Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Abu 'Abd Allah

ash-Shafi'i) Jump to: navigation, search Abu ?Abdullah Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi?i Full name Abu ?Abdullah Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi?i Born 767 Gaza, Palestine Died 820 Fustat, Egypt Era Islamic Golden Age Region Muslim Jurist School Sunni Shafi`i Main interests Fiqh Notable ideas Evolution of Fiqh Influenced by[show] Imam Malik[1] Part of a series on Sunni Islam ??? ????? ????????? Beliefs Monotheism Prophethood / Messengership Holy Books · Angels Judgement Day · Predestination Five Pillars Declaration of Faith · Prayer Charity · Fasting · Pilgrimage Rightly guided Caliphs Abu Bakr · Umar ibn al-Khattab Uthman ibn Affan · Ali ibn Abi Talib Schools of Law (Shariah) Hanafi · Shafi`i · Maliki Hanbali · Ahl-e-Hadith Schools of Theology Athari · Maturidi · Ash'ari Hadith collections Sahih al-Bukhari · Sahih Muslim Al-Sunan al-Sughra Sunan Abu Dawood Sunan al-Tirmidhi Sunan ibn Majah · Al-Muwatta Sunan al-Darimi v d e Abu ?Abdullah Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi?i (Arabic: ??? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ? ????????) was a Muslim jurist, who lived from 767 CE to 820 CE. He was active in juridical matters and his teaching eventually led to the Shafi'i school of fiqh (or Madh'hab) named after him. Hence he is often called Imam al-Shafi'i. He is considered the founder of Islamic jurisprudence.[2]:1 Contents [hide] 1 Introduction 2 Family 2.1 767 786: Al-Mansur to Al-Hadi's era 2.1.1 Early life, studies with Imam Malik 2.2 786 809: Harun al-Rashid's era 2.3 809 813: Al-Amin's era

The oldest surviving biograph y goes back to Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi (died 327H/939) and is no more than a colle ction of anecdotes.4 813 820: Al-Ma'mun's era 2. and his defense of ash-Shafi'i. Among his teachers were Malik ibn Anas and Mu?ammad ibn al-?asan al-Shaybani. Thus. some of them fantastic.1 Works 4. [edit] Views on Shi'ites Imam ash-Shaafi`i said concerning the Shi`ites. Then he moved to Madinah to teach others of the message of Islam and be t aught by Malik ibn Anas. coupled with ash-Shafi'i s own el oquent defense. [edit] 813 820: Al-Ma'mun's era [edit] Death He died at the age of 54 on the 30th of Rajab in 204 AH (820 AD). [edit] 767 786: Al-Mansur to Al-Hadi's era [edit] Early life.He was also a staunch critic of Al-Waq idi's writings on Sirah. Hence he had connections in the highest social circles. Sunnis portray that his devotion to justice. but he grew up in poverty. [edit] Family Al-Shafi'i belonged to the Qurayshi clan Banu Muttalib which was the sister clan of the Banu Hashim to which Muhammad and the Abbasid caliphs belonged. caused him some problems. his work there is known as al Madhab al Qadi m lil Imam as Shafi i.2 Sunni view 5 See also 6 References 7 External links [edit] Introduction The biography of al-Shafi'i is difficult to trace. The following is wha t seems to be a sensible reading. and to direct a l Shaybani to take ash-Shafi'i to Baghdad. al-Shaybani was th e chief justice. "I have not seen among the heret . as a judge in Na jran.1 Death 3 Views on Shi'ites 4 Legacy 4. He is re ported to have studied with the "School of Mecca" (which might not even have exi sted. Egypt. [edit] 786 809: Harun al-Rashid's era After that he lived in Mecca. and he was taken before the Caliph. The first real biography is by Ahmad Bayhaqi (died 458H/1066) and is filled with pious legends. He was buried in al-Fustat. In Baghdad. or the Old School of ash-Shafi'i.2. although some scholars are reported to have been active there)[citation ne eded]. even when it meant criticizin g the governor. At this time. he had an appointment in Yemen. Baghdad and finally Egypt. he developed his first madhab. [edit] 809 813: Al-Amin's era This section requires expansion. convinced Harun ar-Rashid to dismiss the charge. At the time of Harun ar-Rashid. studies with Imam Malik He was born in Gaza and moved to Mecca when he was about two years old. influenced by the teachings of both I mam Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik. wh om he studied under in Madinah and Baghdad.4. fa lsely accused of aiding the Alawis in a revolt.

