all libraries of UTS is as follows:
Academic Staff: 8 week loan, one renewal, one week recall. Loan limit: 99 items
Research Degree Students: 4 week loan, one renewal, one week recall. Loan limit:
50 items
Undergraduate /Postgraduate Diploma Students: 2 week loan, no renewal, one
week recall. Loan limit: 10 items
Special Conditions - Balmain: Loan conditions at Balmain vary from those
throughout the rest of UTS as the Library is administratively within Sydney College
of the Arts. The loan period is two weeks with one renewal and the maximum number
of loans is six.
Higher Degree Students: Students who are undertaking a higher degree are eligible
for - reciprocal borrowing rights at the other metropolitan universities and for inter-
library loans, both privileges normally unavailable to undergraduate students. For
further information contact the Information Desk.
part 2. University Library Guide for Students
Questions 4-12
Select the particular Library within the libraries of the University of Technology that
has the best collection for a student studying the subjects below. Write the name of
the Library in the box on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as an
example.
Example: Graphic Design
Ex Balmain
4. Tourism
5. Law
6. Nursing
7. Economics
5. Fashion
According to the library information, are the following statements True or False?
Write True or False in the box on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as an
example.
Example: All libraries in the UTS network have the same loan conditions.
Ex False
9. Undergraduate students can get inter-library loans.
10. Undergraduates may borrow books for two weeks with no renewal period.
11. Research Degree students may borrow books for four weeks and may renew the
loan once.
12. There is no limit on the number of books that may be borrowed by Postgraduate
Diploma students.
Part 3. Don't Risk A Life Sentence
Read, the following text and answer Questions 13 - 21 on page 117.
In a recession atmosphere, the need for security grows, while for newly skilled computer programmers the job
and many school leavers will soon make, or be outlook is now 'in balance'.
tempted to make, career choices on ihe basis of job
security and labour shortages. Newly skilled secretaries will find that supply slightly-
exceeds demand. —
That is natural, but while they should take note of the
stale of the labour market in various occupations, they Hospitality Trades: With 30,000 people in this work-
shouldn't go into a safe career in which they will spend force in NSW, there is still a strong demand even though
a life sentence of job dissatisfaction, say job market the tourist boom has weakened. There is a shortage of
experts. pastrycooks and m inor shortages of newcomers to other
occupations such as chef/cook, hotel/motel manager and
On the other hand, they should not be swayed by the formal service waiter.
glamour of some professions, such as mcdicineand law,
when they would be far happier in, say,~erigirieering — Science: New graduates in materials science and met-
a discipline which has long suffered an image problem allurgy are in short supply, while environmental scien-
but which has strong openings and very satisfying career tists are in ovcrsupply.
prospects.
Teaching: In a workforce of 96,000, the overall labour
Despite the recession, job experts predict job opportuni- market has moved to a balance, partly due to a drop in
ties for young people will slay bright because fewer of student numbers and to government cuts. But shortages
them arc entering the skilled workforce due to a fall in persist in rural areas and in specialisations such as maths
the birthrate in Australia and to longer average lime and science. * *
spent in education.
Engineering: There is an oversupply of newly skilled
There arejob openings for new, skilled entrants in scores aeronautical engineers but a minor shortage of new
of fields according to a new study by Ihe Information electronics engineers and civil engineers.
Analysis Branch of the Department of Employment, - • .
Education and Training (DEET). For students looking at TAFE qualifications, a TAFE
spokesperson listed occupations in which new graduates
Mere are some of the conclusions from the study: are in strong demand.
Health: Involves 80,000 professionals in NSW. Most These include computer-aided drafting, electronics,
fields have some degree of shortage except for general computing (programming and systems analysis), hospi-
medical practitioners and social workers. There is a tality (pastrycook and skilled chefs), sheelmctal and flat
shortage of medical records administrators, specialist
nurses, resident medical officers, dietitians, proslhctists,
glass trades, aircraft maintenance engineering, secretarial work and
plumbing.
physiotherapists and radiographers.
Young people should also consider wastage rates in
DEET points out that the health care needs of Austra- various professions in ascertaining likely job and mone-
lians will continue to increase, although publicly funded tary satisfaction.
care will be limited by budgetary constraints.
Wastage rates arc higher in trades than in professions
Business Professions: This is a very big area, employ- and para-professionst according to the DEET report. It
ing 180,000 in NSW, but the economic downturn has shows at least half of trained clothing and textile, aircraft
moderated the previous strong demand for profession- and boilermaking tradespcrsons leave their occupations
als. There is a minor shortage of new enrant to ac- before retirement, compared with only 20 per cent of
countancy, an area that employs up to 40,000 in the state, dentists and doctors.
Part 3. Don't Risk A Life Sentence
Questions 13 - 21
Read the passage on page 116. Listed below are some of the occupations mentioned.
According to the information in the passage, if there are not enough qualified people
and therefore plenty of positions available for job-seekers in that field, write S for
Shortage in the box in the Answer Sheet. If there are too many qualified people and
therefore not enough positions available, write O for Oversupply. The first one has
been done as an example.
Example: social workers
Ex O
Occupation
13. dietitians
14. specialist nurses
15. pastrycooks
16. metallurgists
17. teachers in rural areas
18. newly skilled secretaries
19. systems analysts
20. plumbers
21. newly skilled aeronautical
engineers
Part 4. UTS Student Loan Fund
Read the following passage and answer. Questions 22 - 28 on page 119.
The guidelines set down by the government which cover
administration of the 'Student Loan Fund" are complex. We have
simplified them so that students have only to demonstrate a need to
borrow money to further their academic career.
If you demonstrate a capacity to repay, your loan will normally be
interest free.
If you have financial needs that you cannot meet from any other
sources, come to Student Services and ask for an application form. At
the same time make an appointment to see the Student Welfare
Officer. You must bringyour application form filled out with as much
information as you are able to supply.
Normally, the maximum amount that you may borrow is $500 but in
exceptional circumstances, and with supporting documentation, the
Student Loan Committee will lend up to $1000. The repayment
period for a $500 loan is up to nine months and up to eighteen
months for $1000.
If you have repayment difficulties, you must make an appointment
with the Student Welfare Officer to submit an application to the
Student Loan Committee requesting an extension of time on your
repayment period. Normally you will be expected to have repaid at
least 50 per cent of what you have borrowed before an extension will
be granted.
Non-payment of your loan by an agreed repayment time could result
in your being charged 15 per cent interest, having your examination
results stopped, being unable to enrol further, or being unable to
graduate. As a last resort you may also be reported and listed as a
UTS debtor with the Credit Reference Association.
Part 4- UTS Student Loan Fund
Questions 22 - 26
Read the passage on the previous page. Use the information in the passage to answer
the following questions in the boxes on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been
done as an example.
Example: Can you borrow money from the Student Loan Fund to buy anew car?
(Yes/No)
Ex No
22. If you prove that you will be able to repay the loan from the Student Loan Fund,
do you normally have to pay interest on it? (Yes / No)
23. How much is the maximum loan in normal circumstances?
24. How long is the maximum repayment period for a loan of $1000?
25. How much of your loan should you have repaid before you can get an extension
of your loan repayment period?
26. If you do not repay your loan by an agreed repayment time, will you still receive
your examination results? (Yes / No)
Part 5. What Australians Are Like and How To Get To Know Them
The following passage is from a handbook for overseas students in Australia. It
contains both information and suggestions to help overseas students become
accustomed to life in Australia. Read the passage and answer Questions 27 - 36 on
page 122.
Conversation Many Australian women seek the same rights, status
and
opportunities as men. They have responsible jobs and
Do not be worried if you arc not fluent in the English
language. Your hosts will understand this and if they
it is common for women to continue to work after they
are married. There is great informality ;n social relation-
speak too fast, ask them to speak a little more slowly. ships between men and women. Many young women"
Meeting an Australian family is a very good way to leave Ihcir parents' home before they marry, lo live on
improve your English and the more you speak the Eng- their own or with friends of either sex. Women have
lish language the more fluent you will become. great freedom in the way they dress but this does not
suggest that they have loose morals.
Some questions arc never asked in Australia unless you
know the person very well or you arc related to them. Directness: Discussing issues, events and ideas openly
For example: with other individuals is considered quite proper in
Never ask a woman, especially an older woman, her Australia. Australians arc also quick lo gel lo the point,
.age. ^
Never ask men or women how much money they earn
particularly in business situations. They do not spend a
,Iol of time on polite social talk, as do many other
at their jobs. nationalities.
Questions about the cost of a person's house,
;
lhe land) Informality: In most cases, young Australians avoid
on which the house is built, and the cost of the various elaborate social rituals. Australians are not without
items in the home arc considered impolite in Australia. polite forms, but they tend lo be casual and informal
If you would like lo know the cost of a particular item, most of the time. This is due more to a lack of concern
ask the question in a non-personal way. For example, for social ceremony, rather than a lack of respect.
you could say 'How much does the average house cost '
in Perth?' This type of question is quite acceptable to Punctuality: You are expected to be 'on time' —
your host and will not cause embarrassment. punctual — in Australia. If you cannot avoid being late
and you have not telephoned, you may find the person
Humour you are meeting lo be abrupt and even unpleasant.
Most
concerts, lectures, church services, etc begin on time.
The national characteristics of equality and informality
arc reflected in Australian humour, much of which is Asking Questions: Australians ask a lot of questions,
directed against those people who give the impression usually because the person is sincerely interested in
you
that they consider themselves superior. TeasingYor and in learning about your country and culture and in
'rubbishing' as it is sometimes called) is also a favorfritc trying to find out what you are like. Remember, Austra-
paslimc and if spoken in a joking way, it is an indication lian students here may not know much about your
coun-
that you are liked and accepted by (he persons concerned. try or way of life.
Some Characteristics of Australians Customs and Culture
Individuality: Many Australians want lo be treated as Australia, as every country of the world, has its own set
individuals, rather than as rcprcscnlntives of a certain of customs and its own pallcm of behaviour. These are
class or position or group. This independence and indi- things most Australians know and might not Ihink to tell
viduality tends to make Ihcm suspicious of authority. you. Below are a few notes to guide you in practical
Their basic concept of govcmmcnl is thai it exists to situations.
serve them, not the other way around.
Greetings: Women and men usually shake hands
Equality: Australians grow up believing thai people (firmly) the first lime they meet. 'How do you do',
should have equal social, legal and political rights. The 'Good morning' and 'Good afternoon' are formal greet-
Australian Constitution protects the equal rights of indi- ings. Usually students and young people just say '
Hello'
viduals and recent anti-discrimination laws seek tonre- or 'Hi'. People often appreciate it if you add their name:
vcnt discrimination on the basis of race, gender and e.g. 'Hi Peter'. And they really do say 'G'day'.
marital status. __ J
Parts continued
Social Invitations: Australians believe lhat invitations 'Thank you' is a phrase used often in Australia. Even
should be answered as soon as possible. On a written
invitation, 'RSVP' means 'Please reply', and you should
for small favours done by a person who is only doing his or
her job (as a clerk in a store) it is customary lo say
do so as soon as you know whether or not you will attend. 'thank you'.
H js also wise to get the family's telephone number, in
order to call and notify them if you must change your The use of names: Here are a few guidelines on the use
plans or are delayed. of names:
Under normal circumstances a person who extends an • First names are more readily used in Australia than
invitation to you and takes you to a restaurant or a theatre in other countries. It is acceptable automatically to use
pays for the meal and/or tickets. However, since stu- the first name of someone of approximately your same
dents arc often short of money, an invitation may merely age and status or younger.
mean, 'We'd enjoy it if you joined us', suggesting lhat
you would be cxpecjedjo pay your way. If you are in • A man or woman older than yourself is often ad-
doubt, ask. 'Dutch (realtor 'Dutch' means lhat each dressed as Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms until the individual
person pays his or her own way. requests lhat you use his or her first name, or until you
get lo know the individual better.
You may receive an invitation to a barbecue or another
meal and be asked 'to bring your ownstcak'. Thissccms • Some Australian women prefer the new form of
strange to most overseas students (and to some Austra- address, 'Ms' (pronounced 'Mizz'). Ms is used for both
lians) but it is an acceptable way to entertain. Purchase single and married women and replaces Miss or Mrs.
a steak at the supermarket (they come neatly packaged), Ms is an acceptable form of address if you do not know
put it in a bag and give it to the person who greets you if a woman is single or married.
when you arrive at the party. If you arc asked to 'bring
a plate' this means bring a plate of food as a contribution to
the meal — doa'l just bring an empty plate! Groups
• Men and women will be confused if you use Mr, Mrs,
Miss or Ms with a first name, as is the custom in some
often have 'potluck* Cuppers. Everyone brings a pre- countries. These titles are used with the last or family
pared cooked dish, salad or dessert and everyone's con- name. Thus it is wrong lo say 'Miss Barbara'.
tribution is put on the (able. A special dish from your
own country would be greatly appreciated at a potluck • If you have any doubls about what to call someone,
meal. simply ask, 'Whal shall I call you?' If people seem
unsure what lo call you, tell Ihcm Ihc name you prefer.
Saying thank you: It is always polite lo send a thank
you nolc to your hostess. It is not necessary lo take a ^ The use of 'nicknames' is very common in Australia.
gift to your hostess, especially if you go only for dinner A nickname is not the person's real name but a name
or a short stay. If you are invited lo a party celebrating given him by his friends (usually). Someone whose
someone's birthday, or for Christmas, lake a small gift. name is Andrew for instance might be given the nick-
It is never necessary lo give an expensive gift, but a small name 'Andy'. Being called by a nickname is not uncom-
souvenir from your country would be received with delight. plimentary; it is often a sign of acceptance and affection.
Part 5. What Australians Are Like and How To Get To Know Them
Questions 27 - 36
Read the passage on pages 120 to 121. The statements on this page express similar
ideas to those in the reading passage. If the statement agrees with the information in
the passage, write the word Agrees in the box on the Answer Sheet. If the statement
contradicts the information in the passage, write the word Contradicts. If there is no
information on the subject given in the passage.write Not Mentioned. The first one
has been done as an example.
Example: In Australia it is considered very impolite to ask a woman her age.
Ex Agrees
27. Australians often react aggressively towards foreigners.
28. Australians are often very suspicious of authority.
29. Australians are taught from their childhood that everyone is equal in law, in
society and in their political rights.
30. Australians spend as much time in polite social chat in business situations as do
other nationalities.
31. The general atmosphere of informality in Australian society is not caused by a
lack of respect but by the fact that Australians do not like social ceremony.
32. Children in Australia do not expect to be greeted by adults.
33. Shaking hands is a normal greeting for both men and women.
34. The custom of kissing a woman friend on the cheek when you meet is becoming
more common in Australia.
35. If you are asked to "bring a plate' to a social event in Australia, this means that
the host or hostess does not have enough plates and needs you to bring your
own.
36. Australians say Thank you' very often, even for small services such as being
served in a shop where the service is simply part of the person's job.
This is the end of the reading test
Write your answers to the reading practice tests in the boxes below.
> You may cut out this page to make it easier to use.
Answer Sheet
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E Test Number 3
E Writing
Writing Task 1
The diagram below shows the correct way to use two types of fire extinguishers and the
situations in which they should be used.
Describe the differences between the two types of fire
extinguishers and explain how to use them.
*You should write at least 80 words.
*Do not write your answer in note form; use sentences.
*You should spend about 15 minutes on this task.
Writing Task 2
Write a letter to a friend in your home country describing some
of the differences in culture and behaviour that you have experi-
enced in Australia. Mention such things as greetings, dress,
food, and topics of polite conversation.
*You should write at least 120 words.
*You should spend about 30 minutes on this task.
*You may use your own knowledge as well as information from the reading
passages, but do not copy directly from the reading passages.
Writing Task 1
Remember there are answers to the reading questions and
model answers to Hie writing tasks for each practice reading
and writing test in Chapter 7.
Chapter5
E Listening Practice Tests
E Test Number 1 (Cassette Side A)
Section 1
Questions 1-4
Choose the picture that best matches what you hear on the tape and circle the letter
under that picture. The example below has been done for you.
Question 1. Which building are they looking for?
Question 2. Where is the office?
Question 3. Which one is Ms Frobisher?

Question 4. Where does Henry wait?
Questions 5-10
Fill in the spaces numbered 5 to 10 with the information you hear on the
tape.
Family Name
Given Name
(5)
......... LUCY .......................................................
Date of Birth (6)
Sex Female
Nationality (7)
Address (8)
(9)
NSW 2040
Telephone No. (10)
1
*
Section 2
Questions 11 - 23
Complete the notes below by writing a word or words in the gaps numbered 11 to 23.
Safety on Australia's Beaches
• DONT swim beyond a (11) ............................................................................
and don't swim in (12) ...................................................... sea.
• DONT swim at (13) ...................................................
or after drinking (14) .....................................................
• DONT swim after (15) .......................................................
and one shouldn't swim (16) .................. ..................................
• DO swim between the (17) .........................................................
and obey all signs.
If caught in a rip, DON'T (18) .................... ............ and swim back to
the beach,
but DO swim (19) ...................................................... to the beach.
• DO treat all sharks over (20) ......................................................................
as (21) ........................................... •. .................
• DO keep clear of jellyfish. They can cause (22) .........................................
............................................... to humans.
Sea snakes (23) ................... '. ............................................ attack people.
Section 3
Questions 24 - 32
Complete the summary of the news item by writing in the missing word or words in
the Answers column. The first one has been done as an example.
Answers
Since last week serious ............example........
have been sweeping the east..........24........ of
Australia. Sixteen people have died and at
least seven have been injured. Early today an
.......25.........capsized off the New South
Wales coast. Not all the missing crew have
been found.
Three..........26........tourists were crushed by a
falling ...1. . .27........... Their names have not
yet been........28..........An Australian also died
in the same incident. Some men sleeping in a
........29........... were injured and falling
........30......... injured two other people. The
weather tomorrow is expected to be
. ' ......31........... However, the weather is ex-
pected to improve........32..........
ex....storms.................
24...............................
25...............................
26...............................
27...............................
28.............................
29...............................
30...........................
;-
31..........................
32..................
Section 4
Questions 33 - 37
For Questions 33 to 37, choose the correct answer and circle the letter next to the
correct answer.
33. Gold was first discovered in Australia in:
(a) 1831
(b) 1841
(c) 1851
(d) 1861
(e) 1863
34. Before the gold rush, not many Chinese came to Australia because:
(a) they didn't want to
(b) Australia didn't allow them to
(c) China didn't allow them to
(d) all the above reasons
(e) none of the above reasons
35. The first Chinese came to Australia:
(a) to look for gold
(b) because cheap labour was needed
(c) to become farmers
(d) for political reasons
(e) to study English
36. When the gold began to run out:
(a) the Chinese looked for a scapegoat
(b) the government looked for a scapegoat
(c) the miners regulated the Chinese
(d) the miners blnmed the Chinese
(e) the government Banned the Chinese
37. The discovery of gold was important to Australia because it:
(a) made Australia wealthy
(b) showed Australia had resources
(c) developed Australia culturally
(d) started Australia's export industry
(e) improved relations between Australia and China
The Answers for all the Listening Practice Tests are in
Chapter 7, beginning on page 170.
E Listening Practice Tests
E Test Number 2 (Cassette Side A)
Section 1
Questions 1-4
Choose the picture that best matches what you hear on the tape and circle the letter
under that picture. The example has been done for you.
Example: Where are they?
Question 1. Who do they ask for directions?
Question 2. Where are they going?
Question 3. What do they go into the shop to buy?
Question 4. Where do they decide to go?
Questions 5-12
Fill in the spaces numbered .1 to 12 with the information you hear on the
tape.
Family Name
ACME Car Rentals Registration Form
.............. YORK ...............................
Given Name: (5) ................................................
Address:

(6) ........................... (street)
(7)………………………….. (town/suburb)
Date of Birth (8) ...................................
Home City: (9) .................................................
Days Booked for.(10) ........................................
Nationality: (11) ........................ : ..................
Passport No.: (12) ...............................................
Section 2
Questions 13 - 25
Fill in the gaps with the correct word or phrase. The first one has been done as an
example.
India
Population: (example)..880 millions'
Area: (13) ............. ....... : . . ....... sqkm.
Type of government: republic;
(the world's largest (14)...:.:...... ............ )
Landscape: fertile flood plains;
tropical (15) ................ ........... and deserts.
Tourism: a large number of tourists;
most go to the (16) ....... .... .............
Pakistan
Population: (17) .......... . ........................
Area: 796,000 sq km.
Type of government: (18)..... ......................................
Landscape: largely hilly (19) ..................... .................
and mountains in the (20) .................... ......
Tourism: (21)....:........... ..... . .............. tourists.
Nepal
Population: (22) ..... : . . : . . . . : ..................
Area: 141,415 sq km.
Type of government: kingdom
Landscape: almost completely (23) ................ ...............
......................................................
Tourism: a (24) ................................ tourist industry;
most visit in autumn and (25)
Section 3
Questions 26 - 31
Choose the answer that best fits what you hear on the recording and circle its
letter.
26. The fighting in Liberia:
(a) is between two rival parties
(b) stopped on Thursday
(c) is only in the capital city
(d) has lasted nine months
27. The strikes in Athens:
(a) were successful
(b) have finished
(c) will finish on Saturday
(d) got little support from workers
28. The number of people on trial for the fire on the ship was:
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 2
(d) 3
29. In Poland:
(a) abortions have always been illegal
(b) women are not punished for having an abortion
(c) abortions have recently become free
(d) abortions are now legal
30. Flights from the Soviet Union to Israel will begin:
(a) one month later
(b) in less than a month
(c) in a month's time
(d) after a month
31. The New Zealand election candidate:
(a) has never previously broken the law
(b) cannot take part in the election
(c) made a plot to damage the image of the police
(d) may go to prison for two years
Section 4
Questions 32-41
Circle T if the statement is True; circle F if it is False. The first one has been done
for you.
Example: Only shadents less than 30 years old can get a travel concession.
T (F)
32. You must show your passport to get a concession card.
T F
33. Some students under 18 can get free travel.
T F
34. Only college students and staff can use the counselling service.
T F '
35. Counsellors offer group and individual help.
T F
36. You must make an appointment to see the counsellor.
T F
37. An adult of any age can apply for financial assistance.
T F
38. Migrants attending an English course may get financial help.
T F
39. Child Care is free for full-time students.
T F
40. Cheating may be acceptable in exams if you are affected by illness.
T F
41. Being late too often for class may result in punishment.
T F
The Answers to all the Listening Practice Tests are in
Chapter 7, beginning on page 170.
E Listening Practice Tests
E Test Number 3 (Cassette Side B)
Section 1
Questions 1-4
Choose the picture that best matches what you hear on the tape and circle the letter
under that picture. The example has been done for you.
Example: What sign are they looking for?
Question 1. How did they get to the university?
Question 2. Which way is the student centre?
Question 3. What club will they both join this year?
Question 4. What are they going to buy?
Questions 5 -10
Will in the spaces numbered 5 to 10 with the information you hear on the
tape.
Timetable
Monday

Am
enrolment
Pm
(5)
Tuesday
(6). . . ' . . . . . Foreing student party
Wednesday
(7) (8)
Thursday (9) Cultutal festival
Friday Fvist tutorial
. Section 2
Question 11 - 20
Answer Questions 11 to 20 by writing a word or a short phrase on the line under
each question. The first one has been done as an example.
Example: How many years has Lee been studying?
11. Which of Kylie's ancestors migrated to Australia?
12. What subject does Lee study?
13. Why did Lee not consider studying in Britain?
14. Why did he not go to the USA?
15. What was Leo's main problem when he arrived in
Australia?
16. What club did Lee join?
17. What is the subject of his thesis?
18. For how long must Lee work for the fish company?
19. What kind of business do Kylie's parents have?
20. What will Kylie probably do when she graduates?
ion 3
;tion 21-28
plete the summary of the news item by writing in the missing word or words in
the answvers column.
A new........21........ has opened in
Australia. It was initiated by a group of
businessmen and at the moment has
...................22........ students. It has links
with a Dutch and an American university.
It offers an MBA
course which costs a total of.......23..........
Students will study part-time in Australia
and then go to ........2</....... to finish their
studies. Most senior........25........ are
from the New York School of Business.
The schoolhopes to have 26...: students
in the next four years. This is a new
concept in education. Previously, MBA
students had to leave their work to study
........................................27........ or
take.........28........years to study on a part-
time basis.
Answers
21................................
22................................
23................................
/
t
24...............................
25................................
26
....................................
27................................
28
....................................
Section 4
Questions 29 - 34
For questions 29 to 34 choose the correct answer and circle the letter next to the
correct answer.
29. The productivity crisis in Australia:
(a) is a problem of Australian industry
(b) has not affected Australia yet
,(c) is hot thought to be important by most people •
(d) wjll be solved by increased population
30. Which statement is NOT true?
(a) bad agricultural practices have made Australia 70 per cent arid •'
(b) Australia has never had much fertile land
(c) Australia is usually considered underpopulated -
(d) Australia is not densely populated by world standards
31. Politicians want to:
(a) increase the amount of fertile land
(b) increase the population of Australia •
(c) decrease the population of Australia
(d) keep the population stable
32. Australia's population growth rate:
(a) is almost stable
(b) is greater than most countries in the world
(c) is average for industrialised countries
(d) will strain the Australian economy
33. The speaker thinks Australia should follow Sweden's example by:
(a) having a small population
(b) having a higher quality population .
(c) having a larger rural population
(d) not having a natural resource-based economy
3<l. Which of these does the speaker NOT recommend for Australia?
(a) concentrating more on an export/import economy
(b) educating people about the environment -
(c) maintaining a constant population
(d) having a larger population of people living in the countryside
The Answers to all the Listening Practice Tests are in
Chapter 7, beginning on page 170.
Chapter 6
E The Interview
I Description of the Interview
The interview takes between 11 and 15 minutes. Every interview has five sections,
which are the same for every student.
The aim is to assess your ability to talk in everyday situations. As some sections are
intended to be harder than others, the time each section lasts may vary according to
the proficiency of different students. The interview tends to become more difficult
from section one to section four, but section five is generally easier.
The interview is recorded. This is not to assess you, but to standardise marking. Try
to forget the recorder is there by concentrating on the interviewer.
Section One
The interviewer will introduce him/herself and may begin the interview by askingyou
some questions about the information you gave on a form you filled in before the
reading and writing test. This form has details of your educational and work
background as well as information about your interests and plans. It will help you in
this section if you filled out the form carefully. The more information you give about
your interests and plans the better.
This section tests your ability to use social greetings, provide information about
yourself and to state facts. It is not likely to seem very difficult. The interviewer's
main aim at this stage is to help you relax.
Section Two
You will be asked to talk about one or more topics. The topic, or topics, will
generally be some aspect of your own country, of its life, culture and customs, or
some aspect of your own experiences. This section tests your ability to talk about a
familiar general or personal topic. It tests how well you can give general information,
describe directions, provide a description, make a comparison, describe sequences of
events or describe how something works.
It is not a good strategy to memorise a 'talk' on a likely subject. Firstly the interviewer
will change your topic if it seems you have learnt something by heart. Secondly
interviewers want you to be able to have a conversation on the topic, not to deliver a
lecture. The interviewer may prompt you with questions or change the direction of the
conversation However, you are still expected to take, the initiative in this section.
This means that you should develop the topic as far as you can, offer your own ideas
and give explanations if necessary. Do not simply answer "Yes
1
or 'No' to the
interviewer's questions.
Section Time
The interviewer will show you a card which presents an imaginary situation and
invite you to ask questions about it. Your task is to get as much information as
possible about the situation that he/she is pretending to be in. So, you mustshow
curiosity about the imaginary situation, and ask a lot of questions. This section tests
your ability to ask questions and to find out information about objects, events,
sequences, opinions, attitudes, values or how things work.
On pages 159 to 161 you will find examples of the kinds of activity this section might
have. These examples describe a situation and show you the type of card that may be
given to you to help you ask questions. Each example also has suggested questions
that you could ask and more ways for you to practise for section three.
Some candidates find this section difficult because they have to stop talking about
real experiences and have to start 'playing a game' or 'taking a role'. It is important
that you are prepared for this change of focus. You will be judged by how
successfully you find out the information that the game requires. There is no need to
be embarrassed by asking 'personal questions'. The interviewer is playing the game as
well, and the answers he or she gives will not be about herself in real life. Be prepared
to adjustyour language according to the role she plays. For example if the interviewer
pretends to be a fellow student, use direct questions ('Where are you going?') and if
she is pretending to be someone socially superior to you, use polite indirect forms
('Could you tell me ...?', or "Would you mind telling me ...?'). It may be helpful to
think of this stage of the interview as being like the communication tasks that are part
of the training in many English classrooms. The interviewer wants you to use a
variety of question forms, to ask questions in a logical order, to ask sensible questions
and to ask them in a natural way. Avoid starting questions with 'How about' too much
of the time.
Section Four
The interviewer will refer to the information you gave in section one and askyou
about your plans for your studies and what you intend to do after you complete the
next stage of your education and in the future. You may have to talk about your
ambitions and hopes or what you will do if some of your plans do not work out the
way you hope they will. This section tests:
• how well you can talk about your own attitudes, opinions, emotions and plans
whether you can speculate about the future and use conditional verbs
• how well you can talk about your academic interests
• how well you can describe and compare objects and events
whether you can cope with changes between formal and informal language.
Section four is intended to push your English to the limit of your ability. The
interviewer is likely to include some surprising questions. This means that you will
almost certainly experience some difficulty by the end of the test. Don't worry, it is
the aim to the test to find out the level at which you begin to experience difficulty.
If you are asked to discuss your future plans and hopes it is not a good idea to answer
briefly. Nor should you say that you have no plans or that you don't know. Firstly, it
appears weak to our (Western) eyes if a person has no plans for their future.
Secondly, at this point in the interview the interviewer is looking at how well you can
use the language of conditionals and hypothesis, of "what might happen if...', or what
you 'might do if...'. Talk about your hopes, plans, fears: 'I hope to ...', 'I intend to...'. In
Australian culture a personality does not seem weak when a person expresses possible
alternative plans. If you really are unsure of your future, you can talk about your
options, or you can invent some plans — it does not 'have to be the truth, although
clearly the truth is usually easier to talk about.
This section also covers your personal plans as well as your professional plans. It is
acceptable to talk about your hopes of (maybe) getting married and rearing a family,
of your sporting and non-professional interests. Remember that Australians enjoy a
lot of sport and hobbies, so the interviewer expects to hear you talking about these
things as well as about your professional career.
Finally, bear in mind that this section is your last chance to show the interviewer just
how good your spoken English is, so give it everything you have!
Section Five
This is the conclusion of the interview. The interviewer will thank you, and give you
the opportunity to ask questions if you wish. Responding to this section will probably
not seem as difficult as responding to section four.
The interview is now over.
II How You Can Prepare for the Interview
1 For section one think of all the questions you might be asked about who you are,
where
you come from and about your education. With a friend practise askingand
answering these questions. Go to social occasions, like parties, where you can
practise these kinds of questions on people you meet.
2 For section two practise talking with a friend about aspects of life in your
country or experiences you have had. Think of various topics associated with
your country that you could be asked about, and then think of things to say about
them. Check that you know the vocabulary that belongs with these topics. Think
of as many questions as possible to ask your friend on these topics and together
practise answering them. But remember that your aim is to practise speaking
naturally in English; section two is not a general knowledge test.
3 For section three practise forming and asking questions on all sorts of subjects.
You could use some of the pair activities in books such as:
Watcyn-Jones, Peter, 1984, Pair Work One, books A & B, Penguin Books
Watcyn-Jones, Peter, 1981, Pair Work, books A & B, Penguin Books
Study the structure of the different question types. Two grammar books recom-
mended for self-study are:
Schrampfcr Azar, Betty, 1989, Understanding and Using English
Grammar, Prentice Hall, Chapter 1
Murphy, Raymond, 1986, English Grammar in Use, Cambridge
University Press, Units 49-52
Play question and answer games such as 'Twenty Questions' with your friend.
Practise forming different types of questions without using'How about...'.
4 For section four hold conversations aboutyour professional and personal plans,
goals, hopes, studies. Practise especially talking about what will happen if
something does not work out as you have planned it.
5 For section five practise saying goodbye, shaking hands and leaving with a
smile. If you are in an English-speaking situation, watch how people say
goodbye after long conversations at enquiry counters in banks or shops.
6 Do these exercises with friends who are also preparing for the IELTS test.
7 Practise with any other friends or family members who are willing to help you.
If their English is better than yours that's good, but do not worry if it is not; you
will increase in confidence and fluency even if you have to talk to a mirror or to
a pet!
8 Tape record your practice. Then listen to the recording and think how you could
have extended your answers. See if you can pick out and correct mistakes in
grammar or pronunciation. Ask your friends and relations to find mistakes in the
recording.
9 Whileyouare practising do not let people keep stoppingyou to make corrections.
This will not help you gain fluency. Correction is better done from a recording.
10 Remember that you cannot study for the interview from a book. Practice is the
key. It is important to keep talking. If you cannot find anyone to talk to, talk to
yourself, talk to the bedroom wall, talk to the mirror, talk in the shower.
III Examples of Phase 3 Tasks
Example 1
The interviewer may give you a card with information like this:
Photograph
You are a friend of the interviewer. The interviewer will show you a photograph
and a letter. You must ask questions to find out as much as you can about the let-
ter and photograph.
Some things to find out:
Sender
Where from
When
Identity of person in
photo
Event
Interviewer's feelings
In this task, you can ask questions like:
Who is the letter from?'
'Where does he/she live?
1
Why did he/she write to you?'
Who is the person in the photo?'
T)o you know the person who wrote the letter very well?
1
Were you pleased or worried when you received the letter?'
When was the photo taken?'
Where is the place in the photo?'
Try to ask a follow-up question to one of the interviewer's answers. For example, for
the last question, if the interviewer answered 'The photo was taken in Colorado', you
could then ask, Why were they in Colorado?'
Practise this exercise with a photo belonging to a friend: ask your friend to show you
a photograph of a place or a person you don't know and ask as many questions as you
can to find out all about the subject of the photo.
Example 2
You may be given a card with information like this:
Student Skiing Holiday
The Student Union at your university is organising a skiing trip. You are
interested in going on the trip. Ask the interviewer questions to find out as
much as you can about it.
Some things to find out:
Cost
Accommodation
Transport
Food
Location
Facilities
Ski Equipment
Numbers going on trip
The interviewer will answer your questions using information that he/she has, for
example:
1. The trip is to Perisher Valley in the Snowy Mountains.
2. The cost is $300 (all inclusive).
3. This includes 2 nights' accommodation and 2 meals each day.
4. Transport is by bus.
5. One hundred and fifty people are going.
6. It's possible to hire all equipment (extra.cost).
7. Ski lessons are available (extra cost).
8. Payment must be in advance.
9. Dormitory-style accommodation (4 people share room).
Your questions could include:
‘Where is the trip to?'
'How much does it cost?'
’Do I have to share a room?'
'Can I hire skis there?'
'How many people are going?'
’What if I can't ski?'
etc
To practise this exercise, give a friend the interviewer's information and ask them
questions, taping the conversation to check your question forms. Try a different
excursion using information in tourist brochures and the same kind of questions.
Example 3

You may be shown a card like
this:
ACME Academic Book
Supplies
No.: 52379
Signature:...........................
You would also be given a question card like this:
Discount Card
By asking the interviewer, find out as much you can about the bookshop discount
card.
Some things to find out:
Where it can be used
Where it can be
obtained
Validity
Cost
Restrictions
If you lose the card
Uses
The interviewer will have the following information:
1. Anybody can get a card.
2. It costs $15.
3. It is a life membership.
4. Friends cannot use your card.
5. It gives a 13 per cunt discount on all books.
C. There is no discount on stationery.
7. It can be used at all ACME bookshops.
8. There are 5 ACME bookshops in (your town).
9. If lost, it costs $5 to replace.
10. ACME bookshops only sell academic books and stationery.
Your questions might include:
'Where can I get a discount card?'
'Where can it be used?' and a follow-up 'Mow many ACME bookshops are
there?'
'For how long is the card valid?'
'Does it cost anything?'
'What benefits does it give me?'
'What happens if I lose the card?'
'Is it only for books or can I use it for other things?'
Practise this kind of exercise with any kind of membership card that you or a friend
may have. Remember to tape the conversation to check the way you ask questions.
Chapter 7
E Answers
E Reading & Writing Practice Tests
Answers to the reading qucs lions for each practice test are given first, followed by
a typical or model answer to the writing tasks. The model essays represent one
satisfactory way of completing the task, but not necessarily the only way.
E Module C Practice Test 1
E Reading
Part 1. Australia's Linguistic History something is done or through which something
passes; 'all languages use the same channel' or me-
Q.I 1850s (paragraph 2) dium, ie. the vibrations of (he atmosphere)
Q.2 1901 (paragraph 2) Q.IO False (paragraph 3: a cultural relationship comes
Q.3 1891 (paragraph 2) from contact between two different cultures)
Q.4 1946 (paragraph 3:'lhc period from Ihc lurn of Q.21 True (paragraph 4: genetic and cultural relation-
Ihc century to 1 946 saw the consolidation of the Eng- ships 'lend to' mean also a typological relationship,- '
lish language in Australia.') but related languages may diverge radically)
Q.5 1971 (paragraph 4:'belween 1947 and 1971...') Q.22 True (paragraph 4, last sentence)
Q.6 1973 (paragraph 4:'Sincc 1973, Australian immi-
gration policies have not discriminated against peo- Part 4. The Optimum Age for Language Learning
ple on the grounds of race...')
Q.23 level ('examination' is not logical)
Part 2. The Composition of Australia's Overseas Q.24 oplimum ('optimum' = best; the 'however' at
Horn Population hy Birthplace Ihc beginning of the sentence clearly shows that an
opposite point of view to Ihc previous sentence is
Q. 7 Europe about to be slated)
Q.8 Italy (footnote 1 . To add Ihc USSR litre is incor- Q.25 acquire (the space needs an infinilivc verb)
rect; the figures for Europe include the USSR hut the Q.26 worst ('early adolescence' reminds the reader
USSR was not one of the principal source countries that secondary school language leaching is being dis-
for immigrants) cussed, and Ihe use of 'in fact' gives cmph;isis to this
Q.9 Asia opposing view thai Is being expressed)
Q.10 Vietnam (footnote 2) Q.27 emotional ( 'given' here means 'if we lake into
Q.11 Turkey (footnote 2) account'; that is, if we consider the problems of teen-
Q.12 Middle Cast agers we would realise that adolescence is not a good
Q.13 New Zealand time for the extra stress of learning a language)
Q.14 45 (footnote 4: 45% of Ihc African toial were Q.2S no (that is, one can learn a language at any age:
from South Africa) note the double negative)
Q.29 accent (clear from the ncxl sentence)
Part 3. Some Traits of Language Q.30 debated ('controversy' is not possible here; the
space needs a past participle to complete the verb)
Q.15 T
Q 1 6 C Purl 6. Purposes of Language Study
Q.17 G (English is a 'cousin' of Latin, paragraph 3)
Q.18 False (paragraph 1 :'The latter [that there are Q.31 C
5,000 or more languages j is probably closer to the Q.32 G
Truth"; 'latlcr'=lhc last fact or name mentioned, as in, Q.33 A
for example, 'Australia has close relations with both Q.34 H
Britain and the USA, with Ihc former for historical Q.35 J
reasons and with the latter for reasons of defence and Note: all the other summaries arc supporting argu-
trade.') ments and comments relating to these main points.
Q.19 False (paragraph 2: 'medium' = means by which
O Writing
Writing Task 1: model answer
Many factors affect the successful learning of English as a second language. Some
factors relate to the student's first language and ability in that language. For example,
learning English is easier for people whose first lan- guage is from the Indo-European
group of languages. A learner's fluency, degree of literacy and level of education also
affect the capacity to learn English.
Teaching methods also influence the success of the learner. The skill and
experience of the teacher are important as are the leaching strategics used by the teacher
and the quality of the teaching aids and technology available.
Students of English arc also affected by various personal factors. The motivation
of the learner, their age, the learning conditions and the time available for study arc all
important influences. The student's feelings of jecurity about learning English arc
similarly significant.
A clear understanding of all these factors will obviously assist in the learning of
English as a second language.
Part I.Australia's Exports Part 3. The Heat Is On
Q.I Figure 4 Q.I 7 Predict ion No. 2
Q.2 Figure 3 Q.18 Prediction No. 1
Q.3 Figure 1 Q.I 9 Predidion No. 3
Q.4 Figure 5 Q.20 Prediction No. 4
Q.5 Figure 2 Q.21 India

Q.22 Dec. 1988
Part 2. Stricken Sea Net-ds Long-Term Solution Q.23 Scpl.1988

Q.24 Turkey
Q.6 b (the changes have been caused by the 2.25 Philippines
humans, paragraph 4)

Q.7 c (paragraph 4) Port 4. Towards Global Protection of the Atmosphere
Q.8 a (paragraph 4)

Q.9 b (paragraph 6) Q.26 Incorrect
Q.10 a (paragraph 12) Q.2 7 Correct
Q.ll Incorrect (paragraph 9) Q.28 Correct
Q.I 2 Correct (paragraph 9) Q.29 Incorrect (paragraphs 7 & 8: the 10% figure re-
Q.I 3 Incorrect (paragraph 13) fers to improvements in energy-efficiency and en-
Q. 14 Correct (paragraph 1 1 ) ergy supply; the target for reduction of carbon
Q.15 Correct (paragraph 15) dioxide emissions is 20% by the year 2005, para-
Q.I 6 Correct (paragraph 15) graph 5)
Answers
Q30 Incorrect (paragraph H: the goal is 2% by 2005) Q.34 Correct
Q.3I Correct (paragraph 10)
Q.32Correct
Q.33Correct
E Writing
Writing Tusk 1: model answer
Artesian water is a vilal source of water in some areas where there is little rainfall. An
artesian water source can only form under certain geological conditions. A layer of porous
rock must lie between two layers of impervious rock. Walcr, which may be run-off from a
distant mountain range, is trapped in the layer of porous rock be-low the surface of the
earth. Tor this to provide usable water, the layer of porous rock must be above sea level to
prevent the water either seeping away into the sea or being contaminated by salt water. At
weak points in the surface layer of impervious rock, or when a bore is drilled, the artesian
water rises to the surface and is available for use.
Writing Task 2: model answer
Many people believe that human beings arc destroying the planet Earth. I have to agree
with this statement and I believe there is plenty of evidence for it if we look at some of
man's agricultural and industrial practices. In addition, the use of nuclear energy further
increases the danger to the world.
Miin's agricultural practices arc severely damaging the environment. The incorrect
use of land causes the formation of deserts; this is a particularly serious problem in
Australia and the USA. Diversion of water from lakes and rivers for irrigation can also
cause severe problems. The use of water from the Aral sea in the Soviet Union is an
example of this.
Industrial wastes have caused critical pollution of water and the atmosphere.
Atmospheric pollution has resulted in the 'greenhouse effect' — a phenomenon that is
resulting in a dangerous increase in the temperature of the world. Similarly chemical
pollution is damaging the ozone layer of the Earth. This results in dangerous ultraviolet
rays entering the Earth's atmosphere.
Nuclear power also poses serious problems. One nuclear bomb can have devastating
long-term effects. Even if nuclear power is used for peaceful purposes, the wastes arc so
toxic and so long-lasting that we are endangering the lives of generations to come.
Some people may think that improved technology will solve the problems of the
Earth. Others believe that man will eventually leam to cooperate and use resources
intelligently. However, I think this is naive, wishful thinking, and from all the evidence
man is destroying the Earth.
E Module C Practice Test 3
E Reading
Part 1. First National Literacy Report Q.S Group A = Column 5 (57%)
Q.9 Group D = Column 1 (12%)
Q.1 Correct Q.10 Group C = Column 4 (31%)
Q.2 Correct Q.11 Group D = Column 2 (10%)
Q.3 Incorrect Q.12 Group E = Column 3 (73%)
Q.4 Correct
Q.5 Correct Part 2. Hard Work is Asians' Secret
Q.6 Not mentioned
Q.7 Incorrect ('Government plans to Q.13 B (the pattern of agreeing and
ductive culture" and a strong national the statements in the questionnaire is
fail without a workforce which is more American parent)
mobile and highly skilled.') Q.14 higher ('harder' is not
'high achiever' in modern English is
often used to describe a person wilh ambitious goals Part 3. Got What It Takes to be a Marketing Man-
who usually achieves Ihem) ager?
2.75 effort
Q.16 innate (a quality you arc bom with, not learnt, as Q.27 Conflict Resolution = Point 11 ('...conflict reso-
in 'innate good sense') lution requires considerable managerial skill...')
Q.I7 beliefs ('false beliefs' = 'misconceptions, Q.28 Organisational Ability = Point 10 (' ...the skill to
myths'j'false myths' is a tautology, and wrong) alter the organisation of the company ... is a skill that
Q.I 8 more (paragraph 5) must be found in the marketing manager...')
Q.19 skills (paragraph 7) Q.29 Commissioning Research = Point 5 ('Market re-
2.20 less ('Chinese and Japanese mothers stressed Ihe search is a vital support ... [A manager must be able
importance of hard work to a grealer degree than to] commission good research.' Note how this sec-
American mothers and American mothers gave tion develops Point 1)
grealer emphasis to innate ability lhan did Chinese Q .30 Strategic Skills = Point 3 (' ...the skills needed
and Japanese mothers.') for thinking strategically are of a high order.' Note
Q.21 more that you have to read past the first sentence, and that
Q.22 actively ('Chinese and Japanese parents are the passage is contrasting 'strategy' with 'tactics'.)
more interested and involved in their children's Q.31 Market Behaviour Analysis = Point 1 (the pas-
schooling-Chinese and Japanese families mobilised sage discusses buyer behaviour; market research is
themselves to assist the child...') actually discussed in Point 5)
Q.23 expectations ('Chinese and Japanese mothers Q.32 Innovation Management = Point 2
held higher standards for their children's achieve- Q.33 Financial Management = Point 7
ment than American mothers...') Q.34 Systems Thinking = Point 8 (Note how this sec-
Q.24 American (' American mothers overestimated tion develops to state its main point in the last two
their child's abilities...') paragraphs.)
Q.25 Asian (' Chinese and Japanese mothers gave Q.35 Marketing Skills = Point 6 (This section de-
more realistic evaluations of their child's ... charac- scribes the components of the 'marketing mix', Ihe
teristics.') things thai make up a marketing manager's job.)
Q.26 realistic Q.36 Long-Term Thinking = Point 9 (The section con-
trasts short-term and long-term thinking.)
E Writing
Writing Task 1: model answer
The statements are clearly supported by lhe_graph and the stalistics. The table gives the
actual number of students from the different locations whqattendedJiigher education in
1989. For example, 320,561 from urban areas attended higher educalion whereas Y7$25
rural students attended. However, students from remote areas who participated in higher
education numbered only 13,959. The table indicates thai from all locations, just over
half the students were women.
The graph shows the same trends but in a different form. Participation of people
from the different locations in higher education in 1989 is plotted as the number of
people per thousand (p.th.). Males and females are plotted separately. In remote areas
approximately 40 males p.th. attended higher education while in rural areas the
corresponding figure was about 23 males p.lh. In remote areas, however, the number of
males who participated in higher educalion was only about 19 p.th. In all locations, more
females p.th. attended higher education than did males.
Writing Tusk 2: model answer
The educalion of a child is significantly affected by both Ihe allilude of the parents and
the quality of the child's school and teachers. I would not s;iy, however, thai Ihe parents'
attitude is necessarily the more important of Ihese two factors.
A good parental allilude definiiely helps a child's school progress. Studies have
shown that Asian students are oflen higher achievers in school than their American
counterparts because Asian parents usually take a more active interest in their children's
education. Uducalionatly minded parents can in fact compensate to a certain extern for a
poor quality school or teachers. Such parents might provide extra work at home,
encourage the child to read more or study by himself or herself. Concerned parents may
even hire Ihe services of a tutor.
On the oilier hand, educationally minded parents arc usually nol enough to ensure
Ihc good education of a child. Parents often don't have the resources of a good school, or
the collective knowledge and training of a good teaching slaff. I
;
urthcrmorc, lime or
money may limit what the well inlentioned parent can actually do for the child's
education in practical terms.
Consequently, although parental attitude and quality of school and staff arc both
important to a child's education, I don't feel that one is necessarily more important than
the other. Perhaps ironically, it is usually the children of educationally minded parents
thai finish up being sent to good schools with good teachers.
E General Training Module, Practice Test 1
E Reading
Part 1. Dial-It Information Services Part 4. Tertiary Preparation Certificate
Q.I 11680 2.27 22
Q.2 11% Q.22 competence (paragraph 1)
Q.3 11540 Q.13 future (an adjective is needed and none of the
Q.4 11511 others arc logical)
f2.5 11640 Q.24 recently
Q.25 mature ('old' is never used in this context)
I'art 2. UTS General Information Q.26 compulsory ('necessary' is not used in this way,
and 'obliged' is incorrect grammar)
Q-6 (a) Q.27 assessment (final paragraph)
Q-7 (b) Q.28 80%
Q.8 (b) Q.29 20%
Q-9 (c)
Q.10 (c) (compare 'Student ID cards' and Q-30 No ,
Concession pass") Q.31 Yes *
Q.11 (b) Q.32 Yes
Q-12 (c) Q.33 No
Q.34 Literature
Part 3. TAKE Course Descriptions
Part 5. Ready, Get Set, But Know What You're
Q.13 5418 Going For.
Q.14 3103
Q.15 3519 Q.35 M (paragraph 5)
Q.I 6 3534 Q.36 K (paragraph 15)
Q.17 8510 Q.37 N (paragraph 20)
Q.18 0843 Q.38 N (paragraph 21)
Q.19 0842 Q.39 M (paragraph 8)
Q.20 5419 Q.40 K (paragraphs 13 and 17)
E Writing
Writing Task 1: model answer
Dear Sir/Madam,
I would like some information about Ihc Tertiary Preparation Certificate. If possible I
would like to enrol in this course as a part-time student in 1992.
I left school eight years ago after completing the 1ISC. Since then I have worked
as a sales assistant in both Grace Bros and David Jones. From the beginning of this year
I have been in charge of the Children's Wear Department in Grace Bros, Lilyfield.
However, in order to advance any further in my career into a managerial position, I will
need to do some further study, such as a Marketing or Business Course. Because I have
not studied for many years, I believe that I should complete the TPC before enrolling in
a Business course.
Could you please send me the information as soon as possible, and tell me the dates for
enrolling in Ihe Tertiary
Preparation Certificate.
Yours faithfully.
Writing Task 2: model answer
Studying at college or university can have its difficulties. For example, making friends
can be a problem. Joining a sports or interest club is a good way to meet people with
similar interests.
New students at college will be faced with a new range of leisure activities. Students
should be adventurous in trying new activities, but should also be careful that their leisure
activities don't disrupt their studies.
College requires different study habits from school. Students must learn to study
independently and it is important to establish a study routine.
Universities and colleges have a large number of facilities such as counselling
services and sports centres. These services are often cheap and convenient, so new
students should do their best to find out what facilities are available on campus.
With a bit of common sense, most students will not have any trouble adapting to
college or university life.
O General Training Module Practice Test 2
O Reading
Part 1. UTS Kuring-gai Campus Information • Q.19 chlorine (section on 'Bathroom')
Evenings Q.20 tobacco water (section on 'Garden Pcsis')
Q.I (d) Part S. What Do Humans Eat?
Q-2 (a)
Q.21 consume
Part 2. Positions Vacant Q.22 cultural (in this question and the next, the word
is indicated by the rest of the sentence)
Q.3 4443331 Q.23 religious
Q.4 write a letter Q.24 availability (a noun is needed)
Q.5 7765489 - Q.25 trying (a gerund is needed)
Q.6 driver's licence Q.26 crops (the only possible thing you can 'grow' of
Q.7 (names of) 2 referees the words in the box)
Q.27 available ('increased
1
is the verb here, 'avail-
Part 3. Consumer Bookshelf able' is an adjective)
Q.28 nutritional (the word is indicated by the
Q.8 Book Number 3 discussion of the 'nourishment' or 'food value' that
Q.9 Book Number 6 food must provide)
Q.10 Book Number 4 Q.29 little (an adjective is needed, which cannot be
Q.11 Book Number 7 'great' because that would not be a problem for peo-
Q.12 Book Number 5 ple's diet)
Q.13 Book Number 1
Part 6. UTS — A Smoke-Free Zone
Purt 4. A (itiide to Toxics in the Home
Q.30 (d) (see 'Stage 2' of implementation of Ihe pol-
Q.14 less icy)
Q.15 7 (section on 'Household Cleaners and Polish- Q.3 1 (c) (see 'Reasons for This Policy')
es') Q.32 (b) (sec 'Smoking')
Q.16 |4 litres of] hoi water (section on 'All 1'urposc Q.33 (c) (sec ' Passive smoking'; and/or means that -
Cleaner') passive smoking is exposure to either source or both
Q.17 yes (section on 'laundry') sources of cigarette smoke)
Q.18 (strong solution] ammoniu (section on 'Ovens') • Q.34 (c) (sec 'Liabilities and Loss to Employers')
Answers
Q35 (e), ' non-smokers.')
Q36 (b) ( typical airconditionmg may be over- Q38 (a) ('Most Australian Life Assurance
companies now offer reduced
whelmed by pollutants ...') premiums to non-smokers ...')
Q.37 (b) ('..smokers have higher accident rates than
E Writing
Writing Task 1: model answer
In the last twenty years it has been recognised that smoking causes great health problems for
human beings. As we can see from information supplied by the UTS Occupational Health and
Safety Branch in Reading Passage number 6, people who smoke are much more likely to suffer
from illnesses such as cancer, especially of the lungs and throat, bronchitis, ulcers and increased
blood pressure. They also have a much greater chance of suffering a heart attack. Even the short-
term effects are unpleasant, such as bad breath and staining of teeth and fingers.
There are similar health dangers in passive smoking, when non-smokers are exposed to
cigarette smoke. Aircondilioning in buildings cannot remove all the tobacco smoke from the air,
so even if people do not smoke Ihcy can become ill if they are near smokers. For example, they
can suffer eye irritation, coughing and head- aches, and have more chance of getting lung
cancer.
Writing Task 2: model answer
If you arc thinking of studying English in Australia, you should realise that Australian eating
habits and food can be very different from those in Korea.
Australians don't eat rice at every meal as we do in Korea, and most Australians have never
heard of Kimchee. A formal Australian meal can consist of a number of courses starting with
soup, going on to a main course and then onto dessert. At each course you usually receive only
one plate of food and not the variety of dishes and soups that we get in Korea. Another thing
about the food in Australia is that it is not so highly flavoured as in Korea.
Fortunately, finding suitable food to cat in Australia is no problem. Because there are quite
a few Korean immigrants in Australia, there arc plenty of Korean restaurants in the main cities.
The large cities also have supermarkets and shops specialising in Korean and other Asian food.
In fact, a good aspect of living in Australia is that it gives you an opportunity to try food
from all over the world at quite cheap prices.
E General Training Module Practice Test 3
E Reading
Part 1. Union Buys Student Accommodation Part 3. Don't Risk A Life Sentence
Q.I (b) Note: the 'life sentence' of the headline is explained
Q.2 (a) in paragraph 2. The key to the passage is to under-
Q.3 (b) stand that if there is a 'labour shortage' in a particu-
lar occupation, this means that there are more jobs
Part 2. UTS Library Guide available than there are qualified people to fill them,
so it is easier to find a job in that occupation than in
Q.4 Kuring-gai one with an 'oversupply' of qualified people.
Q.5 North Shore - St Leonards
Q.6 North Shore - Gore Hill Q.13 S (see 'Health')
Q.7 Markets Q.14 S (see 'Health')
Q.8 Balmain Q.15 S (see 'Hospitality Trades')
Q.16 S (sec 'Science')
2.9 False Q.I 7 S (see Teaching')
Q.10 True Q.18 O (see 'Business Professions')
Q.11 True Q.19 S (see paragraphs on TAFE qualifications)
Q.12 False
Q.20 S(dillo)
Q.21 O (see 'Engineering')
Part 4. UTS Student Loan Fund
Q.22 No
Q.23 5500
Q.24 up lo 18 months
Q.25 at least 50%
Q26 No
Part 6. What Australians Are Like and How To
Get To Know Them
Q27 Not Mentioned
Q.28 Agrees (see 'Individuality')
Q.29 Agrees (see 'Equality')
Q.30 Contradicts (see 'Directness')
Q.31 Agrees (see 'Informality')
Q.32 Not Mentioned
Q.33 Agrees (sec 'Greetings')
Q.34 Not Mentioned
Q.35 Contradicts (see 'Social Invitations')
Q.36 Agrees (see 'Saying "Thank you
1
")
E Writing
Writing Task 1: model answer
The diagram shows Iwo types of fire extinguishers, A Class and B Class. The A Class fire
extinguisher, coloured red, is used for fires occurring in textiles, wood and paper. II
contains water. Il must not be used for electrical or flammable liquid fires. You should
carry ihe extinguisher to the fire, grip the hose, remove the pin, and squeeze the handle.
You should point the liquid stream at Ihe seat or base of Ihe fire. However, you should
read Ihe instructions because some types arc used upside-down, or inverted.
The B Class fire extinguisher, coloured blue, is used for flammable liquid fires but
must not be used for electrical fires. This fire extinguisher conlains foam. Il is used in Ihe
same way as Ihe A Class extinguisher, except that Ihe fire should be attacked with a
sweeping molion.
Writing Task 2: model answer
Dear Vivicnne,
How is life back in Taiwan? Australia is quite inlcresting bul very different from Taiwan.
People are much more informal here. They usually call each oihcr by just Ihcir first
names! And everybody dresses so casually! Everyone wears jeans, sometimes even lo
work.
Australian food takes some getting used lo. Beef and lamb are very popular and
Australians seem surprised that we cat rice at every meal. I much prefer rice lo potatoes,
though.
Oh, and anolhcr thing. When I asked my landlady how much her house cost, she told
me not lo be rude. Apparently it is also bad manners to ask someone how much they earn.
Though people don't seem to mind asking me how much I weigh. I think that's a bit rude!
Well, I had beiler gel back lo work.
All ihe best,
Xiao Dong
E Answers
E Listening Practice Tests
E Listening Test 1
Q.I A Q.22 fatal injuries
Q.2 D Q.23 scldom/rarcly/hardly ever
Q.3 B
Q.4 D Q.24 coast
Q.5 Ashlon (II musl be spent correctly)
:
Q.25 oil tanker
Q.6 12-12-1969 Q.26 American
Q.I British Q.27 tree
Q.8 5 Henry Si Q.28 released
Q.9 Lcichhardl (II musl be spell correclly; for the Q.29 van
slrccl and suburb, as long ;is the information is cor- Q.30 rocks (It must be plural)
rect, il doesn't matter which line you write them on) Q.31 worse/worsening
Q.IO 58-5989 Q.32 next week
Q.I 1 Safe distance Q.33 C (This is stated in Ihe firsl sentence.)
Q.I 2 rough Q.34 C (The lecturer says that Ihc Chinese govern-
Q.13 nighl ment didn't allow emigration.)
Q.14 alcohol Q.35 B (The lecturer states that as the transporta-
Q.I 5 eating tion of convicts from England decreased, the squat-
Q.I 6 alone
Q.17 fiags (It musl be plural)
ters and other employers Ipokcd for another cheap
source of labour.)
Q.18 panic Q.36 D (The lecture says that Ihc men began to
Q.19 parallel look for a scapegoat to blame for their problems and
Q.IO 1 metre that ihcy found it in Ihe Chinese.)
Q.2I dangerous Q.37 B (This is slated in the last sentence of the lec-
ture.)
E Listening Test 2
Q 1 C Q.20 north
Q-2 B Q.21 (very) few
Q.3 D Q.22 19 million
Q-4 A Q.23 mountainous/covered in mountains
Q-5 Andrew (The spelling musl be correct) Q.24 huge
Q.6 32 City Road Q.25 spring
Q-7 Newlown 2040
Q.8 12-12-1968 Q.26 D (The newsreader says 'all three sides in the
Q-9 Darwin nine month civil war' which eliminates A. Further-
Q.10 3 more, a ceasefire stopped on Thursday, not Ihc fighi-
Q.11 Canadian ing; and the fighting was 'in and around Ihc capital
Q.12 TJ11965 city'.)
Q.27 B (The newsreader says that union leaders
Q.13 3 million 'called off three weeks of crippling strikes on Satur-
Q.14 democracy day...', and thai more than one million workers 'luui
Q.15 jungles joined the protest'.)
Q.16 famous Q.28 D (The newsreader lists the three people — Ihc
Q.17 113 million company owner, Ihe director, and Ihe captain — and
Q.18 republic stales that they have all been charged.)
Q.19 deserts Q.29 B (Abortions were legal and free but under Ihc
new government bill abortion is now illegal.)
Q.30 B. (The reader slalcs thai the flights will
begin
within a month.)
Q.3I D. (The reader says that i/lhc candidate is
con-
victed, he will almost certainly be sentenced to al
least two years imprisonment.)
Q.32 False (You need a passport-sized
photograph.)
Q.33 True (If they are unemployed and live al least
3kms from the university.)
Q.34 False (People thinking about studying can
also
use the counsellors.)
Q-35 True (Counsellors provide individual assistance
and workshops.)
Q.36 False (It is a good idea to make an appointment.)
Q.37 True (An adult is a person over sixteen; there is
no upper age limit.)
Q.38 True (If they are full-time.)
Q.39 False (A small tec is charged.)
Q.40 False (There is no menlion of ihis.)
Q.-41 True (Poor punctuality is classified as inappro-
priate behaviour and may be penalised.)
O Listening Test 3
Q-1 C Q.26 40
Q-2 A Q.27 full-time
Q-3 C Q.28 Ihrce
Q.4 B
Q5 enrolment Q.29 C (The second sentence of the lecture stales that
Q.6 opening ceremony few people want to acknowledge or recognise the
Q.I general orientation product ivily crisis. Furthermore, answers A, B and D
Q.8 sports carnival directly contradict information given in the lecture.)
Q.9 first lecture Q.30 A (While Australia is 70% arid or semi-arid,
Q.10 free this is largely a natural occurrence. Bad agricultural
practices have aggravated this.)
Q.ll great grandparents Q.3I B (The relevant information is given in Ihe sen-
Q.12 marine biology tence ' .... while the major political parties are enthusi-
Q.I 3 loo cold astically promoting an increased population for
Q.14 loo expensive Australia ...')
Q.15 making friends Q.32 D (Answer A is incorrect as there is a yearly in-
Q.16 water polo crease in population. The lecturer also states thai Ihe
Q.n sharks (feeding habits) growth rale is far higher than almost all industrialised
Q.i a 2 years countries, not most countries, so answers B and C are
Q.19 trading company incorrect. Furthermore, answer D is Ihe central Ihcmc
Q.20 Iravel of the entire lecture.)
Q.33 0 (The speaker's emphasis is on a stable rather
Q.21 university than necessarily a small population (answer A); an-
Q.22 15 swer B is nonsensical; there is no reference to answer
Q.23 $49,000 C with regard lo Sweden; this leaves only answer D.)
Q.24 New York Q.34 A (Answers B, C and D are all recommenda-
Q.25 (faculty) staff tions made al the end of the lecture.)
O Acknowledgements
Sources of texts:
' Australia's I jnguislic 1 listory', 'The Composition of Australia's Overseas Born
Population by Birthplace, 1981',
'Purposes of Language Study', and 'Optimum Age for Language Learning', extracts
from A National Language
Policy. Report by ilie Senate Standing Committee on Education and the Arts. October,
1984. AGPS. Commonwealth
of Australia copyright. Reproduced by permission.
'Some Trails of Language', extracts from D. Bolinger, Aspects of Language, 2nd ed.,
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich
(USA), 1975. (permission sought)
Graphs on pages 28 - 29:1. Bcreson and S. Rosenblal, Inquiry Australia, 2nd cd.
Heinemann Educational Australia,
an imprint of Rigby I Icincmann, Richmond, Victoria, 1985. Reproduced with
permission.
'Stricken Sea Needs l>ong-Tcrm Solution
1
, B, Keller (permission sought); 'The Heal
Is On'; and 'The Calendar of
Catastrophe', (abridged) reproduced in The Herald in the Classroom. Global
Geography Update, '89. John Fairfax
Education Unit, 1989. Reproduced with permission.
'Ready, Get Set, But Know What You're Going For', Sydney Morning Herald, 6 Sept.
1990; 'Don't Risk a Life
Sentence', Sydney Morning Herald Careers Guide, 9 August 1990;' Leam-as-you-
work Uni Opens for Business',
(adapted in Listening Practice Test 3), Sydney Morning Herald, 12 Jan. 1991, John
Fairfax Group Ply. Ltd.
Reproduced with permission.
'Towards Global Protection of the Atmosphere', Environment, Vol.30, No.7, Sept.
1988. Heldref Publications,
Washinglon,DC.(pcrmission sought)
'First National Literacy Report', (adapted), and 'Union Buys Student Accommodation',
Alumncws, University of
Technology, Sydney, Summer 1989. Supplied by Public Affairs and Publications Unit
at UTS. Reproduced with
permission.
'Hard Work is Asians' Secret of Success', Dr Stephen Juan, Sydney Morning Herald,
13 Sept. 1990. Reproduced
wilh permission of the author.
'Got What II Takes to be a Marketing Manager?', (abridged) David Corklndale,
Marketing Magazine, Oct.1989.
Reproduced with permission.
Figures on page 63 adapted from DEET survey published in APC Review, 1-1991,
page 12.
'Dial-It Information Services', Your Community Phone Book, 1984, Ixichhardt and
Marrickvillc Districts. Telecom
Australia. Reproduced with permission.
'General Information for Students', 'UTS Student Loan Fund' and 'UTS — A Smoke-
Free Zone', Orientation
Handbook 1990, Students' Association of the University of Technology, Sydney.
Reproduced wilh permission.
'TAPE Course Descriptions', 'The TAPE Tertiary Preparation Certificate', and '
Expected Locations of TPC and
Subjects 1991', handouts on courses of the department of Technical and Further
Education, New South Wales, and
The 1991 Higher School Certificate and Tertiary Preparation Certificate Booklet,
TAFE NSW, Publications Unit,
Marketing Services Division. Reproduced with permission.
'University of Technology, Sydney, Kuring-gai Campus Information Evenings',
advertisement originally published
Sydney Morning Herald Careers Guide, 9 August 1990. Reproduced wilh permission
of UTS.
'Consumer Bookshelf, reprint from Choice Magazine, Vol.31, No.7, July 1990.
Published by the Australian
Consumers' Association. Reproduced with permission.
'A Guide to Toxics in the I tome", abridged from Stepping Lightly on the Earth,
Greenpeace Australia. Reproduced
with permission.
'What Australians Are Like and How to Get to Know Them', The Welcome to UTS
Book, 7959. Information for
International Students, Student Services Unit, University of Technology, Sydney,
1989. Reprinted from Arriving,
Surviving, Thriving: Information for Overseas Students, International Student Centre,
University of New South
Wales, 1988. Reproduced with permission.
'The Correct Use of Fire Extinguishers' (diagram), from Fire... Is Our Foe, brochure
of the Public Relations Unit,
Board of Fire Commissioners of NSW, Reproduced with permission.
'University Library Guide for Students', extracts from A - Z Guide for Students,
produced by the Library of Ihe
University of Technology, Sydney, 1991. Reproduced with permission.
Lecture in Listening Practice Test 1 abridged from The Making of Australia. People
From Everywhere. Bay Books,
Sydney, 1982. Used wilh permission.
Lecture in Listening Practice Test 3 abridged from 'A Countryside Reeling', Dr Chris
Watson, CSIRO Australia,
published in The Bulletin, Jan.31,1989. Used with permission of the author.
The producers of this book would like to thank the staff and students
of Insearch Language Centre at the University of Technology,
Sydney, for their enthusiasm for the project and their patient
assistance in trialling and improving the materials in it. Particular
thanks go to those who gave detailed feedback along the way,
especially Marnie Campbell, Terry Peck, Julie Rowed, Diane
Hoggins, Daniel Carroll, Paul Vaughan, and Nicola Short. Jeffrey
Quinn produced early versions of several of the the practice reading
and writing tests. Patricia Wrathall contributed several texts.
Terry Peck directed the production of the cassette tape. The
illustrations in the listening practice tests are by Don Kibble; the
drawings on pages 43 and 125 are by Annette Ring. Much of the
keying onto disk was done by Tracy Cornhill and Angela Andjelovic
of Insearch Language Centre.