both done by Sheikh Nuh Ha Mim Keller. Egypt. that his beard did not exceed the length of his fist. Saladin's brother Afdal built a mausoleum for him in 1211 after the defeat of the Fatamids. With this systematiza tion of shari'a he provided a legacy of unity for all Muslims and forestalled th e development of independent. and twice a day in Ramadan. holarly consensus). Yemen and southern parts of India." [3] On another occasion he said. Shafi'i gives his name to one of these legal schools Shafi'i fiqh . Al-Risala The best known book by al-Shafi'i in which he examined ources of jurisprudence): the Qur'an. Today. he had me morized the Muwatta of Imam Malik.with human reasoning to provide a basis in law. many English speaking Muslims are introduced to the madhab of Imam Shafi i through the translated works Umdat as Salik (Reliance of the Traveller) and al M aqasid. The four Sunni leg als schools or madhhabs. Somalia. the Sunnah. by ten.ics a people more famous for falsehood than the Raafidite Shi`ites. Malaysia.the Quran an d hadith . He wor . "Narrate knowledge from everyone you meet except th e Raafidite Shi`ites. ficult to separate truth from myth: usul al-fiqh (s and ijma' (sc Arabic 'Tarti and it is dif Tradition says that he memorized the Qur an at the age of seven. It re mains a site where people petition for justice. Among the followers of Imam Shafi i s school were: Muhammad al-Bukhari Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj[citation needed] Abu Da'ud[citation needed] Al-Tirmidhi[citation needed] Izz bin Abdul Salaam Al-Nasa'i[citation needed] Ibn Majah[citation needed] Imam Bayhaqi[citation needed] Hakim al-Nishaburi[citation needed] ibn Hibban[citation needed] Suyuti[citation needed] Al-Dhahabi[citation needed] al Ghazali Al-Nawawi [edit] Works He authored more than 100 books.which is followed in many different places in the Islamic world: Indone sia.his main surviving text on Shafi'i fiqh Musnad Ash-Shafi'i (on hadith) . qiyas (analogy). and that it was very black. Some apocryphal accounts claim he was very handsome.keep their traditions within the framework that Shafi'i established. he was a mufti (given authorization to issue fatwa) at the age of fifteen. Kitab al-Umm .[5] Shafi'i developed the science of fiqh unifying 'revealed sources' .it is available with arrangement. He recited the Qur an every day in prayer. b'." [4] [edit] Legacy Saladin built a madrassa and a shrine on the site of his tomb.the Shafi'i school . regionally based legal systems. because they invent Hadeeths and adopt them as part of the ir religion. by Ahmad ibn Abd-Ar-Rahman al-Banna [edit] Sunni view Many stories are told about the childhood and life of ash-Shafi'i. There is a good modern translation.

He was given the title of Nasir al Sunn ah. New York: Palgrave. He was also known to be very generous. Allah suffices Muhammad ibn Idris as a reliance. Islam in the World. He was also an accomplished archer. and some accounts call him the most eloquent of his time. Idris. Islam in the World. ^ Madrassah In'aamiyah. but that he should say Allah s Messenger (Rasul Allah) out of veneration for him. Al-Karabisi said: I heard al-Shafi i say that he disliked for so meone to say the Messenger (al-Rasul). The True. pg. No one preceded him in writing down the ha dith in a book. Umar bin Abdul Aziz. 4 . Al Muzani said of him. his speeches an d works were used by Arabic grammarians. page 122 ^ Izalat al-Khafa p. by Yas in Dutton. 2008 . it is in the lan Shah Waliullah.Islamic Ruling on the Shi'ites ^ Ruthven Malise. the Defender of the Sunnah. 3rd edition Granta Books London 2006 ch. and its end is but by means of it. not for the sake of learning. a 18th century Sunni Islamic scholar stated [6]: A Mujadid appears at the end of every century: The Mujtahid of the 1st century w as Imam of Ahlul Sunnah. Even in latter eras. 3rd edition Granta Books London 2006 ch. Musa in Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of Pro phetic Traditions in Islam. 4 Also: "al-Shafi'i's Risala: Treatise on the Foundation of Islamic Jurisprudence" Majid Khadduri. He loved Muhammad very deeply. Not one of the scholars o f hadith touched an inkwell nor a pen except he owed a huge debt to al-Shafi i. I never saw anyone adhere more to hadith than al-Shafi i. the Muwa??a' and Madinan ?Amal. Some accounts claim that there were a group of Bedouin who would come and sit to listen to him."The Book of the Amalgamation of Knowledge" transla ted by Aisha Y. Apocryphal accounts claim that Imam Ahmad said of ash-Shafi'i. [edit] See also Fiqh Shafi'i [edit] References ^ The Origins of Islamic Law: The Qur'an. Canadian Journal of Law and Jurispr udence. If the scholars of hadith speak. a poet. ISBN 0-946621-15-2. 16 ^ Fadel M. Imam Muhammad al-Shaybani said. Original 1961. One anecdo te states that he would always cover one side of a book while reading because a casual glance at the other page would commit it to memory.e a ring that was inscribed with the words. one for praying. The Mujadid of the 2nd century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah Muhammad Idrees as-Shafi'i the Mujadid of the 3rd century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah Abu Hasan Ashari the Mujadid of the 4th century was Abu Abdullah Hakim Nishapuri. but just to listen to his eloquent use of the language. Imam Ahmad is also claimed to have said. the Good and the Reasonable: The Theological and Et hical Roots of Public Reason in Islamic Law.Islamic Ruling on the Shi'ites ^ Madrassah In'aamiyah. He said in the Old School: S upplication ends with the invocation of blessings on the Prophet. al-Shafi'i. and one for sleeping. According to many accounts he was said to have a photographic memory. (2008). reprinted 1997.Muhammad b. guage of al Shafi i. 77 part 7 Ruthven Malise. He divided his night into three parts: one for writing.

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