Practice Tests for Module C (Humanities) and General Training Module

Mary Jane Hogan Brenn Campbell Todd Gillian Perrett

INSEARCH LANGUAGE CENTRE

<

»

INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMMES UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, SYDNEY

Insearch Language Centre Level 3, Prince Centre, 8 Quay Street, Ilaymarket NSW 2000 International Programmes, University of Technology, Sydney PO Box 123 Broadway NSW 2007

Copyright © 1991 Insearch Language Centre/International Programmes, University of Technology, Sydney

All rights reserved. No part of this publication, book and cassette tape, may be reproduced or transmitted in a form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage a retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publicalion data Prepare for IELTS ISBN 186365 017 2. 1. English language - Examinations. 2. English language - Examinations, questions, etc. 3. International English Language Testing System. I. Hogan, Mary Jane, 1952II. University of Technology, Sydney. Insearch Language Centre. 428.0076

Book Cover and Cassette Design by Lcong Chan, Public Affairs and Publications, University of Technology, Sydney Cassette tape recorded at 2 SER-FM, University of Technology, Sydney Set in 11/13 New Century Schoolbook

The Interview Answers Reading & Writing Practice Tests Listening Practice Tests Acknowledgements page 162 page 170 page 172 .Contents How to Use this Book Chapter 1. Module C Reading & Writing Practice Tests Practice Test Number 1 Practice Test Number 2 Practice Test Number 3 Chapter 4. page 7 page 27 page 49 page iv page 1 page 3 page 5 General Training Module Reading & Writing Practice Tests Practice Test Number 1 Practice Test Number 2 Practice Test Number 3 page 68 page 90 page 113 Chapter 5. Introduction to the IELTS Test Preparation for the IELTS Test The Day of the Test Chapter 3. Listening Practice Tests page 131 page 139 page 147 page 155 Practice Test Number 1 Practice Test Number 2 Practice Test Number 3 Chapter 6. Chapter 2. Chapter 7.

It is better not to check the answers until you have completed ea'ch test. then compare the two essays for their content and for different ways of giving the same information. Work through each practice test for the module you are applying for. not all the tests have 40 reading questions. Remember to write at least as many words as the writing task asks. these model essays are not the only way to answer the question. a total of 45 minutes. as well as advice to help you to do your best in the different subtests of the IELTS test. to make it easier to use. checkingyour answers in Chapter 7. and why one answer is right and another wrong. but they give you an idea of what kind of answer is required. Reading Practice Tests Chapter 3 contains three practice reading tests based on the Module C IELTS test and Chapter 4 has three based on the General Training Module. Follow the instructions for each question and write y9ur answers on the answer sheet. Allow yourself 15 minutes for the first writing task and 30 minutes for the second writing task. The answers in Chapter 7 have notes to explain any points of difficulty. Remember also to give all the information asked for in the question. Writing Practice Tests At the end of each reading subtest in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 there is a practice writing test. remember that it is important to practice reading fast. Try to avoid writing on the pages of the reading passages.You should read these chapters before you begin to work on the practice tests in this book. Do not look at the model essays until you have written an answer yourself.. useful information about the IELTS test. Chapter 7 contains a model essay for each writing task to give you one example of a satisfactory way of completing the task. There are 40 boxes on the answer sheet. Chapter 2 contains hints and suggestions that will help you prepare well for the test.O How To Use This Book Chapter 1 contains general. Each practice test has pages for writing your answers to each of the writing tasks. . At the end of each practice test you will find an Answer Sheet that can be cut out of the book if you wish. this will slow down your reading speed and is generally not permitted in the real IELTS test. You will lose marks for writing too little. Allow yourself 55 minutes only for each reading test. however.

It is not a good idea to stop and go over parts of the tape.Listening Practice Tests Chapter 5 contains three practice listening tests. The listening section of the IELTS test is the same for all candidates. Allow yourself approximately 30 minutes for each listening test and work straight through each test. The instructions for each question are given on the cassette tape. . with space for writing your answers on the pages. The answers have notes to guide you to the section of the tape that gave the information you needed to answer the question. The Interview Chapter 6 has a detailed description of what you can expect in the interview for the IELTS test. first you should complete a whole practice test and check your answers in Chapter 7. There are also many suggestions of ways you can practise your speaking skills to help you to perform better in the interview.

Chapter 1 Introduction to the IELTS Test The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) is the main test used to assess the language proficiency of students from a non-English-speaking background who want to study in an English-speaking country, especially Australia or the UK. It has four subtests, or sections.

The Reading and Writing Subtests In the first two sections, reading and writing, students take one of four modules. Which module they take depends on what they hope to study. Modules A, B, and C are for university entrance. People who want to study Maths, for example, or Computing, Physics or Engineering take Module A (Physical Sciences). People who want to study Biology, Nursing or Medicine take Module B (Life Sciences). People who want to study Business, Economics, Journalism or Drama take Module C (Humanities). In Australia people who want to study at high school, in TAPE (colleges of Technical and Further Education), in Foundation Studies courses, or at busirfess.colleges take the General Training Module. The General Training Module is easier than the other modules, but it is not possible to score above Band 6 on it, nor is it acceptable for university entrance. This book includes three practice reading and writing tests for the Module C test and three for the General Training Module. Like the real tests, these take 55 minutes for reading and 45 minutes for writing. These are the most popular modules with students hoping to study in Australia.

The Listening and Speaking Subtests The second two subtests, listening and speaking, are general and are taken by all students. The listening test takes 30 minutes. This book and the cassette tape contain three practice listening tests. The last test is the speaking test. It takes the form of an interview and lasts 11-15 minutes. This book contains a description of the interview and suggests things that you can do to practise speaking to help prepare for the test. I he reading and writing and the listening practice tests in this book have been designed to resemble the format of the IELTS test as closely as possible. They are not, however, real IELTS tests; they simply give practice in the type of question you may have to answer in the real test. For thisreason, there is no system of marking or scoring your practice tests in this book, so you cannot use them to assess your band score. These practice tests are to practise your English to help vou to do better in the real IELTS test.

The Band Scores You cannot pass or fail the IELTS test. Your score will be reported in a series of band, Band 9 is the highest level, band 1 the lowest. Different colleges and universities require different band scores before they will admit you. Different institutions indicate what ban, levels they want students to achieve. These may be between 5.5 and 7 for universit entrance. The band levels indicate a candidate's ability to use English as follows: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Expert User Very Good User Good User Competent User Modest User Limited User Extremely Limited User Intermittent User Non User

Advantages of the IELTS Test What are the advantages of the IELTS test over the other tests whjch are often used? Unlike the TOEFL it tests all four skills. Some students who have very high TOEFL scores are noi able to function in English when they arrive at university because they cannot speak 01 write the language. This means that if you achieve your target band score on the IELTS tost both you and the college you hope to attend can be confident that you will be able to cope With English when you start your course. Unlike some other tests IELTS is an international test. This means that if you change your mind about the country you want to study in,your test results will still be recognised (outside the USA) ifyou have taken the IELTS test. It also means that you can take the test in your own country or in the country where you hope to study. The IELTS test is available at least once a month, at some centres it is run fortnightly and, at busy times of the year, every week. You can take the test as often as you like, but not less than three months apart. So for example, ifyou take the test in January you can take it again in April. This way you are able to keep track of your improvement in English. The results are published quickly. They are sent to you and to the college you want to enter within two weeks. It is considered that students need anything from 100 hours to 200 hours of teaching to improve by one step in the band scale; all students differ from each other but most need more time at the higher levels than they do at the lower levels.

you must gain new skills. fluency. listening for general information. Don't worry about accuracy when doing this — the idea here is to increase your speed. Not only must you use your present language skills more quickly. By looking at your . Naturally. Make a note of any new vocabulary learnt (spelling. intormtioh. not your accuracy. and reading under exam conditions will get easier. using conjunctions and reference. you must be realistic. Look at the activities the teacher gave you — what were they for? If you had problems. The first thing you need to practise is speed. Here are some of the skills your teacher will be working on with you. vocabulary. Listening: voice tone. see your teacher. structuring information within a text.5. Whenever you read something in English. How good is your English now? A student who currently has a band score of 5 will need about 6 months full-time study to raise it to 6. vocabulary. writing paragraphs. Every day. Writing: adjusting style according to purpose. especially in the reading and writing sections. What is the most effective preparation for the IELTS test? First of all. give yourself a time limit. stop at the end of every paragraph and summarise it to yourself. part of speech). is not enough. and improve old ones. preferably the same day. do the activities again at home. Below are some suggestions for useful activities. In the same way. you want to get the best core you possibly can. Make the most of every class by reviewing your lessons. however. Time One of the biggest problems that students have in the test is that they run out of time. asking questions. summarising. Most students reading this book will be studying English with a teacher. By forcingyourself to read with time limits you will find your reading speed increases.Chapter 2 Preparation for the IELTS Test You are a student planning to sit for the IELTS test. all important in the IELTS test: Speaking: pronunciation. summarising. sit down and write as much as you can for 5-10 minutes on any subject. This can be done through classwork and personal study. common phrases. Use your classes Speed without accuracy. practise writing quickly. scanning (looking for specific information). If you still have problems. listening for keywords. Reading: skimming (general understanding). pronunciation. meaning. While you are reading. interaction (dynamics with another speaker). introductions and conclusions. Preparation for the IELTS test — improvement in your level of English — will take time and work.

telephone for transport information: specific buses. When you want to sit the test 'for real'. and with different measures of success. Willing. 1989. Teaching How To Learn. All of these things will help you to prepare for the IELTS test. . dial-a-robot — work through the recorded messages in the phone book. especially an important one. you will be more relaxed because you will know what to expect. in the street. You will prepare best for the exam by living a balanced lifestyle. you may lose interest in your study. flights.classwork again. or a community service organisation. The IELTS test is a good test because the language skills needed in the exam are similar to those needed at college/university. Every English exam is supposed to show how good a student's level of English is. Stay Calm Two further comments should be made. use a detailed TV guide to gain more information about a programme. you could sit the test once just to find out what it is like. you will grow tired. trains. 67-70. and your health may suffer. by thinking about it. Extra work You will also find it useful to do other study apart from class review: extra work on thii that you find difficult. (From K. Also. exercise and relaxation. If you are studyiтп in a non-English-speaking country you should try to find English interest groups with whom to practise. pp 65. telephone for travel information: costs of journeys. You can thus be sure that as you prepare for IELTS you will be preparing well for your future study. This will increase your knowledge of the vocabulary and style of academic writing. accommodation. 2. NCELTR. and so on) without having to worry about doingyour very best. This is done in different ways in different tests. write and speak as much English as possible. you simply need to hear. use every opportunity where appropriate to talk to native speakers. in offices and shops. as a practice. and how it will benefit 3 you will acquire the skill(s) it teaches you more quickly. Many people get very nervous when taking an exam. While it is important that you study hard. You should also regularly read books/journals on topics related to you future study. you remember it better. 1. and will be able to concentrate on performing to the best of your ability.) Many of these things you could do only in an English-speaking country. read at the supermarket. Without these things. read. and you will find many good books on study skills that will give more information on effective study techniques. join a social club. You will learn the procedure (what section comes first. Here I some suggestions:         do an adult education course. To do the very best you can in the IELTS exam. you also need rest.

Do not read everything in detail —you haven't got time. writing and listening sections. Briefly plan your answer. Reading Subtest Begin by reading the questions first. Writing Subtest Read the task questions carefully. Read the Questions. Constantly refer back to the question to check that you are not digressing from the topic. Use every second of the time you have. leave it and come back to it later. The two writing tasks are of different lengths. especially for Task 2 in the academic modules. Again. If you find a question difficult. Don't waste time by working too long on one question or by finishing early and j sitting doing nothing. Do Not Memorise Answers. In that case. skim the passage until you find the relevant section. you will lose marks. then read it in detail. Use your time. d you will lose marks. at least on the initial reading. This will give you an idea of what to look for when you read the texts. because you will have neglected your normal English practice. As one part of the exam finishes. Find out how much time you have for each section and divide it sensibly among the questions. Secondly. you will probably do worse than if ou had never memorised anything. Firstly. However. Be calm even if you feel depressed or discouraged. Do not attempt to understand every word in the reading passages. You cannot get marks if you do not answer the questions correctly. You should thus spend about 15 minutes on Question 1 and 30 minutes on Question 2. If you finish early. For the reading. check your answers. forget it and go on to the next one. Do all the easiest questions first.Preparation for the 1ELTS Test The Day of the Test There are no magic formulas for doing well in the IELTS test. you must read the questions carefully. an examiner can tell if you've memorised an answer. The two writing tasks are of different types: Question 1 may be a description of a diagram or a letter etc. Read quickly to get a general understanding. Question 2 may be an essay or a report etc. there is no guarantee whatsoever that the question you were expecting will appear in the exam. these simple Jugge'stions will help you do as well as possible. When answering a question. Rephrase them to yourself if you are not sure you fully understand them. Modify your writing style accordmg to the question. .

Look through any pictures and diagrams in the exam before each listening as these will help you choose the correct answers. whether you listen for individual words or for the general meaning. Talk to your friends in English while waiting. Here it is not impolite to ask questions. and there is less likelihood of the examiner misunderstand ing what you have said. This will ffeterrm'ne what kind of listening you do. or writing in capital letters (use cursive writing if it's at all readable). If you have spare time at the end. This makes it easier for the examiner to mark your work. and remember the suggestions written here. don't just give one word answers. Write one draft only and write on every second line. it's essential. Speak as much as you can during the interview. While notes show the examiner the structure of your text. To make the most of it. Your questions should be as natural as possible. writing the essay title. Look at what kinds of questions you m-ust^answer: true/false. punctuation. then rewriting it. you will lose marks in the area of cohesion and sentence structure because your ideas are neither elaborated nor joined. then you are ready to do your best in the IELTS test.Do not write your answers in note form. plurals. This will increase your ability to understand what you hear. At the beginning of section 3 (the role play) the interviewer will give you a card with some information on it. Listening Subtest You will hear each listening passage only once. In this way you will have enough space to change/correct your answer if you need to. Note carefully the role the interviewer will take: is (s)he your friend? A classmate? an official? Make sure you vary your speech accordingly (because you don't speak in the same way to a friend as to an official) Section 3 of the interview is the one where you must take the initiative. You will not lose marks. Don't be afraid to ask the examiner to repeat a question if you don't understand it. forms to be filled in. Speaking Subtest Breathe deeply and relax while waiting. but do not waste time by writing a rough draft. Write neatly. Don't waste valuable time by using white-out (just cross out anything you want to change). and if you are familiar with the format of the test. the interviewer can't find out how good you really are. . pictures/diagrams. Write as neatly as possible. check your work for small errors ryerh agreements. Unless you speak. These things are easily corrected and are important in deciding what mark your work will receive. multiple choice. unless the instructions specifically permit you to do so. Think: What sort of questions would I ask if this situation were real?' If you have prepared yourself by practising the skills mentioned earlier in this chapter. read the questions through quickly before each section and try to predict what subject the listening text is about.

However. later. By the late nineteenth century. Irish and Welsh. In J891.Chapters 3 (Hunities) fj G Q Module C Reading and Writing Practice Tests Test Number 1 Reading Part 1. By prohibiting the entry of non-European immigration this Act hindered the spread of non-European languages in Australia. in some areas. English was given predominance by the settlers. The pre-emi. As a result Abo. By 1983.tion of the Europeans to the Chinese led to restrictions on Chinese and other non-European immigration and eventually to the Federal Immigration Act of 1901. despite prior Portugese and Dutch coastal exploration.6 on page 9. (Reading passage continues over page) . came almost exclusively from the British Isles. one lan. Ireland and Wales. from the beginning of European settlement in 1788. eliminated. The first white settlers. speakers of languages other than English did not arrive in the Australian colonies in significant numbers until the goldrushes of the 1850s.nence of the English language reflects the fact that European settlement of this continent has been chiefly by English-speaking people. convicts and soldiers and. Australia's Linguistic History Read the passage below. In addition. which attracted people from all over the world.guage group had knowledge of its own language together with some knowledge of the languages spoken in the territories immediately adjacent to their own. Scotland. The reac. German appears to have been the major nonEnglish language spoken in the Australian colonies. Aboriginal Australia was multilingual in the sense that more than two hundred languages were spoken in specific territorial areas which together comprised the whole country. about 83 per cent of the Australian population spoke English as a mother tongue. Because mobility was restricted. Less than one per cent did not use English at all. including substantial numbers from China. then answer Questions 1 . free settlers. Some of these settlers spoke the then standard form of English whilst others spoke a wide variety of the non-standard forms of English that flourished in various areas of England.riginal languages were displaced and. However. many spoke the Celtic languages including Gaelic. about four per cent of the total population was of German origin.

About 60 per cent came from non-English-speaking countries. a demographer at the Australian National University. has estimated that in 1947 only 59. Germany and the Netherlands. Australian immigration policies have not discriminated against people on the grounds of race. The post-war migration program reversed the process of increasing English monolingualism. Dr C.Part 1 continued Despite increased immigration from southern Europe. Turkey.5 per cent of the total overseas-born population. Africa and Oceania.ern Europe during the 1920s and 1930s. Yugoslavia. Traditional migration from Europe. the period from 1900 to 1946 saw the consolidation of the English language in Australia. Cyprus. This process was accelerated by the xenophobia engendered by the two world wars which resulted in a decline in German in particular and of all non-English languages in general.000 in_1891 By 1981 their numbers had increased to 160. the Asian population of Australia more than doubled to 8. and more Asian settlers have arrived. from East Timor and Vietnam in particular. . As the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs noted. Greece. especially from South East Asia generally and. Italy. The post-war period also witnessed a reversal of a trend of diminishing numbers of Australians of Aboriginal and Asian descent. Since 1973. declined in relative importance during this decade.000. although remaining substantial. The numbers of new settlers from Lebanon and New Zealand also more than doubled during this period and there was much greater migration from Latin America. Price.000 Aborigines remained from a population of 110. more recently. Australia was at its most monolingual ever: 90 per cent of the population tracing its ancestry to Britain'. Between 1947 and 1971. Between 1971 and 1981. notably. the result was that 'at the end of World War II. Germany and east. nearly three million people came to settle in Australia.

............. 4.. 5..... ex 1788 1..2.. Answer the questions below by writing the correct date in the boxes on the Answer Sheet for Questions 1 to 6............. From the years after the Second World War until.. Australia's Linguistic History Questions 1-6 Read the passage headed 'Australia's Linguistic History'... 6.....6. almost 3 million people emigrated to Australia.........3.... from the turn of the century up to.................. 3................the Australian Government enacted a law that prohibited all nonEuropean immigration into Australia...............5......... In...... Figures from ....example..4 .......... . Example: Although there had been many Aboriginal languages in Australia before white settlement... Even though there were large numbers of non-English-speaking European immigrants for part of this period..Parti.. The first one has been done as an example...............English was the unchallenged dominant language in Australia........ English took over as the main language from .............. The first period when speakers of languages other than English arrived in Australia in large numbers was in the 1 2.. show that at that time about four per cent of Australia's population was of German origin.... resulting in an increase in Asian immigration.... with about 60 per cent coming from non-Englishspeaking countries.....In....the laws preventing non-Europeans from emigrating to Australia were removed..

Part 2. The Composition of Australia's Overseas Born Population by Birthplace Look at the information in the map and answer Questions 7-14 on page 11 .

.. Use the information in the map to complete the passage below... The United Kingdom/Eire and .7...... about 26 per cent of new settlers arriving in Australia came from Asia. The map shows the composition of Australia's overseas born population by .......... The Composition of Australia's Overseas Bom Population by Birthplace Questions 7 -14 Look at the map on page 10.... although of this number. (3.....were the two most important sources of migrants....... Greece....9.. Malaysia and 1 1 Smaller numbers of people had been born in the.....per cent were from one country...........5 per cent of the population: they came chiefly from.0 per cent)........(5.13. has become much more significant since the 1970s..In the boxes on the Answer Sheet.. ex birthplace... The first one has been done as an example...12..part 2. People born in ... Non-European migration...................... comprising over three million people or 21 per cent of the total Australian population in 1981.. ...... Thirty-seven per cent were European..... principally from ..... write the correct word.....9 per cent) and in Africa (2..............5. in. words or number to complete the spaces.....10......accounted for 8............................example...2 per cent).... with more than half of all immigrants coming from non-English-speaking countries........... particularly South East Asian.14.... In the years 1982-83... Germany and Yugoslavia....

The latter is probably closer to the truth. most often just terms of cultural artifacts but sometimes other features as well. All set the vibrations going in the same way. Engjish is related genetically to Dutch through the common ancestry of Germanic and Indo-European. have fewer than a hundred speakers each. Another makes it five thousand or more. . culturally and typologically. it often happens that languages of the same family diverge so radically in the course of time that only the most careful analysis will demonstrate their kinship.Part 3. for instance. A. Languages can be related in three ways: genetically. The number of different languages is formidable and is quite awesome if we include the tongues once spoken but now dead. All languages use the same channel for sending and receiving: the vibrations of the atmosphere. Some Traits of Language Read the passage and answer Questions 15-22 on pages 13 to 14. genetic relationship is one between mother and daughter or between two sisters or two cousins: there is a common ancestor some.where in the family line. into small units of sound that can be combined and recombined in distinctive ways. by the activity of the speech organs and all organise the vibrations in essentially the same way. Though genetic and cultural relationships tend to spell typological ones. It is related Culturally to North American Indian languages from which it has taken many place names. A cultural relationship arises from contacts in the real world at a given time. A typological relationship is one of resemblances regardless of where they came from. The opposite happens too: languages unrelated genetically may converge to a high degree of similarity. for many languages are spoken by relatively few people — several in one small area of New Guinea. And it is related typolpgically to Chinese which it resembles more than it resembles its own cousin Latin in the comparative lack of inflection on words. enough speakers command a second language to adopt some of its features. One estimate puts the number of languages in active use in the world today somewhere between three and four thousand.

Some Traits of Language Questions 15 -17 Read the passage headed 'Some Traits of Language1. complete the table below to describe the primary relationship between English and several other languages: *write T if the relationship is primarily typological *write C if the relationship is primarily cultural *write G if the relationship is primarily genetic Write your answers in the boxes on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as an example. 16. Languages 1 Example: English . English .Chinese English-American Indian English .Part 3. 17. Then.Latin .Dutch ex Relationship G 15.

Languages that have developed from totally separate ancestors may come to resemble each other to a high degree. Each language has a unique medium for sending and receiving: some use the speech organs and others use small distinctive units of sound. 22. The writer believes that there are probably fewer than five thousand languages spoken in the world today. 20. The first one has been done as an example. Example: It is said there may be three to four thousand languages spoken in the world today. ex True.Part 3 continued Questions 18 . A genetic relationship between languages does not always imply a typological relationship. 18. write False if the statement is an inaccurate summary of information in the text. . Write True in the box on the Answer Sheet if the statement accurately summarises the information in the text. 21.22 The following statements are summaries of some of the information in the reading passage 'Some Traits of Language'. A cultural relationship between languages is one where two languages have developed from similar cultures. 19.

.........30 The following passage is a discussion on what age is the best time to learn a language.... What will cause the learner the greatest difficulty after puberty is the .26. Each word can be used once only........ One aspect of the current debate on language teaching in Australian schools is the ..... Note that there are more words than there are spaces....example....time to begin to learn a language. At 60 years.. However.. The first one has been done as an example.. ex question Language teachingwithin the education system in Australia has traditionally been concentrated at the secondary school .... From the list in the box. It should be remembered........ that many studies have shown that there is 28 age at which one cannot learn a language..of when is the best time for people to learn a second language.. The reasons for this problem with accent have been much .. 70 years or 80 years you can still learn a language. however........age to commence language learning occurs in the early primary years or even in pre-school.....24..29.... Optimum Age for Language Learning Questions 23 ..... many people argue that the .. Some suggest that early adolescence is in fact the.......... problems many high school students face.... select the correct words to complete the text and write them in the boxes on the Answer Sheet....27.....30 debated emotional controversy level soonest technology optimum no worst acquire education question only accent examination age ..23....... when children are able to 25 a language naturally with minimum interference from their mother tongue. Several words have been omitted from the text....Part 4........ given the psychological and .

and the degree of teacher commitment to the goal of cultural awareness and sensitivity. This proposition is applied to cultures both within Australia and overseas. It believes. this language learning objective relates to the role of languages other than English in various fields of employment.. Many submissions stressed the value of the language learning experience as a means of understanding other cultures.35 on page 18. Thus. The first point relates to what might be termed the more strictly utilitarian reasons for language learning — the acquisition of fluency in a language other than English for the purpose of direct communication. The communication in question may be of an informal nature. for example. such as the civilizations of classical antiquity which have exerted a profound influence on the Western tradition. In large measure. . Professor M. diplomacy and defence. which are in a sense dishonest if you say to someone: 'If you spend all this time learning a language you will immediately be able to go and find a use for it'. Some witnesses to the Inquiry cautioned against placing too heavy an emphasis on utilitarian goals.Part 5. it is argued that language study can contribute in important ways both to harmonious community relationships within Australia. even though the emphasis placed upon these skills may vary considerably according to the educational context. international trade. practical arguments tend to give an incomplete picture of the value of language learning. however. such as that which occurs during overseas travel. In the course of hearings. however. and to an understanding of the cultural values of other countries. taken in isolation. It is also contended that language provides the key to major historical cultures. Halliday commented: I think one should not be too restricted to the practical arguments. In the early school years. Nonetheless. The Report of the Inquiry by the Senate of the Australian Parliament into a national language policy in Australia proposed five purposes for studying a language other than English in Australian schools. The second purpose concerns the link between a language and the cultural context from . that the measure of success achieved is likely to be largely •dependent on the teaching methodology adopted. such as interpreting and translating. and hence of developing sensitive and tolerant cross-cultural attitudes. Dr David Ingram of the Australian Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations referred to evidence which lends some empirical support to the claim that the experience of language learning fosters the development of a better understanding of other cultures.which it emerges. it seems indisputable that practical fluency skills must remain one of the major purposes of the language teaching enterprise. utilitarian objectives may well be less important than they are at tertiary level where employment considerations exert a strong influence. I think we should have a more rounded picture of the goal. Purposes of Language Study: The Australian Senate Inquiry into a National Language Policy Read the passage below and answer Questions 31 . The Committee agrees that. The Committee does not find the proposition difficult to accept. or between members of different groups within Australian society in a variety of social situations.

The third objective relates to the role of language learning in the maintenance of ethnic languages and cultures within Australia. Since language and culture are inextricably intertwined. he states. is not simply to assist in the maintenance of a cultural and linguistic heritage but to aid in preserving that heritage from extinction. The educational outcomes at stake here were described in a number of ways. several submissions spoke of the role of language learning in the general development of personality. and acceptance of difference'. Where the language concerned is the child's mother tongue —either the language of a migrant group or an Aboriginal language — an additional factor emerges. and yet have very little success in convincing others. The objective in this context. A similar outcome may be expected from the encounter with another culture made possible through language study. it is argued. and hence a powerful means of challenge to complacency in the Tightness of one's own ways. As a result. Finally. their estimation of their family's value as well as of their own worth is likely to rise. To a large extent. more critical awareness of the nature and mechanism of language". . if appropriately taught. Halliday. Professor M.In this regard another submission referred to the contention that second language study produces such desirable characteristics as 'greater tolerance. Nonetheless. In the case of Aboriginal communities this issue takes on a special note of urgency since. others believe it is all about doing grammar exercises. for example. and went on to observe that: It is paradoxical that language teachers are totally convinced of the validity of such claims. language study contributes significantly to the development of individual self-esteem. in many instances. since the introduction of the language into the school encourages children of that language background to value it and appreciate it as an asset. 'suggests that bilinguals are superior to monolinguals in logical thought and conceptual development. verbal intelligence and divergent thinking". In such a case the language program may also aid family cohesion by facilitating the child's communication with family members of non-English-speaking background. In this context. Prominent amongst the purposes of language learning described in submissions was the fourth point: the development of the general cognitive and linguistic capacities of students. Naturally. spoke of language learning as 'an educational exercise of the first importance. the benefits of language learning in question here are less easy to quantify than those involved in the objectives previously discussed. The Committee believes that submissions have been correct in drawing attention to these personal development issues. languages can play an important part in assisting young people to establish their identity. the Committee believes that. this objective builds upon and sums up aspects of those already covered. While the language teachers believe that it is all about tolerance and understanding. the preservation of cultural heritages necessarily entails the retention of the languages associated with them. and develop their individual and social personalities. offers the opportunity for a broadening of personal horizons. for example. Another submission referred to the development of 'a sharpened. The possibility of direct communication with speakers of another language. What is required here is a genuine attempt on the part of language teachers to think through the concepts of attitudinal development and to demonstrate that language learn ing can certainly be an encounter with a new thought system. Aboriginal cultures and languages are on the verge of disappearing completely. Professor Clyne pointed to research conducted particularly in Canada which. understanding of others. as a development of thinking". It was argued in submissions that a central element in Australia's policy of multiculturalism is a recognition of the value of the cultural heritages of the different groups within Australian society. therefore.

C. E. To prevent Aboriginal languages disappearing completely L. J. Question 31 Question 32 Question 33 Question 34 Question 35 First Purpose of Language Study? Second Purpose of Language Study? Third Purpose of Language Study? Fourth Purpose of Language Study? Fifth Purpose of Language Study? A. To maintain ethnic languages and cultures as part of Australia's policy of multiculturalism To convince people that language classes teach tolerance and acceptance of other races and cultures * To successfully communicate with people who do not speak English both within Australia and overseas To find employment outside Australia To better appreciate the multicultural nature of Australian society To achieve better professional standing in careers in Australia To develop an understanding of other cultures To develop better cognitive and general linguistic abilities in students To assess whether bilinguals are superior to monolinguals in logical thought and conceptual development To develop the personality of students and a sense of individual identity K. Identify the summaries of the major purposes as listed in the passage and write their corresponding letters in the appropriate box on the Answer Sheet to answer Questions 31 . I.35. F. D. Purposes of Language Study Questions 31 . B.Part 5. H.35 Read the passage headed 'Purposes of Language Study'. To enable Australians to travel overseas more easily This is the end of the reading test . read the list of statements below that summarise both the five major purposes of studying languages other than English in Australian schools as well as some of the arguments used in support of the major points. G. Then.

Answer Sheet . 2 j 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 .  You may cut out this page to make it easier to use.Write your answers to tlie reading practice tests in the boxes below.

.This page has been deliberately left blank.

. *You should spend no more than 15 minutes on this task.  Tes t Number 1 Writing Writing Task 1 The diagram below comes from a student's lecture notes after hearing a lecture on the factors affecting the learning of English as a second language. describe the main factors affecting success in learning English as a second language. Using the information in the diagram and your own experience. *You should write at least 100 words. *Do not write in the form of notes.

Writing Task 2 Write an essay on the following topic: All secondary school students should learn a second language. *You should spend 30 minutes on this task. Use This Space For Notes 22 . You should support your opinion with relevant evidence. You may also use your own knowledge and experience. *You should write at least 150 words. *You may use information in the reading passages but do not copy directly from them. *Your essay should be well organised to express your point of view.

Writing Task 1 .

beginning on page 162: .The answers to the reading questioins and themodel essays for the writing tasks are in Chapter 7.

Son pages 28 to 29. much about the changing focus of the exploitation of Australia's resources. the value of mineral exports as a percentage of total exports climbed steadily to equal pastoral and agricultural exports. Mineral exports from Australia present a different picture.  Test Number 2 Reading Part 1. steadily declined as a percentags of £otal exports in the period 1952 to 1976. In the first decade Australia produced almost half the world's gold supply. the peak production period for gold from Australia's fields was 1901 to 1910. In recent years. A comparison of Figure 5 with Figures 2 and 3 clearly reveals how. fruit. and brought great and sudden wealth to the nation's economy. once responsible for over 60 per cent of Australia's export trade. Since then they have stabilised at a comparatively low level (25 per cent). though 1960. 1964 and 1972 were better years. From about 1830 wool replaced the products of whaling and sealing as the dominant in. and above all. From the 1870s Australia began to mine and export other minerals: copper. . wool production reached a peak of 800. dairy products). Figure 3 shows that other agricultural exports (wheat. Gold was the first mineral exported from Australia in quantity. the addition of relative newcomers such as uranium and diamonds has ensured that mineral exports have maintained their importance to the Australian economy into the 1990s.000 kilos. however. from the 1950s to the 1980s. since which time production has greatly diminished. silver. meat. vegetables. It was commonly quoted and quite true to say that 'Australia rode on the sheep's back'. Its supremacy in Australia's export trade was unrivalled for over a century. sugar) have remained fairly stable at around 18 per cent of total exports in the last three decades. As can be seen from Figure 2.dustry and the biggest export. Although mineral exports have fluctuated somewhat since then. In contrast. notwithstanding the sharp but temporary decline in the Depression of the 1890s. however. about 750. coal and iron ore. reaching a peak of around 29 per cent in 1976. pastoral exports generally (wool. New discoveries of mineral deposits and the steady introduction of new technology led to a slow but steady growth in mineral exports. with the greatest boom coming after the Second World War.000 tonnes in 1971 (Figure 1). Australia's Exports Read the passage below and answer Questions 1 . Surprisingly. wool sales have become an area of deep concern in the Australian economy. skins and hides. tin. The pattern of change in Australia's export trade reveals. Figure 4 traces gold production from its discovery in New South Wales and Victoria in 1851.

Australia's Exports Questions 1-5 Read the passage headed 'Australia's Exports'. From the information in the passage. Figure 2 in the reading passage.Parti. Question 1. say. For example. identify the five graphs below by writing the correct Figure Number in the box on the Answer Sheet. Figure ? . if you think that the information in the graph in Question 1 matches the facts connected with. you would write thenumber 2 in the box on the Answer Sheet. Figure ? Question 2.

Figure ? . Figure ? Question 4. Figure ? Question 5.part 1 continued Question 3.

editor of the magazine Nouy Mir. Today they would have to drive 48 kilometres north across flat. the surface area of the sea has shrunk 40 per cent. leaving behind 26. once the fourth-largest inland body of water. The Aral Sea has become a test of the Soviet Union's newly stated commitment to balancing short-term economic growth against the demands of the environment. in Pravda in June.000 square kilometres of salty. it is the Soviet Union's most mourned and debated ecological calamity. the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya. Soviet developers have made sluggish sewers of the two rivers that feed the Aral Sea. Twenty years ago. anglers might have stood on the Aral seabed.Part 2. This is — or was — the Aral Sea. and even the climate in the vast Aral Sea basin. Although it is far less severe in its immediate consequences than the catastrophic earthquake in Armenia. with unhappy consequences for the health. grey. said to be the first allowed into this closed region. Since 1960. Prominent writers and scientists who formthe Committee . up to their hips in water. receding toward a lifeless equilibrium. and they would see a briny pool. salt-scabbed earth to find the disappearingsea. manmade desert. 'A catastrophe of no lesser magnitude than Chernobyl. throat cancer and birth defects. The high concentration of salt and farm chemicals in the rivers and underground water is blamed for high rates of stomach and liver disease.' wrote Sergei Zalygin. and fished for carp under the blazing sun of north-west Uzbekistan. Stricken Sea Needs Long-Term Solution Read the passage below and answer Questions 6 -16 on pages 32 to 33. By siphoning off water to irrigate the cotton fields of Uzbekistan and neighbouring Turkmenia. the economy. All this was obvious on a recent visit.

part 2 continued to Save the Aral Sea say the sea can be salvaged only by strict measures to curtail the use of water. It is 48 kilometres from the water. fertilisers and pesticides. . From time to time. Others. Another Aral Sea oddity has a peculiarly Soviet quality: the fish cannery at Muinak. is now landlocked. New collector canals are being built to recycle used irrigation water back to the sea. it whips up vast clouds of salty dust from the desiccated seabed. But to avoid closing the plant. and the commercial fishing catch has fallen to zero because of the high concentration of salt. Without the moderating influence of the huge lake the summers have become hotter — by two or three degrees Celsius — and drier. want to replenish the sea by reviving a controversial engineering scheme: tapping two Siberian rivers and diverting their water to Central Asia. the authorities fly in frozen fish at high cost from the Baltic Sea. now consisting largely of leaky. mostly involving stricter conservation of water that irrigates cotton crops in Uzbekistan and Turkmenia. The area faces many problems. such as salt storms. including the officials responsible for water development. Traces of Aral sand have been found as far away as Georgia and on the Soviet coast of the Arctic Sea. 2. The measures are to include a reconstruction of the irrigation system. The ruling Communist Party Politburo approved guidelines in September to reduce the depletion of the sea.720 kilometres away. depositing grit on farms hundreds of kilometres away. the northerly wind blows so violently. even if this means cutting back production of water-intensive crops such as cotton and rice. built on what was then the southern shore to process the catch of the Aral Sea fishing fleet. unlined ditches.

The first one has been done as an example. 10.Part 2. Temperatures in the area have: (a) risen by 2 or 3 degrees (b) decreased by 2 or 3 degrees . Answer the following questions by choosing the correct answer and writing the appropriate letter in the box on the Answer Sheet. 9. Stricken Sea Needs Long-Term Solution Questions 6-10 Read the passage headed 'Stricken Sea Needs Long-Term Solution'. 8. The problems in the Aral Sea have been caused by: (a) natural environmental changes (b) man-made changes (c) the Chernobyl nuclear disaster (d) the Armenian earthquake The Sea has shrunk because: (a) high temperatures have caused increased evaporation (b) the salt content has increased (c) the sources of its water have been diverted The rivers that formerly filled the Aral Sea have been: (a) used to grow cotton (b) diverted to Siberia (c) polluted by industrial chemicals The high rates of illnesses in the region have been blamed on: (a) the Chernobyl nuclear disaster (b) salt and farm chemicals in the rivers (c) pollutants in the local fishing industry 7. Example: The Aral Sea in the south-east of the Soviet Union has: (a)disappeared (b) diminished by 40 per cent (c)been contaminated by industrial pollution Ex b 6.

The first one has been done as an example. Write Incorrect if the statements are not supported by the reading passage. Incorrect Despite the problems of the region. . A fish cannery has had to be moved 48 kilometres in order to continue in operation. One proposed solution to the problem would mean less production of cotton and rice in the region. answer the following questions by writing Correct in the box on the Answer Sheet if the following statements are supported by information in the reading passage. 13. Government plans also include redirecting irrigation water to the Aral Sea so it is not depleted. Violent salty storms sometimes carry salt from the dry seabed to places many hundreds of kilometres away. ex 11. Example: The Soviet Union has no stated commitment to protecting the environment. 15. 16. Government plans to solve the problems include rebuilding fimsflicient irrigation canals. 14. 12.Part 2 continued Questions 11 -16 From the same reading passage. there are no suggestions to reduce the use of water from the rivers feeding the Aral Sea.

Part 2. Stricken Sea Needs Long-Term Solution

Questions 6-10 Read the passage headed 'Stricken Sea Needs Long-Term Solution'. Answer the following questions by choosing the correct answer and writing the appropriate letter in the box on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as an example.

Example: The Aral Sea in the south-east of the Soviet Union has: (a)disappeared (b) diminished by 40 per cent (c)been contaminated by industrial pollution Ex b The problems in the Aral Sea have been caused by: (a)natural environmental changes (b) man-made changes (c)the Chernobyl nuclear disaster (d) the Armenian earthquake 7. The Sea has shrunk because: (a)high temperatures have caused increased evaporation (b)the salt content has increased (c)the sources of its water have been diverted The rivers that formerly filled the Aral Sea have been: (a)used to grow cotton (b)diverted to Siberia (c)polluted by industrial chemicals The high rates of illnesses in the region have been blamed on: (a)the Chernobyl nuclear disaster (b) salt and farm chemicals in the rivers (c)pollutants in the local fishing industry

8.

9.

10. Temperatures in the area have: (a) risen by 2 or 3 degrees (b)decreased by 2 or 3 degrees

part 2 continued

Questions 11-16 From the same read ing passage, answer the following questions by writing Correct in the box on the Answer Sheet if the following statements are supported by information in the reading passage. Write Incorrect if the statements are not supported by the reading passage. The first one has been done as an example.

Example: The Soviet Union has no stated commitment to protecting the environment. ex 11. Incorrect Despite the problems of the region, there are no suggestions to reduce the use of water from the rivers feeding the Aral Sea.

12.

One proposed solution to the problem would mean less production of cotton and rice in the region.

13. A fish cannery has had to be moved 48 kilometres in order to continue in operation.

14.

Violent salty storms sometimes carry salt from the dry seabed to places many hundreds of kilometres away.

15.

Government plans to solve the problems include rebuilding (inefficient irrigation canals.

16.

Government plans also include redirecting irrigation water to the Aral Sea so it is not depleted.

Part3. The Heat Is On

Questions 17 - 20 Read the passage headed 'The Heat Is On' and the accompanying'Calendar of Catastrophe'. Match the examples of global climatic change below to the five 'greenhouse predictions' in the passage by writing the number of the prediction in the box on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as an example.

Example: An iceberg more than twice the size of the Australian Capital Territory broke off Antarctica in 1987. It floated away, broke into three sections and is slowly melting. Prediction Number ? ex 5

17.

The grain belts of the US and the Soviet Union suffered some of the worst droughts ever recorded during the last northern summer. Prediction Number ?

18. The four warmest years on record seem to have been in the 1980s (1980, 1981,1983 and 1987). The globe appears to have warmed up an average of 0.5'C over the past century. Prediction Number ?

19. Drought has lingered over Africa's Sahel region for most of the past twenty years, and over India's vast central plateau for most of this decade. But the models suggest that monsoons may become more intense in the wet tropics. Prediction Number ?

20. The centre of 1988's Hurricane Gilbert, one of the most powerful storms in the Western hemisphere this century, was agreed to be of abnormally low pressure. Its most powerful gusts reached 320km/h as it hit Jamaica, Haiti, Venezuela, the Cayman Islands and Mexico. Prediction Number ?

The first one has been done as an example. complete the following table of climatic disasters. Write your answers in the boxes on the Answer Sheet.part 3 continued Questions 21-25 From the information in the 'Calendar of Catastrophe'. .

the United Nations and its specialised agencies. industry.  The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer should be .  Governments and other international organisations should initiate the development of a comprehensive global convention as a framework for protocols on the protection of the atmosphere. At the International Conference on the Changing Atmosphere: Implications for Global Security. Challenging targets would be a 10 per cent improvement in both areas by the year 2005. bilateral and regional actions and agreements to deal with specific problems such as acidification and greenhouse gas emissions. educational institutions and individuals should act immediately to counter the ongoing degradation of the atmosphere. These Activities should in no way impede simultaneous national. ozone layer depletion.34 on page 40. Clearly. Targets for energy-efficiency and energy-supply improvements should be made. 1988. review and approve major new projects for energy efficiency. the industrialised nations have a responsibility to lead the way. through both their national energy policies and their bilateral and multilateral assistance arrangements. Systems must be initiated to encourage. Additional measures to limit other ozone-destroying halocarbons should also be considered. ratified immediately and revised in 1990 to ensure nearly complete elimination of emissions of fully halogenated CFCs by theyear 2000. An initial global goal should be to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by approximately 20 per cent of 1988 levels by the year 2005. with a view to having the principles and components of the con vention ready for consideration at the intergovernmental Conference on Sustainable Development jn 1992. the world economy and the natural environment. emphasising such key elements as the free international exchange of information and support of research and monitoring. held in Toronto from June 29 to 30. non-governmental organisations.  In order to reduce the risks of global warming.Part 4. energy policies must be designed to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide and other trace gases. About one-half of this reduction would be sought from energy-efficient improvements and other conservation measures and the other half from modifications in energy supplies. Preparation for such a convention should be vigorously pursued at upcoming international workshops and policy conferences. A detailed study of the systems implications of these targets should also be made. and acidification — and described the implications of these changes for global security. Stabilising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide is an imperative goal — currently estimated to require reductions of more than 50 per cent from present emission levels. Negotiations on ways to achieve this reduction should be initiated now. Towards Global Protection of the Atmosphere Read the passage below and answer Questions 26 . more than 300 scientists and policymakers from 48 countries recommended specific actions to reduce the impending crisis caused by pollution of the atmosphere.  . Among the conference statement's 39 observations and proposals were the following recommendations:  Governments. Working groups presented the scientific basis for concern about atmospheric changes — including climatic warming.

   Funding should be increased to non The work of the Intergovernmental ernmental organisations for the estabPanel on Climate Change to conduct lishment of environmental education continuing assessments of scientific programmes and public awareness sults and to initiate government-topaigns that would aim at changing government discussions of responses lic values and behaviour with respect and strategies should be supported. development and tfieTransfershould be significantly energy of information on renewable and technology transfer should be extended with particular emphasis on needs of developing countries. other substances that are precursors spheric ozone. and reviewing nuclear power. ing. related to an overall global change of climate and to how the oceans affect global heat transport and the flux of greenhouse gases.part 4 continued  Contributions towards achieving the energy-efficiency goal will vary from region to region. research and analysis related to the changing atmosphere should be veloped and supported.  Resources for research and monitoring  Financial support should be efforts within the World Climate Profor environmental education at all gramme. the International Geosphereels. especially advanced biomass conversion technologies. nuclear power could play a role in lowering emissions of carbon dioxide. reviewing strategies for the implementation of renewable energy.  Funding for research.  There must be vigorous application of existing technologies to reduce emissions of acidifying substances. radioactive waste and nuclear weapons proliferation problems can be solved. If safety. the environment.  Products should be labelled to allow consumers to judge the extent and nature of atmospheric contamination arising from the manufacture and use of the product. D  The desired reduction in carbon dioxide emissions will also require switching to fuels that emit less carbon dioxide. ticularly important to understand how climate changes on a regional scale are . Technical cooperation projects to developing nations to participate in ternational mitigation efforts. It is parissues of global change. and the Human to establishing special units in Response to Global Change Prosity departments to address the gramme should be increased. Deforestation should be reduced afforestation increased through proposals such as the establishment of a trust fund to provide adequate incentives to enable developing nations to manage their tropical forest resources sustainably. and greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide. some countries have already demonstrated a capability for increasing efficiency by more than per cent a year for over a decade.  Funding for more extensive transfer and technical co-operation projects in coastal zone protection management should be expanded. and consideration" should be Biosphere Programme.

30. write Correct in the box on the Answer Sheet. Example: Everyone from governments to individuals should act immediately to prevent atmospheric degradation from becoming worse.34 Read the passage headed Towards Global Protection of the Atmosphere'. 29. A worldwide goal of two per cent a year in increasing energy efficiency should be established immediately. 33. 32. Write Incorrect if the statement is not a correct summary. 31. We should aim to reduce carbon dioxide emissions through energy-efficiency and energy-supply improvements by 10 per cent by the year 2005. Money should be paid to community organisations to help them to change people's opinions about the environment. Governments and other international organisations should begin to develop common policies for the protection of the atmosphere as soon as possible. nuclear power may in future be used to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide. The Montreal Protocol should be accepted by all countries by 1992. Money should be paid to developing nations to help them to find ways to reduce the number of trees they cut down and to encourage them to preserve and increase their forests. Towards Global Protection of the Atmosphere Questions 26 . This is the end of the reading test .Part 4. The Montreal Protocol should be accepted immediately. The first one has been done as an example. If the problems of safety. Ex Correct 26. radioactive waste and the spread of nuclear weapons can be solved. 28. If each statement below is a correct summary of one of the recommendations in the passage. 34. 27. Products should be labelled so that consumers can judge if the product is damaging to the atmosphere.

Write your answers to the reading practice tests in the boxes below. Answer Sheet 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 I5 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 .  You may cut out this page to make it easier lo use.

.This page has been deliberately left blank.

. *You should spend no more than 15 minutes on this task. Use the information in the diagram to describe the manner in which water accumulates underground and becomes available for use in arid areas. *Make sure your description is relevant to the task and well organised. The diagram below shows how water which falls on lands many kilometres away can be utilised in these arid areas. *You may use your own knowledge and experience in addition to the diagram. *You should write at least 100 words. Test Number 2  Writing Writing Task 1 In some parts of the world where rainfall is close to zero farmers are able to use water from artesian bores (wells).

Writing Task 2 Write an essay for a university teacher on the following topic: Human beings are rapidly destroying the planet Earth. *Your essay should be well organised to show your point of view. *You should write at least 150 words. *You should spend about 30 minutes on this task. *You may use information in the reading passages but do not copy directly from them. Use this space for Notes .

Writing Task 1 .

The answers to the reading questions and model essays for the writing tasks are in Chapter 7. . beginning on page 162.

ITATE lecturer Ms Rosie Wickert.illiteracy is much more serious than previously estimated. 'Obviously many more than 10 per cent are experiencing problems.' Ms Wickert said. they lack critical thinking skills if you like. (Reading passage continues over page) . We can therefore assume they are having great difficulty with more complex tasks like fitting in with regrading and upgrading in the restructuring of the workforce. more general skills. We need to follow this up because it is something that employers are emphasising when they ask for broader. Test Number 3  Reading Part 1. According to the survey's author. 'Before this first national survey we estimated that 10 per cent of the population were having problems with everyday basic literacy and numerical tasks. 'The evidence suggests that the majority of the population has significant difficulty reading between the lines. Australia's first national survey of adult literacy reveals that the problem of adult . The survey shows that: • • 12 per cent of respondents could not find a simple intersection on a street map 31 per cent can't use the yellow pages correctly 57 per cent can't figure out a 10 per cent surcharge on a lunch bill • • 73 per cent can't identify the issues in a newspaper article about technology 10 per cent failed to achieve at all on quantitative literacy [numeracy tests]. Ms Wickert is a lecturer at the Institute of Technical and Adult Teacher Education (ITATE) which is amalgamating with UTS as the Faculty of Adult Education. First National Literacy Report Read the passage below and answer Questions 1-12 on pages 51 to 52. the study provides evidence to show the need for a long-term national campaign to overcome adult literacy problems.

Part 1 continued

'To seriously address the problem we need opportunities for adults to upgrade their literacy and numeracy skills that are free of charge and widely available. It's estimated that 20 per cent of Australia's adults do not receive their schooling in Australia. Also, the population is ageing, and we believe about 70 percent of the workforce of the year 2000 has already left school. So we can't expect schools to be able to solve these problems. 'We need the help of familiesand communities to raise the understanding of the significance of reading not only during childhood years but life-long." Ms Wickert went on to point to the impact of literacy problems on the economy. 'Literacy is now an important part of labour market programmes and economic restructuring. Government plans to promote a "productive culture" and a strong national economy will fail without a workforce w.hich is more adaptable, mobile and highly skilled,' she said. The controversial nature of the debate about literacy was acknowledged. Differences of opinion arise because 'literacy' is not clearly definable. Ms Wickert said that 'earlier this century people were said to be literate if they could sign their name, but now adults are required to bring different kinds of literacy and problem solving skills to different contexts and these vary in complexity'. The Report, entitled No Single Measure, combines a concern for the individuals who have failed to gain literacy skills adequate for their lives with the*national need to bring about the highest levels of skills, training and education among its workforce. The data collected for the first time enables an estimate of what proportion of the adult Australian population is able to perform literacy tasks at various levels of difficulty. The tasks are grouped in three categories which are referred to as Document Literacy, Prose Literacy and Quantitative or numerical Literacy. A large amount of background data was also collected to gain a greater understand ing of the problem. A bigger picture will emerge as the survey data is further analysed.

Parti- First National Literacy Report

Questions 1-7 Read the passage headed 'First National Literacy Report'. Then, answer the questions below in the boxes on the Answer Sheet. If the statement represents the points made in the article, write Correct; if the statement contradicts the article, write Incorrect; if the statement is not mentioned in the article, write Not Mentioned. The first one has been done as an example.

Example: The national survey of literacy levels showed that literacy is a serious problem in Australia. Ex Correct

I. The results of the survey were unexpected.

2.

Before the survey it had been estimated that about 10 per cent of the population had literacy and numeracy problems.

3.

In fact a much smaller number have these problems.

4.

Literacy and numeracy problems may make it difficult for workers to cope with changes in the workplace.

5.

The problem cannot be solved simply in schools.

6. Schools cannot solve the problem because large numbers of people leave school at 15 without matriculating.

7- Despite the statistics, the literacy levels will not have a significant impact on the future national economy.

Part 1 continued Questions 8-12

From the information in the same passage, identify the groups with specific literacy and numeracy problems represented by the columns in the graph below. Write your answers in the boxes on the Answer Sheet. For example, if you think that Column No. 1 represents Group A, you would write the number 1 in the box for Question 8, and so on. Literacy Problems

&

Group A:

cannot calculate percentages

=

Column ?

9.

Group B:

cannot use a street directory

=

Column?

10. Group C:

cannot make full use of telephone directories

=

Column ?

11. Group D:

cannot add up at all

=

Column?

12. Group E:

cannot fully understand the meaning of what they read

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Again. He is convinced that such attitudinal differences have an all-important bearing on why Chinese and Japanese children excel in school.' says Dr Harold Stevenson. Stevenson says it was data from the parents. Their parents. Japanese. One misconception is that Chinese and Japanese children are innately more intelligent than Western children.Part 2. The study. evidence for this assertion is weak. Their study appears in the latest issue of Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. In fact. Results of the study show that there is no evidence to support such a notion. and because they believe that academic success results from hard work just as much as from intelligence. the head of the research team conducting the study. Stevenson and Lee write that "background information about the children's everyday lives revealed much greater attention to academic activities among Chinese and Japanese than among American children'. that were the most revealing. (Reading passage continues over page) . Hard Work Is Asians' Secret of Success Read the passage below and answer Questions 13 . 'Asians do better in school simply because they try harder . Another punctured myth is that too much television viewing by Western children may account for their poorer school performance. Interestingly. Dr Stevenson points out that it is the Japanese school children who spend more hours in front of the television set than anyrotfyer group measured. was undertaken by Dr Stevenson and Dr Shinying Lee. The authors of a major US study claim to have pinpointed why Chinese and Japanese children are such great school achievers wherever they compete — in Asia.26 on pages 55 to 57. These data point to sharp cultural differences in parental attitudes. What are these differences? Stevenson and Lee suggest six: * Chinese and Japanese children pay more attention to school. Both are from the Centre for Human Growth and Development at the University of Michigan. The children did standardised tests which measured reading and mathematics skills. 'Contexts of Achievement'. comparing the school performance of Chinese. Taipeh (Taiwan) and Sendai (Japan). or in Australia. For instance. The study involved 1440 Year land Year 5 children attending schools in Minneapolis (USA). Chinese and Japanese children do not score any higher on standardised IQ tests. The study. and American children. particularly the mothers. in the US. shatters myths about why Chinese and Japanese children perform so well in school... compared with American children. Then they were interviewed in order to reveal their attitudes towards school. teachers and principals also were interviewed and given questionnaires in order to uncover additional information about the children's attitudes.

They add that 'Chinese and Japanese mothers stressed the importance of hard work to a greater degree than American mothers and American mothers gave greater emphasis to innate ability than did Chinese and Japanese mothers'. "These kids see school as central to their lives. * Chinese and Japanese parents are more committed to their child's schooling success. * Chinese and Japanese parents have higher standards and are more knowledgeable. The researchers write: 'Members of the three cultures differed significantly in terms of parents' interest in their child's academic achievement. Chinese and Japanese mothers viewed this as their child's most important pursuit'.' Stevenson observes that Chinese and Japanese homes. 'whereas children's academic achievement did not appear to be a central concern of American mothers. [and] standards and expectations of parents concerning their child's academic achievement'.Part 2 continued * Chinese and Japanese parents are more interested and involved in their children's schooling. Stevenson and Lee note that Chinese and Japanese parents instil in their children 'beliefs about the relative influence of effort and ability on academic achievement". although usually smaller than American homes. 'American mothers overestimated their child's abilities and expressed greater satisfaction with their child's accomplishments than the Chinese and Japanese mothers. 'Chinese and Japanese families mobilised themselves to assist the child and to provide an environment conducive to achievement". most American students do not. better study skills and spend more hours per week on homework. are still more likely to provide a special place for the child to do homework. * Chinese and Japanese parents are more likely to believe that success gomes from hard work.' . cognitive. involvement of the family in the child's education. 'American mothers appeared to be less interested in their child's academic achievement". he maintains that research reveals that Chinese and Japanese pupils have better note-taking skills. Stevenson and Lee contend that once the child entered primary school. The researchers report that 'Chinese and Japanese mothers held higher standards for their children's achievement than American mothers and gave more realistic evaluations of their child's academic. * Chinese and Japanese parents are more likely to express their child's success in school as a major goal. The two researchers write that. and personality characteristics. rather than from innate ability. Furthermore. In contrast.

Write the letter A or B in the box on the Answer Sheet for Question 13 to show to which group the parent probably belonged. 5 means "Strongly Disagree" agree *success comes from hard work *success comes from natural talent *school success is vital to success in life *school success is not as important as being satisfied with what you are doing *parents should be involved in the education of their children *children should have a fixed time and place for homework 1 2 (3) 4 5 (1) 2345 1 (l) 2 2 3 3 4 4 (5) 5 disagree 1 1 2 (3) 4 2 3 5 4 (5) 13. From the answers that the parent gives. decide whether the parent was from: *Group A: Chinese and Japanese parents or from: *Group B: American parents. The parent was most likely from Group ? . Hard Work is Asians' Secret of Success Question 13 Below is an extract from a questionnaire completed by a parent in the study described in the reading passage.Part 2. Do you Agree or Disagree with the following statements? Circle the number to show your opinion: 1 means "Strongly Agree".

The first one has been done as an example. intelligence nature lower skills mobilised innate actively American higher expectations worried less myths Asian realistic pessimistic .26 The passage on the next page is a summary of part of the text. Not all of the words will be used. Complete the summary by choosing the correct word from the words in the box below and writing it in the appropriate box on the Answer Sheet. each word may be used more than once. more beliefs harder effort clever discovered.Part 2 continued Questions 14 .

26 25 mothers tended to believe their children were doing better and were in their assessment of their ... The study says that Asian children put more . and Chinese and Japanese mothers had higher their children's achievement. achievers in their studies than other children.ex. the surveyed were more children...... EX DISCOVERED The project claims to have found the reasons why Chinese and Japanese children are ..part 2 continued Example: A research project in the USA claims to have. The attitudes of American parents tended to put emphasis 21 importance of hard work and to give much families were more22 natural ability in their children's success... The Chinese and Japanese in...volved in their children's academic 23 24 mothers for life. such as that West...19..... The tests measured ...14.. well as attitudes on credit of the to parents... In addition... in fact. into their studies and points to the belief of the children and their parents in the value of hard work over 16 intelligence. whereas more able than in fact was the truth.18... television than Japanese children. it is the other way round. The study about the differences claims to have disproved some false 17 between children.15. as 20. teachers and the children themselves.....ern children watch .the reasons for an educational phenomenon that has intrigued people for some time....

Planning comcof a complex process The new product and should reflect the introduction system. Many organisations exploring the role of This article spells out the abilities needed by a manager* who is lo survive prosper during the next ten Eleven trails are identified article. strategic thinking her own marketing annual plan must be short2 Secondly. the variables that The organisation of new strategic thinking arc more development is critical lo ous and their interactions survival and growth of plex than in thinking about every company. Too many senior 3 marketing managMost marketing managers ers send their plans to have tactical marketing oblivion once skills. intra company interfaces exposure of the product to That activity should be ket place through test therefore the plan should direct launch. thinking and activity that careful management of a in the preceding stages. so the ager must be thoroughly The management of with such tools as portfolio starts with the vigilant and the directional policy manager identifying a industry analysis opportunity. place. but skilled in analysing company performance strengths and weaknesses. Marketing is fast becoming key role in all sorts of tries. nearer term. But the skills needed the annual planning for thinking strategi cally exercise is comare of a high order plete. Got What It Takes To Be A Marketing Manager? Read the passage below and answer Questions 27 -36 on page 60. This list is by no finitive but constitutes the of effective marketing in the 1990s. end that research and environment requires. not should be dedicated.Part 3. years hence. Without (hat ing that analysis to horizon. Buying factors are complex interactive system both by factors internal to and responses to external Consumer's perceptions of ual products are influenced range of product offerings them. understand how competitors First. and it as a living organism. torical document. Head of Marketing at the South Australian Institute of Technology. and the 4self.ience 1 have used the term 'he' to represent either sex: no preference is intended. 1 Too often marketing in firms outside the fastconsumer goods companies skilled either in analysing haviour or in research. the environment. planning skills are a first requirement for the marketing manager. David Corkindale. and it is very *In many organisations the marketing manager is occupied by both men and women. Thus. particularly issuc'of sustainable tinual monitoring of the vantage. outlines 11 basic skills you must acquire if you are to make it as marketing manager in these tough times. The marketing manager must stand the key factors that mine the decision to buy in the market segments that consideration. . Planning is the most of marketing management The marketing manager At worst it is an annual proactive in the search for sued with ill grace and and in establishing a and proactive environment Planning is a continuing monitoring new product Plans too often find their marketing company is drawer and arc reproducts that will satisfy the under duress. requires ously benefit from marketing management ing and analysis. much further into the forced lo think not about The marketing manager month's sales figures. Skilled salesmen use their to understand the factors mine whether a contact is ible into a customer. A plan of market segments. his tors' activities. For conven. . strategic thinking ence buying habits.

it is the mar. the right advertising support. and in the ranks of the marketing department of the marketing particularly to commission good recompany. effectively. each part of the system relating lo all other pans of 6 the system. into an optimal and understand complex systems mix. precludes intelligent thinking about the long term. The right products. perhaps to a much greater degree than in any other functional'area. Much of this skill can in fact be taught and learned. be tempted by the management game that produces dramatic shortterm results. complex system. typical of the proactive manager. the right level of service support. often the preoccupation with present-day problems. the skill to alter the organisation of the company to meet changing needs is a skill that must be found in the marketing manager. as an instinct for self preservation would demand. 10 Managers are paid to be dynamic organisers of resources — that quality is what should separate managers from bureaucrats! But they must continually ask the question: is that company organised lo serve the needs of its chosen market? Since markets arc in continuous change. They are the historians of past errors! The proactive marketing manager must be thoroughly at home with the profit and loss statement and the balance sheet. with calling-cost per customer calculations. It is all too easy The sources of conflict between the marketing and other departments are well known. 8 The market researcher cannot be exThe marketing company is a repected lo specify the problem facing source management enterprise. the right sales support — all elements must work together to produce a coherent and effective market offering. calculate the cost/benefit equation relating to buying additional inforThe marketing company is a very mation. . since product offerings are likely to be in continuous change. the strategic thinker. 9 The marketing manager as guardian of the company's future has a role not well understood. Market research can best serve the manager when the skills exist to understand the scope of market research. the marketing manager. Long gone are the days when we left it all to the accountants. 11' Every department of a company feels. to differentiate between The financial illiterate has no place good and bad research agencies. 7. The marketing manager's job is to blend together all elements of the The system manager has an unmarketing mix. Productivity analysis will be an important tool in making such measurements. often of the interpersonal kind. The reality is The marketing manager. but conflict resolution requires considerable managerial skill. existing or in process of development. with calculating rates of return on investment.part 3 continued Market research is a vital support to the marketing manager's decision-making. duced. that it is indispensable lo the future survival of the company. the right channels of distribution. living in an environment characterised by creasingly rapid change. operation between all departments must be a systems thinker and a survival chances are measurably retems manager. induced primarily by a desire for glory leading to promo tion or enhanced self marketability. The temptation lo reduce one's horizons in thinking about the future are great indeed.resources extend from places to keting manager who must identify ple. with productivity ratios. each of which reprederstanding of how to analyse sents an investment. one in which no element is out in order to make them work more of phase. search. The highest skill is identifying potential conflict and removing its cause — preventativc rather than remedial management. He must also be able to ket place. the right prices (right in terms of yielding optimum revenue given the demand conditions prevailing). as senior that without full and complete comember of the management team. typical of the active manager's style. but the marketing manager must be a skilful energy manager. from manufacturing back to the problem and the role that addiprocurement of materials. forward tional data will play in resolving that to distribution from factory to marproblem.

32. Title I Example: Planning Skills Point No. Got What It Takes to be a Marketing Manager? Questions 27 . 28. 4 Conflict Resolution Organisational Ability Commissioning Research Strategic Skills Market Behaviour Analysis = Innovation Management Financial Management Systems Thinking Marketing Skills Long-Term Thinking = = = = = = = Point No. ? j Ex 27. Listed below are eleven titles for the eleven numbered points in the passage. ? Point No. Write the correct point number for each title in the boxes on the Answer Sheet. ? This is the end of the reading test . 35. ? Point No. ? Point No. ? Point No. 36.Part 3. ? Point No. ? Point No. 31. 33.36 Read the passage headed 'Got What It Takes to be a Marketing Manager?'. The first one has been done as an example. 30. 34. '29. ? Point No. ? Point No. ? Point No.

 You may cut out this page to make it easier to use. Answer Sheet 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 .Module C Reading & Writing Practice Test 3 Write your answers to lite reading practice tests in the boxes below. .

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Also. with an even smaller number coming from remote areas. 1989 Home area Urban Rural Remote Total Total number of students 320 561 77925 13959 412 445 % female 52. Participation in Higher Education Rales by Sex and Home Location.8 ___ .tralia came from rural areas than from urban areas.8 54. 1989 Source: Data from DEET. Figure 1.3 54. Sept 1990 Figure 2.' Use the statistics in the graph and the chart below to support this statement. *You should take about 15 minutes for this task.8 52. * You should write at least 100 words. Students in Higher Education. Test Number 3  Writing Writing Task 1 'In 1989 significantly fewer students in higher education in Aus. women students in higher education outnumbered male students.

*Your essay should be well constructed to show your point of view. *You may refer to the reading passages in your answer but do not copy directly from them. *You should write at least 150 words.Writing Task 2 Write an essay for a university lecturer on the following topic: The attitude of parents to the education of their children is more important than the quality of schools and teachers in producing welleducated people. Use This Space for Notes . *You should take about 30 minutes for this task.

Writing Task 1 .

Chapter 4    General Training Module Test Number 1 Reading Reading & Writing Practice Tests Part 1.Son page 69. Be-in-It. Dial-It Information Services Read the following information and answer Questions 1 . Dial-it Information Services (One local call fee is charged for each call) Time News  Sportsfone  Cricket and Major Sporting Events TAB Racing Service *Day Meetings *Night Meetings Weather Alpine Accommodation and Snow Report 11539 Cancer Information Service 11648 Cash Management Trust Information 11625 Computerline 11504 Dairy Line 11638 Defence Force Careers Line 11609 Dial-a-Horoscope 11635 Dial-a-Prayer 747 1555 Dial-a-Record 11661 Fire Restrictions Information 11540 Fresh Food Line 11538 Gas Company Information 11535 Hints for Healthy Living 747 1133 Hoyta Cinema Programme and Session Information 11680 Insurance Information Service 11570 Job-Line 11503 1194 1199 1187 1188 1181 1182 1196 Life. Activities 11629 Lottery Results 11529 Lotto Results and Dividends 11521 NRMA Road Report 11571 Ski News and Weather 11547 Shipping Movements (Passenger and Cargo) 11551 Smoking Quit Line 11640 Stock Exchange Reports Mining 11511 Oil 11517 Industrials A-H 11513 Industrials I-Z 11515 Sydney Futures Exchange Reports Financials and Metals 11518 Rural 11519 Television Programmes 11660 Thredbonews 11544 Venereal Disease Information 11646 .

General Training Module Reading & Writing Practice Test I Part 1. We want to go on a picnic today but don't know what the weather will be like. I Example: ex What number do I telephone to find out the time? 1194 1. What number can we ring to find out? 3. Dial-It Information Sendees Questions 1-5 Read the information on the page headed "Dial-It Information Services'. Answer the following questions by writing the correct telephone number in the box on the Answer Sheet. What number do I call to find out the time of a movie at the Hoyts centre? 2. What number can I call? 5. The first one has been done as an example. What number can I telephone to get help to stop smoking? . What number will tell me if lighting a fire in the open is forbidden today? 4. I have invested money in some mining shares and would like to know what the value of my shares is today.

theatres. Faculty  Street Directory: Office. you Broadway. available from the Union Office at Broadway.able at the Students' Association Office. Level 3A. cinemas and retail outlets all over the world. get discounts at local stores. Sydney General Information for Students Read the information below and answer Questions 6-12 on pages 71 to  Lecture Timetables 72.  Student ID Cards: This piece of plastic allows you to borrow library books and table tennis equipment. Level 4. It is avail. .  Travel Concession Cards: These get you half price on public trans. A lost card can be replaced by the Student Information Office. You will be given a card when you enrol. Lecture timetables can  Stamps: be obtained These are sold at the Union Newsagency at both Broadway (Level from your 3A) and Markets (A Block) Campuses.  Library Book Return: Just in front of the Security Office at the Broadway Campus there is a library book return box which will save you a trip to the library. Overdue books cannot be left there and must be returned directly to the library. Broadway.Travel: The International Student Identity Card gets you discounts at museums.port and they are issued upon enrolment. out those frequent mix-ups. It costs $8 (plus a passport-sized colour photograph of yourself) and is only available to full-time students. It also acts as proof of identity where required. University of Technology. borrow sports equipment. If you lose it or you need a replacement then contact Student Information on Level 4.Part 2. Level 3A. Broadway. the Faculty Clerk Students' Association (at the Faculty Offices) will help you to sort Office. and get cinema concessions at the smaller movie houses. but if you are one of the many that A copy can be found at the suffer timetable hassles.  Movie Concession Pass: To get a discount on movie tickets at major cinemas you need a special card. However. . can also see your nearest lecturer who is dubbed 'Academic Advisor' when performing this role.

Broadway (b) Go to the Union Office at Broadway (c) Go to the Student Information Office. answer the following questions by writing the letter corresponding to the correct answer in the boxes on the Answer Sheet. Level 3A 7. Level 3A. University of Technology. Level 3A. To purchase stamps you would go to: (a) The Students' Association Office.General Training Module Reading & Writing Practice Test 1 part 2. Level 4. Sydney General Information for Students Questions 6-12 From the information in Part 2 of the reading section. Example: To replace a lost student ID card you would: (a) Go to the Students' Association Office. Broadway (b)The Union Newsagency 8. A copy of a Sydney Street Directory can be found at: (a)Students' Association Office. Level 4 (c)Union Newsagent. Broadway Ex C 6. Broadway (b) Student Information. Overdue library books: (a) can be returned in the library book return box near the Security Office at the Broadway campus (b) must be returned to the library itself . Level 3A. The first one has been done as an example.

A lost travel concession card can be replaced by contacting Student Information on: (a)Level 3 (b)Level 2 (c)Level 4 10. Do you need a special card to get a discount on movie tickets? (a) Yes (b)No (c) It depends on the movie house 11. If you have a problem with your timetable.Part 2 continued 9. Can you use your student ID card to get a half price concession on public transport? (a)Yes (b) No (c)It depends on the form of transport 12. you can get help from your lecturer and also from: (a) the Students' Association (b) the Student Information Office (c) the Faculty Clerk at the Faculty Offices .

Trade Sewing Machine Maintenance .(Music) . The first one has been done as an example.part 3. on pages 74 to 75. TAPE Course Descriptions Questions 13 . Course title Course number Example: Accounting Ex 8635 13. 16. 14.(Visual Arts) Pilot Licence. 15. 17. 20. From the descriptions given.Trade Creative Arts . match the Course Titles below to their description by writing the Course Number in the boxes on the Answer Sheet. 18.20 Read the TAPE course descriptions in Part 3 of the reading passages. Creative Arts . Each course has a Course Number. 19. Commercial Management Travel and Tourism Public Administration Garment Cutting .

body proportions and body types. In particular. which they leam to produce. .20 on page 73. one will be continued as a General education elective major study for the duration of the course . analyses and forecasts. The accounting information. and line and shape considerations. to understand the basic colour theories. thirty-six weeks. Course No: 0843 Award: Certificate Course No: 8635 Award: Associate Diploma Attendance: Two years. political. TAPE Course Descriptions Read the following information and answer Questions 13 . legal. the course provides training in metric measurements related to a variety of anatomy. Students become proficient at understanding and processing financial data. complies with institutional. nine hours per week (1260 hours total). students develop the skills necessary to become professional accounting personnel. On completion of the course. thirty-six weeks. . from which they leam to produce reports. culling and grading a basic fabric width. Management and Organisation. Four years. Course No: 8510 Award: Advanced Certificate Attendance: Three years. Students also develop the skills and attitudes necessary for coping with technological and organisational change. students become familiar with the broad fields covered by the public administration. Communication. Part 3. Attendance: Three years.General Training Module Reading (•/ Writing Practice Test. In addition.and the relationship between the social. financial statements. students leam about the use and maintenance of cutting-room equipment. they should be capable of drafting. The course has been designed around five strands: Finance and Economics. Students leam to apply the concepts of design and pattemmaking theory to garment styling. and understanding the processes of garment construction operations for mass production and special-measure orders in clothing manufacture. financial and managerial aspects of government. thirty-six weeks. Available Externally In this course. six hours per week (648 hours total) In this course. 18 hours per week (1476 hours total). social and managerial standards. organisation and processes. Office Administration and Public Administration. Course No: 5418 Award: Associate Diploma Stage I Creative Studies I Art theory I * Painting I * Ceramics I • Fibre I * Photography I * Printmaking I Course No: 5419 Award: Associate Diploma Stage I Major instrumental elective Minor instrumental elective Harmony & composition I History of music I Ensemble & conducting I Electronic music & recording 1 Concert practice I Aural training I * The student will select two of the Music in the community I subjects marked with an asterisk. eight hours per week This course provides the theoretical and practical training required by garment cutters in the clothing industry.

Business law Marketing III This course prepares students for the appropriate nations set by the Civil Aviation Authority. An understanding is related to those occupations in the following kinds of developed of the importance of maintaining the best firms and organisations. per week (648 hours total) Subjects This course has been designed to assist the individual's Aeroplane performance and operation advancement to the position of manager of a profit Engines. thirty-six weeks. regional and national tourism organi. or nine weeks full-time. possible production-flow through the various departlour wholesalers. organising. understand Flight rules and radio procedures the work performed in other functional areas. . marketing. Entrance requirements: None Compulsory subjects Geography Stage I Economics Workshop procedures I Tourism I Textiles process theory I Marketing I Sewing machine servicing I Business and consumer psychology Business communication Statistics Tourism II Course No: 3103 Management I Award: Statement of Attainment Marketing II Attendance: Eighteen weeks. It provides education and training machines used in apparel plants. Enrolments will be accepted either for the full course or for ual subjects. Course No: 3519 Award: Advanced Certificate Applicants should have completed the Private Pilot LiAttendance: Three years. six hours cence theory examinations. travel agencies. systems and instrumentation centre in a small or medium size corporation. eight hours per week (.ments of the plant and-a mechanic's responsibilities in sations. market. Financial management part-time. other relation to this concept. such as sales management. tour operators.Trainee mechanics receiveefficiently service the instruction so that they may ing and related administrative areas of the travel and various tourism industry. carriers. production and personnel departments.General Training Module Reading & Writing Practice Test 1 part 3 continued Course No: 3534 Award: Associate Diploma 9 This course is designed for persons pursuing or devel- Course No: 0842 Award: Certificate Attendance: Three years. or in the Meteorology division or branch of a large scale organisation. such as finance. and in sales-marketing facets of airlines. and direct the managerial functions of planning. hotels and other accommodation businesses. Satisfactory completion of the course together with vant work experience can lead to membership of the Australian Institute of Management and the Management Graduate Society. twelve hours per week. theoretical and practical oping careers at management level in the sales. It aims Navigation and flight planning to develop his or her ability to function effectively in Principles of flight specialist area. directing and controlling.

Experimental Processes. In general. Australian Politics and Government. NOTE: The completion of a TPC course does not guarantee eligibility for entry into all tertiary institutions or courses. The TPC is accepted by most universities and tertiary institutions for entry into most courses. Successful completion of the TPC will allow entry to TAFE Diploma and Associate Diploma courses. It is also recognised by the NSW Public Service. These skills include: use of a library. tutorials. Biology. Computing. Physics. You must ensure that the subjects you select will allow you entry to your chosen course(s). Attendance: Full-time — weekly attendance is 22 hours (1 year course). Other subjects include: (Anthropology. efficient reading and research techniques. and the NSW Police. techniques for successful independent learning. The Australian Economy.34 on pages 78 to 79. You may find it helpful to discuss your subject selection with a TAFE Counsellor. The final mark includes written assignments. Media Studies. speaking to small groups of people. The end-of-year examination is worth 20 per cent of the total mark for each subject. Not all colleges offer all subjects. writingskills (including word usage. Students who lack these qualifications need to show that they could succeed in the course. It is particularly suitable for people who have not studied for some time. Environmental Studies. organising lesson material. presenting seminars. essays and report writing). Chemistry. You should contact the relevant tertiary institution(s) to ensure you are eligible for entry into the course and institution of your choice. The TPC ia assessed by TAFE. Literature. The TAPE Tertiary Preparation Certificate Read the following passage and chart and answer Questions 21 . The TPC aims to help students develop confidence and competence in a range of skills. Statistics. The Tertiary Preparation Certificate (TPC) is a matriculation course for mature age students. If you wish to enter a TAFE Diploma or Associate Diploma you must complete at least four subjecta (eight semester units of study). Mathematics. the Defence Forces. and World History Turning Point. Education and Society. note taking. Age: Minimum age 18 years at time of enrolment. Australian Society.Part 4. practical work and tests. For example. and who need to develop effective study skills. If you wish to enter a university course you must complete at least five subjects (a total of ten semester units of study). Part-time — weekly attendance is up to 11 hours (2 year course) The Course There is only one compulsory subject — Language and Learning Skills. Assessment TPC students are assessed throughout the year. . The grid on the next page shows which colleges offer the TPC course. Entry Requirements The entry requirement for TPC courses is either the NSWSchool Certificate or TAFE's Certificate in General Education. preference will be given to older students. or equivalent. Assessment tasks are worth 80 per cent of the total mark for each subject. most tertiary science courses require a background in mathematics and chemistry and/or physics.

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..of the total mark for each subject..28..... Write your answer in the boxes on the Answer Sheet....is continuous throughout the year........22.....29 optional assessment assignment 100% nothing 20% 80% full tasks old future compulsory competence obliged 11 recently mature soon younger essays plan 22 current necessary ........General Training Module Reading & Writing Practice Test 3 Part 4. depending on the college.. The first one has been done as an example.26.24...... Note that there are more words than spaces..21..............subject and many others to choose from. hours per week... ...... Example: The Tertiary Preparation Certificate will be offered at several TAFE Colleges in 1991 as a one year..27.25. Ex Full The weekly attendance by a full-time student in this course is.. The TAPE Tertiary Preparation Certificate Questions 21 -29 Read the passage on page 76...... Each word can be used only once...and may have left school some time ago.... in a range of skills which will help them in their .. as the course is especially designed for.... and the end-ofyear examination is worth. There is one. studies at TAFE colleges and universities... Use the information in the passage to complete the text by choosing the correct word from the words in the box below..example... The course aims at giving students confidence as well as .23.. The passage below is a summary of some information about the TPC..-time course. tutorials and practical work are worth......... age students........ tasks such as written assignments. In the TPC.. Most students who take the TPC will not have studied..

answer the following question. Computing and Mathematics in the evening at Campbelltown Physics and Computing at St. What subject is missing from this list of subjects available at North Sydney College of TAFE? * Australian Economy * Environmental Studies * Language and Learning Skills * World History Turning Point * Statistics * Australian Society * Media Studies Subjects offered: . George Question 34 From the information in the same chart. write No if the subjects are impossible. Write Yes in the box on the Answer Sheet if the proposed subjects are possible. 31. 33.33 From the information in the chart 'Expected Locations of TPC and Subjects 1991'. 34. Yes Biology and Media Studies at Granville Education and Society. decide if the following proposed subjects are possible or not. Example: ex 30. and Statistics at Liverpool Statistics in the evening at Sydney Biology. 32.Part 4 continued Questions 30 . Write your answer in the box on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as an example.

rather than starling a course. I thought leeHowever. Perhaps they Charles Slurt is to life in a cily university — I would should visit the university and meet students before they imagine it is the same. but we are required to work much faster. but the lecturers are helpful. 'There needs to be some sort of bridge between Year 12 and first year at university because students need to be 'I don't really know how different university life at told what to expect on enrolment day. and students seemed to help you more. everybody makes mistakes.Part 5. who. different to the classroom atmosphere. Michael felt that he matured fast at technical college last year. so he did it again in 1988 at Randwick Technical College. But then I realised that all the students were in first — being in tutorials with older people who seemed the same boat. . Many would say Michael entered university the hard way — he didn't gel enough marks when he completed his Higher School Certificate at Wavcrlcy College in 1987. But Know What You're Going For Read the passage below and answer Questions 35 . where he was constantly surrounded by older people and required to do a lot of work on his own.' Michael said. allow her some freedom and lime to bring up seeking a transfer. she said one of the biggest problems many lures would be difficult.' Kylie said she was lucky that some of the lectures were held in small groups and thai the lecturers al the university were approachable.' Kylie put a great deal of thought into her future when Narelle suggests that students try lo make the right she left Blaxland High School last year. has wanted to be a nurse since she Michael said that while he loved being at university. Kyjiejiance.' whereas at school there was so much competition and little help from classmates. go there. a second year student at the University of NSW." Students needed to be able to learn quickly if they were contemplating tertiary study and should start thinking about assignments as soon as they were given them. she said. Charles Slurt University. 'Students It was totally different from school because there were should not be embarrassed if they make mistakes — more essays. students had was choosing the most suitable course. believes newcomers to tertiary life can make it if they follow their own rules. She started her three-year course al several criticisms about the university system in general. Get Set.'The hardest thing at university is keeping up with the pace. Mitchell campus.' Kyliesaid. 18.' to have so much knowledge — but said students must realise they loo had knowledge in other areas. 'University is different to high school as students are left to work on their own and if they fall behind they're in trouble. Ready. then either dropping out or well. 'It took me six months to adapt and feel confident about myself and I can honestly say it has taken others up to a year to fit in.40 on page 81. Michael was accepted into the social science course at the University of NSW with an entry score of 355. The major difference between university and school was that at university students did their own 'pacing'. she said. choice knowing that she wanted a job which would pay finding out they don't like it. 'There appears to be less work at university than at school. like other students. last year and has not run into any problems so far. children later on. he had was a young girl.' 'The first couple of weeks were scary because I felt Michael described university as being intimidating at alone. . Somelimes you can go three weeks with next to nothing to do and then all of a sudden mid-semester exams and assignments just hil you. 18. knew she had made the right move when she started the Bachelor of Business Management 'It is more relaxing at university and lectures are so course at the University of Western Sydney this year. often dictating the important parts. She made the decision in (he beginning.' she said. Narelle Oxley. This is the advice of 20-year-old Michael Francis. One year later and 150 marks more. Being a member of a university's chocolate club or campaigning in ils local conservation group are not the only requirements necessary for adaptation to life on campus.

There seems to be less work at university than in high school but a lot of assignments can fall due at the same time. It may take six months or a year to feel that you belong at college. But Know What You're Going For Questions 35 . In the boxes on the Answer Sheet write one letter to show whose opinion each statement is: Write: M for Michael Francis K for Kylie Dance N for Narelle Oxley. They should not fall behind. get set. 37. Ex m 35.40 Read the passage headed 'Ready.part 5. The first few weeks are frightening but after that students realise that there are many students who have the same problems. but know what you're going for'. Get Set. Listed below are paraphrases of the opinions of the three students about tertiary study. 36. 38. 39. Example: Joining clubs and societies at college is not the only thingyou should do to adapt to life on campus. Every student at university is responsible for how fast or how slowly they work. Other students seem to be more helpful at university than at school.Ready. Year 12 students need to be given more information about university life and enrolment procedures before they go there. This is the end of the reading test . 40. and there is less competition. The first one has been done as an example.

beginning on page 162. .The answers to all the reading questions are in Chapter 7.

Answer Sheet i 2 J 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 .  You may cut out this page to make it easier to use.General Training Module Reading & Writing Practice Test I Write your answers to the reading practice tests in the boxes below.

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Describe your educational background and your reasons for wanting to do the course. * You should write at least 80 words. * Allow yourself 15 minutes for this task. . T  Test Number 1  Writing Writing Task 1 Write a letter to the Information Officer at the TAPE Information Office asking for information about the Tertiary Preparation Certificate.General Training Module Reading & Writing Practice Test 1.

Use This Space for Notes . Write a short report with suggestions for new students to help them to survive in tertiary study. *You should spend about 30 minutes on this task. Include suggestions about making friends. leisure activities and how to make best use of the college facilities.General Training Module Reading & Writing Practice Test 1 Writing Task 2 Many students going to tertiary colleges for the first time find it difficult to adjust to their new life because it is so different from high school. *You should write at least 250 words. study habits. * You may use ideas from relevant reading passages but do not copy words or phrases directly from them.

General Training Module Reading & Writing Practice Test J \f\ Writing Task 1 .

6. 6.00pm Bachelor of Applied Science (Information) Bachelor of Education (Teacher Librarianship) & Postgraduate Information Courses Tuesday 28 August.30pm Telephone Enquiries: 413 8200 . 6. Information Evenings Read the following advertisement and answer Questions 1 and 2 on page 91. Sydney. Test Number 2 Reading  Part 1.00pm and Monday 17September. University of Technology. 6. 6.30pm Diploma of Applied Science (Nursing) Wednesday 15 August.30pm Bachelor of Arts (Human Movement Studies) Bachelor of Arts (Leisure Studies) Bachelor of Arts (Tourism Management) Contact Schools for details 413 8497 Bachelor of Education (Primary) Sandwich Bachelor of Educalion (Teacher Librarianship) Friday 7 September. Kiiring-gai Campus INFORMATION EVENINGS Bachelor of Business Wednesday 29 August.

Information Evenings Questions 1-2 Read the advertisement on page 90 and answer the questions below by writing the correct letter in the box on the Answer Sheet.30pm (c)attend the information night on Wednesday 15 August at 7pm . Example: If I am interested in studying Business I should go to find out about the course on: (a)Tuesday 15 August at 6pm (b) Wednesday 25 September at 7pm (c)Wednesday 29 August at 6. To find out about Nursing studies I can go to the information evening on: (a)Wednesday 29 August at 6pm (b) Wednesday 15 August at 6pm (c)Monday 17 September at 6pm (d) Either (b) or (c) above 2. The first one has been done as an example.30pm Ex C 1.part 1. University of Technology. To find out about Tourism studies I should: (a)telephone 413 8497 (b) attend the information night on Friday 7 September at 6. Sydney.

00pm and Monday 17September. 6. Kiiring-gai Campus INFORMATION EVENINGS Bachelor of Business Wednesday 29 August.30pm Bachelor of Arts (Human Movement Studies) Bachelor of Arts (Leisure Studies) Bachelor of Arts (Tourism Management) Contact Schools for details 413 8497 Bachelor of Education (Primary) Sandwich Bachelor of Education (Teacher Librarianship) Friday 7 September. University of Technology. 6. Information Evenings Read the following advertisement and answer Questions 1 and 2 on page 91.00pm Bachelor of Applied Science (Information) Bachelor of Education (Teacher Librarianship) & Postgraduate Information Courses Tuesday 28August.30pm Telephone Enquiries: 413 8200 . 6. 6. 6.30pm Diploma of Applied Science (Nursing) Wednesday 15 August. Sydney.  Test Number 2 Reading Part 1.

The first one has been done as an example.: i part 1. University of Technology. Sydney. To find out about Tourism studies I should: (a)telephone 413 8497 (b) attend the information night on Friday 7 September at 6. Information Evenings Questions 1-2 Read the advertisement on page 90 and answer the questions below by writing the correct letter in the box on the Answer Sheet.30pm Ex C To find out about Nursing studies I can go to the information evening on: (a)Wednesday 29 August at 6pm (b) Wednesday 15 August at 6pm (c)Monday 17 September at 6pm (d) Either (b) or (c) above 2.30pm (c)attend the information night on Wednesday 15 August at 7pm . i Example: If I am interested in studying Business I should go to find out about the course on: (a)Tuesday 15 August at 6pm (b) Wednesday 25 September at 7pm (c)Wednesday 29 August at 6.

this little book offers recipes trialled by the author and her friends. weeds. Book 2: Cut your energy bills and maximise the efficiency of your home with this specialised consumer guide. It offers constructive techniques for the regeneration of native species in both urban and rural settings.ment are extremely well illustrated with colour photos and diagrams.Children aged 7-14 should enjoy this book with its interesting projects and activities — from testing air for pollution to makingrecycled paper. plant ecology. Book 1: A very interesting find comprehensive book. but also helpful. bushland management and project manage. this book fulfils the need for clear. Book 7: Advice on which products are the most environmentally friendly to buy. Consumer Bookshelf Read the following descriptions of books and answer Questions 8 -13 on page 95. Book 5: If you wait to avoid the plethora of specialised. Book 3: David Suzuki gives an excellent introduction to the topic of environmental science. baking soda and pure soap. A beautiful book and a real bargain. scientifically accurate and Useful information about the greenhouse effect and its impact on Australia's climate. . Book 4: Anyone who uses pesticides in the house or garden would benefit from this book about the hazards of their use and about safer alternatives. packaged cleaning products (and pesticides) available and make your own from basic ingredients such as vinegar. regeneration techniques. Chapters on botany. A sobering book. Find out why the critics agree this is the best book of its kind.Part 3. and also an interesting and comprehensive explanation of the major environmental issues affecting Australia. patterns of land use and energy consumption. expecially if you want to do something practical to 'green' Australia. Book 6: How much do you really know about the greenhouse effect? Written in a very readable style.

12. 11. Bush Regeneration. Activities for kids. Consumer Bookshelf Question 8 -13 Read the descriptions of books in Part 3 of the reading passages.Part 3. Home Energy Guide 2 8. Dr Ian Lowe. Robin A. Buchanan. The first one has been done as an example. What to Expect. Answer Questions 8 -13 by matching the book titles below to the descriptions. Write the number of the book in the box on the Answer Sheet. Safer Pest Control for Australian Homes and Gardens. John Elkington and Julia Hailes. Looking at the Environment. The Green Consumer Guide. What to Do. The Green Cleaner. 10. David Suzuki. Barbara Lord. Recovering Australian Landscapes. ! Example: Ex Helen Wellings. Living in the Greenhouse. Paul Rogers. How to Clean Nearly Everything. 13. 9. .

To clean toilet apply a thick This solution issafe for all surfaces. pure soap. Try bodied insects such as aphids. GREASE: Pour boiling water on stains and follow with dry bicarb soda. Allow to dry and brush away. this recipe for washing: Add 1/3 C washing soda (soPlace a large handful of tobacco in 4 litres of warm dium carbonate) to water as machine is filling. For 1/4 C cloudy ammonia 1 I = 1 Teaspoon general bathroom cleaning. Natural pesticides are cheaper and WARNING: Never mix ammonia and bleach: an exsafer for your family and pets. a seriousto nose. BLOOD: Soak in warm water or remove with hydrogen peroxide. Alternatively. If water is hard. The following list gives some speUse caution when handling. should be taken with handling. cleaners may be unsafe if consumed. a strong water. turn off and place pan in oven overnight. soil and air is not entirely due to Ihc irresponsibility of large industry. For a more stubborn stain. and is very effective for most jobs. Household Cleaners unit Polishes. Or try ammonia and water. produce This factshcct brings good news. of alternative pest sprays. keep in mind that you don't have to replace ammonia is strong solution ammonia available only grease and dirt with chemicals dangerous to your family from chemists. cloudy ammonia and strong a shallow pan (not alum inium) and add enough hot water the bottom of the pan. more importantly. extra washing soda. All these arc available in your local to cover supermarket or chemist. The best alternative for cleaning your per litre of water. Liquid soaps: 2 T Laundry. Let stand for 24 hours. I leal oven for 20 minsolution ammonia. Various combinations of these utes. If skin contact should occur wash with water Most of your household cleaning needs can be met with immediately and bathe affected area with vinegar. 1/2 onion and 1 clove garlic in HEAVILY SOILED: Rub with solution of 2 T washing water. Most commercial tile cleaners do more All Purpose Cleaner Key harm than good because they contain chlorine. (CAUTION: this your home. a seven simple ingredients: vinegar. sleep for two days. Here are three examples tremely toxic gas is produced. Some of these products lake time to prepare but they're cheaper than commercial products and. Rubber gloves should be worn. Ovens. soda in 1 C warm water. as detergents will damage your plants. This tobacco water is poisonous to humans. washing soda. Dry soaps: 50 grams per litre of water. of all ingredients except water. Use caution with all be loosened. CI IEWING GUM: Rub with ice. double the amounts of vinegar can be used. Add 1/2 C of soap. use a firm bristled brush 1 T bicarb soda 1 L = 1 Litre with cither bicarb soda and hot water or a mild version of the all purpose cleaner. borax.Part 4. LIPSTICK: Rub with cold cream and wash with washing soda. FRUIT AND WINE: Immenot . can be rinsed with paste of borax and lemon juice to stubborn areas. INK: Soak in milk or remove with hydrogen peroxide. Alternatively try a dab of eucalyptus oil. add spray bottle. cleaners and solvents and some aerosols hazardous waste. Baked on food will cleaning jobs cheaply and safely. For a for two solution stronger cleaner or wax stripper. Dilute and apply with a clothes. Use gloves and do not mix jvith other compounds. mix cornflour or talcum powder with water and apply mixlure. boil. Uuthroom. Commonly used substances such as many lypcs of paint Ihinners. they represent an investment in the future of the planet. Combine strong version of all purpose cleaner with bicarb soda: wear gloves when scrubbing. bicarb neutralising solution. When cleaning An easier oven cleaner is ammonia. Leave hours and scrub. Pesticides carry Ihe suffix 'cidcs' which means 'killer'. flakes. household pesticides. A Guide to Toxics in the Home Read the following passage and answer Questions 14 • 20 on page 97. Gum will flake off. Widespread contamination of groundwatcr. While this is a major factor it is also true that you and 1 in our everyday lives arc contributing to Ihc slow poisoning of Ihe planet. clothes is pure soap! Soap has accomplished the task of TOBACCO WATER: This can be used against soft gelling garments white and bright for generations. Take care simple substances can accomplish most household to avoid inhaling ammonia fumes. eyes and skin and one of the most (Mild Mixture): 1 C = 1 Cup = 250ml irritant 4L hot water 1 T = 1 Tablespoon dangerous chemicals found in Australian sewers. This spray will damage indoor or outdoor plants. HOT PEPPERS: Blend 2 cific solutions for stains: or 3 very hot peppers.) Place about 1/4 Cof ammonia in soda. COFFEE: Mix egg yolk with lukewarm water and rub on stain. thrips and caterpillars. SOAP: Use only pure soap. especially chlorine bleach. and strain. diately pour salt or hot water on the stain and soak in milk before washing. It is a very caustic solution and great care and Ihe environment. Garden Pests. Add water. There ARE alternatives to 'household toxics'. then the oven can be cleaned with bicarb cleaners and remember that even environmentally sound soda and scrubbing.

20 Read the passage headed 'A Guide to Toxics in the Home'. The first one has been done as an example. If we take the advice of the writer of the passage. Answer the following questions in the boxes on the Answer Sheet. which one is dangerous for humans? . Does milk help to remove wine stains from clothing? (Yes/No) 18. Example: What do many commonly used household substances produce that damages the environment? Ex Hazardous waste 14. Of the three alternatives to commercial plant sprays for use in the garden. Do safe alternatives to environmentally dangerous household cleaners cost more or less than the commercial products? 15. What do you mix with bicarb soda and cloudy ammonia to make a general all purpose household cleaner? 17. What serious skin irritant is found in most commercial tile cleaners? 20. how many basic ingredients do we need to do the household cleaning? 16. A Guide to Toxics in the Home Questions 14 . What very dangerous chemical can be used with care to clean ovens? 19.Part 4.

The first one has been done as an example. Note that there are more words than spaces. What Do Humans Eat? Questions 21-29 Complete the text on the next page by choosing the correct word from the box and writing it in the boxes on the Answer Sheet. crops diet meat consume available increased religious nutritional technological trying little doing trial cultural availability great . Each word can be used only once.Part 5.

. as shown by people from different countries choosing and eating quite different foods.22.... In Australia...28.. the amount of food 27........ the variety of restaurants in the major cities reveals the varied..?..26.. Later. we can see that food habits developed because of the . If we look at history.example. and preparing them in many different ways..... increased ..... but we have remained aware of the need to retain . Many processed foods retain much of their value as nourishment...29. value in processed foods. when people began to grow . In the 20th century much attention has been paid to food processing and technology. The reasons may also be 23 as we can see in the religious beliefs about food that particular groups have.. But how did people know what was good for them to eat and what was not good or even poisonous? It is likely that early humans learnt what to eat and what not to eat by .... once all the kinds of food naturally available to them in their environment.. nutritional value are now readily available as processed foods and are probably overconsumed.... of food.....Part 5 continued Example: People eat very different foods. Ex continued Although some people eat no meat at all. for example.. differences between countries...21 more meat and sugar than any other nation. and keep domesticated animals.25.... The reasons for the different food customs in the world may be due to ......24. as a whole Australians . but in developed countries at least a dietary problem can arise because many foods of .... .of people from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. fashions in food and cultural influences.

causing dizziness * increased hand tremor * decreased urine formation * decreased sensation of taste/appetite/smell * decreased physical endurance * irritation of allergies * staining of teeth and fingers * production of halitosis (bad breath). Smoking Smoking is the largest single preventable cause of death in Australia today. students and visitors would have accepted that they cannot smoke in the buildings and facilities of the University of Technology.Part 6. UTS — A Smoke-Free Zone Read the following passage and answer Questions 30 . UTS. The general aim of the gradual implementation was that by April 1. The University therefore has a legal obligation to comply with the Act or risk incurring prosecution and a subsequent fine. will also safeguard itself against potential workers' compensation or damages claims from employees or students who have been exposed to passive smoking.1990. 1990. smoking will not be permitted inside any building on any campus of Ihe University or in any vehicle owned by the University from April 1.1990 smoking was totally prohibited in any building on any campus and within vehicles owned by the University. 1990. Stage 2: from April 1. . cough and respiratory infections * chronic bronchitis * cancer of lung/larynx/kid. The penalty for not complying with these statements is $100.000 in other cases. public hospitals or cinemas. Stage 1 began on January 1.000 in the case of a corporation and $10. Approximately 23.ney/oesophagus/bladder/mouth * stomach ulcers. Short-Term Effects: * increased heart rate * increased blood pressure * increased production of stomach acid * increased levels of carbon dioxide. 'To achieve a smoke-free working environment. by implementing this policy. Reasons for this Policy Section 15 of the Occupational Health and Safety Act.000 Australians die each year as a result of diseases caused by smoking.. 1983 states that 'Every employer shall ensure the health. staff. Long-Term Effects: * narrowing/hardening of blood vessels in heart and brain* shortness of breath.'.38 on pages 102 to 103. Advertisments for positions vacant at UTS now carry an explanatory note stating 'This University has implemented a "Smoke-Free Working Environment" policy". Sydney in the same way that people now accept that they cannot smoke in public transport. This stage also provided assistance to smokers who wished to quit.. and it allowed for the adequate signposting of buildings and vehicles." It also states the employer should 'provide or maintain a working environment for his employees that is safe and without risks to health .' The 'Smoke-Free Working Environment" policy at UTS was implemented in two stages: Stage 1: an introductory stage which allowed staffand students who smoke time to consider the effects of this policy on themselves. safety and welfare at work of all his employees.

Information supplied by Iht UTS Occupational Htallh and Safely Branch. many non-smokers remain silent so as not to enter into conflict with coworkers or be branded as troublemakers by unsympathetic management. These issues include: chemical exposure of non-smokers to mainstream and exhaled smoke. Accidents: Research has shown that smokers have higher accident rates than nonsmokers. Not only may smokers choose to smoke but non-smokers may also choose not to breathe main. Research has identified the following effects on non-smokers experiencing passive smoking: Acute: * eye irritation * coughing and headaches * asthmatic non-smokers have shown declines in respiratory function.000 to $20. typical airconditioning may be overwhelmed by pollutant levels produced by smokers. the invasion of privacy of smokers. • • the health problems associated with passive smoking are a matter of priority as are other safety issues.000. Life Insurance Policy Costs: Most Australian Life Assurance companies now offer reduced premiums to non-smokers and ex-smokers.600 fires (including 900 building fires). . Chronic: * increased risk of lung cancer * increased risk of lung damage * increased risk of coronary heart disease.stream or exhaled smoke.Liabilities and Loss to Employers To December 1986 there were seven successful passive smoking workers' compensation cases in Australia. the priority of passive smoking as opposed to other safety issues.) passive Smoking Passive smoking involves either smokers or non-smokers inhalirjgeither side stream and/or exhaled smoke. ventilation and airconditioning.4 million working days were lost in Australia from absenteeism due to smoking-related illness. Fires: In 1980 the Board of Fire Commissioners of NSW found that discarded cigarettes or matches caused a total of 13. Settlements ranged from $8. Cleaning and Maintenance Costs: American industries that have introduced nonsmoking policies have reported 10-15 per cent savings on cleaning maintenance costs. (In four of these cases settlements were undisclosed. the matter of choice exists with both smokers and non-smokers. • • Further Facts on Smoking Lost Working Days: In 1981 a total of 8. Research has dealt with these issues to show that: • chemical exposure to non-smokers from mainstream and exhaled smoke is significant. There are many misconceptions related to passive smoking.

How many Australians die each year as a result of diseases caused by smoking? (a)Approximately 230.300 . Choose the correct answer for the following questions and write its"tetter in the box on the Answer Sheet. Example: When did the total prohibition on smoking in campus buildings and vehicles begin? (a) April 1.000 (b) Approximately 23. UTS — A Smoke-Free Zone Questions 30-38 Read the passage on pages 100-101.000 (c)Approximately 2. 1990 (c) April 1. which of the following reasons is given in the passage for the University's non-smoking policy? (a) Public opinion has forced all public institutions to ban smoking indoors (b)The University is concerned about the health of students (c) The University wishes to protect itself against potential workers compensation claims from employees or students exposed to smoke 32. 1991 Ex a. As well as its legal obligation as an employer. In which of the following places is smoking generally prohibited in Australia? (a)hospitals (b)public transport (c)cinemas (d)all of the above 31. 30. The first one has been done as an example.Part 6. 1990 (b) January 1.

'Airconditioning safely removes the pollutants produced by smoking from a typical building. Insurance policies for non-smokers and ex-smokers are often: (a) cheaper than for smokers (b)more expensive than for smokers This is the end of the reading test . 'People who smoke have fewer accidents than people who don't smoke.' Is this statement: (a)supported in the reading passages (b) contradicted in the reading passages (c)not mentioned in the reading passages 38.part 6 continued 33 Which of the following descriptions best describes passive smoking? (a) smoking but not inhaling very deeply (b) breathing in smoke breathed out by other smokers (c) breathing in smoke either exhaled by other smokers or simply from their burning cigarettes (d) giving up smoking 34.000 (c)at least seven 35." Is this statement: (a)supported in the reading passage (b) contradicted in the reading passage (c)not mentioned in the reading passage 37. How many successful passive smoking workers' compensation claims have there been in Australia? (a)none (b) 8. Passive smoking can cause which of the following effects? (a)increased risk of lung cancer (b) eye irritation (c)coughing and headaches (d) greater risk of heart attacks (e)all of the above 36.

The answers to the reading questions are in Chapter 7. . beginning on page 162.

Write your answers to the reading practice tests in the boxes below.

 You may cut out this page to mate it easier to use.
Answer Sheet / 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

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 

Test Number 2 Writing

Writing Task 1

Most people today are aware that smoking, although perfectly acceptable a few years ago, is now known to do great damage to a person's health and to cost industry and governments a great deal in lost wages and health expenses.

Write a brief description of some of the dangers of smoking both for smokers and non-smokers.

*You should write at least 80 words. *Do not write in note form; use sentences. *You may use information from the reading passages but do not copy directly from them. *You should spend about 15 minutes on this task.

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 Test Number 2 Writing  Writing Task 1 Most people today are aware that smoking. *Do not write in note form. although perfectly acceptable a few years ago. Write a brief description of some of the dangers of smoking both for smokers and non-smokers. *You may use information from the reading passages but do not copy directly from them. is now known to do great damage to a person's health and to cost industry and governments a great deal in lost wages and health expenses. use sentences. *You should write at least 80 words. *You should spend about 15 minutes on this task. .

.Remember there are model answers to all the writing tasks for each practice writing test in Chapter 7.

Union Buys Student Accommodation Read the following passage and answer Questions 1-3 below. The building is: (a) in need of some renovations (b)ready for students to move in immediately 3.1 million. 1. such as younger students whose home is not in the metropolitan area.lcap)nto the student accommodation business by purchasing a boarding house in Chippendale'for use by students. Sydney. before students can move in from the beginning of the 1990 Spring semester. Which statement is true? (a) the building has been rented by the University of Technology (b)the building cost $1. The students who will have most need of accommodation in the new building are: (a)students whose parents live in Sydney (b) students whose parents do not live in Sydney (c)students who would like to live in the suburb of Chippendale . The Union at the University of Technology. however. cost $1.  Test Number 3 Reading Parti.1 million (c) the building is for the use of academic staff 2. The building. on the corner of City Road and Myrtle Street. Some renovations arc needed. The Union's aim is to provide accommodation at a reasonable cost lo students in most need of it. has taken a. Question 1-3 Choose the correct answer and write the letter in the box on the Answer Sheet.

Gore I lill. each on different campuses. North Shore .Gore Hill The Gore Hill Library is on Level 4 of the Dunbar Building in Wcslbourne Street.St Leonards Part of the facilities at St Ixonards are a Central Library. Computer Studies. The Library at St l^conards caters for the needs of students undertaking practical legal training. periodicals and audiovisual material in the areas ofinduslrial and inlerior design. one renewal. The loan period is two weeks with one renewal and the maximum number of loans is six. Film. The collection of the George Muir Library at Kuring-gai is broad and particular areas of interest are Family History. is in the I laymarkel on the comer of Quay Street and Ultimo Road. Ilulmuin The design Library al Ualmain contains reference malerials. no renewal. practice court rooms equipped with audiovisual equipment. Loan Conditions and Periods A summary of the loan conditions at all libraries of UTS is as follows: Academic Staff: 8 week loan. graphic design and illustration. leisure. Economics. Loan limit: 10 items Special Conditions . Humanities. one week recall. one week recall. a large lecture theatre and small group training rooms. Loan limit: 99 items Research Degree Students: 4 week loan. both privileges normally unavailable to undergraduate students. with the entrance lo the library in Quay Street. For further information contact the Information Desk. Engineering. Loan limit: 50 items Undergraduate /Postgraduate Diploma Students: 2 week loan. Building. costume. and each having different collections. The major holdings of the Markets Library are in the following subject areas: Adult Education. one renewal. Kuring-gai The name 'Kuring-gai' reflects the aboriginal word 'Kuringgai' or 'Guringai'. City Campus. books.Part 2. Business. Mathematics. Sydney. believed to be a generic term for Iribes along the eastern coast from Port Jackson. photography and computer graphics as well as the collection of Sydney College of the Arts. Higher Degree Students: Students who are undertaking a higher degree are eligible for . A restored bell lower is outside the Library's four floors of concave walls which reflect a busy urban landscape during the day and become a brightly lil stage set of readers and book stacks at night. This Library's collections arc principally in the areas of Life Sciences and Nursing. The College of Law is an affiliated School within UTS.12 on page 115. University Library Guide for Students Read the following information and answer Questions 4 . north beyond the Mawkesbury River and west to the I. textiles.reciprocal borrowing rights at the other metropolitan universities and for interlibrary loans. Science and Social Sciences. Business. North Shore . fashion. one week recall. Markets The Markets Library. Architecture.Balmain: Loan conditions at Balmain vary from those throughout the rest of UTS as the Library is administratively within Sydney College of the Arts. . Tourism and Information Studies as well as the Curriculum Library which caters for Teacher Education. Campus Libraries There are five libraries in the University of Technology.ane Cove River.

are the following statements True or False? Write True or False in the box on the Answer Sheet. Undergraduates may borrow books for two weeks with no renewal period. 6. The first one has been done as an example. Example: Graphic Design Ex Balmain 4. Example: Ex 9. 5. Economics 5. Research Degree students may borrow books for four weeks and may renew the loan once. 12. Fashion According to the library information.part 2. Write the name of the Library in the box on the Answer Sheet. University Library Guide for Students Questions 4-12 Select the particular Library within the libraries of the University of Technology that has the best collection for a student studying the subjects below. . 10. False Undergraduate students can get inter-library loans. All libraries in the UTS network have the same loan conditions. 11. The first one has been done as an example. Tourism Law Nursing 7. There is no limit on the number of books that may be borrowed by Postgraduate Diploma students.

they shouldn't go into a safe career in which they will spend a life sentence of job dissatisfaction. proslhctists. physiotherapists and radiographers. career choices on ihe basis of job security and labour shortages.21 on page 117. Mere are some of the conclusions from the study: Health: Involves 80. partly due to a drop in student numbers and to government cuts. they should not be swayed by the glamour of some professions. employing 180. Wastage rates arc higher in trades than in professions and para-professionst according to the DEET report. Education and Training (DEET). a TAFE spokesperson listed occupations in which new graduates are in strong demand. It shows at least half of trained clothing and textile. skilled entrants in scores of fields according to a new study by Ihe Information Analysis Branch of the Department of Employment.000 professionals in NSW.000 people in this workforce in NSW. Young people should also consider wastage rates in various professions in ascertaining likely job and monetary satisfaction.000 in NSW. there is still a strong demand even though the tourist boom has weakened. or be tempted to make. while for newly skilled computer programmers the job outlook is now 'in balance'. Don't Risk A Life Sentence Read. Newly skilled secretaries will find that supply slightlyexceeds demand. but the economic downturn has moderated the previous strong demand for professionals. Despite the recession. DEET points out that the health care needs of Australians will continue to increase. electronics.000 in the state. when they would be far happier in. aircraft maintenance engineering.Part 3. aircraft and boilermaking tradespcrsons leave their occupations before retirement. compared with only 20 per cent of dentists and doctors.~erigirieering — a discipline which has long suffered an image problem but which has strong openings and very satisfying career prospects. There is a minor shortage of new enrant to accountancy. That is natural. . There is a shortage of medical records administrators. Business Professions: This is a very big area. Teaching: In a workforce of 96. but while they should take note of the stale of the labour market in various occupations. secretarial work and plumbing. resident medical officers. • . the need for security grows. hotel/motel manager and formal service waiter. * * Engineering: There is an oversupply of newly skilled aeronautical engineers but a minor shortage of new electronics engineers and civil engineers. while environmental scientists are in ovcrsupply. and many school leavers will soon make. In a recession atmosphere. say job market experts. an area that employs up to 40. These include computer-aided drafting. There is a shortage of pastrycooks and m inor shortages of newcomers to other occupations such as chef/cook. such as mcdicineand law. On the other hand. the following text and answer Questions 13 . although publicly funded care will be limited by budgetary constraints. But shortages persist in rural areas and in specialisations such as maths and science. For students looking at TAFE qualifications. — Hospitality Trades: With 30. sheelmctal and flat glass trades. Science: New graduates in materials science and metallurgy are in short supply. Most fields have some degree of shortage except for general medical practitioners and social workers. job experts predict job opportunities for young people will slay bright because fewer of them arc entering the skilled workforce due to a fall in the birthrate in Australia and to longer average lime spent in education. specialist nurses. say. the overall labour market has moved to a balance. dietitians. hospitality (pastrycook and skilled chefs). computing (programming and systems analysis).000. There arejob openings for new.

According to the information in the passage. Don't Risk A Life Sentence Questions 13 . 19. 17.Part 3. dietitians specialist nurses pastrycooks metallurgists teachers in rural areas newly skilled secretaries systems analysts plumbers newly skilled aeronautical engineers . The first one has been done as an example. 18. Example: Ex O social workers Occupation 13. 21. write O for Oversupply. Listed below are some of the occupations mentioned. write S for Shortage in the box in the Answer Sheet.21 Read the passage on page 116. If there are too many qualified people and therefore not enough positions available. 15. if there are not enough qualified people and therefore plenty of positions available for job-seekers in that field. 14. 20. 16.

having your examination results stopped. Normally you will be expected to have repaid at least 50 per cent of what you have borrowed before an extension will be granted. the Student Loan Committee will lend up to $1000. The repayment period for a $500 loan is up to nine months and up to eighteen months for $1000. your loan will normally be interest free. being unable to enrol further. You must bringyour application form filled out with as much information as you are able to supply.Part 4. Normally. If you have financial needs that you cannot meet from any other sources. UTS Student Loan Fund Read the following passage and answer. the maximum amount that you may borrow is $500 but in exceptional circumstances. and with supporting documentation. If you demonstrate a capacity to repay. Questions 22 . The guidelines set down by the government which cover administration of the 'Student Loan Fund" are complex. At the same time make an appointment to see the Student Welfare Officer. If you have repayment difficulties. come to Student Services and ask for an application form.28 on page 119. you must make an appointment with the Student Welfare Officer to submit an application to the Student Loan Committee requesting an extension of time on your repayment period. We have simplified them so that students have only to demonstrate a need to borrow money to further their academic career. or being unable to graduate. . Non-payment of your loan by an agreed repayment time could result in your being charged 15 per cent interest. As a last resort you may also be reported and listed as a UTS debtor with the Credit Reference Association.

do you normally have to pay interest on it? (Yes / No) 23. How much is the maximum loan in normal circumstances? 24. Use the information in the passage to answer the following questions in the boxes on the Answer Sheet. The first one has been done as an example. will you still receive your examination results? (Yes / No) . How long is the maximum repayment period for a loan of $1000? 25.Part 4. If you do not repay your loan by an agreed repayment time.UTS Student Loan Fund Questions 22 . Can you borrow money from the Student Loan Fund to buy anew car? No If you prove that you will be able to repay the loan from the Student Loan Fund.26 Read the passage on the previous page. How much of your loan should you have repaid before you can get an extension of your loan repayment period? 26. Example: (Yes/No) Ex 22.

Asking Questions: Australians ask a lot of questions. If you cannot avoid being late and you have not telephoned. etc begin on time. especially an older woman. particularly in business situations. 'How do you do'. Conversation Do not be worried if you arc not fluent in the English language. There is great informality . ' Punctuality: You are expected to be 'on time' — punctual — in Australia. gender and marital status.age. try or Customs and Culture Australia.Iol of time on polite social talk. Informality: In most cases. you could say 'How much does the average house cost in Perth?' This type of question is quite acceptable to your host and will not cause embarrassment. They have responsible jobs and it is common for women to continue to work after they are married. as do many other nationalities. rather than a lack of respect. has its own set of customs and its own pallcm of behaviour. much of which is directed against those people who give the impression that they consider themselves superior. What Australians Are Like and How To Get To Know Them The following passage is from a handbook for overseas students in Australia. People often appreciate it if you add their name: e. Australians arc also quick lo gel lo the point. . These are things most Australians know and might not Ihink to tell you. as every country of the world. Your hosts will understand this and if they speak too fast. Usually students and young people just say ' Hello' or 'Hi'. Most concerts. For example: Never ask a woman.n social relationships between men and women. ask them to speak a little more slowly. Australians are not without polite forms. This is due more to a lack of concern for social ceremony.lhe land) on which the house is built. lo live on their own or with friends of either sex. Questions about the cost of a person's house. . Some questions arc never asked in Australia unless you know the person very well or you arc related to them. and the cost of the various items in the home arc considered impolite in Australia. If you would like lo know the cost of a particular item. young Australians avoid elaborate social rituals.Part 5. It contains both information and suggestions to help overseas students become accustomed to life in Australia. but they tend lo be casual and informal most of the time. _ J _ Many Australian women seek the same rights. it is an indication that you are liked and accepted by (he persons concerned. you may find the person you are meeting lo be abrupt and even unpleasant. And they really do say 'G'day'. The Australian Constitution protects the equal rights of individuals and recent anti-discrimination laws seek tonrevcnt discrimination on the basis of race. Below are a few notes to guide you in practical situations. For example. Equality: Australians grow up believing thai people should have equal social. ask the question in a non-personal way. 'Hi Peter'. 'Good morning' and 'Good afternoon' are formal greetings. Their basic concept of govcmmcnl is thai it exists to serve them. Some Characteristics of Australians Individuality: Many Australians want lo be treated as individuals.way of life. rather than as rcprcscnlntives of a certain class or position or group. Australian students here may not know much about your coun. Meeting an Australian family is a very good way to improve your English and the more you speak the English language the more fluent you will become. TeasingYor 'rubbishing' as it is sometimes called) is also a favorfritc paslimc and if spoken in a joking way. legal and political rights. Read the passage and answer Questions 27 . Many young women" leave Ihcir parents' home before they marry. her . usually because the person is sincerely interested in you in learning about your country and culture and in and trying to find out what you are like. They do not spend a . events and ideas openly with other individuals is considered quite proper in Australia. ^ Never ask men or women how much money they earn at their jobs. This independence and individuality tends to make Ihcm suspicious of authority. Women have great freedom in the way they dress but this does not suggest that they have loose morals. lectures. status and opportunities as men. Remember.36 on page 122. Humour The national characteristics of equality and informality arc reflected in Australian humour. Directness: Discussing issues.g. church services. not the other way around. Greetings: Women and men usually shake hands (firmly) the first lime they meet.

If you arc asked to 'bring a plate' this means bring a plate of food as a contribution to the meal — doa'l just bring an empty plate! Groups often have 'potluck* Cuppers. You may receive an invitation to a barbecue or another meal and be asked 'to bring your ownstcak'. The use of names: Here are a few guidelines on the use of names: • First names are more readily used in Australia than in other countries. put it in a bag and give it to the person who greets you when you arrive at the party. Miss or Ms with a first name. Ms is an acceptable form of address if you do not know if a woman is single or married. Under normal circumstances a person who extends an invitation to you and takes you to a restaurant or a theatre pays for the meal and/or tickets. • Some Australian women prefer the new form of address. • A man or woman older than yourself is often addressed as Mr. and you should do so as soon as you know whether or not you will attend. Thus it is wrong lo say 'Miss Barbara'. Even for small favours done by a person who is only doing his or her job (as a clerk in a store) it is customary lo say 'thank you'.Parts continued Social Invitations: Australians believe lhat invitations should be answered as soon as possible. Miss or Ms until the individual requests lhat you use his or her first name. tell Ihcm Ihc name you prefer. 'We'd enjoy it if you joined us'. simply ask. ask. These titles are used with the last or family name. However. It is acceptable automatically to use the first name of someone of approximately your same age and status or younger. Being called by a nickname is not uncomplimentary. or until you get lo know the individual better. Everyone brings a prepared cooked dish. . as is the custom in some countries. Thissccms strange to most overseas students (and to some Australians) but it is an acceptable way to entertain. ^ The use of 'nicknames' is very common in Australia. lake a small gift. Ms is used for both single and married women and replaces Miss or Mrs. H js also wise to get the family's telephone number. • Men and women will be confused if you use Mr. • If you have any doubls about what to call someone. 'Thank you' is a phrase used often in Australia. it is often a sign of acceptance and affection. On a written invitation. A nickname is not the person's real name but a name given him by his friends (usually). an invitation may merely mean. suggesting lhat you would be cxpecjedjo pay your way. If you are in doubt. 'Dutch (realtor 'Dutch' means lhat each person pays his or her own way. Purchase a steak at the supermarket (they come neatly packaged). If you are invited lo a party celebrating someone's birthday. 'Ms' (pronounced 'Mizz'). Saying thank you: It is always polite lo send a thank you nolc to your hostess. It is not necessary lo take a gift to your hostess. since students arc often short of money. in order to call and notify them if you must change your plans or are delayed. Mrs. 'Whal shall I call you?' If people seem unsure what lo call you. Someone whose name is Andrew for instance might be given the nickname 'Andy'. especially if you go only for dinner or a short stay. but a small souvenir from your country would be received with delight. or for Christmas. 'RSVP' means 'Please reply'. It is never necessary lo give an expensive gift. salad or dessert and everyone's contribution is put on the (able. Mrs. A special dish from your own country would be greatly appreciated at a potluck meal.

write the word Agrees in the box on the Answer Sheet. Example: Ex 27. Australians are often very suspicious of authority. This is the end of the reading test 30. Children in Australia do not expect to be greeted by adults. Australians say Thank you' very often. Australians are taught from their childhood that everyone is equal in law. In Australia it is considered very impolite to ask a woman her age. 35. The statements on this page express similar ideas to those in the reading passage. write the word Contradicts. 34.write Not Mentioned. . Shaking hands is a normal greeting for both men and women.36 Read the passage on pages 120 to 121. this means that the host or hostess does not have enough plates and needs you to bring your own.Part 5. in society and in their political rights. 29. even for small services such as being served in a shop where the service is simply part of the person's job. 32. The first one has been done as an example. If there is no information on the subject given in the passage. If you are asked to "bring a plate' to a social event in Australia. Agrees Australians often react aggressively towards foreigners. If the statement agrees with the information in the passage. 31. If the statement contradicts the information in the passage. What Australians Are Like and How To Get To Know Them Questions 27 . 36. 28. Australians spend as much time in polite social chat in business situations as do other nationalities. The custom of kissing a woman friend on the cheek when you meet is becoming more common in Australia. The general atmosphere of informality in Australian society is not caused by a lack of respect but by the fact that Australians do not like social ceremony. 33.

Answer Sheet / 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 .Write your answers to the reading practice tests in the boxes below.  You may cut out this page to make it easier to use.

.This page has been deliberately left blank.

Describe the differences between the two types of fire extinguishers and explain how to use them. *Do not write your answer in note form.  Test Number 3 Writing Writing Task 1 The diagram below shows the correct way to use two types of fire extinguishers and the situations in which they should be used. *You should write at least 80 words. . *You should spend about 15 minutes on this task. use sentences.

* You may use your own knowledge as well as information from the reading passages. food. Mention such things as greetings. but do not copy directly from the reading passages. . and topics of polite conversation. dress.Writing Task 2 Write a letter to a friend in your home country describing some of the differences in culture and behaviour that you have experienced in Australia. * You should spend about 30 minutes on this task. * You should write at least 120 words.

Writing Task 1 .

Remember there are answers to the reading questions and model answers to Hie writing tasks for each practice reading and writing test in Chapter 7. .

The example below has been done for you. .Chapter5   Listening Practice Tests Test Number 1 (Cassette Side A) Section 1 Questions 1-4 Choose the picture that best matches what you hear on the tape and circle the letter under that picture.

Where is the office? .Question 1. Which building are they looking for? Question 2.

Question 3. Where does Henry wait? . Which one is Ms Frobisher? Question 4.

.......... Family Name Given Name Date of Birth Sex Nationality Address (5) ......................... (10) 1 * ....... LUCY ............Questions 5-10 Fill in the spaces numbered 5 to 10 with the information you hear on the tape........ (6) Female (7) (8) (9) NSW 2040 Telephone No.....

..... • DO swim between the (17) ............... • DO keep clear of jellyfish....................... ............. as (21) .... ... and don't swim in (12) ............................................................................... DO treat all sharks over (20) .... Safety on Australia's Beaches • DONT swim beyond a (11) ....Section 2 Questions 11 ..................................................... to humans................................................ and one shouldn't swim (16) ................ or after drinking (14) ............................................................ '.. DON'T (18) ....................... Sea snakes (23) ............................ to the beach......................... • DONT swim at (13) ............................................................. ........................................................................... and obey all signs............... • and swim back to but DO swim (19) ..........................23 Complete the notes below by writing a word or words in the gaps numbered 11 to 23.......................................... ........................................... sea....... •... • DONT swim after (15) .. ...................................... attack people..... They can cause (22) ...... the beach............ If caught in a rip..................................... .

.......................... The weather tomorrow is expected to be ..........................32...28....26..... Sixteen people have died and at least seven have been injured........example.31...... injured two other people...tourists were crushed by a falling . 30... 29.......capsized off the New South Wales coast............. ...........................25............................. have been sweeping the east.....24. Some men sleeping in a ...An Australian also died in the same incident...................27...1...... Not all the missing crew have been found. the weather is expected to improve........30...................... The first one has been done as an example............ 32............'....... Answers Since last week serious ..........................32 Complete the summary of the news item by writing in the missing word or words in the Answers column... were injured and falling . Early today an ................. Their names have not yet been........ of Australia........storms............ Three.................................. 31..... 28.............................. ... ex.............. ..... However.... 24....... 25.....Section 3 Questions 24 .... 27............26..29......

Section 4 Questions 33 . Gold was first discovered in Australia in: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 1831 1841 1851 1861 1863 34. choose the correct answer and circle the letter next to the correct answer. 33. The first Chinese came to Australia: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) to look for gold because cheap labour was needed to become farmers for political reasons to study English 36. When the gold began to run out: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the Chinese looked for a scapegoat the government looked for a scapegoat the miners regulated the Chinese the miners blnmed the Chinese the government Banned the Chinese 37. The discovery of gold was important to Australia because it: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) made Australia wealthy showed Australia had resources developed Australia culturally started Australia's export industry improved relations between Australia and China . Before the gold rush. not many Chinese came to Australia because: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) they didn't want to Australia didn't allow them to China didn't allow them to all the above reasons none of the above reasons 35.37 For Questions 33 to 37.

.The Answers for all the Listening Practice Tests are in Chapter 7. beginning on page 170.

  Listening Practice Tests Test Number 2 (Cassette Side A) Section 1 Questions 1-4 Choose the picture that best matches what you hear on the tape and circle the letter under that picture. Example: Where are they? . The example has been done for you.

Who do they ask for directions? Question 2. Where are they going? .Question 1.

Question 3. Where do they decide to go? . What do they go into the shop to buy? Question 4.

..Questions 5-12 Fill in the spaces numbered .. : ............................ (9) ................... for.............................1 to 12 with the information you hear on the tape...................................................... (11) ..........: (6) ........... (street) (7)…………………………. (5) ....................... Address: Date of Birth Home City: Days Booked Nationality: Passport No.......................... YORK ........................................................................ (12) ............. .... (town/suburb) (8) .........................(10) .. Family Name Given Name: ACME Car Rentals Registration Form ...................

.........415 sq km....... ........ a large number of tourists.... (the world's largest (14)............. .............. ... tropical (15) ... .. ........... The first one has been done as an example. : ..... . most visit in autumn and (25) ............................... sqkm. 141... most go to the (16) ...880 millions' (13) ... .... and mountains in the (20) ...000 sq km.......... ) fertile flood plains.... India Population: Area: Type of government: Landscape: Tourism: Pakistan Population: Area: Type of government: Landscape: Nepal Tourism: Population: Area: Type of government: Landscape: Tourism: (example). 796.......... .... kingdom almost completely (23) . tourists... a (24) . .. (18)...... republic.. (22) ... ........... ............. ............... largely hilly (19) .. .... (21)............ (17) .... ........................... .... ............ ..........Section 2 Questions 13 ................................. : ...:....:........ tourist industry......................... ...... .... : ..........25 Fill in the gaps with the correct word or phrase.....:......... ... and deserts................................ ...... : ....

The fighting in Liberia: (a) (b) (c) (d) is between two rival parties stopped on Thursday is only in the capital city has lasted nine months 27. Flights from the Soviet Union to Israel will begin: (a) (b) (c) (d) one month later in less than a month in a month's time after a month 31. 26.Section 3 Questions 26 . The number of people on trial for the fire on the ship was: (a) (b) (c) (d) 0 1 2 3 29. In Poland: (a) (b) (c) (d) abortions have always been illegal women are not punished for having an abortion abortions have recently become free abortions are now legal 30. The New Zealand election candidate: (a) (b) (c) (d) has never previously broken the law cannot take part in the election made a plot to damage the image of the police may go to prison for two years .31 Choose the answer that best fits what you hear on the recording and circle its letter. The strikes in Athens: (a) (b) (c) (d) were successful have finished will finish on Saturday got little support from workers 28.

Section 4 Questions 32-41 Circle T if the statement is True. T F 39. (F) 32. Child Care is free for full-time students. Counsellors offer group and individual help. T F 41. Some students under 18 can get free travel. An adult of any age can apply for financial assistance. You must show your passport to get a concession card. T F 40. T F . Example: T Only shadents less than 30 years old can get a travel concession. Cheating may be acceptable in exams if you are affected by illness. Migrants attending an English course may get financial help. T F 36. circle F if it is False. T F 37. Being late too often for class may result in punishment. T F 33. T F 38. T F ' 35. T F 34. You must make an appointment to see the counsellor. Only college students and staff can use the counselling service. The first one has been done for you.

. beginning on page 170.The Answers to all the Listening Practice Tests are in Chapter 7.

The example has been done for you. Example: What sign are they looking for? .  Listening Practice Tests Test Number 3 (Cassette Side B) Section 1 Questions 1-4 Choose the picture that best matches what you hear on the tape and circle the letter under that picture.

Question 1. Which way is the student centre? . How did they get to the university? Question 2.

Question 3. What are they going to buy? . What club will they both join this year? Question 4.

Timetable Am Monday enrolment Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday (6). . ' . . . . .Questions 5 -10 Will in the spaces numbered 5 to 10 with the information you hear on the tape. . (7) (9) Fvist tutorial (5) Foreing student party (8) Cultutal festival Pm .

What was Leo's main problem when he arrived in Australia? 16. For how long must Lee work for the fish company? 19. 13. What will Kylie probably do when she graduates? . Section 2 Question 11 . Example: How many years has Lee been studying? 11. What club did Lee join? 17. What kind of business do Kylie's parents have? 20. Which of Kylie's ancestors migrated to Australia? 12.20 Answer Questions 11 to 20 by writing a word or a short phrase on the line under each question. What is the subject of his thesis? 18.. The first one has been done as an example. Why did he not go to the USA? 15. What subject does Lee study? Why did Lee not consider studying in Britain? 14.

. It offers an MBA course which costs a total of....... 27.. ................... are from the New York School of Business.......22...: students in the next four years..... It has links with a Dutch and an American university......21.. MBA students had to leave their work to study ...........27............................. Australia....23.......... / t 24..... 28 ..................tion 21-28 plete the summary of the news item by writing in the missing word or words in the answvers column.. has opened in Answers 21................. Most senior........................25............ Previously.......... to finish their studies............. 22.... Students will study part-time in Australia and then go to ........................... A new............. The schoolhopes to have 26. It was initiated by a group of businessmen and at the moment has .............ion 3 ................... This is a new concept in education...................... 26 ..... or take...................................2</............................ 23................... students. 25.....................years to study on a parttime basis..................28.

29.34 For questions 29 to 34 choose the correct answer and circle the letter next to the correct answer. Which statement is NOT true? (a) (b) (c) (d) 31. The productivity crisis in Australia: (a) is a problem of Australian industry (b) has not affected Australia yet . bad agricultural practices have made Australia 70 per cent arid •' Australia has never had much fertile land Australia is usually considered underpopulated Australia is not densely populated by world standards Politicians want to: (a) (b) (c) (d) increase the amount of fertile land increase the population of Australia • decrease the population of Australia keep the population stable 32. Which of these does the speaker NOT recommend for Australia? (a) (b) (c) (d) concentrating more on an export/import economy educating people about the environment maintaining a constant population having a larger population of people living in the countryside . The speaker thinks Australia should follow Sweden's example by: (a) (b) (c) (d) having a small population having a higher quality population .Section 4 Questions 29 . Australia's population growth rate: (a) (b) (c) (d) is almost stable is greater than most countries in the world is average for industrialised countries will strain the Australian economy 33.(c) is hot thought to be important by most people • (d) wjll be solved by increased population 30. having a larger rural population not having a natural resource-based economy 3<l.

The Answers to all the Listening Practice Tests are in Chapter 7. . beginning on page 170.

It tests how well you can give general information. provide a description. Secondly interviewers want you to be able to have a conversation on the topic. It will help you in this section if you filled out the form carefully. This form has details of your educational and work background as well as information about your interests and plans. will generally be some aspect of your own country. Section Two You will be asked to talk about one or more topics. It is not likely to seem very difficult. or topics. or some aspect of your own experiences. As some sections are intended to be harder than others. This section tests your ability to use social greetings. offer your own ideas and give explanations if necessary. Section One The interviewer will introduce him/herself and may begin the interview by askingyou some questions about the information you gave on a form you filled in before the reading and writing test. The interviewer's main aim at this stage is to help you relax. culture and customs. Try to forget the recorder is there by concentrating on the interviewer. Firstly the interviewer will change your topic if it seems you have learnt something by heart. It is not a good strategy to memorise a 'talk' on a likely subject. The more information you give about your interests and plans the better. describe sequences of events or describe how something works. but to standardise marking. you are still expected to take. of its life. Do not simply answer "Yes1 or 'No' to the interviewer's questions. . The interviewer may prompt you with questions or change the direction of the conversation However. not to deliver a lecture. Every interview has five sections. This is not to assess you. the initiative in this section. The topic. but section five is generally easier. This section tests your ability to talk about a familiar general or personal topic. describe directions. The interview tends to become more difficult from section one to section four. the time each section lasts may vary according to the proficiency of different students. The interview is recorded. This means that you should develop the topic as far as you can. make a comparison. provide information about yourself and to state facts. which are the same for every student. The aim is to assess your ability to talk in everyday situations.Chapter 6  The Interview I Description of the Interview The interview takes between 11 and 15 minutes.

You will be judged by how successfully you find out the information that the game requires. This section tests: • how well you can talk about your own attitudes. Section four is intended to push your English to the limit of your ability. These examples describe a situation and show you the type of card that may be given to you to help you ask questions. The interviewer is likely to include some surprising questions.. to ask questions in a logical order. it is the aim to the test to find out the level at which you begin to experience difficulty. This means that you will almost certainly experience some difficulty by the end of the test. use direct questions ('Where are you going?') and if she is pretending to be someone socially superior to you. So. It may be helpful to think of this stage of the interview as being like the communication tasks that are part of the training in many English classrooms. you mustshow curiosity about the imaginary situation.?'). and ask a lot of questions. Some candidates find this section difficult because they have to stop talking about real experiences and have to start 'playing a game' or 'taking a role'. It is important that you are prepared for this change of focus. For example if the interviewer pretends to be a fellow student. Each example also has suggested questions that you could ask and more ways for you to practise for section three. This section tests your ability to ask questions and to find out information about objects. Don't worry. The interviewer is playing the game as well. On pages 159 to 161 you will find examples of the kinds of activity this section might have.. events. or "Would you mind telling me .. Be prepared to adjustyour language according to the role she plays. opinions. sequences. opinions. attitudes. to ask sensible questions and to ask them in a natural way. use polite indirect forms ('Could you tell me . Section Four The interviewer will refer to the information you gave in section one and askyou about your plans for your studies and what you intend to do after you complete the next stage of your education and in the future.Section Time The interviewer will show you a card which presents an imaginary situation and invite you to ask questions about it. emotions and plans whether you can speculate about the future and use conditional verbs • • how well you can talk about your academic interests how well you can describe and compare objects and events whether you can cope with changes between formal and informal language.?'. There is no need to be embarrassed by asking 'personal questions'. You may have to talk about your ambitions and hopes or what you will do if some of your plans do not work out the way you hope they will. values or how things work. . Your task is to get as much information as possible about the situation that he/she is pretending to be in.. Avoid starting questions with 'How about' too much of the time. and the answers he or she gives will not be about herself in real life. The interviewer wants you to use a variety of question forms.

Finally. and give you the opportunity to ask questions if you wish.. 'I intend to. Firstly. of your sporting and non-professional interests. and then think of things to say about them. it appears weak to our (Western) eyes if a person has no plans for their future. or what you 'might do if. Go to social occasions. Penguin Books 3 . Peter. 1984.. bear in mind that this section is your last chance to show the interviewer just how good your spoken English is.. Pair Work. Check that you know the vocabulary that belongs with these topics. It is acceptable to talk about your hopes of (maybe) getting married and rearing a family. or you can invent some plans — it does not 'have to be the truth. With a friend practise askingand answering these questions. Talk about your hopes. at this point in the interview the interviewer is looking at how well you can use the language of conditionals and hypothesis. plans. Pair Work One.'. Think of as many questions as possible to ask your friend on these topics and together practise answering them.'. Secondly. Remember that Australians enjoy a lot of sport and hobbies. For section three practise forming and asking questions on all sorts of subjects. so the interviewer expects to hear you talking about these things as well as about your professional career. Responding to this section will probably not seem as difficult as responding to section four. although clearly the truth is usually easier to talk about.. so give it everything you have! Section Five This is the conclusion of the interview. In Australian culture a personality does not seem weak when a person expresses possible alternative plans. Penguin Books Watcyn-Jones. But remember that your aim is to practise speaking naturally in English. If you really are unsure of your future. You could use some of the pair activities in books such as: Watcyn-Jones. section two is not a general knowledge test... of "what might happen if. The interview is now over. like parties.. 1981. Think of various topics associated with your country that you could be asked about. Peter. This section also covers your personal plans as well as your professional plans. where you can practise these kinds of questions on people you meet. fears: 'I hope to .'.If you are asked to discuss your future plans and hopes it is not a good idea to answer briefly. you can talk about your options. The interviewer will thank you. 2 For section two practise talking with a friend about aspects of life in your country or experiences you have had. II How You Can Prepare for the Interview 1 For section one think of all the questions you might be asked about who you are.'. books A & B. where you come from and about your education. books A & B. Nor should you say that you have no plans or that you don't know..

Cambridge University Press. Prentice Hall. Betty. It is important to keep talking. Understanding and Using English Grammar. Do these exercises with friends who are also preparing for the IELTS test. Two grammar books recommended for self-study are: Schrampfcr Azar.. This will not help you gain fluency. 1989. Correction is better done from a recording. Units 49-52 Play question and answer games such as 'Twenty Questions' with your friend. Practise especially talking about what will happen if something does not work out as you have planned it. 1986. studies. If you are in an English-speaking situation. but do not worry if it is not. See if you can pick out and correct mistakes in grammar or pronunciation. hopes. Practice is the key. If their English is better than yours that's good.. goals. English Grammar in Use. talk to the mirror. Practise with any other friends or family members who are willing to help you. Ask your friends and relations to find mistakes in the recording.'. watch how people say goodbye after long conversations at enquiry counters in banks or shops. Then listen to the recording and think how you could have extended your answers. Practise forming different types of questions without using'How about. Whileyouare practising do not let people keep stoppingyou to make corrections. you will increase in confidence and fluency even if you have to talk to a mirror or to a pet! Tape record your practice.Study the structure of the different question types. 5 6 7 8 9 10 Remember that you cannot study for the interview from a book. 4 For section four hold conversations aboutyour professional and personal plans. Raymond. If you cannot find anyone to talk to. talk in the shower. talk to yourself. . For section five practise saying goodbye. talk to the bedroom wall. Chapter 1 Murphy. shaking hands and leaving with a smile.

Why were they in Colorado?' Practise this exercise with a photo belonging to a friend: ask your friend to show you a photograph of a place or a person you don't know and ask as many questions as you can to find out all about the subject of the photo. .III Examples of Phase 3 Tasks Example 1 The interviewer may give you a card with information like this: Photograph You are a friend of the interviewer. The interviewer will show you a photograph and a letter. Some things to find out: Sender Where from When Identity of person in photo Event Interviewer's feelings In this task. for the last question. you can ask questions like: Who is the letter from?' 'Where does he/she live?1 Why did he/she write to you?' Who is the person in the photo?' T)o you know the person who wrote the letter very well?1 Were you pleased or worried when you received the letter?' When was the photo taken?' Where is the place in the photo?' Try to ask a follow-up question to one of the interviewer's answers. For example. if the interviewer answered 'The photo was taken in Colorado'. you could then ask. You must ask questions to find out as much as you can about the letter and photograph.

. Ski lessons are available (extra cost). One hundred and fifty people are going. Transport is by bus.Example 2 You may be given a card with information like this: Student Skiing Holiday The Student Union at your university is organising a skiing trip. Payment must be in advance.cost). give a friend the interviewer's information and ask them questions. Ask the interviewer questions to find out as much as you can about it. This includes 2 nights' accommodation and 2 meals each day. It's possible to hire all equipment (extra. 4. Some things to find out: Cost Accommodation Transport Food Location Facilities Ski Equipment Numbers going on trip The interviewer will answer your questions using information that he/she has. 9. taping the conversation to check your question forms. The cost is $300 (all inclusive). Dormitory-style accommodation (4 people share room). 2. The trip is to Perisher Valley in the Snowy Mountains. Try a different excursion using information in tourist brochures and the same kind of questions. 7. 5. 3. You are interested in going on the trip. 8. for example: 1. 6. Your questions could include: ‘Where is the trip to?' 'How much does it cost?' ’Do I have to share a room?' 'Can I hire skis there?' 'How many people are going?' ’What if I can't ski?' etc To practise this exercise.

.. 3.. C.... It can be used at all ACME bookshops.Example 3 You may be shown a card like this: ACME Academic Book Supplies No. it costs $5 to replace... If lost. 8. 10. It costs $15.. . 5.. You would also be given a question card like this: Discount Card By asking the interviewer. 4. find out as much you can about the bookshop discount card..... It gives a 13 per cunt discount on all books.. There are 5 ACME bookshops in (your town).... ACME bookshops only sell academic books and stationery. 9.. There is no discount on stationery...: 52379 Signature:.. Anybody can get a card.. Your questions might include: 'Where can I get a discount card?' 'Where can it be used?' and a follow-up 'Mow many ACME bookshops are there?' 'For how long is the card valid?' 'Does it cost anything?' 'What benefits does it give me?' 'What happens if I lose the card?' 'Is it only for books or can I use it for other things?' Practise this kind of exercise with any kind of membership card that you or a friend may have.. Some things to find out: Where it can be used Where it can be obtained Validity Cost Restrictions If you lose the card Uses The interviewer will have the following information: 1.. Remember to tape the conversation to check the way you ask questions. Friends cannot use your card. 2. It is a life membership.. 7.

5 1971 (paragraph 4:'belween 1947 and 1971.000 or more languages j is probably closer to the Truth".  Module C Practice Test 1 something is done or through which something passes. one can learn a language at any age: note the double negative) Q. ie.9 Asia Q.26 worst ('early adolescence' reminds the reader that secondary school language leaching is being discussed. Australian immigration policies have not discriminated against people on the grounds of race. The Optimum Age for Language Learning Q.19 False (paragraph 2: 'medium' = means by which .3 1891 (paragraph 2) Q.25 acquire (the space needs an infinilivc verb) Q. for example.31 C Q.4 1946 (paragraph 3:'lhc period from Ihc lurn of Ihc century to 1 946 saw the consolidation of the English language in Australia. as in.  Reading Part 1.10 Vietnam (footnote 2) Q.') Q.2 1901 (paragraph 2) Q. last sentence) Part 4. Purposes of Language Study Q.') Q.30 debated ('controversy' is not possible here. but not necessarily the only way.IO False (paragraph 3: a cultural relationship comes from contact between two different cultures) Q. paragraph 3) Q. followed by a typical or model answer to the writing tasks.' but related languages may diverge radically) Q.. 'latlcr'=lhc last fact or name mentioned. the vibrations of (he atmosphere) Q.. the figures for Europe include the USSR hut the USSR was not one of the principal source countries for immigrants) Q. The model essays represent one satisfactory way of completing the task.32 G Q. with Ihc former for historical reasons and with the latter for reasons of defence and trade.14 45 (footnote 4: 45% of Ihc African toial were from South Africa) Part 3. if we consider the problems of teenagers we would realise that adolescence is not a good time for the extra stress of learning a language) Q.24 oplimum ('optimum' = best. that is. the space needs a past participle to complete the verb) Purl 6.18 False (paragraph 1 :'The latter [that there are 5. and Ihe use of 'in fact' gives cmph.') Part 2. 'all languages use the same channel' or medium.11 Turkey (footnote 2) Q.27 emotional ( 'given' here means 'if we lake into account'.35 J Note: all the other summaries arc supporting arguments and comments relating to these main points. Some Traits of Language Q.12 Middle Cast Q.. To add Ihc USSR litre is incorrect. The Composition of Australia's Overseas Horn Population hy Birthplace Q.6 1973 (paragraph 4:'Sincc 1973.33 A Q.isis to this opposing view thai Is being expressed) Q..8 Italy (footnote 1 .34 H Q.29 accent (clear from the ncxl sentence) Q.. 'Australia has close relations with both Britain and the USA.') Q.Chapter 7   Answers Reading & Writing Practice Tests Answers to the reading qucs lions for each practice test are given first.22 True (paragraph 4. 7 Europe Q. Australia's Linguistic History Q.13 New Zealand Q.21 True (paragraph 4: genetic and cultural relationships 'lend to' mean also a typological relationship.23 level ('examination' is not logical) Q. the 'however' at Ihc beginning of the sentence clearly shows that an opposite point of view to Ihc previous sentence is about to be slated) Q.17 G (English is a 'cousin' of Latin.15 T Q16 C Q.I 1850s (paragraph 2) Q.2S no (that is.

I 7 Predict ion No. paragraph 4) Q.21 India Q.7 c (paragraph 4) Q.24 Turkey 2. degree of literacy and level of education also affect the capacity to learn English.I Figure 4 Q.I 3 Incorrect (paragraph 13) Q. Students of English arc also affected by various personal factors. A learner's fluency. Part I. their age. The motivation of the learner. Some factors relate to the student's first language and ability in that language. 1988 Q. For example.26 Incorrect Q.18 Prediction No. 3 Q.23 Scpl. Stricken Sea Net-ds Long-Term Solution Q. 4 Q. Teaching methods also influence the success of the learner.9 b (paragraph 6) Q.28 Correct Q.3 Figure 1 Q.6 b (the changes have been caused by the humans. paragraph 5) .I 9 Predidion No.29 Incorrect (paragraphs 7 & 8: the 10% figure refers to improvements in energy-efficiency and energy supply.15 Correct (paragraph 15) Q.guage is from the Indo-European group of languages.Australia's Exports Q. 1 Q.4 Figure 5 Q. The skill and experience of the teacher are important as are the leaching strategics used by the teacher and the quality of the teaching aids and technology available.O Writing Writing Task 1: model answer Many factors affect the successful learning of English as a second language. A clear understanding of all these factors will obviously assist in the learning of English as a second language.1988 Q.I 2 Correct (paragraph 9) Q.ll Incorrect (paragraph 9) Q.5 Figure 2 Part 2. Towards Global Protection of the Atmosphere Q. The Heat Is On Q.20 Prediction No. 14 Correct (paragraph 1 1 ) Q. 2 Q.8 a (paragraph 4) Q. the target for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is 20% by the year 2005.I 6 Correct (paragraph 15) Part 3.22 Dec.2 7 Correct Q.10 a (paragraph 12) Q.25 Philippines Port 4. the learning conditions and the time available for study arc all important influences.2 Figure 3 Q. learning English is easier for people whose first lan. The student's feelings of jecurity about learning English arc similarly significant.

33Correct  Writing Writing Tusk 1: model answer Artesian water is a vilal source of water in some areas where there is little rainfall. Miin's agricultural practices arc severely damaging the environment. Walcr. Similarly chemical pollution is damaging the ozone layer of the Earth.9 Group D = Column 1 (12%) Q. Q.3 Incorrect Q.11 Group D = Column 2 (10%) Q. Some people may think that improved technology will solve the problems of the Earth.6 Not mentioned Q. wishful thinking. the wastes arc so toxic and so long-lasting that we are endangering the lives of generations to come. Nuclear power also poses serious problems.   Module C Practice Test 3 Reading Q.Answers Q30 Incorrect (paragraph H: the goal is 2% by 2005) Q.34 Correct Writing Task 2: model answer Many people believe that human beings arc destroying the planet Earth. An artesian water source can only form under certain geological conditions.') .32Correct Q. First National Literacy Report Q. Industrial wastes have caused critical pollution of water and the atmosphere.3I Correct (paragraph 10) Q. Even if nuclear power is used for peaceful purposes. and from all the evidence man is destroying the Earth.2 Correct Q. One nuclear bomb can have devastating long-term effects. However.10 Group C = Column 4 (31%) Q.S Group A = Column 5 (57%) Q. the artesian water rises to the surface and is available for use. which may be run-off from a distant mountain range.12 Group E = Column 3 (73%) Part 2.7 Incorrect ('Government plans to ductive culture" and a strong national fail without a workforce which is more mobile and highly skilled.14 higher ('harder' is not 'high achiever' in modern English is Part 1. At weak points in the surface layer of impervious rock.1 Correct Q. Tor this to provide usable water. Others believe that man will eventually leam to cooperate and use resources intelligently.13 B (the pattern of agreeing and the statements in the questionnaire is American parent) Q. or when a bore is drilled. Hard Work is Asians' Secret Q. I think this is naive.4 Correct Q. the use of nuclear energy further increases the danger to the world. Atmospheric pollution has resulted in the 'greenhouse effect' — a phenomenon that is resulting in a dangerous increase in the temperature of the world. the layer of porous rock must be above sea level to prevent the water either seeping away into the sea or being contaminated by salt water. In addition. The use of water from the Aral sea in the Soviet Union is an example of this. this is a particularly serious problem in Australia and the USA. I have to agree with this statement and I believe there is plenty of evidence for it if we look at some of man's agricultural and industrial practices. is trapped in the layer of porous rock be-low the surface of the earth.5 Correct Q. The incorrect use of land causes the formation of deserts. A layer of porous rock must lie between two layers of impervious rock. This results in dangerous ultraviolet rays entering the Earth's atmosphere. Diversion of water from lakes and rivers for irrigation can also cause severe problems.

The table indicates thai from all locations..31 Market Behaviour Analysis = Point 1 (the passage discusses buyer behaviour. and wrong) Q. The table gives the actual number of students from the different locations whqattendedJiigher education in 1989.. [A manager must be able to] commission good research.) Q.35 Marketing Skills = Point 6 (This section describes the components of the 'marketing mix'.33 Financial Management = Point 7 Q. However.. Concerned parents may even hire Ihe services of a tutor. market research is actually discussed in Point 5) Q.)  Writing Writing Task 1: model answer The statements are clearly supported by lhe_graph and the stalistics. Studies have shown that Asian students are oflen higher achievers in school than their American counterparts because Asian parents usually take a more active interest in their children's education.') Q..21 more Q..75 effort Q.') Q..iy.. Males and females are plotted separately.') Q.th. Ihe things thai make up a marketing manager's job. is a skill that must be found in the marketing manager.th.. Writing Tusk 2: model answer The educalion of a child is significantly affected by both Ihe allilude of the parents and the quality of the child's school and teachers.conflict resolution requires considerable managerial skill..I 8 more (paragraph 5) Q.. Such parents might provide extra work at home.34 Systems Thinking = Point 8 (Note how this section develops to state its main point in the last two paragraphs.26 realistic Part 3. Got What It Takes to be a Marketing Manager? Q. In remote areas. A good parental allilude definiiely helps a child's school progress.25 Asian (' Chinese and Japanese mothers gave more realistic evaluations of their child's . as in 'innate good sense') Q.22 actively ('Chinese and Japanese parents are more interested and involved in their children's schooling-Chinese and Japanese families mobilised themselves to assist the child.th.often used to describe a person wilh ambitious goals who usually achieves Ihem) 2. attended higher education than did males.27 Conflict Resolution = Point 11 ('.32 Innovation Management = Point 2 Q.) Q. 320.. attended higher education while in rural areas the corresponding figure was about 23 males p. the number of males who participated in higher educalion was only about 19 p.') Q.24 American (' American mothers overestimated their child's abilities.') Q.the skills needed for thinking strategically are of a high order.') Q.20 less ('Chinese and Japanese mothers stressed Ihe importance of hard work to a grealer degree than American mothers and American mothers gave grealer emphasis to innate ability lhan did Chinese and Japanese mothers. . I would not s.36 Long-Term Thinking = Point 9 (The section contrasts short-term and long-term thinking. In remote areas approximately 40 males p.29 Commissioning Research = Point 5 ('Market research is a vital support . encourage the child to read more or study by himself or herself. not learnt... however. In all locations. thai Ihe parents' attitude is necessarily the more important of Ihese two factors.23 expectations ('Chinese and Japanese mothers held higher standards for their children's achievement than American mothers. more females p.. however.28 Organisational Ability = Point 10 (' .the skill to alter the organisation of the company . just over half the students were women. Participation of people from the different locations in higher education in 1989 is plotted as the number of people per thousand (p. The graph shows the same trends but in a different form...') Q.. myths'j'false myths' is a tautology..561 from urban areas attended higher educalion whereas Y7$25 rural students attended.16 innate (a quality you arc bom with.th.) Q.' Note how this section develops Point 1) Q . and that the passage is contrasting 'strategy' with 'tactics'. Uducalionatly minded parents can in fact compensate to a certain extern for a poor quality school or teachers..' Note that you have to read past the first sentence. For example.959..). characteristics. students from remote areas who participated in higher education numbered only 13.19 skills (paragraph 7) 2.I7 beliefs ('false beliefs' = 'misconceptions..lh..30 Strategic Skills = Point 3 (' .

I would like some information about Ihc Tertiary Preparation Certificate. Tertiary Preparation Certificate 2. But Know What You're Going For. Practice Test 1  Reading Part 1. I don't feel that one is necessarily more important than the other. or the collective knowledge and training of a good teaching slaff.4 11511 f2.22 competence (paragraph 1) Q.39 M (paragraph 8) Q.13 5418 Q. Perhaps ironically. Because I have not studied for many years.26 compulsory ('necessary' is not used in this way. I will need to do some further study.8 (b) Q-9 (c) Q. although parental attitude and quality of school and staff arc both important to a child's education.18 0843 Q. educationally minded parents arc usually nol enough to ensure Ihc good education of a child.I 11680 Q. . I left school eight years ago after completing the 1ISC.24 recently Q. Q.25 mature ('old' is never used in this context) Q.29 20% Q-30 No .3 11540 Q.I 6 3534 Q.17 8510 Q. it is usually the children of educationally minded parents thai finish up being sent to good schools with good teachers. UTS General Information Q-6 (a) Q-7 (b) Q. Get Set. Since then I have worked as a sales assistant in both Grace Bros and David Jones. However. TAKE Course Descriptions Q. I believe that I should complete the TPC before enrolling in a Business course.38 N (paragraph 21) Q.14 3103 Q.urthcrmorc. Ready.15 3519 Q. If possible I would like to enrol in this course as a part-time student in 1992. Parents often don't have the resources of a good school.31 Yes Q.27 assessment (final paragraph) Q. I.34 Literature * Writing Task 1: model answer Dear Sir/Madam. in order to advance any further in my career into a managerial position.On the oilier hand.10 (c) (compare 'Student ID cards' and Concession pass") Q. Lilyfield.40 K (paragraphs 13 and 17) Part 4. such as a Marketing or Business Course. Q. and 'obliged' is incorrect grammar) Q.37 N (paragraph 20) Q.11 (b) Q-12 (c) Part 3. Dial-It Information Services Q.20 5419  Writing Part 5.28 80% Q. Consequently.33 No Q.  General Training Module.19 0842 Q.36 K (paragraph 15) Q. lime or money may limit what the well inlentioned parent can actually do for the child's education in practical terms.5 11640 I'art 2.35 M (paragraph 5) Q.27 22 Q. From the beginning of this year I have been in charge of the Children's Wear Department in Grace Bros.2 11% Q.32 Yes Q.13 future (an adjective is needed and none of the others arc logical) Q.

and/or means that passive smoking is exposure to either source or both sources of cigarette smoke) • Q.16 |4 litres of] hoi water (section on 'All 1'urposc Cleaner') Q.27 available ('increased1 is the verb here. UTS — A Smoke-Free Zone Purt 4. which cannot be 'great' because that would not be a problem for people's diet) Part 6.5 Q.4 Q.3 1 (c) (see 'Reasons for This Policy') Q. College requires different study habits from school. What Do Humans Eat? Q. A (itiide to Toxics in the Home Q.Could you please send me the information as soon as possible. the word is indicated by the rest of the sentence) Q.26 crops (the only possible thing you can 'grow' of the words in the box) Q.17 yes (section on 'laundry') Q.I (d) Q-2 (a) Part 2. For example.28 nutritional (the word is indicated by the discussion of the 'nourishment' or 'food value' that food must provide) Q. Positions Vacant Q.6 Q.10 Q.34 (c) (sec 'Liabilities and Loss to Employers') Part 3. 'available' is an adjective) Q. New students at college will be faced with a new range of leisure activities. These services are often cheap and convenient.20 tobacco water (section on 'Garden Pcsis') Part S. making friends can be a problem. With a bit of common sense.22 cultural (in this question and the next. Students must learn to study independently and it is important to establish a study routine.13 Book Number 3 Book Number 6 Book Number 4 Book Number 7 Book Number 5 Book Number 1 .24 availability (a noun is needed) Q.12 Q.14 less Q.8 Q. Universities and colleges have a large number of facilities such as counselling services and sports centres.18 (strong solution] ammoniu (section on 'Ovens') Q.11 Q. UTS Kuring-gai Campus Information Evenings Q. Yours faithfully.29 little (an adjective is needed. most students will not have any trouble adapting to college or university life. Students should be adventurous in trying new activities.32 (b) (sec 'Smoking') Q.9 Q.19 chlorine (section on 'Bathroom') Q. Writing Task 2: model answer Studying at college or university can have its difficulties. Joining a sports or interest club is a good way to meet people with similar interests. and tell me the dates for enrolling in Ihe Tertiary Preparation Certificate.7 4443331 write a letter 7765489 driver's licence (names of) 2 referees • Q. but should also be careful that their leisure activities don't disrupt their studies. Consumer Bookshelf Q.33 (c) (sec ' Passive smoking'.30 (d) (see 'Stage 2' of implementation of Ihe policy) Q.21 consume Q. O General Training Module Practice Test 2 O Reading Part 1.25 trying (a gerund is needed) Q.23 religious Q.3 Q. so new students should do their best to find out what facilities are available on campus.15 7 (section on 'Household Cleaners and Polishes') Q.

At each course you usually receive only one plate of food and not the variety of dishes and soups that we get in Korea.St Leonards Q. Australians don't eat rice at every meal as we do in Korea.aches. UTS Library Guide Q.19 S (see paragraphs on TAFE qualifications) .6 North Shore . such as bad breath and staining of teeth and fingers. Union Buys Student Accommodation Q.5 North Shore . The large cities also have supermarkets and shops specialising in Korean and other Asian food.10 True Q. Q. Writing Task 2: model answer If you arc thinking of studying English in Australia.. As we can see from information supplied by the UTS Occupational Health and Safety Branch in Reading Passage number 6.2 (a) Q..13 S (see 'Health') Q. this means that there are more jobs available than there are qualified people to fill them.16 S (sec 'Science') Q. ulcers and increased blood pressure. so even if people do not smoke Ihcy can become ill if they are near smokers. you should realise that Australian eating habits and food can be very different from those in Korea. coughing and head. Another thing about the food in Australia is that it is not so highly flavoured as in Korea.') Writing Task 1: model answer In the last twenty years it has been recognised that smoking causes great health problems for human beings.Answers Q35 (e). people who smoke are much more likely to suffer from illnesses such as cancer. Don't Risk A Life Sentence Note: the 'life sentence' of the headline is explained in paragraph 2. There are similar health dangers in passive smoking. Aircondilioning in buildings cannot remove all the tobacco smoke from the air. they can suffer eye irritation.. a good aspect of living in Australia is that it gives you an opportunity to try food from all over the world at quite cheap prices.8 Balmain 2.37 (b) ('. ' Q36 (b) ( typical airconditionmg may be overwhelmed by pollutants . Because there are quite a few Korean immigrants in Australia.Gore Hill Q.12 False Part 3. there arc plenty of Korean restaurants in the main cities.3 (b) Part 2.4 Kuring-gai Q. going on to a main course and then onto dessert. when non-smokers are exposed to cigarette smoke. They also have a much greater chance of suffering a heart attack.15 S (see 'Hospitality Trades') Q.smokers have higher accident rates than  Writing non-smokers.11 True Q. so it is easier to find a job in that occupation than in one with an 'oversupply' of qualified people.14 S (see 'Health') Q. For example.I (b) Q.I 7 S (see Teaching') Q. In fact.') Q. and have more chance of getting lung cancer. finding suitable food to cat in Australia is no problem. and most Australians have never heard of Kimchee.7 Markets Q. especially of the lungs and throat.9 False Q.. bronchitis.  General Training Module Practice Test 3  Reading Part 1. The key to the passage is to understand that if there is a 'labour shortage' in a particular occupation.18 O (see 'Business Professions') Q.') Q38 (a) ('Most Australian Life Assurance companies now offer reduced premiums to non-smokers .. A formal Australian meal can consist of a number of courses starting with soup. Even the shortterm effects are unpleasant. Fortunately.

is used for fires occurring in textiles.20 S(dillo) Q. However. grip the hose. Beef and lamb are very popular and Australians seem surprised that we cat rice at every meal. except that Ihe fire should be attacked with a sweeping molion.21 O (see 'Engineering') Part 4. All ihe best.30 Contradicts (see 'Directness') Q.35 Contradicts (see 'Social Invitations') Q. Xiao Dong . This fire extinguisher conlains foam. A Class and B Class. II contains water. The A Class fire extinguisher. I think that's a bit rude! Well. UTS Student Loan Fund Q.31 Agrees (see 'Informality') Q.29 Agrees (see 'Equality') Q. coloured blue. They usually call each oihcr by just Ihcir first names! And everybody dresses so casually! Everyone wears jeans.25 at least 50% Q26 No Part 6. You should point the liquid stream at Ihe seat or base of Ihe fire. wood and paper. I had beiler gel back lo work. You should carry ihe extinguisher to the fire.24 up lo 18 months Q. is used for flammable liquid fires but must not be used for electrical fires. Il is used in Ihe same way as Ihe A Class extinguisher. you should read Ihe instructions because some types arc used upside-down. and squeeze the handle. or inverted. coloured red. remove the pin. though. Apparently it is also bad manners to ask someone how much they earn. she told me not lo be rude.33 Agrees (sec 'Greetings') Q. Writing Task 2: model answer Dear Vivicnne. The B Class fire extinguisher.32 Not Mentioned Q. How is life back in Taiwan? Australia is quite inlcresting bul very different from Taiwan.28 Agrees (see 'Individuality') Q. Australian food takes some getting used lo. sometimes even lo work.22 No Q.34 Not Mentioned Q. When I asked my landlady how much her house cost. I much prefer rice lo potatoes. Oh. Il must not be used for electrical or flammable liquid fires.36 Agrees (see 'Saying "Thank you1")  Writing Writing Task 1: model answer The diagram shows Iwo types of fire extinguishers. People are much more informal here.Q.23 5500 Q. and anolhcr thing. What Australians Are Like and How To Get To Know Them Q27 Not Mentioned Q. Though people don't seem to mind asking me how much I weigh.

30 rocks (It must be plural) Q.22 19 million Q.) Q. for the slrccl and suburb.I 1 Safe distance Q.) Q.27 B (The newsreader says that union leaders 'called off three weeks of crippling strikes on Saturday.14 Q.I A Q.17 Q.14 alcohol Q.3 B Q.I British Q. as long . and the fighting was 'in and around Ihc capital city'. and thai more than one million workers 'luui joined the protest'..36 D labour.24 coast Q.13 Q.18 Q.IO 1 metre Q. Furthermore.23 scldom/rarcly/hardly ever Q.11 Q.24 huge Q.IO 58-5989 Q.I 2 rough Q.22 fatal injuries Q.2I dangerous  Q1 Q-2 Q.19 parallel Q.21 (very) few Q.8 5 Henry Si Q.16 Q.) Q.10 Q.29 B (Abortions were legal and free but under Ihc C B D A Andrew (The spelling musl be correct) 32 City Road Newlown 2040 12-12-1968 Darwin 3 Canadian TJ11965 3 million democracy jungles famous 113 million republic deserts .28 D (The newsreader lists the three people — Ihc company owner.13 nighl Q.35 B (The lecturer states that as the transportation of convicts from England decreased.31 worse/worsening Q.26 D (The newsreader says 'all three sides in the nine month civil war' which eliminates A.26 American Q.3 Q-4 Q-5 Q.'.29 van Q.17 fiags (It musl be plural) Q.25 oil tanker Q.) Q.9 Lcichhardl (II musl be spell correclly..) Q.27 tree Q.8 Q-9 Q.15 Q.I 6 alone Q.is the information is correct.) Q. il doesn't matter which line you write them on) Q.32 next week Q.6 12-12-1969 Q. not Ihc fighiing.2 D Q. the squatters and other employers Ipokcd for another cheap source of(The lecture says that Ihc men began to Q. Ihe director.20 north Q.19 Listening Test 2 Q.4 D Q.33 C (This is stated in Ihe firsl sentence.) Q.5 Ashlon (II musl be spent correctly) : Q.12 Q.23 mountainous/covered in mountains Q.6 Q-7 Q. a ceasefire stopped on Thursday.25 spring Q.18 panic Q.28 released Q.34 C (The lecturer says that Ihc Chinese government didn't allow emigration.I 5 eating Q.  Answers Listening Practice Tests  Listening Test 1 Q.37 B (This is slated in the last sentence of the lecture.) look for a scapegoat to blame for their problems and that ihcy found it in Ihe Chinese. and Ihe captain — and stales that they have all been charged.

40 False (There is no menlion of ihis. (The reader slalcs thai the flights will begin within a month.I 3 Q.3I B (The relevant information is given in Ihe sentence ' .26 40 Q.) O Listening Test 3 Q-1 Q-2 Q-3 Q. he will almost certainly be sentenced to al least two years imprisonment.) Q.new government bill abortion is now illegal. Furthermore.32 D (Answer A is incorrect as there is a yearly increase in population.25 C A C B enrolment opening ceremony general orientation sports carnival first lecture free great grandparents marine biology loo cold loo expensive making friends water polo sharks (feeding habits) 2 years trading company Iravel university 15 $49.10 Q.32 False (You need a passport-sized photograph.19 Q.15 Q. answer B is nonsensical.30 B.34 False (People thinking about studying can also use the counsellors.n Q.i a Q.) Q...38 True (If they are full-time.24 Q.) Q.) Q.8 Q.9 Q.33 0 (The speaker's emphasis is on a stable rather than necessarily a small population (answer A).) Q. answer D is Ihe central Ihcmc of the entire lecture.12 Q.) Q. Bad agricultural practices have aggravated this.4 Q5 Q.22 Q.3I D. The lecturer also states thai Ihe growth rale is far higher than almost all industrialised countries.-41 True (Poor punctuality is classified as inappropriate behaviour and may be penalised...') Q. while the major political parties are enthusiastically promoting an increased population for Australia .) Q. so answers B and C are incorrect.30 A (While Australia is 70% arid or semi-arid. B and D directly contradict information given in the lecture.) Q.) Q. not most countries.) Q.23 Q.34 A (Answers B.20 Q.33 True (If they are unemployed and live al least 3kms from the university. there is no upper age limit.14 Q.) Q.39 False (A small tec is charged.21 Q.) Q. answers A.29 C (The second sentence of the lecture stales that few people want to acknowledge or recognise the product ivily crisis. this is largely a natural occurrence. C and D are all recommendations made al the end of the lecture. Furthermore.) Q. this leaves only answer D.000 New York (faculty) staff Q.28 Ihrce Q. there is no reference to answer C with regard lo Sweden.) Q.36 False (It is a good idea to make an appointment.) Q-35 True (Counsellors provide individual assistance and workshops.) .I Q..6 Q.27 full-time Q.) Q. (The reader says that i/lhc candidate is convicted.ll Q.37 True (An adult is a person over sixteen.16 Q.

Orientation Handbook 1990. Heldref Publications. Sept.' Leam-as-youwork Uni Opens for Business'. Sydney Morning Herald. But Know What You're Going For'. Information for International Students. 1988. International Student Centre. produced by the Library of Ihe . John Fairfax Education Unit. handouts on courses of the department of Technical and Further Education. Reprinted from Arriving. Vol. Washinglon. 1975. University of New South Wales. Summer 1989. 'Got What II Takes to be a Marketing Manager?'. 2nd ed. Richmond. Reproduced with permission. 7959. Report by ilie Senate Standing Committee on Education and the Arts. an imprint of Rigby I Icincmann. Ixichhardt and Marrickvillc Districts. extracts from A National Language Policy. Environment.. '89. Bcreson and S. Sydney Morning Herald. Reproduced with permission. 'General Information for Students'. No. Reproduced with permission. Reproduced with permission. reprint from Choice Magazine. Reproduced with permission.31. Published by the Australian Consumers' Association. Marketing Services Division. Commonwealth of Australia copyright. 12 Jan. 1981'.. Rosenblal. TAFE NSW. and 'Union Buys Student Accommodation'.O Acknowledgements Sources of texts: ' Australia's I jnguislic 1 listory'. New South Wales. 9 August 1990. Surviving. Reproduced wilh permission. (abridged) David Corklndale. 1984. Reproduced with permission. Sydney Morning Herald. and The 1991 Higher School Certificate and Tertiary Preparation Certificate Booklet. Get Set. (adapted in Listening Practice Test 3). Reproduced wilh permission of the author. 1989. 'Ready. Oct. Is Our Foe. Your Community Phone Book. July 1990. 1985.1989.DC. 1990. and ' Expected Locations of TPC and Subjects 1991'. 'The Composition of Australia's Overseas Born Population by Birthplace. 'Purposes of Language Study'. 'Consumer Bookshelf. Sydney. Alumncws. 'Some Trails of Language'. Reproduced with permission. Sydney.7. 1991. Greenpeace Australia. B. Marketing Magazine. Kuring-gai Campus Information Evenings'. 1989. 'Hard Work is Asians' Secret of Success'.30. 13 Sept. Board of Fire Commissioners of NSW. University of Technology.Z Guide for Students. Reproduced by permission. No. Reproduced with permission. 'The Correct Use of Fire Extinguishers' (diagram). Thriving: Information for Overseas Students. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich (USA). page 12.7. Victoria. extracts from D. Ltd. Dr Stephen Juan. Keller (permission sought). 2nd cd. abridged from Stepping Lightly on the Earth. Sydney Morning Herald Careers Guide. Reproduced with permission. Vol. 'University Library Guide for Students'. Student Services Unit. 'TAPE Course Descriptions'. 'Towards Global Protection of the Atmosphere'. 'University of Technology. brochure of the Public Relations Unit. from Fire. (permission sought) Graphs on pages 28 . 'The Heal Is On'. (adapted). 1990. John Fairfax Group Ply. (abridged) reproduced in The Herald in the Classroom. Figures on page 63 adapted from DEET survey published in APC Review. Telecom Australia. The Welcome to UTS Book. 'UTS Student Loan Fund' and 'UTS — A SmokeFree Zone'. Supplied by Public Affairs and Publications Unit at UTS. 'Don't Risk a Life Sentence'. and 'The Calendar of Catastrophe'. Sydney. Bolinger. 6 Sept. AGPS. 'Stricken Sea Needs l>ong-Tcrm Solution1. October. 'Dial-It Information Services'. Reproduced with permission. Aspects of Language. 'What Australians Are Like and How to Get to Know Them'. Inquiry Australia..(pcrmission sought) 'First National Literacy Report'. Global Geography Update. Heinemann Educational Australia. advertisement originally published Sydney Morning Herald Careers Guide. 'A Guide to Toxics in the I tome". 1-1991. Reproduced wilh permission of UTS. 9 August 1990. Reproduced with permission. 'The TAPE Tertiary Preparation Certificate'. 1988. University of Technology. Publications Unit. 1984. and 'Optimum Age for Language Learning'. Sydney.29:1. extracts from A . Students' Association of the University of Technology.

Dr Chris Watson. Used with permission of the author. Reproduced with permission. CSIRO Australia. 1991. Sydney.31. Bay Books. People From Everywhere.University of Technology. Used wilh permission. Jan. Lecture in Listening Practice Test 3 abridged from 'A Countryside Reeling'.1989. . Sydney. 1982. published in The Bulletin. Lecture in Listening Practice Test 1 abridged from The Making of Australia.

the drawings on pages 43 and 125 are by Annette Ring. Terry Peck. and Nicola Short. Sydney. Paul Vaughan. Daniel Carroll. Julie Rowed. The illustrations in the listening practice tests are by Don Kibble. Particular thanks go to those who gave detailed feedback along the way. . Terry Peck directed the production of the cassette tape. Diane Hoggins. Jeffrey Quinn produced early versions of several of the the practice reading and writing tests. Much of the keying onto disk was done by Tracy Cornhill and Angela Andjelovic of Insearch Language Centre. especially Marnie Campbell.The producers of this book would like to thank the staff and students of Insearch Language Centre at the University of Technology. for their enthusiasm for the project and their patient assistance in trialling and improving the materials in it. Patricia Wrathall contributed several texts.

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